WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary dismantling investigation

  1. Network dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of network dismantling, that is of finding a minimal set of vertices whose removal leaves the network broken in connected components of sub-extensive size. For a large class of random graphs this problem is tightly connected to the decycling problem (the removal of vertices leaving the graph acyclic). Exploiting this connection and recent works on epidemic spreading we present precise predictions for the minimal size of a dismantling set in a large random graph with a prescribed (light-tailed) degree distribution. Building on the statistical mechanics perspective we propose a three-stage Min-Sum algorithm for efficiently dismantling networks, including heavy-tailed ones for which the dismantling and decycling problems are not equivalent. We also provide insight into the dismantling problem concluding that it is an intrinsically collective problem and optimal dismantling sets cannot be viewed as a collection of individually well performing nodes.

  2. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  3. Digital Autoradiography as a novel complementary technique for the investigation of radioactive contamination in nuclear facilities under dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal [Laboratory of Analyses and Operators Support, French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commision (CEA), Saclay Center, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Goutelard, Florence [NucLab, CEA Marcoule Center, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The detection (location and quantification) of nuclear facilities to be dismantled possible contamination with low-range particles emitters ({sup 3}H, other low-energy β emitters, a emitters) remains a tedious and expensive task. Indeed, usual remote counters show a too low sensitivity to these non-penetrating radiations, while conventional wipe tests are irrelevant for fixed radioactivity evaluation. The only method to accurately measure activity levels consists in sampling and running advanced laboratory analyses (spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, pyrolysis...). Such measurements generally induce sample preparation, waste production (destructive analyses, solvents), nuclear material transportation, long durations, and significant labor mobilization. Therefore, the search for the limitation of their number and cost easily conflicts with the necessity to perform a dense screening for sampling (to maximize the representativeness of the samples), in installations of thousands of square meters (floors, wells, ceilings), plus furniture, pipes, and other wastes. To overcome this contradiction, Digital Autoradiography (D. A.) was re-routed from bio molecular research to radiological mapping of nuclear installations under dismantling and to waste and sample analysis. After in-situ exposure to the possibly-contaminated areas to investigate, commercial reusable radiosensitive phosphor screens (of a few 100 cm{sup 2}) were scanned in the proper laboratory device and sharp quantitative images of the radioactivity could be obtained. The implementation of geostatistical tools in the data processing software enabled the exhaustive characterization of concrete floors at a rate of 2 weeks / 100 m{sup 2}, at lowest costs. Various samples such as drilled cores, or tank and wood pieces, were also successfully evaluated with this method, for decisive results. Thanks to the accurate location of potential contamination spots, this approach ensures relevant and representative

  4. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  5. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  6. Innovations in dismantling robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detriche, J.M. [CEA, Fontenay aus Roses (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Arances

    1998-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s, CEA has developed innovative systems for remote operation in nuclear fields. This paper presents the main developments achieved for dismantling applications of robotic systems (manipulators, carriers, controllers, simulation). (orig.)

  7. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program Integrity § 457.925 Preliminary investigation. If the State agency receives a complaint of fraud or abuse...

  8. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  9. LEP Dismantling: Wagons Roll!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first trucks transporting material from LEP and its four experiments left CERN on 31 January. Since the LEP dismantling operation began, the material had been waiting to be removed from the sites of the four experiments and the special transit area on the Prévessin site. On the evening of 30 January, the French customs authorities gave the green light for the transport operation to begin. So first thing the next day, the two companies in charge of recycling the material, Jaeger & Bosshard (Switzerland) and Excoffier (France), set to work. Only 1500 truckloads to go before everything has been removed!

  10. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    -1450) Tiwanaku was characterized by the resurgence of regional identities and polities In spite of the rich archaeological record numerous issues, related to the function and the extension of Tiwanaku, need to be investigated especially in the monumental core which includes the pyramid of Akapana, and other ceremonial places such Kalasasaya, Putuni and Kantatallita. To this aims some geophysical investigations were performed in 2009 and 2014 in the context of multidisciplinary research including the use of satellite remote sensing [8]. This paper deals with the discussion of preliminary results of geomagnetic and GPR investigations, some of which have been verified by trial archaeological excavations which have unearthed some buried structures, improving the knowledge of the ceremonial areas of Tiwanaku. References [1] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G., Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 [2] Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344 [3] Rizzo E., Masini N., Lasaponara R., Orefici G. 2010, ArchaeoGeophysical methods in the Templo del Escalonado (Cahuachi, Nasca, Perù), Near Surface Geophysics 8 (5), 433-439, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2010030 [4] Masini N., Rizzo E., Lasaponara R., and Orefici G. 2008, Integrated remote sensing techniques for the detection of buried archaeological adobe structures: preliminary results in Cahuachi (Peru), Advances in Geosciences, 19, 75-82 [5] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R. 2014. Investigating archaeological looting

  11. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonny- light crude oil contaminated diet ... This preliminary result suggest that Bonny-Light crude oil may have the potential .... different components. Its exploration ... organisms found in crude oil polluted.

  12. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits, modul...

  13. LEP dismantling : Expérience ALEPH

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01 : Cabling team Photo 02 : Electronic assistant Photo 03 : Team of ALEPH dismantling Photo 04 : Radio protection team Photo 05 : Radio protection team Photo 06 : Technical team Photo 07 : Technical team Photo 08 : Transport team Photo 09 . Team of ALEPH dismantling Photo 10 : Team of ALEPH dismantling Photo 11 : Gas team

  14. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  15. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits......, modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed...

  16. Stockpile Dismantlement Database Training Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document, the Stockpile Dismantlement Database (SDDB) training materials is designed to familiarize the user with the SDDB windowing system and the data entry steps for Component Characterization for Disposition. The foundation of information required for every part is depicted by using numbered graphic and text steps. The individual entering data is lead step by step through generic and specific examples. These training materials are intended to be supplements to individual on-the-job training.

  17. Complete dismantling of the research reactor DIORIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-08-01

    The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was a natural uranium reactor moderated by D{sub 2}O. It was put into operation in August 1960 and finally shut down in August 1977. The original dismantling plan, developed in 1980, comprised 3 phases and 13 steps. The dismantling started in 1982. It was interrupted for several times due to financial restrictions and during the last dismantling step due to the unexpected occurrence of asbestos. The dismantling could be successfully finished on September 11{sup th}, 2012. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Profiling Tools and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011...indicate the need for further investigations to be able to support or negate the usefulness of GP. The critique of GP suggests that “results show...C., Jones, N.J., Taylor, P.J. & Snook, B. (2006). “Validities and Abilities in Criminal Profiling: A Critique of the Studies Conducted by Richard

  19. [Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk of PBDEs in Water and Sediment from an Electronic Waste Dismantling Area in Taizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-ping; Peng, Bao-qi; Lü, Su-ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Chang-jiang; Dong, Qiao-xiang

    2016-05-15

    An e-waste dismantling industrial park of Taizhou was selected as the sampling center, within a radius of 16 km, and a total of 30 sampling sites were designed in three circles as follows: C (3 km), S (5-10 km) and R (10-16 km). Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water and sediments were investigated. The concentrations of PBDEs in water ranged from 9.4 to 57.2 ng · L⁻¹, with a mean value of 25.9 ng · L⁻¹; and 3.7 to 38,775 ng · g⁻¹, with an average of 2 779 ng · g⁻¹ in sediments. BDE-209 was the predominant congener. The spatial distribution patterns of PBDE levels in water and sediment were both in the following order: C > S > R. Furthermore, the concentrations of PBDEs in sediments showed significant negative correlation against the distance from the industrial park (P waste dismantling activity was one of the significant sources for PBDEs pollution. It was estimated that a total of 30. 7 t PBDEs (including 28. 9 t BDE- 209) was discharged into surrounding environment as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in water and sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method. The results demonstrated that the Penta-BDEs in the center of e-waste dismantling area ( a radius of 1.5 km) was at particularly high risk level and could cause serious influence on the ecological safety and human health.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHANASEKARAN.M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alkaloids in leaf tissue. Anatomical and histochemical investigation offered some clues on the localization of certain specific metabolites. This paper revealed preliminary phytochemical constituents of Kigelia pinnta D.C.., by phytochemical and histochemical investigation.

  1. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  2. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  3. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Patrick K; Francisco ePons; Harris, Paul L.; Barbara H. Esbjørn; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sam...

  4. Pollution profiles and health risk assessment of VOCs emitted during e-waste dismantling processes associated with different dismantling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; He, Zhigui; Chen, Jiangyao; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-12-01

    Pollution profiles of typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during dismantling of various printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) of e-wastes using different methods were comparatively investigated in the real e-waste dismantling workshops in South China in April 2013. Similar pollution profiles and concentrations of VOCs were observed between dismantling mobile phone and hard disk PCBAs by using electric blowers and between dismantling television and power supplier PCBAs using electric heating furnaces. Aromatic hydrocarbons (accounting for >60% of the sum of VOCs) were the dominant group during using electric blowers, while aromatic (accounting for >44% of the sum of VOCs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (accounting for >48% of the sum of VOCs) were the two dominant groups which contributed equally using electric heating furnaces. However, the distribution profiles of VOCs emitted during dismantling of televisions, hard disks and micro motors using rotary incinerators varied greatly, though aromatic hydrocarbons were still the dominant group. The combustion of e-wastes led to the most severe contamination of VOCs, with total VOCs (3.3×10(4) μg m(-3)) using rotary incinerators about 190, 180, 139, and 40 times higher than those using mechanical cutting, electric soldering iron, electric blower, and electric heating furnace, respectively. Both cancer and non-cancer risks existed for workers due to exposure to on-site emitted VOCs in all workshops especially in those using rotary incinerators according to the USEPA methodology, whereas only cancer risks existed in rotary incinerator workshops according to the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists methodology.

  5. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  6. End-of-Life Vehicle Dismantling and Recycling Enterprises: Developing Directions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Ming

    2013-08-01

    End-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and recycling enterprises are the final disposer of the life-cycle process of vehicles. ELV collecting, dismantling technology, and waste disposal directly affect the recovery rate and the friendliness of vehicles toward the environment. China law stipulates that, by 2017, the recovery rate of vehicles should not be less than 95%, and the recycling rate of materials should not be less than 85%. Therefore, knowing the practical running state of such enterprises is needed. This study investigated four ELV dismantling and recycling enterprises in the Yangzi delta district in China and surveyed the ELV collecting, dismantling technology, policy implementation, and running difficulties. After the comparison with the developed countries, the relevant experiences were drawn, and effective measures were put forward to meet the aims stipulated in the law based on the current practical ELV market in China.

  7. Dismantling operations by SGN : the WAGR and PIVER examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destrait, Laurent [D and D Programme Manager, SGN (France)

    1999-07-01

    1984 to 1990, covering two main phases : - 1984-1987 : preparatory phase : organisation, permits, methods, engineering studies, etc. - 1988-1990 : decommissioning phase. The operational phase began with dismantling of the process equipment followed by preliminary cell decontamination. System pipes were then cut up, first using remote handling system and them by human operators. A range of tools was designed and built to allow a wider variety of in-cell operations. These included an hydraulic shear capable of cutting stainless steel tubes up to 60 mm diameter, a disc cutter modified for easy installation and removal and two types of plasma torches including one operated directly in contact with the workpiece. Responsible for organising, defining and supervising tasks, operations and engineering work, SGN also performed the safety analyses and implemented the feed back experience in the PIVER decommissioning operations. (author)

  8. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  9. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  10. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  11. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  12. DECISION ANALYSIS SCIENCE MODELING FOR APPLICATION AND FIELDING SELECTION APPLIED TO EQUIPMENT DISMANTLEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The dismantlement of radioactively contaminated process equipment is a major concern during the D&D process. There are an estimated 1,200 buildings in the DOE-EM complex that will require the dismantlement of equipment and various metal structures. As buildings undergo the D&D process, this metallic equipment contaminated with radionuclides such as uranium and plutonium must be size-reduced before final disposal. A single information source comparing dismantlement technologies in the areas of safety, cost, and performance is needed by DOE managers and is not currently available. The selection of the appropriate technologies to meet the dismantlement objectives for a given site is a difficult process in the absence of comprehensive and comparable data. Choosing the wrong technology could result in increased exposure of personnel to contaminants and an increase in D&D project costs. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate commercially available and innovative technologies for equipment dismantlement and provide a comprehensive source of information to the D&D community in the areas of technology performance, cost, and health and safety.

  13. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David

    2003-10-01

    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  14. Preliminary investigations into triazole derived androgen receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimari, Jarrad M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Risbridger, Gail P; Schweiker, Stephanie S; Lohning, Anna E; Henderson, Luke C

    2014-05-01

    A range of 1,4-substituted-1,2,3-N-phenyltriazoles were synthesized and evaluated as non-steroidal androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. The motivation for this study was to replace the N-phenyl amide portion of small molecule antiandrogens with a 1,2,3-triazole and determine effects, if any, on biological activity. The synthetic methodology presented herein is robust, high yielding and extremely rapid. Using this methodology a series of 17 N-aryl triazoles were synthesized from commercially available starting materials in less than 3h. After preliminary biological screening at 20 and 40 μM, the most promising three compounds were found to display IC50 values of 40-50 μM against androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells and serve as a starting point for further structure-activity investigations. All compounds in this work were the focus of an in silico study to dock the compounds into the human androgen receptor ligand binding domain (hARLBD) and compare their predicted binding affinity with known antiandrogens. A comparison of receptor-ligand interactions for the wild type and T877A mutant AR revealed two novel polar interactions. One with Q738 of the wild type site and the second with the mutated A877 residue.

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON KIGELIA PINNATA DC.,

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, M.; ABRAHAM.G.C; Mohan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Kigelia pinnata D.C. the mid sized ornamental tree of the Bignoniaceae has been studied by preliminary phytochemical and histochemical analysis. Several local names are availability to this plants based on their country. They are called worsboom in Africa and sauage tree in America. The tree is 25 meters in hight with a dense rounded crown bark grey. Data gathered on solvent extraction and preliminary phytochemical method suggested that the presence of glycosides, flavonoides, tannin and alka...

  16. TRIGA Mark-III reactor dismantling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, B. J.; Paik, S. T.; Jung, K. J. [TRIGA Research Reactor D and D Project Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The activation assessment of the main parts of the TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) was estimated to effectively dismantle the activated and contaminated areas. All of the method and the order for decommissioning the KRR-2 have been chosen as a result of the examination of the physical structure and radiological conditions of the reactor component. These decommissioning methods and orders were reviewed as part of the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies for the project. Radiological assessment is also done to protect the workers and the environment from the dismantling work. License documents were submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) at the end of 1998. Practical work of the D and D will start at the end of 1999 once the government issues the license. Radiation protection plan was also set up to control the workers and environment. This paper summarized the main lines of those studies. (author)

  17. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

  18. Dismantling of nuclear facilities; Demantelement des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallec, M. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. des Projets d' Assainissement-Demantelement, 30 (France); Kus, J.P. [Electricite de Fance (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-01-15

    Nuclear facilities have a long estimable lifetime but necessarily limited in time. At the end of their operation period, basic nuclear installations are the object of cleansing operations and transformations that will lead to their definitive decommissioning and then to their dismantling. Because each facility is somewhere unique, cleansing and dismantling require specific techniques. The dismantlement consists in the disassembly and disposing off of big equipments, in the elimination of radioactivity in all rooms of the facility, in the demolition of buildings and eventually in the reconversion of all or part of the facility. This article describes these different steps: 1 - dismantling strategy: main de-construction guidelines, expected final state; 2 - industries and sites: cleansing and dismantling at the CEA, EDF's sites under de-construction; 3 - de-construction: main steps, definitive shutdown, preparation of dismantling, electromechanical dismantling, cleansing/decommissioning, demolition, dismantling taken into account at the design stage, management of polluted soils; 4 - waste management: dismantlement wastes, national policy of radioactive waste management, management of dismantlement wastes; 5 - mastery of risks: risk analysis, conformability of risk management with reference documents, main risks encountered at de-construction works; 6 - regulatory procedures; 7 - international overview; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  20. Preliminary investigation of the magnetostratigraphy of the Ringold Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, D.R.; Johnston, J.M.

    1979-05-01

    The Ringold Formation consists of lacustrine and fluvial deposits overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The Ringold Formation, because of its thickness, extent, and age, is an excellent unit in which to detect and possibly data the deformation that has occurred since deposition of the basalt. One objective of this study was to investigate the paleomagnetism of the upper Ringold unit exposed at one location in the White Bluffs in enough detail to resolve, with reasonable confidence, the magnetostratigraphy of the rock units sampled. The other objective was to evaluate, in a preliminary manner, the paleomagnetic favorability and magnetostratigraphy of the subsurface Ringold Formation in the Pasco Basin and at selected exposures outside the Pasco Basin. The scope of this study was the collection of 300 paleomagnetic samples, their measurement, and analysis. Samples were collected from the White Bluffs, from core recovered from six drill holes on the Hanford Site, and from two surface exposures outside the Pasco Basin. A total of 294 samples was collected, and 2928 paleomagnetic measurements were performed on these samples. The samples were measured by means of a three-axis super-conducting rock magnetometer having a sensitivity of 10/sup -8/ emu/cm/sup 3/ and were demagnetized progressively in a 400-hertz alternating field (AF). All data were recorded and processed during measurement by an on-line computer.The declination, inclination, and intensity of magnetization of the samples from the various sections are plotted as a function of their stratigraphic position. The directions of the magnetization of the various sections are also plotted as a group on Wulff equal-angle stereonets. 22 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Social support and fires in the workplace: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimmie, Blake M; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Mathews, Rebecca; Moffat, Kieren

    2009-01-01

    Workers who experience fire in the workplace are faced with disruption to their work routine, as well as the emotional strain of the fire. In the broader occupational stress literature, researchers have suggested that social support will be most effective at reducing the negative effects of stressors on strain when the type of support matches the type of stressor being experienced (either instrumental or emotional). This study was a preliminary investigation into employee responses to less routine stressors, such as workplace fires, and the role of different sources of social support in predicting coping effectiveness. This study also was a first attempt at considering the influence of the social context (in terms of group identification) on the effectiveness of social support as a predictor of coping effectiveness. Specifically, it was predicted that social support would be more effective when it came from multiple sources within the organization, that it would be especially effective when provided from a group that workers identified more strongly with, and that simply feeling part of a group would improve adjustment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 33 employees who had recently experienced a significant fire in their workplace. Results suggested that the type of stressors experienced and the type of support were mismatched, but despite this, coping effectiveness was generally moderate to high. There was mixed support for predictions about the effects of social support-no moderating effect of group identification on coping effectiveness was observed for measures of workplace support, although it did moderate the effects of family support on this adjustment indicator.

  2. Preliminary investigation of dose for a dedicated mammotomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2006-03-01

    We use a previously reported, optimized quasi-monochromatic beam technique together with unique complex acquisition trajectories made possible with a novel, dedicated cone-beam transmission computed mammotomography (CmT) system to investigate effects of low dose imaging of pendant, uncompressed breasts. Investigators have used a guideline of dose for CmT type applications as that used for dual-view mammography (4-6 mGy for average breast size). This dose is somewhat arbitrary, and it may be possible to reduce this significantly without sacrificing image quality using our quasi-monochromatic x-ray beam, 3D complex acquisition orbits, and iterative reconstruction techniques. A low-scatter acrylic resolution phantom in various media, a breast phantom with sponge and oil-filled lesions, and a cadaver breast are used to evaluate the effect of lowered dose on resolution and image artifacts. Complex saddle acquisition trajectories (necessary to overcome cone-beam distortion) are carried out for total exposures of 96, 300, and 600 mAs over 240 projections. These exposures relate approximately to 1/10 th, 1/3 rd, and 2/3 rd of the standard dual view mammography dose for an average sized 50% adipose/glandular breast. Iterative reconstruction uses an OSTR algorithm with 0.125 mm 3 voxels. Image artifacts increased as dose was reduced but did not appear to greatly degrade image quality except at the lowest contrast tested (1% absolute contrast). As expected, noise increased as dose was reduced. However, this did not appear to affect resolution for rods in air (high contrast), nor rods in oil (20% absolute contrast). Resolution was reduced for rods in water (1% absolute contrast) due to increased prevalence of image artifacts as well as increased noise. Breast phantom imaging of soft lesions in a highly glandular breast (6% absolute contrast) clearly yielded the 60uL and all larger volume lesions. Preliminary biological breast tissue results illustrate excellent subjective

  3. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  4. Public Relations Ethics and Communitarianism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Kathie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a preliminary examination of communitarianism and its emphasis on community and responsibility as an ethical base for public relations. Suggests that the emphasis business currently places on quality, social responsibility, and stewardship may fit within a communitarian approach. Argues that a communitarian base to public relations may…

  5. Magnetotelluric investigation across the Agri Valley: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, Marianna; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Alfredo Stabile, Tony

    2017-04-01

    The Agri Valley is an axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain with a strong seismogenic potential where two important energy technologies responsible for inducing/triggering seismicity are active: (1) the disposal at the Costa Molina 2 injection well of the wastewater produced during the exploitation of the biggest onshore oil field in west Europe (27 wells producing more than 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day), managed by the Eni S.p.A., and (2) the water loading and unloading operations in the Pertusillo artificial reservoir. It is recognized the possibility that the fluctuation of the water level inside the reservoir, due to the hydrological cycle for example, produces pressure perturbations at the bottom of reservoir, causing induced seismicity. Furthermore it is even more known the role of fluids in the rupture processes which could cause an increase of pore pressure specially at high rate of injection fluids and/or for the presence of weakening of preexisting faults. With the aim to better characterize and understand the physical processes involved in the observed induced/triggered seismicity, in 2016 a broadband seismic network, covering an area of about 20 km x 20 km nearby the Pertusillo Dam and Costa Molina2 well has been installed in the framework of SIR-MIUR project INSIEME (INduced Seismicity in Italy: Estimation, Monitoring, and sEismic risk mitigation) and a MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey has been performed. The MT investigation consists of 25 soundings aligned along 30 km profile oriented at about N40 direction, orthogonal with the strike of the major and noticeable geological structures and crossing both of the source that may induce/trigger seismicity. In this work, we present the preliminary 2D resistivity model which provides useful deep geophysical information for understanding the geological and structural setting of the Agri Valley. Moreover, the comparison of the resistivity model with the earthquake location as inferred from

  6. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, J.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters.

  7. Stade NPP. Dismantling of the reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Daniel; Dziwis, Joachim [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH Nukleartechnik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz-Hagen [KKW Stade GmbH und Co. oHG, Stade (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Within the scope of the 4{sup th} partial decommissioning permission of Stade NPP the activated and contaminated structures of the reactor pool had to be dismantled in order to gain a completely non-radioactive reactor pool area for the subsequent clearance measurement of the reactor building. In order to achieve the aim it was intended to remove the activated pool liner sheets, its activated framework and several contaminated ventilation channels made of stainless steel, the concrete walls of the reactor pool entirely or in parts depending on their activation level, as well as the remaining activated carbon steel structures of the reactor pool bottom. Embedded in the concrete walls there were several highly contaminated excore tubes and the contaminated pool top edge, which were intended to be removed to its full extent. The contract of the Stade NPP initiated reactor pool dismantling project had been awarded to E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH (EAS) and its subsupplier sat. Kerntechnik GmbH for the concrete dismantling works and was performed as follows. In order to minimize the radiation level in the main working area in accordance with the ALARA principle, the liner sheets and middle parts of its framework were removed by means of angle grinders first, as they were the most dose rate relevant parts. As a result the primary average radiation level in the reactor pool (measured in a distance of 500 mm from the walls) was lowered from 40 {mu}Sv/h to less than 2 {mu}Sv/h. After the minimization of the radiation level in the working area the main dismantling step started with the cutting of the reactor pool walls in blocks by means of diamond rope cutters. Once a concrete block was cut out, it was transported into the fuel pool by means of a crane and crane fork, examined radiologically, marked area by area and segmented to debris by means of an electrical excavator with a hydraulic chisel. Afterwards the debris and carbon steel parts were fractioned and packed for further

  8. A preliminary experimental investigation into lateral pedestrian-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Knudsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary experimental study on lateral human-structure dynamic interaction on footbridges using an instrumented platform. The platform has a natural frequency within the range of an average pedestrian and consists of a suspended concrete girder. With a length...... of 17 m and weight of 19.6 ton, the platform provides a realistic comparison to an actual footbridge. Based on experiments with single pedestrians walking across the platform at resonance, the fundamental dynamic load factor is determined using only the recorded acceleration signal. Furthermore, tests...

  9. Summary of preliminary contaminant impacts investigations in the Clinch River Basin, Virginia, using multiple bioassessment techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992 multiple investigations were performed to collect preliminary information to direct future studies aimed at characterizing contaminant problems in the Clinch...

  10. A novel dismantling process of waste printed circuit boards using water-soluble ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Xie, Henghua; Liu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Recycling processes for waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have been well established in terms of scientific research and field pilots. However, current dismantling procedures for WPCBs have restricted the recycling process, due to their low efficiency and negative impacts on environmental and human health. This work aimed to seek an environmental-friendly dismantling process through heating with water-soluble ionic liquid to separate electronic components and tin solder from two main types of WPCBs-cathode ray tubes and computer mainframes. The work systematically investigates the influence factors, heating mechanism, and optimal parameters for opening solder connections on WPCBs during the dismantling process, and addresses its environmental performance and economic assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, retention time, and turbulence resulting from impeller rotation during the dismantling process, were 250 °C, 12 min, and 45 rpm, respectively. Nearly 90% of the electronic components were separated from the WPCBs under the optimal experimental conditions. This novel process offers the possibility of large industrial-scale operations for separating electronic components and recovering tin solder, and for a more efficient and environmentally sound process for WPCBs recycling.

  11. Geothermal investigations in Czechoslovakia 1974-1975: preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V. (Geophys. Inst., Prague); Kresl, M.; Lizon, I.; Marusiak, I.; Vesely, I.

    1977-01-01

    New heat flow data collected during 1974 and 1975, as well as the corresponding temperature versus depth profiles for Czechoslovakia are discussed, and a preliminary heat flow map is drafted, based on these data. The heat flow patterns are analyzed on the basis of their relation to the tectonic setting in each instance, including major units such as the Bohemian Massif, the Carpathian Foredeep, and the Western Carpathians. The heat flow is obviously related to the tectonic setting, with increased heat flow corresponding to local elevation of the Mohorovicic discontinuity and tectonic instability. There is a general increase in heat flow from the outer zones of the Carpathian belt toward the inner structural units. A marked increase occurs along a northeast trend across the Carpathian Foredeep. Twenty-four references are provided.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  13. Simulation for preparation of dismantling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrere, J.M.; Idasiak, J.M. [French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA/Siege, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex 15 (France)

    2003-07-01

    New applications of 3D models are still emerging. At first, simulation of dismantling operations has been used to illustrate the proposed scenarios, with 3D views or animated films, for: - internal and external communication; - technical reviews; - presentation to Safety Authorities. It helps a lot to explain the structure of the facility to dismantle, the proposed solutions, to convince people that the study is detailed enough. But 3D modelling is an investment in time and money. A lot of time is spent in collecting the drawings, and checking them with pictures, videos, interviews of operators, new measurements. This investment can be much more exploited, during all the life time of the decommissioning project, to avoid problems during operations, and so to save a lot of money. It is possible to have navigation or even immersion inside 3D models of facilities to dismantle, so that the project team or the operators can be familiar with the configuration of rooms, of accesses, with the location of equipment. A 3D model can hardly be as detailed as the real facility. Some simplifications have to be done, to avoid having too heavy models. But in a training process, 3D-models help to have rapidly an overview of complex environments. Dose uptake simulation is becoming also a tool for decommissioning projects. It is possible to compute either off line, or even in real time, the dose uptake of the operators, and to compare easily different options for the ALARA principle: decontamination or not, use of shielding or not. It requires to have not only the geometrical model, but also a radiological model of the facility, but with the use of gamma camera and spectrometry, it becomes easier. 3D-models can be used to integrate in an user-friendly way all the knowledge of a facility to decommission, and to update that knowledge during operations: reports on construction, on exploitation, on shut-down, physical and radiological measurements, traceability of wastes. Progress are

  14. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  15. National experience in dismantling; La experiencia nacional en desmantelamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.; Perez Estevez, C.

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Spanish experience in dismantling activities, briefly describing the three cases where these activities have been or are being carried out in Spain by ENRESA: Vandellos 1 NPP, Jose Cabrera NPP and CIEMAT. The dismantling of the Vandellos 1NPP was organized in three phases, two of which have already been implemented. The facility is currently in a waiting period which will allow the decay of radioactivity of the reactor box internal structures to levels that make feasible the dismantling process at a minimum radiological cost. The dismantling activities of the Jose Cabrera NPP, started in February 2010, take part of the first NPP full decommissioning process in Spain. following a set preparatory activities performed during the first two years, the project has just finished one of its major milestones, the real differential factor of this project: the reactor internals segmentation. CIEMAT launched in January 2000 and Integrated Plan for the Improvement of CIEMAT Facilities (PIMIC), one of whose projects, the called PIMIC Dismantling Project, assigned the ENRESA. is aimed at the dismantling, presently completed, of two nuclear and two radioactive facilities and to the decontamination of land in two areas known as Lenteja and Montecillo. Due to their specificity against the dismantling activities in the two NPPs mentioned above, the work done to achieve the full restoration of the area called Lenteja, which was contaminated in the 70s, as a result of an occidental release, is summarized in this paper. (Author)

  16. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Female Entrepreneurs’ Behavior in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Avram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to carry out a preliminary analysis of the Romanian female entrepreneurs’ behavior. In order to reach this aim we studied the specialized literature which tries to define the entrepreneur, the feminine entrepreneur, to identify the women’s motivation to become entrepreneurs, the required skills, as well as the potential similarities and differences between female and male entrepreneurs. In the case study we elaborated in this paper, the percentage of women-entrepreneurs from the total number of entrepreneurs who set up a new business represents the independent variable. We used as dependent variable quantitative variables expressed in percentages which describe the situation of newly founded enterprises one year into their set up (active, inactive and liquidated, the size of the newly founded enterprise (0 employees, 1 to 49 employees, and over 49 employees and the type of employment (employers, full-time employees, part-time employees. The data we used are annual, refer to a period of time ranging from 1995 to 2013, and were gathered by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics. The conclusions show that the percentage of Romanian women-entrepreneurs is in tight link with the percentage of active companies one year into their set up. As regards the size of the company, we noticed that women-entrepreneurs own companies with fewer employees. And when referring to the head-office of the company, we notices that it is not influenced by the increase or decrease of the percentage of Romanian women-entrepreneurs.

  18. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  19. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the form

  20. Preliminaries to an investigation of reduced product set finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of financial product synthesis from a few basic financial products constitute an interesting research topic inspired by Islamic finance. We make an effort to answer general questions that should be answered before starting to investigate the main issues concerning this topic with the form

  1. A preliminary investigation into the acquisition of fingerprints on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Nicholson, Lynsey; Farrugia, Kevin; Bremner, David; Gentles, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    The potential for enhancement and recovery of latent fingerprints on a variety of foodstuffs has been investigated. In general, black magnetic powder and black powder suspensions appear to be the most successful enhancement techniques with a high number of ridge detail-developed prints over a selected time scale. Banana, apple and tomato surfaces showed enhancement of latent prints but potato and egg surfaces proved to be less successful.

  2. Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Příhoda J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.

  4. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  5. Altered Passive Eruption and Familial Trait: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone, and the soft tissues creates an excessive gingival display and, in turn, in some circumstances, it may reveal a clinical aspect also known as the “gummy smile.” The surgical management of such cases is well understood and has been widely described, with mucogingival and osseous resective procedures being predictable surgical means leading to more balanced aesthetics and proper display of the teeth anatomy. The possible familial trait in case of passive eruption and therefore the possibility of recurrence of the same condition in families of siblings or parents of affected patients have been investigated in this study. 20 patients have been selected and treated in both a private practice and university settings and their immediate family trees were evaluated in order to understand the incidence of the condition. 65% of the treated patients had one or more family members with the same condition leading to seeking further investigation on the possible genetic correlation.

  6. Preliminary investigation on the coastal rogue waves of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As an eye-catching issue, rogue waves have been undergoing different stages from theory to practice gradually, whose occurrence always brings about severe threat to not only ships and sailors but also coastal structural integrity. Due to the scarce wave observations in coastal zone and meager study in Mainland China, the discussion specifically aimed at observed coastal rogue waves in China was at elementary stage. Based on the measured data from Xiangshui station of Jiangsu, China, the characteristics including occurrence probability and nonlinearity are investigated, which is a supplement to the previous research works. Surprisingly, the outcomes tend to refute rather than confirming some of the traditional conceptions about rogue waves. A new concept for the classification of coastal rogue waves is proposed afterwards.

  7. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K.; Pastula, E., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the 15-month investigation now in the analysis phase is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area, jointly acquired by private and professional fishermen and NASA and NOAA/NMFS elements, in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data.

  8. The effect of stuttering on communication: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Ferguson, Alison

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a study in which Systemic Functional Linguistics was applied to describe how people who stutter use language. The aim of the study was to determine and describe any differences in language use between a group of 10 adults who stutter and 10 matched normally-fluent speakers. In addition to formal linguistic analyses, analyses drawn from Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to further investigate the expression of both syntactic and semantic complexity. The findings from this study replicated previous findings of Packman et al. in which they found that the language used by people who stutter was significantly less complex than the control group. Another major finding was that adults who stuttered used the linguistic resource of modality significantly less than the normally-fluent matched peers. The implications these strategies have on communication and social participation will be discussed.

  9. Preliminary investigation of trapped particle instabilities in EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Hedrick, C.L.

    1978-05-01

    An investigation is presented of the role which trapped particles might play in the drift wave stability of ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT). The model adopted consists of a bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation with a Krook collision operator. Care has been taken to model, at least in an elementary way, the features which distinguish the physics of EBT from that of tokamaks, namely the large magnitude and velocity space dependence of the poloidal drift frequency ..cap omega.., the relatively small collisionality ..nu../..cap omega.., the enhancement of ..nu../sub eff/ for passing particles, and the closed nature of the field lines. Instabilities are found which have a somewhat dissipative character, however the precessional drift is found to be a significant stabilizing influence. In most cases, the modes are completely stabilized when ..omega../sub *//l..cap omega.. approximately equal to 1 for normal gradients. For reversed gradients (..omega../sub *//l..cap omega.. < 0), stability is greatly enhanced.

  10. Preliminary investigation on concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ze, E-mail: windw100@sohu.co [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin Weigang [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Song Wenli, E-mail: wlsong@home.ipe.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yao Jianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex System, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Acetol, as one of the components in biomass pyrolysis liquid, is a high value added compound for medicine synthesis. Benefit may be obtained if acetol can be extracted from the pyrolysis liquid, while the instability of acetol makes the concentrating difficult. In this paper, the concentrating of acetol from wood vinegar is preliminarily investigated, and the conditions of distillation, solvent extraction, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} effect on the concentrating result are discussed. Herein the content of acetol can be concentrated from below 4% in the raw wood vinegar to above 60%, and the number of main components reduce from over 20 to 5, while the yield of acetol is still rather low. It was found that in the organic solution distillation process, acetol can be easily concentrated from 1% to above 40%, while a further distillation of the concentrated acetol system was rather hard. The conversion of acetol in the distillation process was probably an important cause to the low yield of acetol, and a lower distillation temperature was advantageous for the concentrating of acetol.

  11. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  12. Preliminary Investigation of the Process Capabilities of Hydroforging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroforging is a hybrid forming operation whereby a thick tube is formed to a desired geometry by combining forging and hydroforming principles. Through this process hollow structures with high strength-to-weight ratio can be produced for applications in power transmission systems and other structural components that demands high strength-to-weight ratio. In this process, a thick tube is deformed by pressurized fluid contained within the tube using a multi-purpose punch assembly, which is also used to feed tube material into the die cavity. Fluid pressure inside the thick tube is developed by volume change governed by the movement of the punch assembly. In contrast to the conventional tube hydroforming (THF, the hydroforging process presented in this study does not require external supply of pressurized fluid to the deforming tube. To investigate the capability of hydroforging process, an experimental setup was developed and used to hydroforge various geometries. These geometries included hollow flanged vessels, hexagonal flanged parts, and hollow bevel and spur gears.

  13. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R. [RedZone Robotics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

  14. A preliminary investigation of daily variability of stuttering in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  15. A preliminary study of material homogeneity for size effect investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Kamber, J.; Kalkhof, D.

    1999-06-01

    The forged material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906) with a heat treatment of 900 {sup o}C, water quenched, 730 {sup o}C, air cooled, was subjected to an intensive quality control consisting of chemical analysis, metallography, hardness tests, tensile tests, and impact tests. Six plates of the material were investigated, and all specimens were taken from a diagonal of each plate in three positions, outer margins and the centre of the plates. The quality control exhibits the following results: (1) The material fulfill the material specification in all respects. (2) This material is a fine grained homogeneous ferritic material of bainitic structure; neither from the chemical analysis, metallography, nor from hardness tests influences from the position of the specimens taken from the plates could be derived. (3) The tensile tests clearly revealed position dependent material properties. With the exception of one plate, one of the selected positions exhibits no natural yield strength, higher rupture strength, and lower elongation to fracture compared with the other two positions at 293 K and 573 K. (4) Many of the data obtained from the impact tests at room temperature were larger than the capacity of the impact machine, i.e. 225 Joule; the experimental condition was changed from tests at 573 K to tests at 253 K to obtain data from the transition region. The main conclusions drawn for the size effect experiments where that all the tensile test results for different specimen sizes have to be discussed with respect of the specimen positions within the plates, and that for all bend bar as well as impact experiments with different specimen sizes the notch depth to specimen width ratio a/w has to be changed from a/w = 0.2 to a/w = 0.3 to get reasonable results within the frame of the available test equipment. (author)

  16. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  17. Using Web-Based Homework to Teach Principles of Microeconomics: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeannette C.; Mitchell, Johanna E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates an interactive web-based homework designed to increase student understanding in a principles of microeconomics course. Employing concepts from Action Research, the preliminary investigation was undertaken based on assumptions about the efficacy of online educational resources. Do students who do well on online homework improve…

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  19. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  20. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  1. A preliminary investigation of fine sediment dynamics in Cumbarjua canal, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, A.J.; Nayak, B.U.; Hayter, E.J.

    A preliminary field investigation was carried out in a 10 km reach of Cumbarjua Canal, Goa, India, where the sediment is in the fine size range, and the flow is primarily tide-induced. Results based on observations made during February, 1980...

  2. Dismantling the Curriculum in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The higher education curriculum in the global North is increasingly co-opted for the production of measurable outcomes, framed by determinist narratives of employability and enterprise. Such co-option is immanent to processes of financialisation and marketisation, which encourage the production of quantifiable curriculum activities and tradable academic services. Yet the university is also affected by global socio-economic and socio-environmental crises, which can be expressed as a function of a broader crisis of social reproduction or sociability. As the labour of academics and students is increasingly driven by a commodity-valuation rooted in the measurement of performance, the ability for academics and students to respond to crises from inside the university is constrained by the market. This article argues that in understanding the relationship between the university and society, and in responding to a crisis of sociability, revealing the bounded nature of the curriculum is central. One possible way to address this crisis is by re-imagining the university through the co-operative practices of groups like the Dismantling the Masters House community and the Social Science Centre. Such an exploration, rooted in the organising principles of the curriculum, asks educators to consider how their curriculum reproduces an on-going colonisation by Capital. It is argued that such work enables a re-imagination of higher education that is rooted in a co-operative curriculum, and which might enable activist-educators to build an engaged curriculum, through which students and academics no longer simply learn to internalise, monitor and manage their own alienation.

  3. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  4. Dismantlement and radioactive waste management of North Korean nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Jooho (Kyung Hee University, South Korea); Baldwin, George Thomas

    2004-07-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for 'complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement', or 'CVID'. It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and

  5. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C10 and C11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  6. Dismantling design for the loop rooms on the MR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.; Fecitt, L. [NUKEM Limited, Dounreay (United Kingdom); Gorlinsky, Yu.E. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Harman, N.F.; Jackson, R. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, Warrington (United Kingdom); Kolyadin, V.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lobach, Yu.N., E-mail: lobach@kinr.kiev.u [Institute for Nuclear Research of NASU, pr.Nauki, 47, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Pavlenko, V.I. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    The recently completed international co-operation project was aimed at planning for decommissioning the MR reactor identified as a pilot plant for the decommissioning of the other shutdown reactors on the site. The MR reactor was a pool-type, materials testing reactor with the total thermal power of 50 MW which incorporated pressure tubes containing fuel under test. The MR facility includes the reactor with its nine loop rig rooms containing pumps, heat exchangers and experimental equipment as well as systems and equipment located in other buildings in the complex. The objective of the MR reactor decommissioning project was to identify dismantling equipment and the decommissioning methodology for the reactor, loop rooms and redundant services to permit the refit and re-use of the building for a different nuclear related purpose. The dismantling design comprises two separate, but combined, tasks, namely, the dismantling of reactor installation itself and dismantling of experimental loops. The techniques proposed to undertake the dismantling operations within the loop rooms are described. Two options have been developed for removing contaminated equipment from the high radiation field loop rooms and packaging the waste into approved waste containers. The benefits and detriments of both methods have been identified, which allows implementing the safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning.

  7. LEP Dismantling Traceability: Experience Gained during the Execution Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    Approximately half way through the dismantling of LEP, a first summary of observations on the traceability aspect can be made, in order to outline where practice differs from theory. Full traceability of the 30,000 tons of LEP materials that are being removed from the underground tunnel, is imposed by the French authorities due to LEP's classification as a French nuclear installation. General information on the LEP dismantling project can be found via the project home page [1]. The design and implementation of the traceability system was described before the execution phase of the dismantling project [2]. Inevitably, many operational procedures were modified for different facets of the traceability system in order to adapt to the circumstances in-situ. This paper covers the observed differences with the model, the modifications introduced and the consequent implications.

  8. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  9. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  11. [Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediments from an electrical equipment dismantling area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Yu; Xue, Nan-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Lei; Li, Fa-Sheng; Gong, Dao-Xin; Liu, Bo; Meng, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediments collected from a river which through an electrical equipment dismantling area. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs ranged from 101 to 20,400 ng · g(-1) with an average of 3,700 ng · g(-1), and BDE209 was the most dominant homologue accounted for more than 94% of all detected homologues. The concentration of PBDEs was higher in the middle of river than that in upstream and downstream and the average concentration in downstream was higher than the upstream, with a peak of concentration in the area near by dismantling industrial park. PBDEs pollution in this region is relatively serious compared with other regions. It was estimated that 0.39 t PBDEs (including 0.36 t BDE209) was discharged into the river as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method, the results showed that the OctaBDEs and DecaBDEs were in a low ecological risk, while the PentaBDEs was in a particularly high risk and could cause great harm to the environment.

  12. PROCEDURAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE INVESTIGATOR AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsukhov A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Judicial review is a necessary and sufficient guarantee of the rights and legitimate interests of participants in criminal proceedings. The only judicial control over the investigation of crimes will expand unreasonably narrowed the boundaries of procedural autonomy and independence of the investigator, will enhance the efficiency, agility pre-trial proceedings. These and other problems were considered by the author from the perspective of theory and practice, as well as in the aggregate of rules of the code of criminal procedure regulating the activities of the investigator

  13. The Problem Child: Provocations toward Dismantling the Carceral State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Erica R.

    2017-01-01

    In this essay Erica R. Meiners argues that those committed to dismantling our nation's deep and racialized investments in policing and imprisoning must analyze how the flexible category of "the child," and its figurative powers, operate in complex ways to punish communities and naturalize and expand criminalization and surveillance.…

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  15. Declassification of radioactive water from a pool type reactor after nuclear facility dismantling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, J. M.; Sancho, M.; García-Fayos, B.; Verdú, G.; Serrano, C.; Ruiz-Martínez, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    This work is aimed to the treatment of the radioactive water from a dismantled nuclear facility with an experimental pool type reactor. The main objective of the treatment is to declassify the maximum volume of water and thus decrease the volume of radioactive liquid waste to be managed. In a preliminary stage, simulation of treatment by the combination of reverse osmosis (RO) and evaporation have been performed. Predicted results showed that the combination of membrane and evaporation technologies would result in a volume reduction factor higher than 600. The estimated time to complete the treatment was around 650 h (25-30 days). For different economical and organizational reasons which are explained in this paper, the final treatment of the real waste had to be reduced and only evaporation was applied. The volume reduction factor achieved in the real treatment was around 170, and the time spent for treatment was 194 days.

  16. A preliminary investigation of Nigerian Gmelina arborea and Bambusa vulgaris for pulp and paper production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Azeez, MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 18(1): 65 - 78, 2016 DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2016005000007 ISSN impresa 0717-3644 ISSN online 0718-221X A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NIGERIAN Gmelina arborea AND Bambusa vulgaris FOR PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION... Mayowa Akeem Azeez1,♠, Jerome E. Andrew2, B. Bruce Sithole3 ABSTRACT Two common Nigerian-grown biomasses, gmelina (Gmelina arborea) and bamboo (Bambusaa vulgaris) have been pulped and their fibre characteristics and paper properties examined. The results...

  17. Preliminary Investigation of the Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Kilmain, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of high-speed helical gears will be presented. A full-scale torque regenerative test stand has been built to test a representative helical gear train as that used in tiltrotor aircraft. Power loss and temperature data from a wide range of operating conditions were measured. Loop power ranged up to 3730 kW (5000 hp). Drive system components representative of flight quality hardware were used in the test program. The results attained in this initial study indicated that windage losses due to the high rotational speeds that were tested were far more important than the losses due to the gear meshing losses.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Ductility-Enhancement Mechanism through In Situ Nanofibrillation in Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Patham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary investigation of interrelationships between tensile stress-strain characteristics and morphology evolution during deformation is conducted on a commercially available thermoplastic composite with a low-surface-energy nanofibrillating poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE additive. In this class of composites, the deformation-associated nanofibrillation of the low-surface-energy additive has been hypothesized to provide an additional dissipation mechanism, thereby enhancing the ductility of the composite. This class of composites offers potential for automotive light weighting in exterior and interior body and fascia applications; it is therefore of interest to investigate processing-structure-property interrelationships in these materials. This study specifically probes the interrelationships between the plastic deformation within the matrix and the fibrillation of the low-surface-energy additive; tensile tests are carried out at two different temperatures which are chosen so as to facilitate and suppress plastic deformation within the matrix polymer. Based on these preliminary investigations, it is noted that PTFE fibrillation acts synergistically with the ductile deformation of the matrix resin resulting in higher strains to failure of the composite; the results also suggest that the mechanism of fibrillation-assisted enhancement of strains to failure may not operate in the absence of matrix plasticity.

  19. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  20. Hot-cell for dismantling of nuclear gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, L C A

    2000-01-01

    This work objectives the design of a hot-cell that will be used for dismantling of nuclear gauges. In the hot-cell, nuclear gauges received as radioactive waste at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN will be dismantled, in order to decrease the volume of radioactive waste to be stored at the Center. Sources originally conditioned as special form radioactive material will be tested and in case do not present leakage, the respective gauges will be disposable for reusing by radioisotope users. The remaining sources will be taken off the original shielding and conditioned in special packages adequate for storage and disposal. All steps of work, the hot-cell design and methodology for conditioning are also described.

  1. The Dismantling of the Japanese Model in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Holm Olesen, Michael; Kjær, Jonas

    This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 year...... technology. Aframework is developed to explain the reluctance of most of the large consumer electronicsgiants in developing/adopting this new technology.Key words: Consumer electronics, Industrial dynamics, Open InnovationJEL Codes: L6, L68, O32......This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 years...

  2. Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, Robert R; Adams, Scott Ryan; Cole, Matthew Denver; Kirby, William E; Linnebur, Paul Damon

    2014-10-28

    Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor are described. In one aspect the system includes a remotely controlled heavy manipulator ("manipulator") operatively coupled to a support structure, and a control station in a non-contaminated portion of a workspace. The support structure provides the manipulator with top down access into a bioshield of a nuclear reactor. At least one computing device in the control station provides remote control to perform operations including: (a) dismantling, using the manipulator, a graphite moderator, concrete walls, and a ceiling of the bioshield, the manipulator being provided with automated access to all internal portions of the bioshield; (b) loading, using the manipulator, contaminated graphite blocks from the graphite core and other components from the bioshield into one or more waste containers; and (c) dispersing, using the manipulator, dust suppression and contamination fixing spray to contaminated matter.

  3. Process concepts for semi-automatic dismantling of LCD televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  4. Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

    1994-11-07

    Decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D&D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of the Hanger Vibrations on the Great Belt East Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos; Larsen, Allan

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2001, the Great Belt East Bridge exhibited large-amplitude hanger vibrations having elliptical orbits for wind speeds of between 16 - 17 m/s. Vibration amplitudes were in the order of 1.4m in the across-wind direction and 1.0m in the along-wind. In this paper, a preliminary...... investigation behind the causes of this relatively isolated hanger vibration event on the Great Belt East Bridge is undertaken. One of the main assumptions of the investigation is that coincidental icy conditions may have contributed in some way to large hanger response, by changing the cylindrical cross...... of the vibrations it is assumed that the aerodynamic moment coefficient is zero....

  6. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  7. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  8. Radiological materials management from dismantling; Gestion Radiologica de materiales en Desmantelamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondarro, M.; Ortiz, M. T.; Irun, I.; Just, J.

    2001-07-01

    One of the problems involved in the performance of Nuclear Power Plant Dismantling tasks is the management of the materials from the point of view Radiological Control aspects arising during performance of the Project, regardless of whether they are: 1) Conventional materials, 2) Declassificable materials, 3) Declassified materials, and 4) Radioactive wastes. In particular, another objective to be achieved in the Vandellos-1 NPP (CV-V1) Decommissioning and Dismantling Plan, now in advanced performance activities, is the release or exoneration from regulatory controls of the largest possible number of materials, equipment, system, buildings and terrain subjected to such Regulatory Controls. In order to achieve this objective, there is a need for contrasted equipment designed to achieve this release from regulatory control and providing adequate levels of data guarantee and protection. Also, there is a summary of the different volumes of materials to be managed, by streams, resulting from the initial studies performed during the preliminary Project. To guarantee that, the materials are adequately managed (Radiological Control), clearly separating those which are contaminated from those which are not. The quantities to be managed and the mechanisms applied are described, and the different techniques from those which are not. The quantities to be managed and the mechanisms applied are described, and the different techniques used to ensure compliance with the derived values are dealt with. Likewise, the paper describes the difficulties encountered during the process of preparing the documentation submitted to the CSN for issuing of the Declassification permit. The process of drawing up this documentation and its submittal to the Regulatory Authority is also dealt with briefly. The paper includes a description of the different measuring equipment and techniques used at the CNV-1 site to meet the declassification requirements imposed by the regulatory authority (Nuclear

  9. CEM V based special cementitious materials investigated by means of SANS method. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragolici, A. C.; Balasoiu, M.; Orelovich, O. L.; Ionascu, L.; Nicu, M.; Soloviov, D. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lizunov, E. I.; Dragolici, F.

    2017-05-01

    The management of the radioactive waste assume the conditioning in a cement matrix as an embedding, stable, disposal material. Cement matrix is the first and most important engineering barrier against the migration in the environment of the radionuclides contained in the waste packages. Knowing how the microstructure develops is therefore desirable in order to assess the compatibility of radioactive streams with cement and predict waste form performance during storage and disposal. For conditioning wastes containing radioactive aluminum new formulas of low basicity cements, using coatings as a barrier between the metal and the conditioning environment or introducing a corrosion inhibitor in the matrix system are required. Preliminary microstructure investigation of such improved CEM V based cement matrix is reported.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the use of throttles for emergency flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Wolf, Thomas D.; Stewart, James F.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted regarding the use of throttles for emergency flight control of a multiengine aircraft. Several airplanes including a light twin-engine piston-powered airplane, jet transports, and a high performance fighter were studied during flight and piloted simulations. Simulation studies used the B-720, B-727, MD-11, and F-15 aircraft. Flight studies used the Lear 24, Piper PA-30, and F-15 airplanes. Based on simulator and flight results, all the airplanes exhibited some control capability with throttles. With piloted simulators, landings using manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. An augmented control system was developed that converts conventional pilot stick inputs into appropriate throttle commands. With the augmented system, the B-720 and F-15 simulations were evaluated and could be landed successfully. Flight and simulation data were compared for the F-15 airplane.

  11. Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui

    2016-04-01

    The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.

  12. Preliminary Investigations into the Development of Textile Based Temperature Sensor for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kennon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human body temperature is an important sign of physical condition in terms of comfort, heat or cold stresses, and of performance. This paper presents the preliminary investigation into the design, manufacturing and testing of the textile based temperature sensor. This sensing fabric may be employed to measure the temperature of the human body on a continuous basis over extensive periods of time, outside the clinical environment. The sensing fabric was manufactured on an industrial scale flat-bed knitting machine by laying-in the sensing element (in the form of fine metal wire into the double layer knitted structure. The operational principle of the sensing fabric is based on the inherent tendency of metal wire to change in its electrical resistance because of the change in its temperature. An experimental resistance-temperature relationship showed promising validation in comparison with their modeled counterparts.

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  14. Investigation of fracture-matrix interaction: Preliminary experiments in a simple system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, S.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.; Sobolik, S.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Paramount to the modeling of unsaturated flow and transport through fractured porous media is a clear understanding of the processes controlling fracture-matrix interaction. As a first step toward such an understanding, two preliminary experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of matrix imbibition on water percolation through unsaturated fractures in the plane normal to the fracture. Test systems consisted of thin slabs of either tuff or an analog material cut by a single vertical fracture into which a constant fluid flux was introduced. Transient moisture content and solute concentration fields were imaged by means of x-ray absorption. Flow fields associated with the two different media were significantly different owing to differences in material properties relative to the imposed flux. Richards` equation was found to be a valid means of modeling the imbibition of water into the tuff matrix from a saturated fracture for the current experiment.

  15. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and thin layer chromatography profiling of sequential extracts of Moringa oleifera pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Aim: The present study, primarily aims to carry out a preliminary phytochemical screening so as to detect the major class of compounds present in M. oleifera and to perform thin layer chromatography (TLC profiling of all sequential extracts. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed by various qualitative methods and TLC profiling was carried out using various solvent system of varying polarity. Results and Conclusions: Qualitative phytochemical analysis reflects the presence of phenolics, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroid, alkaloids and saponin in the plant extract. TLC profiling of the M. oleifera pods was carried out using sequential extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water respectively. The results obtained in the present investigation indicated M. oleifera pods as a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Assessing the economics of processing end-of-life vehicles through manual dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Chen, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Most dismantling enterprises in a number of developing countries, such as China, usually adopt the "manual+mechanical" dismantling approach to process end-of-life vehicles. However, the automobile industry does not have a clear indicator to reasonably and effectively determine the manual dismantling degree for end-of-life vehicles. In this study, five different dismantling scenarios and an economic system for end-of-life vehicles were developed based on the actual situation of end-of-life vehicles. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was applied to set the weights of direct costs, indirect costs, and sales and to obtain an optimal manual dismantling scenario. Results showed that although the traditional method of "dismantling to the end" can guarantee the highest recycling rate, this method is not the best among all the scenarios. The profit gained in the optimal scenario is 100.6% higher than that in the traditional scenario. The optimal manual dismantling scenario showed that enterprises are required to select suitable parts to process through manual dismantling. Selecting suitable parts maximizes economic profit and improves dismantling speed.

  17. Development of project management data calculation models relating to dismantling of nuclear facilities. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Takenori; Ohshima, Soichiro; Shiraishi, Kunio; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Department of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Labor-hours necessary for dismantling activities are generally estimated based on experience, for example, as a form of unit productivity factors such as the relationship between labor-hours and weight of components dismantled which were obtained by actual dismantling activities. The project management data calculation models together with unit productivity factors for basic dismantling work activities were developed by analyzing the data obtained from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, which will be applicable to estimation of labor-hours in various dismantling conditions. Typical work breakdown structures were also prepared by categorizing repeatable basic dismantling work activities for effective planning of dismantling activities. The labor-hours for dismantling the JPDR components and structures were calculated by using the code system for management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD), in which the work breakdown structures and the calculation models were contained. It was confirmed that the labor-hours could be easily estimated by COSMARD through the calculations. This report describes the labor-hour calculation models and application of these models to COSMARD. (author)

  18. Preliminary investigation of cement materials in the Taif area, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of possible sources of cement rock in the Taft area was made during the latter part of August 1968. Adequate deposits of limestone, clay, quartz conglomerate and sandstone, and pisolitic iron ore, yet no gypsum, were located to support a Cement plant should it prove feasible to establish one in this area. These materials, made up mostly of Tertiary and later sediments, crop out in isolated, inconspicuous low hills in a north- trending belt, 10 to 15 kilometers wide, lying about 90 kilometers to-the east of At Taft. The belt extends for more than 90 kilometers from the vicinity of Jabal 'An in the south to the crushed rock pits at Radwan and beyond in the north. The area is readily accessible either from the Talf-Riyadh highway or from the Taif-Bishah road presently under construction. The limestone, which is quite pure and dense in some localities but dolomitic, argillaceous, and cherty in others, occurs in a variety of colors and would make suitable decorative building stone. The volcanic rocks of the Harrat Hadan, lying directly to the east of the limestone belt, include volcanic ash beds some of which may have been altered to bentonitlc clays. Others may have been lithified and might be suitable for light-weight aggregate. These possibilities remain to be investigated. Precambrian metamorphic rocks lying directly to the south and southeast of Taif were also investigated as possible cement rock sources, but no suitable material was found here.

  19. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  20. Implementing robotics in the Department of Energy Dismantlement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.T.

    1997-12-31

    Since the end of the cold war, as our nuclear stockpile has decreased, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been working rapidly to safely dismantle weapons returned by the military. In order to be retired, weapons must be returned to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. There they are reduced to their component parts. Although many of these parts are not hazardous, some, including certain explosive assemblies and radioactive materials, are sufficiently hazardous so that special handling systems are necessary. This paper will describe several of these systems developed by Sandia for Pantex and their technical basis.

  1. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  2. The UK's National Programme for IT: Why was it dismantled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinia, Taghreed

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the UK's National Programme for IT (NPfIT), which was an ambitious programme launched in 2002 with an initial budget of some £6.2 billion. It attempted to implement a top-down digitization of healthcare in England's National Health Service (NHS). The core aim of the NPfIT was to bring the NHS' use of information technology into the 21st century, through the introduction of an integrated electronic patient record systems, and reforming the way that the NHS uses information, and hence to improve services and the quality of patient care. The initiative was not trusted by doctors and appeared to have no impact on patient safety. The project was marred by resistance due to the inappropriateness of a centralized authority making top-down decisions on behalf of local organizations. The NPfIT was officially dismantled in September 2011. Deemed the world's largest civil IT programme, its failure and ultimate demise sparked a lot of interest as to the reasons why. This paper summarises the underlying causes that lead to dismantling the NPfIT. At the forefront of those circumstances were the lack of adequate end user engagement, the absence of a phased change management approach, and underestimating the scale of the project.

  3. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA; L'assainissement et le demantelement au CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Prospective investigation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in ovulatory intrauterine insemination patients: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N la Cour; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary prospective study investigated serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) through correlations to other basal parameters (123 patients) and according to ovarian response to 75 IU recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH)/day (62 patients) in ovulatory patients' first rFSH treatment...

  5. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  6. Preliminary investigation into landslide in the national park Mt. Seorak in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-K.; Choi, S.-Y.; Park, K.; Park, H.-D.

    2003-04-01

    There are 20 national parks with a site of superb scenic beauty in Korea. Total area covered by Mt. Seorak of Korean national parks is 354.6 km^2, which is of great value to be preserved naturally. Mt. Seorak is composed of granite, granitic gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss. Mt. Seorak has been appointed as preservation area by IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) from early 1960's. Although a great number of people have visited to enjoy the beautiful panorama of Mt. Seorak, visitors are exposed to natural hazards, such as rock-fall, rockslide and debris flow. Based on preliminary investigation for total 68 sites on tracking routes, 7 sites were determined to be dangerous for visitors. Recently, rock-fall has occurred at 2 sites and debris flow happened at another 2 sites, where roads and tracking routes have been destroyed completely. In others, there is potential danger of rock-fall and debris flow. In 61 sites except the above sites, though there is no apparent danger, visitors need to be notified whether they pass through potential dangerous site. From future working using GIS technology and continuous monitoring for dangerous sites, small natural hazards can be predicted.

  7. Preliminary numerical investigation of bandwidth effects on CBET using the LPSE-CBET code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Myatt, Jason; Shaw, John; Weaver, James; Obenschain, Keith; Lehmberg, Robert; Obenschain, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is a significant energy-loss mechanism for direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser facility. Recently, a working group that includes participants from the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was formed to investigate strategies for ameliorating the deleterious effects of CBET. As part of this collaboration, the wave-based code LPSE-CBET developed at LLE has been made available to researchers at NRL and is being used to study the feasibility of suppressing CBET through the enhancement of laser bandwidth by stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS). In this poster, we present some preliminary results on this subject. In particular, we discuss initial efforts to evaluate mitigation levels of 4 discrete Stokes lines from SRRS in air and compare our findings with ray-based simulation results of wavelength shifted (-6Å ,0, +6Å) driver-lines on OMEGA. Work Supported by DoE/NNSA.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Investigation on MHD Power Generation Using Seeded Supersonic Argon Flow as Working Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Medical Students: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Suma P; Chibnall, John T; Slavin, Stuart J

    2017-04-10

    Maladaptive perfectionism is associated with psychological distress and psychopathology. Medical students have been found to be particularly prone to maladaptive perfectionism. Recent research has indicated that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) that targets unhealthy perfectionism leads to reductions in perfectionism and related distress. This preliminary investigation aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a CBT program directed at medical students who had significant levels of maladaptive perfectionism. The impact on associated psychological distress was also assessed. The study used a case series methodology with an A-B design plus follow-up. First-year medical students who screened positive for maladaptive perfectionism and consented for the study (N = 4) were assessed at baseline to evaluate the levels of maladaptive perfectionism, anxiety, and depression. They participated in an eight-session CBT program for reducing maladaptive perfectionism after a waiting period. Assessments were repeated post CBT and at 3- and 6-month follow up periods. Results indicated positive and durable effects on maladaptive perfectionism among program participants. The current research provides promising results for the use of CBT in at risk medical students with maladaptive perfectionism.

  10. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  11. Evaluation of the secondary radiation impact on personnel during the dismantling of contaminated nuclear equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a numerical analysis of the secondary radiation contribution to the total radiation affecting the operational personnel during the dismantling activities of the contaminated equipment at a nuclear power plant. This study considers a widely applicable Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX and real Ignalina nuclear power plant records. A simplified albedo method is investigated in order to analyze the selected geometrical design cases. Additionally, the impact of the secondary radiation on the personnel dose was analyzed. The numerical MCNPX simulation allowed ascertaining the optimal distance between the source and the wall for the working personnel in closed rooms with contaminated equipment. The developed dose rate maps of the secondary radiation showed cross-sectional distribution of the dose rate inside the enclosed area.

  12. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force feedback rehabilitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today’s robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance.Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover studies suggest limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy.In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A Bimanual Wearable Robotic Device (BWRD with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three one-hour sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre and post training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post assessment was performed at the end of the last training session.The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force feedback movements, force feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to

  13. LOD 1 VS. LOD 2 - Preliminary Investigations Into Differences in Mobile Rendering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, C.; Altenbuchner, J.

    2013-09-01

    The increasing availability, size and detail of 3D City Model datasets has led to a challenge when rendering such data on mobile devices. Understanding the limitations to the usability of such models on these devices is particularly important given the broadening range of applications - such as pollution or noise modelling, tourism, planning, solar potential - for which these datasets and resulting visualisations can be utilized. Much 3D City Model data is created by extrusion of 2D topographic datasets, resulting in what is known as Level of Detail (LoD) 1 buildings - with flat roofs. However, in the UK the National Mapping Agency (the Ordnance Survey, OS) is now releasing test datasets to Level of Detail (LoD) 2 - i.e. including roof structures. These datasets are designed to integrate with the LoD 1 datasets provided by the OS, and provide additional detail in particular on larger buildings and in town centres. The availability of such integrated datasets at two different Levels of Detail permits investigation into the impact of the additional roof structures (and hence the display of a more realistic 3D City Model) on rendering performance on a mobile device. This paper describes preliminary work carried out to investigate this issue, for the test area of the city of Sheffield (in the UK Midlands). The data is stored in a 3D spatial database as triangles and then extracted and served as a web-based data stream which is queried by an App developed on the mobile device (using the Android environment, Java and OpenGL for graphics). Initial tests have been carried out on two dataset sizes, for the city centre and a larger area, rendering the data onto a tablet to compare results. Results of 52 seconds for rendering LoD 1 data, and 72 seconds for LoD 1 mixed with LoD 2 data, show that the impact of LoD 2 is significant.

  14. Preliminary Investigation on Generation of Electricity Using Micro Wind Turbines Placed on A Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Chaudhary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the prominent resources for renewable energy and it is traditionally extracted using stationary wind turbines. However, it can also be extracted using mini or micro wind turbines on a moving body, such as an automobile, while cruising at high speeds on freeways. If the electricity is produced using air flowing around the vehicle without affecting aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, it can be used to charge up the battery or power up additional accessories of the vehicle. For the first time, in the present work, a preliminary investigation was carried out to generate electricity by utilizing air flow on a moving car. Initially, a correlation between the car speed and wind velocity was established using an anemometer. Placing a set of two micro wind turbines along with two micro generators on the rear end of the car trunk, the present study investigated the feasibility of generating electricity from these micro wind turbines while evaluating the effect of drag force on the performance of the car through the experimental approach and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Both approaches confirmed negligible effect of drag force on the vehicle performance in terms of gas mileage and changes in drag coefficient values. Following these studies, the micro wind turbines were also tested for electricity generation at various cruising speeds of the car ranging from 50 to 80 mph on the freeways. The voltage and power generated always showed an increasing trend with increasing the car speed, however they saturated when a cut off limit was setup with the voltage controllers. A maximum voltage of 3.5 V and a maximum current of 0.8 A were generated by each micro wind turbine when a cut off limit was used along with a load consisting of four LED bulbs in parallel with 3.5 V and 0.2 A rating each. On the other hand, when the tests were repeated without using the cut-off limit, a maximum voltage of 18.91 V and a maximum current

  15. Hazards by shock waves during explosive eruptions: preliminary results of experimental investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Teresa; Alatorre Ibarguengoïtia, Miguel; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    A recent study (Scolamacchia and Shouwenaars, 2009) investigated the nature of microscopic craters on the steel surface of a basketball pole left standing in one of the villages destroyed by the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano. The craters were attributed to the impacts of ash particles (70-280 μm) accelerated by shock waves due to an efficient momentum coupling with a gas phase, such that a sudden expansion of the gas, caused by shock wave propagation, drag the particles up to speeds of 710 to 980 m/s. Several open questions existed on this kind of phenomena. Preliminary tests were performed to investigate the correlation between particle size and the high velocities calculated, based on inner deformation of the steel and crater geometry. We used a shock tube apparatus consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave, pressurized with Ar gas, and a low pressure (LP) tank at atmospheric conditions. We used ash and lapilli bulk samples from El Chichón trachyandesites, and lapilli with random irregular shapes obtained by crushing and abrading dacitic blocks from pyroclastic flow deposits of Unzen volcano. The samples were placed inside an autoclave at ambient T and P, located between the HP autoclave and the LP tank. Steel plates (same type of the original impacted material), were fixed to the LP tank walls, 10 cm above the autoclave that contained the samples. Shock waves were generated by the sudden decompression of the Ar gas due to the systematical failure of a diaphragm (which separate the LP from the HP section). Air expansion accelerated the particles from below toward the steel plate. The speed of the particles was measured using a system of 4 copper wires conducting an electric signal. The signals dropped when the particles reached the wires. We used low pressure ranges (3.1 to 9.8 MPa) for all experimental runs, obtaining a range of particles velocities between 40 and 257 m/s. These velocities can be attained by pyroclastic density currents. Higher

  16. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Emma; Gilron, Ian; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    some symptoms suggestive of NP characteristics, and future research should use NP measures in addition to physical examinations to further investigate the mechanisms that maintain this pain condition. Dargie E, Gilron I, Pukall CF. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation. J Sex Med 2017;14:577-591. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary investigation of self-as-context in people with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Norton, Sam; Almarzooqi, Sarah; McCracken, Lance M

    2017-08-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), based on the Psychological Flexibility (PF) model, has been recently applied to fibromyalgia (FM), and appeared effective in improving functioning. However, evidence for some of the processes within the PF model, self-as-context (SAC) in particular, is lacking within this population. The current study validates a measure of SAC, the Self Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), and preliminarily investigates the role of SAC in relation to functioning in FM. Participants (N = 298, 93.3% women) self-reporting a diagnosis of FM were recruited via the Internet and completed an online survey. Measures included pain, pain acceptance and SAC, as processes, and pain interference, work and social adjustment, depression and depression-related interference, as outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis of the SEQ suggested a bi-factor structure, with a general factor underlying all items and two sub-factors, self-as-distinction and self-as-observer (χ2 = 46.55, p = .06, comparative fit index (CFI) = .99, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = .99, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .04). Component factors showed good reliability, Cronbach's α = .90, and construct validity, supported by significant Pearson's correlations between SEQ scores, acceptance and outcomes (r = -.14 to -.33). In multiple regression analyses, SEQ scores significantly predicted pain-related interference (β = -.17, p < .05), work and social adjustment (β = -.14, p < .05) and depression (β = -.21, p < .01), but not depression-related interference, after controlling for pain, but only significantly predicted depression after controlling pain acceptance. These preliminary results show potentially important associations between SAC and functioning in people with FM.

  18. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  19. Preliminary experimental investigation of a complex dual-band high power microwave source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zhangxiaoping@nudt.edu.cn; Li, Yangmei; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Huihuang; Qian, Baoliang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to promote the power conversion efficiency of a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) and obtain microwaves in dual bands, an axially extracted C-band virtual cathode oscillator (VCO) with multiple resonant cavities is introduced to partially utilize the load current of an S-band MILO. The formed novel dual-band high power microwave source called MILO and VCO is investigated with simulation and experimentally. A dual-band radiation antenna is designed to effectively radiate microwaves generated by the MILO and the VCO, respectively, while avoiding them being influenced by the microwave reflection and diffraction. The preliminary experimental results measured by the dual-band diagnostic system show that both the MILO and the VCO operate normally under repeated shots. A microwave of 2.1 GHz, 1.70 GW is generated from the MILO and a 0.37 GW microwave at frequencies of 4.1 GHz and 3.8 GHz is generated from the VCO under the condition of about 440 kV and 35 kA. Compared with a single MILO (10.6%), a MILO and VCO achieves higher total power and efficiency (13.4%) in both S and C bands, indicating that the load current of the MILO partially couples into the beam-wave interaction in the VCO and then contributes to the output microwaves. However, more works are needed regarding the spectrum purification of the VCO and promotion of the output power of both the MILO and the VCO.

  20. Disrupted Tactile Acuity in People With Achilles Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Case-Control Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, James; Butler, Prue; Mallows, Adrian; Wand, Benedict M

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, preliminary case-control design. Background The mechanisms that contribute to Achilles tendinopathy remain poorly understood. The disparity between pain experience and peripheral pathology demonstrated in patients with Achilles tendinopathy suggests that changes in central nervous system function may be involved. Objectives To investigate whether lower-limb tactile acuity is impaired in people with nonacute Achilles tendinopathy. Methods Thirteen consecutive participants with nonacute midportion Achilles tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls were enrolled. Two-point discrimination thresholds over the affected Achilles tendon, unaffected tendon, and tendon of healthy controls were evaluated. Independent and dependent t tests were used to compare group means. Results Two-point discrimination distance over the affected limb in participants with Achilles tendinopathy was significantly increased when compared to the unaffected limb (mean difference, 11.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 21.5; P = .02) and to healthy controls (mean difference, 13.1 mm; 95% CI: 1.6, 24.6; P = .03). There was no significant difference between the healthy controls and the unaffected side in people with Achilles tendinopathy (mean difference, 1.4 mm; 95% CI: -7.9, 5.1; P = .66). Conclusion These data provide the first evidence of reduced 2-point discrimination over the affected tendon in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Further research is needed to determine the cause for the change in tactile acuity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1061-1064. Epub 30 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6514.

  1. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco.

  2. Method and jig for dismantling nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Megumi; Watahiki, Minoru.

    1989-08-30

    The object of the present inention is to extract a fuel element from a lower tie plate safely and at high efficiency by a remote control operation. That is, a forked top end of a lever of a dismantling jig is inserted between the tapered portion of a lower end plug and a lower tie plate. Then, a load is applied to the counter-lower end side of the lever by a motor. This exerts an elevating force to the fuel elements to easily release fixture between the lower end plug and the lower tie plate. Since the fuel can of fuel elements is not applied with a force by this mehtod, operation safety can be improved. (I.J.).

  3. Fast and simple decycling and dismantling of networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zdeborová, Lenka; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Decycling and dismantling of complex networks are underlying many important applications in network science. Recently these two closely related problems were tackled by several heuristic algorithms, simple and considerably sub-optimal, on the one hand, and time-consuming message-passing ones that evaluate single-node marginal probabilities, on the other hand. In this paper we propose a simple and extremely fast algorithm, CoreHD, which recursively removes nodes of the highest degree from the $2$-core of the network. CoreHD performs much better than all existing simple algorithms. When applied on real-world networks, it achieves equally good solutions as those obtained by the state-of-art iterative message-passing algorithms at greatly reduced computational cost, suggesting that CoreHD should be the algorithm of choice for many practical purposes.

  4. Outsourcing and "dismantling" of steady jobs at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Saragor de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To relate hospitals' organizational structure as the core of a web of outsourced services and flexible employment bonds among healthcare professionals in the context of finance capitalism, analyzing work arrangements based mainly on the type of employment bond. METHOD Qualitative research through ethnography, interviews, data analysis, and case studies. The case studies were concentrated in 3 hospitals located in the São Paulo metropolitan region under different management types: public administration; outsourced administration via a healthcare social organization (HSO; and private administration. RESULTS This study highlights a trend in outsourcing, dismantling of steady jobs, and shaping working relations asymmetrically in terms of healthcare professions. CONCLUSION These aspects are characteristic of contemporary capitalism and post-Fordist work organization. In this context, the state under sponsorship cripples the very existence of an effective human resources policy, creating a favorable environment for outsourcing and flexibility of employment bonds among healthcare workers.

  5. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopendra, D.; Fukuoka, H.; Kuwano, T.; Ichikawa, K.

    2016-12-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in the densely-populated zone. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contribute to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. A recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works.Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius.The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of extensometers installed on these sites. Colluvium samples from both sites of the same characteristics with the sliding surface were tested in the ring shear apparatus in Japan under different normal stresses reducing from 300 kPa to 50 kPa step-wise at a shear velocity of 0.02 mm/min under drained condition to obtain the residual friction angle (φ) and the cohesion (c). Obtained residual friction angle and cohesion

  6. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  7. Bimanual elbow robotic orthoses: preliminary investigations on an impairment force-feedback rehabilitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Alavi, Nezam; Randhawa, Bubblepreet Kaur; Boyd, Lara A; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation practices have begun integrating robots, recognizing their significant role in recovery. New and alternative stroke rehabilitation treatments are essential to enhance efficacy and mitigate associated health costs. Today's robotic interventions can play a significant role in advancing rehabilitation. In addition, robots have an inherent ability to perform tasks accurately and reliably and are typically well suited to measure and quantify performance. Most rehabilitation strategies predominantly target activation of the paretic arm. However, bimanual upper-limb rehabilitation research suggests potential in enhancing functional recovery. Moreover, studies suggest that limb coordination and synchronization can improve treatment efficacy. In this preliminary study, we aimed to investigate and validate our user-driven bimanual system in a reduced intensity rehab practice. A bimanual wearable robotic device (BWRD) with a Master-Slave configuration for the elbow joint was developed to carry out the investigation. The BWRD incorporates position and force sensors for which respective control loops are implemented, and offers varying modes of operation ranging from passive to active training. The proposed system enables the perception of the movements, as well as the forces applied by the hemiparetic arm, with the non-hemiparetic arm. Eight participants with chronic unilateral stroke were recruited to participate in a total of three 1-h sessions per participant, delivered in a week. Participants underwent pre- and post-training functional assessments along with proprioceptive measures. The post-assessment was performed at the end of the last training session. The protocol was designed to engage the user in an assortment of static and dynamic arm matching and opposing tasks. The training incorporates force-feedback movements, force-feedback positioning, and force matching tasks with same and opposite direction movements. We are able to suggest

  8. A Preliminary Clinical Laboratory Investigation of Endemic Spiking Mortality Syndrome of Broiler Chickens in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Neupane

    Full Text Available During the period of March-April-May 2008 first time a sudden and unexpected jump in mortality in Broiler of 8 to 16 days of age was reported from broiler farms from Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in Nepal.Affected birds become recumbent, depressed and often go into a star-gazing spasm. Those signs included, huddling of the birds, trembling, blindness, loud chirping, litter eating, ataxia, comatose, birds dead with breast down and feet and legs straight out behind birds. Death within two to six hours after the onset of the symptoms Postmortem Lesions found with this syndrome include hemorrhages in the liver with necrosis of liver cells, regressed thymus, regression of the bursa of Fabricius, dehydration with the accumulation of kidney urates, fluid in the crop, fluid in the lower gut and watery contents of the ceca.Yellow elastic shanks swollen joints. Molted appearance of brain. . The mortality lasted for three to five days, after which, the mortality patterns return to a relatively normal level. When treated with liquid toxin binders like toxol,toxolivum,livertonic like hepatocare,naturaliv, immunomodulaters like immunocare,promin,pentasol and antibiotics there was check in mortality but the body weight recovery was not satisfactory only half as in comparison of in other illness. During this period laboratory culture of total 298 tissue specimen from dead bird was conducted which revealed growth of fungus spp like Aspergillus and Penicillium in 182 specimen while mixed E.coli and Staphylococcus were recovered in 68 specimen 24 specimen revealed the growth of Salmonella spp of bacteria and 24 samples were turn out to be negative while the attempt to isolate the Avian encephalomyelitis virus as it might be the cause suspected also turnout negative. On the basis of all laboratory findings and response to the treatment attempted finding of this preliminary investigation work is suggestive that the above syndrome indicates that mycosis emerging as

  9. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  10. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  11. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger;

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of large digitized audio-visual collections within digital humanities have recently been made available for users. Often access to digitized audio-visual collections is hampered by little and inconsistent metadata. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study of ...

  12. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  13. 论初查工作的改进与规范%On the improvement and specification of preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪明; 张加昕

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary investigation work,as an important part of prefiling of prosecutors,has its own particularity and plays a key and decisive role in whether filing the case.However,preliminary investigation work is a pioneering work. There are a lot of uncertainty and instability,which will encounter some unforeseen circumstances.The preliminary investigation itself was flawed and inadequate,so it must be improved and specified.%初查工作作为检察机关一项重要的立案前置环节,具有自身的特殊性,对案件能否立案起关键的决定性作用。但是,初查工作是一项探索性工作,存在诸多不确定性和不稳定性,会遇到一些难以预料的情况,其本身也存在缺陷和不足,故需对其进行相关的改进与规范。

  14. The use and effectiveness of the eLib subject gateways: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, M; Burton, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Internet subject gateways were set up under the Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib) in order to address some of the problems of searching the Internet which have been identified by information professionals, i.e. locating relevant, good quality information. This preliminary study examines the extent to which academics in two universities use three eLib subject gateways (EEVL, OMNI and SOSIG). The results are generally encouraging for the eLib programme, but it is necessary for the gateways ...

  15. Radiation protection during dismantling. An overview; Strahlenschutz beim Rueckbau. Ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagels, Sven [TUEV Rheinland Industrie Service GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Strahlenschutz

    2013-08-01

    During dismantling of nuclear facilities the upmost aim is the radiation protection of the public and the personnel within and outside the facility. Specific requirements concerning the selection of cutting, dismantling and decontamination techniques and the ventilation devices are reviewed. The contribution covers special technologies for remote handling the reduction of external radiation exposure, the prevention of contamination spreading, release of buildings with respect to contamination, separate filtering devices with suction blowers, regular training with practical exercise, and experiences from other facilities.

  16. Dismantling design for a reference research reactor of the WWR type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, Yu.N., E-mail: lobach@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pr. Nauki, 47, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Cross, M.T., E-mail: Martin.Cross@nuvia.co.uk [Nuvia Ltd., Robinson House, Crow Park Way, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HY (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Design features of WWRs relevant to decommissioning have been analysed. • The technical basis for the preparation and implementation of dismantling has been established for a reference WWR. • The applicability of existing proven dismantling technologies has been established. -- Abstract: A decommissioning study has been carried out for a reference research reactor of the WWR type. Many such reactors were constructed more than 50 years ago and most of them are still in operation. Decommissioning has now become an important consideration. This paper summarizes the main decommissioning steps and, on the basis of the reactor design features, technical aspects of the dismantling and removal of the contaminated/activated components have been analysed. The advisability of the removal of large components, such as the reactor vessel and the heat-exchangers, as one piece items has also been demonstrated. Additionally, a work schedule and an estimation of the collective dose for the preparation and implementation of dismantling have been established. The applicability of existing proven dismantling technologies has been identified together with some additional features for the dismantling.

  17. The Blue Lady Case and the International Issue of Ship Dismantling - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pelsy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the decision of the Supreme Court of India to allow the dismantling of the Blue Lady (ex France in Alang. The first part underlines that the Supreme Court of India is prioritising the commercial interest of the dismantling companies over the social and environmental concerns of the workers and the communities living in Alang. It argues that such decision goes against its 2003 judgement on ship-dismantling. It then demonstrates that the Supreme Court of India is distorting the concept of sustainable development. The second part analyses the Blue Lady case from an international perspective since most of the ships that are dismantled in India come from developed countries. It provides an overview of the Basel Convention on ship dismantling issues and a study of the Clemenceau case before the French Conseil d'Etat. It then concludes that a better control of end-of-life ships in OECD countries and a new international convention on ship-dismantling would be necessary in order to prevent environmental and social disasters in Alang.

  18. Breaking the silence, dismantling taboos: Latino novels on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Sánchez, A

    1998-01-01

    As AIDS has ravaged the world in the last two decades, literature has played an important role in giving testimony of the epidemic. According to different communities and particular experiences, AIDS literature can offer ways of coping and surviving. In the last few years the U.S. Latino/a population has been highly affected by AIDS. The first genres to register AIDS were poetry and theatre. In this essay I examine how AIDS is represented in the first four Latino novels to deal with the subject matter: Ana Castillo's So Far from God, Daniel Torres's Morirás si da una primavera, Elías Miguel Muñoz's The Greatest Performance, and Jaime Manrique's latin Moon in Manhattan. My critical reading centers on how AIDS constitutes a new articulation of identity, particularly gay and ethnic identity. Most importantly, I propose that these novels contribute to dismantling homophobia and compulsory heterosexuality, deconstructing sexual and cultural taboos, and breaking the silence on AIDS/SIDA.

  19. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. (CUPRESSACEAE DRIED LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhan Meenu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis is a monoecious coniferous plant having a wide variety of medicinal value. It has hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic activity etc. In the present paper, T. occidentalis leaves has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic, physical and physico-chemical characteristics. Methanolic and hydro-alcoholic extracts have been prepared by microwave assisted extraction technique and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC. TLC fingerprinting profile has been obtained using different solvent systems.

  20. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  1. Preliminary investigations on fossil diversity variation of Mesozoic Marattialean ferns in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zikun JIANG; Yongdong WANG; and Ning TIAN

    2008-01-01

    The Marattiales is one of the oldest lineages of vascular plants with extensive fossil records dated back to the Carboniferous. Understanding the fossil diversity variation and distribution pattern is helpful for exploring the evolutionary history of this fern group. In this work, the preliminary analysis of diversity change and distribution of the Mesozoic Marattialean fossil records in China are reported covering the Triassic and Jurassic periods based on available published data. In addition, a brief discussion is made regarding to the potential causes for these variation and distribution of this fern group.

  2. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Bodek, A

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  3. Family Histories of Anxiety in Overweight Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Methods Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). Results BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Conclusions Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. PMID:26343481

  4. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  5. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  6. Investigation of the tetraquark candidate $a_0(980)$: technical aspects and preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Berlin, Joshua; Brida, Mattia Dalla; Gravina, Mario; Wagner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We discuss technical aspects and first results of a lattice QCD study of the $a_0(980)$ state. We employ various interpolating operators of quark-antiquark, mesonic molecule, diquark-antidiquark and two-meson type. Both connected and disconnected contributions including diagrams with closed fermion loops are computed. To keep statistical errors small, it is essential to optimize the computation of these diagrams by choosing that combination of techniques most appropriate for each type of diagram from the correlation matrix of interpolating operators. We illustrate, how this can be done, by discussing certain diagrams in detail. We also present preliminary results corresponding to a $4\\times 4$ submatrix computed with 2+1 flavors of clover fermions.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the advertising and availability of PREPs, the new "safe" tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Norval; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Landrine, Hope; Kashima, Kennon; Parekh, Bina; Fernandez, Senaida; Thomas, Kamala; Brouillard, Catherine; Zolezzi, Michele; Jensen, Jennifer; Weslowski, Zorahna

    2004-08-01

    The tobacco industry recently introduced a new set of "safe" cigarettes and nicotine delivery devices that purportedly entail reduced tobacco-related disease risk due to their lower level of some carcinogens and toxins. Little is know about the biological impact of these potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and nothing is known about their advertising and availability. Hence, two pilot studies were conducted to examine the latter issues for the first time. In Study 1, we examined tobacco ads in 10 popular magazines 1998--2002 and found that only 1% of ads were for PREPs. In Study 2, we attempted to purchase PREPs in a random sample of 113 small stores and found that only 4.4% sold any PREP. These preliminary findings tentatively suggest that the industry might not yet be heavily invested in products that have the potential to increase tobacco use by decreasing its perceived harm. Studies with larger samples are recommended.

  8. Parallel Strands A Preliminary Investigation into Mining the Web for Bilingual Text

    CERN Document Server

    Resnik, P

    1998-01-01

    Parallel corpora are a valuable resource for machine translation, but at present their availability and utility is limited by genre- and domain-specificity, licensing restrictions, and the basic difficulty of locating parallel texts in all but the most dominant of the world's languages. A parallel corpus resource not yet explored is the World Wide Web, which hosts an abundance of pages in parallel translation, offering a potential solution to some of these problems and unique opportunities of its own. This paper presents the necessary first step in that exploration: a method for automatically finding parallel translated documents on the Web. The technique is conceptually simple, fully language independent, and scalable, and preliminary evaluation results indicate that the method may be accurate enough to apply without human intervention.

  9. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

    2015-09-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal (σL) and transverse (σT) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= σLT for nuclei (RA) and for deuterium (RD) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, RA < RD.

  10. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  11. Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity - A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michele L; Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Appleton, Allison A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2017-04-01

    High level arsenic exposure is associated with reproductive toxicity in experimental and observational studies; however, few data exist to assess risks at low levels. Even less data are available to evaluate the impact of low level arsenic exposure on human fecundity. Our aim in this pilot study was a preliminary evaluation of associations between low level drinking water arsenic contamination and female fecundity. This retrospective study was conducted among women previously recruited to a hospital-based case-control study of spontaneous pregnancy loss in Timiṣ County, Romania. Women (n=94) with planned pregnancies of 5-20 weeks gestation completed a comprehensive physician-administered study questionnaire and reported the number of menstrual cycles attempting to conceive as the time to pregnancy (TTP). Drinking water samples were collected from residential drinking water sources and we determined arsenic levels using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression with Efron approximation was employed to evaluate TTP as a function of drinking water arsenic concentrations among planned pregnancies, adjusted for covariates. There was no main effect for drinking water arsenic exposure, yet the conditional probability for pregnancy was modestly lower among arsenic exposed women with longer TTPs, relative to women with shorter TTPs, and relative to unexposed women. For example, 1µg/L average drinking water arsenic conferred 5%, 8%, and 10% lower likelihoods for pregnancy in the 6th, 9th, and 12th cycles, respectively (P=0.01). While preliminary, our results suggest that low level arsenic contamination in residential drinking water sources may further impair fecundity among women with longer waiting times; however, this hypothesis requires confirmation by a future, more definitive study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deterministic Assessment of Future Costs for Dismantling (FA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek [DECOM, Trnava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the report is to provide an re-evaluation of cost calculations by OMEGA code for the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel in Studsvik (FA facility) using up-to-date Swedish labour cost unit factors and available up-to-date Swedish (or international) cost unit factors for consumables, materials and substances. Furthermore, evolution of other OMEGA database parameters concerning cost calculations e.g. manpower unit factors and workgroups parameters are taken into account. This report follows up former project which introduced tentative calculations of main decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by FA Facility in Studsvik by means of calculation code OMEGA. The project demonstrated an implementation of advanced costing methodology based on PSL structure format to achieve transparent, traceable and comparable estimates even for older nuclear facilities like FA Facility in Studsvik. This former project used Slovak origin labour costs unit factors and other cost unit factors. After successful completion of this project, there was an intent of SSM to reevaluate calculations using an up-to-date Swedish labour cost data and also available Swedish consumables and materials cost data if available. Within this report re-calculations of main decommissioning parameters using available Swedish data are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. Calculations are made for decommissioning scenario with post-dismantling decontamination and steel radwaste melting technologies available at the site. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. Further, comparison of calculated results with previous calculations together with discussion is provided.

  13. Seismic Investigations of the Murci Geothermal Field (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Alexandrakis, C.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Amiata region in the Southern Tuscany, Central Italy, describes a volcanic complex with great significance in terms of the regional fresh water supply, mining and geothermal power generation. Mainly for the latter purpose, the volcanic area of Mt Amiata has been the subject of extensive geological and geophysical research (e.g. Dini et al., 2010 and references therein). The insights from these studies have led to successful geothermal production in the Mt Amiata region since the early 1960s (e.g. Batini et al., 2003). Today's most important reservoirs in this area are the Bagnore and the Piancastagnaio fields which are both operated by the company Enel Green Power. The work presented here deals with the Murci area, another potential reservoir located about 10 km southwest of the Mt Amiata volcanic complex. Therefore, in order to get a more detailed understanding of this area, five reflection seismic profiles were carried out. We have performed on three of them a preliminary depth-migrated images, through Kirchhoff prestack depth migration (KPSDM). The vital point of depth migration algorithms is the accuracy of the velocity model that is used for the backpropagation of the seismic data. Therefore, we derived a suitable 1D starting model from nearby well logs and VSP measurements. In order to remove the large topography effects along the profiles, we then utilized first-arrival tomography for each seismic line. For the following processing we incorporated these 2D tomographic results into our starting model which compensates for static effects and improves the resolution in the near-surface area. The velocity models were then used in the application of KPSDM to the seismic data for each profile, respectively. The resulting preliminary images show a zone of high seismic reflectivity, known as the 'K-horizon' (e.g. Brogi, 2008), and could improve its geological interpretation. These promising results encourage us to proceed with deeper migration velocity

  14. Analysis of radwaste management alternatives during dismantling of Ignalina NPP systems with low level contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, Gintautas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Engineering Lab.; Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania); Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Audrius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    2013-12-15

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors which are under decommissioning now. In this paper, analysis on radwaste management alternatives during the dismantling of systems with low level contamination and different types of components in buildings 117/1 and V1 are presented. After situation analysis and collection of the primary information related to components' physical and radiological characteristics, location and other data, two alternatives for radwaste management during the dismantling were formulated and evaluated: the first one (A1) when the decontamination of the dismantled components is performed (if it is reasonable), and the second one (A2) when no decontamination of the dismantled components is performed and after the dismantling, the components are routed to appropriate waste storage or disposal sites. To select the preferable alternative, MCDA method - AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is applied. Hierarchical lists of decision criteria, necessary for assessment of alternatives performance, are formulated. Quantitative decision criteria values for these alternatives are calculated using software DECRAD, which was developed by Lithuanian Energy Institute Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Qualitative decision criteria are evaluated using expert judgment. Analysis results show that alternative A1 has a preference against alternative A2. (orig.)

  15. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Miller

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature.In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy.Eight (73% patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD: 18.1 (2.8 versus 8.4 (4.8; p = .001. Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01, while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05.Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875.

  16. Revisiting shyness and sociability: A preliminary investigation of hormone-brain-behavior relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva eTang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shyness and sociability are two fundamental personality dimensions that are conceptually and empirically orthogonal and are conserved across cultures, development, and phylogeny. However, we know relatively little regarding how shyness and sociability are represented and maintained in the brain. Here we examined neural responses to the processing of different types of social threat using event-related fMRI, the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR, and sociability in young adults selected for high and low shyness. Shy adults who exhibited a relatively higher CAR displayed neural activity in putative brain regions involved in emotional conflict and awareness, and were more sociable. In contrast, shy adults who displayed a relatively lower CAR exhibited neural activity in putative brain regions linked to fear and withdrawal, and were unsociable. Results revealed no systematic brain responses to social threat processing that correlated with the CAR in nonshy adults. These preliminary results suggest that individual differences in waking morning cortisol levels may influence neural processes that facilitate either social approach or withdrawal among people who are shy. Findings are discussed in relation to their theoretical and clinical implications for moving beyond longstanding descriptive to explanatory models of shyness and sociability and for understanding individual differences in social behavior in general.

  17. Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the distribution of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) has contracted dramatically in the eastern one-half of its historic range. The species has been designated as a "Bird of Conservation Concern" and focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a species of concern by several states, and a "Highly Imperiled" species in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The uncertain outlook for this species has contributed to a plethora of research on Long-billed Curlews, most of which have focused on breeding and nesting ecology of the species. Gaps remain in information about factors affecting population dynamics on the winter grounds and the linkages between Long-billed Curlew populations on the breeding range, migration routes, and winter range. To begin filling those gaps, a pilot study was done to evaluate (1) curlew use of nocturnal roost sites, (2) use of public outreach to locate curlews and contribute to preliminary assessment of foraging habitat use, (3) six different methods to capture curlews, and (4) movements by curlews on wintering areas. The study area includes the lower Texas coast, which harbors the eastern-most dense populations of Long-billed Curlews in North America.

  18. Predicting Improvement in Depression Across Therapies Using Indicators of Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Denton, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common presenting problem, often affected by couple interactions in unique ways. However, research in the area of romantic relationship functioning and depression often replicates previous research or consists of literature reviews, limiting the clinical relevancy. The purpose of this preliminary study is to expand the research on the effects of relational processes on depression treatment outcomes. We tested whether initiator tendency, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and marital satisfaction predicted improvement in depression for women with Major Depressive Disorder enrolled in a depression treatment clinical trial (n = 17). Women completed treatments of either pharmacotherapy or combined Emotionally Focused Therapy for couples and pharmacotherapy. We found that higher baseline levels of partner initiator tendency resulted in less change in depression (worse outcomes), regardless of treatment type and that higher baseline levels of attachment avoidance predicted better depression outcomes in treatment. Marital satisfaction, however, was not linked to change in depression. Initiator tendency is discussed as a critical romantic relationship factor for depression treatment outcomes.

  19. Anger self-management training for people with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Vaccaro, Monica J; Hays, Christina; Maiuro, Roland D

    2012-01-01

    : To examine the feasibility and gather preliminary data on the efficacy of a fully manualized, 8-session, psychoeducational treatment for irritability and anger after traumatic brain injury (TBI), called anger self-management training (ASMT). : A total of 10 persons with moderate to severe, chronic TBI with significant cognitive impairment and elevated levels of anger and irritability participated in the study; 8 had significant others (SOs) who participated in portions of the treatment and provided pre- and posttreatment measures; 1 SO provided only data. : Two subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Scale-Revised and Brief Anger-Aggression Questionnaire. : Pre- to posttreatment pilot study. : There was significant improvement on all 3 measures of self-reported anger, with large effect sizes (>1.0), and on 1 of 3 SO-reported scales. Qualitative feedback from participants was positive and dropout rate was low (1 of 11). : The treatment model represented by the ASMT appears worthy of further study in persons with TBI who have both problematic anger and cognitive impairment.

  20. Brief cognitive behavior therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant G Pinjarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck′s Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results: Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. Conclusions: This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety.

  1. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  2. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-03-04

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study.

  3. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  4. Examining emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in Native Americans: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Shadlow, Joanna O; Rhudy, Jamie L

    2013-11-01

    Pain problems are more prevalent in Native Americans than in any other group in the U.S., and this might result from group differences in pain modulation. This study was designed to examine emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in healthy, pain-free Native Americans (n = 21) relative to non-Hispanic Whites (n = 20). To assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception), participants underwent a well-validated emotional picture-viewing paradigm during which suprathreshold pain stimuli were delivered to the ankle. Compared to Whites, Native Americans reported less pleasure to erotic pictures and failed to show corrugator reactivity to mutilation pictures. Unlike Whites, Native Americans only evidenced pain inhibition in response to erotica, but no pain facilitation (disinhibition) to mutilation pictures. Emotional modulation of NFR was similar in both groups. These preliminary findings suggest that Native Americans failed to disinhibit pain, perhaps due to over-activation of pain inhibitory mechanisms. Chronic over-activation of this system could ultimately exhaust it, thus putting Native Americans at future risk for chronic pain.

  5. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand; Chee, Adrian J. Y.; Yiu, Billy Y. S.; Ho, Chung Kit; Yu, Alfred C. H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle-independent vector velocity fields using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Experimental scans are performed on a fabricated flow phantom having a constriction of 36% at a depth of 100 mm. Scans are carried out using a phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner, SARUS. 2-D fields of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure drops across the mitral valve.

  6. A phenomenographic investigation into Information Literacy in nursing practice - preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Information Literacy is essential to 'evidence-based practice'; without the ability to locate evidence, evidence-based practice is rendered extremely difficult if not impossible. There is currently little evidence to show how Information Literacy is experienced by nurses or what its parameters are within evidence-based practice and therefore whether Information Literacy educational interventions are actually promoting the correct knowledge and skills. Using phenomenographic interviews the author will attempt to discover how nurses experience Information Literacy. Insights from the findings will be used to map out its parameters and to put forward a theoretical model for a course or module to develop it effectively. This article presents preliminary findings, including 7 draft categories of description of how Information Literacy is experienced in nursing. This pilot study indicates that the complete findings may be of significant potential value in the promotion and development of Information Literacy education in nursing. It is argued that such insights into how nurses actually experience the phenomenon of Information Literacy can be used to develop potentially more effective, research-based, educational interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Investigation of Cell Interaction of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Catechol-Containing Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kerstin; Seemann, Thomas; Wyrwa, Ralf; Clement, Joachim H.; Müller, Robert; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schnabelrauch, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts and subsequently stabilized by coating with different catechols (levodopa, dopamine, hydrocaffeic acid, dopamine-containing carboxymethyl dextran) known to act as high-affinity, bidentate ligands for Fe(III). The prepared stable magnetic fluids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition (content of iron and shell material, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio) and their physical properties (size, surface charge, magnetic parameters). The nanoparticles showed no or only slight cytotoxic effects within 1 and 4 days of incubation with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Preliminary experiments were performed to study the interaction of the prepared nanoparticles with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and leukocytes. An intense interaction of the MCF-7 cells with these particles was found whereas the leukocytes showed a lower tendency of interaction. Based on these finding, the novel magnetic nanoparticles possess the potential for use in depletion of tumor cells from peripheral blood.

  8. Brief cognitive behavior therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of brief CBT. Their diagnosis was confirmed using structured diagnostic interviews. They were assessed at baseline, post and 1-month follow-up on CGI- Severity, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Social Phobia Rating Scale, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed using the method of clinical significance. Results indicated that brief CBT was effective in reducing social anxiety in all patients. Brief CBT was also effective in reducing social avoidance and self consciousness. However, brief CBT was not effective in reducing fear of negative evaluation in all patients, suggesting the need for longer duration for cognitive changes in some dysfunctional beliefs. This preliminary case series indicates that brief CBT may be a promising and a cost and time effective approach to managing for social anxiety.

  9. Preliminary investigation of naringenin hydroxylation with recombinant E. coli expressing plant flavonoid hydroxylation gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Ilef Limem-Ben; Salem, Nidhal; Guedon, Emmanuel; Engasser, Jean-Marc; Chekir-Ghedrira, Leila; Ghoul, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Flavonoid hydroxylation is one way to increase the biological activities of these molecules and the number of hydroxyl groups needed for polymerization, esterification, alkylation, glycosylation and acylation reactions. These reactions have been suggested as a promising route to enhance flavonoid solubility and stability. In our preliminary study we hydroxylated naringenin (the first flavonoid core synthesized in plants) with recombinant E. coli harboring flavanone 3 hydroxylase (F3H). We demonstrated that recombinant E. coli harboring the F3H from Petroselinum crispum, can convert naringenin to dihydrokaempferol. The whole cell hydroxylase activity was often influenced by the stability of the plasmid harboring the cloned gene and the biomass yield. When the composition of the growth media became richer the amount of formed product decreased about twofold; the naringenin bioconversion yield in LB media was 70% and decreased to 33% in TB. However, the enrichment of culture media increased the biomass yield nearly threefold in LB media, only 0.5 g/L of bacteria was formed, but in TB there was 1.6 g/L. Thus, LB constitutes the best medium for naringenin bioconversion using the recombinant E. coli harboring the F3H; this allows for maximum bioconversion yield and plasmid stability when compared with the fourth tested culture medium. Consequently, E. coli harboring F3H from Petroselinum crispum can be used to produce flavonoids hydroxylated in position 3 that can serve in additional reactions like polymerization, glycosylation, and acylation,

  10. An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults:A preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max R. Paquette; Yuhua Li; Joseph Hoekstra; Joshua Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Background:This preliminary study examined the effects of an 8-week supervised reactive balance training program on reaction time (RT) and foot speed, static balance and balance confidence in healthy older adults compared to an exercise control group. Methods:Twenty-five older adults were randomly assigned to a reactive balance training group (QuickBoard;n=12;71.0 ± 8.6 years) or a stationary cycling group (control; n = 13; 70.2 ± 6.0 years). Both groups were tested for foot RT foot speed, static balance, and balance confidence at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 4-week follow-up. Results: Results indicated significant improvements in QuickBoard foot RT and speed in both groups with greater improvements in the QuickBoard group. However, no group difference was found in static balance performance. Conclusion: Although the improvements in RT and foot speed may be beneficial for fall and trip prevention, the implications of the current findings for trip avoidance and performance of daily tasks are unclear.

  11. Investigation of tunable LED lighting for general illumination employing preliminary activity recognition sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Maria; Spaulding, Jeremy; Larson, Kent; Hall, Harrison

    2011-10-01

    Digitally controlled solid state lighting systems can afford a range of different qualities of light, adjustable to users' requirements. Sensor networks allow lighting changes to be actuated in response to the location, activities, and paths of the occupants. This paper reports initial results of an ongoing research to explore strategic control of a tunable LED system, in response to a preliminary activity recognition platform, as well as the associated human factors. Tunable LED panels connected to a sensor network were installed to illuminate three distinct occupied spaces: a private office, a public office space and a corridor at MIT Media Lab. Human factors experiments were conducted to assess visual acceptability under changing lighting conditions. In the first phase variations in color rendering were applied to verify perception of subtle changes in white lighting. Results from this phase indicate that it is possible to correlate activities with sensitivity to spectral change. In the second phase the question is how colored light can be used for energy savings and as a communication medium in these commercial spaces.

  12. Preliminary investigation of flow dynamics during the start-up of a bulb turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, M.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, J.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the electricity network undergoes more perturbations due to the market demand. Additionally, an increase of the production from alternative resources such as wind or solar also induces important variations on the grid. Hydraulic power plants are used to respond quickly to these variations to stabilize the network. Hydraulic turbines have to face more frequent start-up and stop sequences that might shorten significantly their life time. In this context, an experimental analysis of start-up sequences has been conducted on the bulb turbine model of the BulbT project at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University. Maintaining a constant head, guide vanes are opened from 0 ° to 30 °. Three guide vanes opening speed have been chosen from 5 °/s to 20 °/s. Several repetitions were done for each guide vanes opening speed. During these sequences, synchronous time resolved measurements have been performed. Pressure signals were recorded at the runner inlet and outlet and along the draft tube. Also, 25 pressure measurements and strain measurements were obtained on the runner blades. Time resolved particle image velocimetry were used to evaluate flowrate during start-up for some repetitions. Torque fluctuations at shaft were also monitored. This paper presents the experimental set-up and start-up conditions chosen to simulate a prototype start-up. Transient flowrate methodology is explained and validation measurements are detailed. The preliminary results of global performances and runner pressure measurements are presented.

  13. Lead hazard among ironworkers: dismantling lead-painted elevated subway line in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Daum, S.M.; Davidow, B.

    1978-07-01

    Flame cutting of lead-painted steel structures may be associated with considerable lead exposure. In this study, an outbreak of lead poisoning among ironworkers dismantling an elevated subway line in New York City is described. Industrial hygiene evaluation of the respirators showed that inadequate equipment was the cause of the subsequent occupational disease. In the assessment of the lead-induced effects on the hematopoietic system, a new screening test--erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin determination--was employed, utilizing a portable field device (hematofluorometer) on which an instantaneous reading of ZPP (zinc protoporphyrin) concentration is obtained. Correlative data between ZPP and blood lead are presented, demonstrating that ZPP determinations may improve and simplify the task of screening and monitoring populations chronically exposed to lead. The effect of lead on the biosynthesis of heme was also assessed in five workers, by investigating the functional capacity of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 system through drug metabolism studies before and after chelation therapy. The effect on this system was considered minimal. Environmental studies showed that very high amounts of lead dusts were generated by the demolition process, but did not present any significant hazard to people residing in the vicinity. It is emphasized that combined medical and industrial hygiene surveillance is essential for the safe management of such work operation, and workers engaged in such operations require proper respiratory equipment to minimize the risk of increased lead absorption.

  14. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures varies among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately}5-20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately}30-100 ka).

  15. Preliminary results of paleoseismic investigations of Quaternary faults on eastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.; Whitney, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Thomas, A.P. [Geomatrix Consultants, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Site characterization of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires detailed knowledge of the displacement histories of nearby Quaternary faults. Ongoing paleoseismic studies provide data on the amount and rates of Quaternary activity on the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, and Stagecoach Road faults along the eastern margin of the mountain over varying time spans of 0-700 ka to perhaps 0-30 ka, depending on the site. Preliminary stratigraphic interpretations of deposits and deformation at many logged trenches and natural exposures indicate that each of these faults have experienced from 3 to 8 surface-rupturing earthquakes associated with variable dip-slip displacements per event ranging from 5 to 115 cm, and commonly in the range of 20 to 85 cm. Cumulative dip-slip offsets of units with broadly assigned ages of 100-200 ka are typically less than 200 cm, although accounting for the effects of possible left normal-oblique slip could increase these displacements by factors of 1.1 to 1.7. Current age constraints indicate recurrence intervals of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} years (commonly between 30 and 80 k.y.) and slip rates of 0.001 to 0.08 mm/yr (typically 0.01-0.02 mm/yr). Based on available timing data, the ages of the most recent ruptures among the faults; they appear younger on the Stagecoach Road Fault ({approximately} 5.20 ka) relative to the southern Paintbrush Canyon and Bow Ridge faults ({approximately} 30-100 ka).

  16. Outsourcing and "dismantling" of steady jobs at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Helton Saragor de; Mendes, Áquilas Nogueira

    2016-04-01

    To relate hospitals' organizational structure as the core of a web of outsourced services and flexible employment bonds among healthcare professionals in the context of finance capitalism, analyzing work arrangements based mainly on the type of employment bond. Qualitative research through ethnography, interviews, data analysis, and case studies. The case studies were concentrated in 3 hospitals located in the São Paulo metropolitan region under different management types: public administration; outsourced administration via a healthcare social organization (HSO); and private administration. This study highlights a trend in outsourcing, dismantling of steady jobs, and shaping working relations asymmetrically in terms of healthcare professions. These aspects are characteristic of contemporary capitalism and post-Fordist work organization. In this context, the state under sponsorship cripples the very existence of an effective human resources policy, creating a favorable environment for outsourcing and flexibility of employment bonds among healthcare workers. Relacionar a estrutura organizativa dos hospitais como núcleo de uma rede de serviços subcontratados e a flexibilização dos vínculos contratuais dos profissionais de saúde no contexto de capitalismo financeirizado, analisando os regimes de trabalho condicionados centralmente pelo vínculo empregatício. Pesquisa qualitativa através de etnografia, realização de entrevistas, análise de dados e utilização de estudo de caso. Os estudos de caso concentram-se em três hospitais localizados Região Metropolitana de São Paulo com gestões distintas: administração pública; administração terceirizada para Organização Social de Saúde (OSS); e administração privada. Destacamos a tendência da terceirização, do desmonte do emprego estável e a conformação de relações trabalhistas assimétricas para as profissões em saúde. Esses aspectos são característicos do período do capitalismo

  17. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  18. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  19. Is less more? A preliminary investigation of the number of response categories in self-reported pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, David Cella2, Erin L Boespflug1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the number of response options for self-reports of pain interference. Responses to interference items of the 11-category Brief Pain Inventory (BPI were obtained in a sample of 434 persons from two sites and modeled using the partial credit model. In successive calibrations, response categories were collapsed and new scores were generated. Scores based on two to three categories produced poor results. Four to five categories yielded better results. However, scoring using more than five categories did not appreciably improve the reliability, person separation, or validity of scores. These results suggest that fewer response categories—as few as five or six–may function as well as the 11 response categories that are conventionally used. The results are preliminary since the number of response categories actually presented was not manipulated in the study design. Future research should compare the reliability and validity of scores based on the BPI interference items when items are presented with the conventionally 11-response format, versus presentation with fewer response options.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, pain

  20. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Mohamed, Armin; McEwan, Alistair L; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig T; Ruffo, Mariano; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2012-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI), particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous μ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone. PMID:23152713

  1. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers among workers at an electronic waste dismantling region in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weiyue; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Lu, Shaoyou; Fu, Jiamo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Liping

    2007-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the PBDE serum levels in residents from an electronic waste dismantling region, residents living within 50 km of the dismantling region, and a referent group with no occupational PBDE exposure. Fourteen PBDE congeners including BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, BDE-196, BDE-197, BDE-203, BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208 and BDE-209 were quantified in these three groups by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. We found that the levels of all PBDE congeners in serum of residents from electronic waste dismantling region were significantly higher than those in the two other groups. The referents showed the lowest PBDE levels. Concentrations of congeners with a high number of bromine substituents, i.e., hepta- to decaBDEs in occupational exposure workers were 11-20 times higher than those in the referent group. BDE-209 was the dominant congener. The highest concentration of BDE-209 was observed among the electronic waste dismantling workers, and it was 3436 ng g(-1) lipid weight (ng g(-1) l.w.), which is the highest concentration of BDE-209 in humans worldwide. Some higher brominated PBDE congeners such as BDE-197, BDE-207 and BDE-208 also showed elevated concentrations in dismantling workers. This study confirms that BDE-209 is released to the environment and can bioaccumulate in the blood of electronic waste dismantling workers, and extensive occupational exposure to PBDEs leads to elevated concentrations of all PBDE congeners in serum.

  2. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, 3rd, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT...

  3. Preliminary investigation of lithium for mood disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew; Beresford, Carol A; Bunker, Madisun; Verdi, Mary; Vishnevetsky, Donna; Karlsson, Cassie; Teer, Olivia; Stedman, Amy; Smith, Kahsi A

    2014-09-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, than the general child population. Although children with ASD may experience irritability (aggression, self-injury, and tantrums), a portion also experience symptoms that are typical of a mood disorder, such as euphoria/elevated mood, mania, hypersexuality, paranoia, or decreased need for sleep. Despite lithium's established efficacy in controlling mood disorder symptoms in the neurotypical population, lithium has been rarely studied in children with ASD. We performed a retrospective chart review of 30 children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria who were prescribed lithium in order to assess target symptoms, safety, and tolerability. Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) ratings were performed by two board-certified child psychiatrists with expertise in ASD. CGI-I scores were dichotomized into "improved" (CGI-I score of 1 or 2) or "not improved" (CGI-I score ≥3). Forty-three percent of patients who received lithium were rated as "improved" on the CGI-I. Seventy-one percent of patients who had two or more pretreatment mood disorder symptoms were rated as "improved." The presence of mania (p=0.033) or euphoria/elevated mood (p=0.041) were the pretreatment symptoms significantly associated with an "improved" rating. The mean lithium blood level was 0.70 mEq/L (SD=0.26), and the average length of lithium treatment was 29.7 days (SD=23.9). Forty-seven percent of patients were reported to have at least one side effect, most commonly vomiting (13%), tremor (10%), fatigue (10%), irritability (7%), and enuresis (7%). This preliminary assessment of lithium in children and adolescents with ASD suggests that lithium may be a medication of interest for those who exhibit two or more mood disorder symptoms, particularly mania or euphoria

  4. Root surface strain during canal shaping and its influence on apical microcrack development: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, A; Komabayashi, T; Ebihara, A; Nassar, M; Watanabe, S; Yoshioka, T; Miyara, K; Suda, H

    2015-12-01

    shaping was poorly correlated with the number of microcracks found (R(2)  = 0.093). Based on these preliminary data, canal shaping appears to cause apical microcracks regardless of the type of rotary instrument motion. Contrast-enhanced micro-CT was able to identify microcracks in roots. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Health and Safety Considerations Associated with Sodium-Cooled Experimental Nuclear Fuel Dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvo, Alan E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1980s Sandia National Laboratory constructed eleven experimental assemblies to simulate debris beds formed in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. All but one of the assemblies were irradiated. The experimental assemblies were transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in 2007 and 2008 for storage, dismantlement, recovery of the uranium for reuse in the nuclear fuel cycle, and disposal of unneeded materials. This paper addresses the effort to dismantle the assemblies down to the primary containment vessel and repackage them for temporary storage until such time as equipment necessary for sodium separation is in place.

  6. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fibre properties during processing on a miniature spinning line

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of a newly developed automatic yarn dismantler for dismantling short staple ring-spun yarns, to track changes in cotton fibre properties from lint to yarn, during processing on a miniature spinning line...

  7. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(2), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.51 - Dismantling retired property and depreciation (accounts XX-27-39 and 62-27-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismantling retired property and depreciation (accounts XX-27-39 and 62-27-00). 1242.51 Section 1242.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.51 Dismantling retired property and...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.37 - Dismantling retired property and depreciation (accounts XX-26-39 and 62-26-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismantling retired property and depreciation (accounts XX-26-39 and 62-26-00). 1242.37 Section 1242.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.37 Dismantling retired property and...

  10. The PCR (Prévessin Control Room), scene of some of the greatest moments in CERN's history, is being dismantled to prepare for a complete overhaul.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Removal manager Claes Frisk (right on picture 02) in the almost entirely dismantled PCR, together with René Ballet, who installed the racks in the 1970s and today is responsible for dismantling them.

  11. A Preliminary Genetic Investigation of Rastrelliger Kanagurta Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Mitochondrial ND2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Azizah Mohd Nor; Abu Talib A; Mohd Ghows M A; Samsudin B

    2008-01-01

    In a preliminary investigation, Random Amplified Polymorphie DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial mitochon-drial ND2 gene sequencing were conducted to study the genetic variation of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta along a 450 km stretch of its distribution on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 53 individuals from 6 popu-lations were analyzed using 4 RAPD primers and a sub-sample of 15 individuals was chosen for sequencing of partial ND2 gene. Comparison between the 2 markers revealed genetic structuring in the RAPD results but genetic homogeneity for ND2 gene. Based on the former there may be at least 2 genetically differentiated groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta a-long this stretch.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae and preliminary investigation of its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Feng, Yong; Li, Zu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Chao-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (BFC) is widely used in China both for food and folk medicine because of its powerful biological activities. Firstly, this study was designed to examine the antiproliferative activities of the different fractions from BFC in vitro by MTT assay. The results showed that chloroform extracts (CE) and the purified total alkaloids of BFC (TAF) exhibited stronger antiproliferative activity than the other fractions. We further determined the total alkaloids and 3 main alkaloids monomers content of CE and TAF by UV and HPLC-ELSD methods, respectively. Moreover, we assessed the antitumor activity of TAF in vivo and made preliminary investigation of its antitumor mechanism by histological and immunohistochemical staining technique. These results demonstrate that TAF showed significant antitumor activity and low toxicity in vivo. Meanwhile, TAF significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis and induced apoptosis by improvement of expression level of caspase-3. These results suggest that alkaloids of BFC could hold a good potential for use as an antitumor drug.

  13. Preliminary experimental investigation of an X-band Cerenkov-type high power microwave oscillator without guiding magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liming; Shu, Ting; Li, Zhiqiang; Ju, Jinchuan; Fang, Xiaoting

    2017-02-01

    Among high power microwave (HPM) generators without guiding magnetic field, Cerenkov-type oscillator is expected to achieve a relatively high efficiency, which has already been realized in X-band in our previous simulation work. This paper presents the preliminary experimental investigations into an X-band Cerenkov-type HPM oscillator without guiding magnetic field. Based on the previous simulation structure, some modifications regarding diode structure were made. Different cathode structures and materials were tested in the experiments. By using a ring-shaped graphite cathode, microwave of about one hundred megawatt level was generated with a pure center frequency of 9.14 GHz, and an efficiency of about 1.3%. As analyzed in the paper, some practical issues reduce the efficiency in experiments, such as real features of the electron beam, probable breakdown regions on the cathode surface which can damage the diode, and so forth.

  14. Preliminary investigation on monitoring transportation effects by full field methods: a digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry study on canvas paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiranidou, Elsa; Bernikola, Eirini; Tornari, Vivi; Fankhauser, Thomas; Läuchli, Matthias; Palmbach, Cornelius; Bäschlin, Nathalie

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary investigation has taken place employing Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DHSPI) in order to assess the effect of handling and transportation on canvas paintings. Canvas dummies were used on a series of measurements on a transport simulator which allows reproducible simulation of any transport logs in the laboratory. A number of cycles of controlled vibrations were applied on the samples and after each cycle a measurement with DHSPI was taken to monitor the behavior of the samples while increasing the vibration loading and also to record the conditions under which the first crack appears. The transport simulations in combination with DHSPI monitoring revealed the amplitude of oscillation where the first cracks appear on new canvas paintings and also the way these cracks grow. During the tests it was also feasible to locate areas at risk of future deterioration.

  15. Preliminary investigations of magnetic modulated nanoparticles for microwave breast cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of magnetic modulated iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of a contrast enhancement for Ultra-wideband (UWB breast imaging. The work is motivated by the low dielectric contrast between tumor and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissue. The influence of an external polarizing magnetic field on pure and coated magnetite nanoparticles is investigated in this contribution. Measurements were conducted using M-sequence UWB technology and an oil-gelatin phantom. It is shown that a coating, which is necessary for clinical use, results in a lower signal response, and thus leads to a lower detectability of magnetic modulated nanoparticles.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  18. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  20. Isolation of flavonoids from the heartwood and resin of Prunus avium and some preliminary biological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James; Nair, Jerald J; Bollareddy, Endreddy; Keskar, Kunal; Thorat, Amol; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C; Khan, Ghaznia; Wright, Gerard D; Ejim, Linda

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of the constituents in heartwood and resin of Prunus avium is reported. A mini-library of structurally diverse flavanones and flavones was screened for human cytochrome P450 1A1, 3A4 and 19 (aromatase) inhibition, and for antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic fungi. The defensive role of these natural plant flavonoids as antifungal phytoalexins and phytoanticipins is discussed.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. Self-reported marijuana use, confirmed through oral swabs, reached zero levels for all participants at posttreatment. At a 3-month follow-up, 1 partici...

  2. FEBEX-DP. Dismantling the ''full-scale engineered barrier experiment'' after 18 years of operation at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Florian; Gaus, Irina [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    dismantling project (FEBEX-DP) are: - Characterization of the key physical properties (e.g., density, water content) of the barrier and their distribution, - Characterization of corrosion and microbiological processes on instruments and coupons resulting from evolving redox conditions and saturation states, including gas analysis, - Characterization macro- and micro level studies of mineralogical interactions at material interfaces (e.g., cement-bentonite or iron-bentonite, rock-bentonite), - Assessment of sensor performance, - Further increasing understanding of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) processes through integration of monitoring and dismantling results. An intensive laboratory program will be conducted in 2015/2016 in order to achieve the outlined main objectives. It includes extensive mineralogical, chemical and biological investigations of the buffer and the related interfaces. It will be accompanied by pre- and post dismantling modeling efforts. Unique data are expected after completing one of the longest running 1:1 in-situ EBS experiment under continued heating and natural saturation conditions. It will further consolidate the EBS knowledge and will act as a benchmark for major coupled modeling codes. The dismantling project is set-up as an international project with partners from Europe, Asia and North America. Further information can are under http://www.grimsel.com/gts-phase-vi/febex-dp/febex-dp-introduction.

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs. PMID:27999683

  6. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation.

  7. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF PASTA EXTRUSION PROCESS: RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMOLINA DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements were conducted on semolina doughs. Two doughs were considered, one directly taken from an extrusion plant and another mixed in lab conditions. A rotational viscometer was used in the plate-plate configuration. Creep tests were carried on too, to verify the possibility to neglect the elastic component of strain. It was investigated the influence of the temperature on the viscous behaviour of both doughs, while only on the lab mixed dough was tested the influence of moisture content. The aim of this research is the determination of a rheological model useful for a subsequent CFD analysis of the extrusion process.

  8. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  9. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfusa, M., E-mail: gelfusa@ing.uniroma2.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Murari, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Consorzio RFX, 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Peluso, E. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gaudio, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Orsitto, F.P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gerasimov, S. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-21

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad–Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Surface Treatments to Enhance the Wear Resistance of 60-Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of protective surface treatments on 60-Nitinol (60wt%Ni-40wt%Ti) was studied. Various nitriding techniques as well as a (Ti, Al)N coating were evaluated visually, microscopically, and by hardness and scratch testing. The chemical composition of the surface treatments was investigated by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that very hard (greater than 1,000 HK) and adherent surface layers can be produced on 60-Nitinol. Further work is needed to determine the tribological properties of these surface treatments in relevant operating environments.

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  12. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, G., E-mail: gianina.dodi@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); SCIENT — Research Centre for Instrumental Analysis, Bucharest (Romania); Pala, A. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Barbu, E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Peptanariu, D. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania); Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I. [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); Tamba, B.I. [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers.

  13. A preliminary investigation of the effect of force variation for myoelectric control of hand prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Timemy, Ali H; Bugmann, Guido; Escudero, Javier; Outram, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The myoelectric control of prostheses has been an important area of research for the past 40 years. Significant advances have been achieved with Pattern Recognition (PR) systems regarding the number of movements to be classified with high accuracy. However, practical robustness still needs further research. This paper focuses on investigating the effect of the change in force levels by transradial amputee persons on the performance of PR systems. Two below-elbow amputee persons participated in the study. Three levels of forces (low, medium, and high) were recorded for different hand grips with the help of visual feedback from the Electromyography (EMG) signals. Results showed that changing the force level degraded the performance of the myoelectric control system by up to 60% with 12 EMG channels for 4 hand grips and a rest position. We investigated different EMG feature sets in combination with a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier. The performance was slightly better with Time Domain (TD) features compared to Auto Regression (AR) coefficients and Root Mean Square (RMS) features. Finally, the error of the classification was considerably reduced to approximately 17% when the PR system was trained with all force levels.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".

  15. Preliminary study to investigate the Delboeuf illusion in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta: Methodological Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santacà

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual illusions are commonly used in animal cognition studies to compare visual perception among vertebrates. To date, researchers have focused their attention mainly on birds and mammals, especially apes and monkeys, but no study has investigated sensitivity to visual illusions in prosimians. Here we investigated whether lemurs (Lemur catta perceive the Delboeuf illusion, a well-known illusion that occurs when subjects misperceive the relative size of an item because of its surrounding context. In particular, we adopted the spontaneous preference paradigm used in chimpanzees and observed lemurs’ ability to select the larger amount of food. In control trials, we presented two different amounts of food on two identical plates. In test trials, we presented equal food portion sizes on two plates differing in size: If lemurs were sensitive to the illusion, they were expected to select the food portion presented on the smaller plate. In control trials, they exhibited poor performance compared to other mammals previously observed, being able to discriminate between the two quantities only in the presence of a 0.47 ratio. This result prevented us from drawing any conclusion regarding the subjects’ susceptibility to the Delboeuf illusion. In test trials with the illusory pattern, however, the subjects’ choices did not differ from chance. Our data suggest that the present paradigm is not optimal for testing the perception of the Delboeuf illusion in lemurs and highlight the importance of using different methodological approaches to assess the perceptual mechanisms underlying size discrimination among vertebrates.

  16. Chemical analysis of the elements in UZrNb alloy at CDTN: preliminary investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Palmieri, Helena Eugenia L.; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Souza, Adalberto Leles de, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: reissc@cdtn.br, E-mail: amms@cdtn.br, E-mail: adalbertoleles@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The complete determination of major, minor, and impurity element contents in nuclear fuel is essential for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels. The control over all the stages of the development of nuclear fuel involves a combination of different analytical methods such as spectrometric methods. The goal of our investigation is to develop and evaluate procedures for the determination of main elements and carbon impurity present in some uranium alloys. In this paper the element contents in U2.5Zr7.5Nb, U3Zr9Nb alloys and U6Nb, in weight percent, were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), wavelength dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (XRF/WDS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The total carbon was determined using a carbon analyzer in which the sample is oxidized to carbon dioxide (IR absorption). It was observed a satisfactory correlation between the results obtained by employed methods. (author)

  17. Preliminary investigation to estimate soil NAPL retention using parametric pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Hilda; Makó, András

    2014-10-01

    Organic liquid retention of soils is a primary input variable for modelling the nonaqueous phase liquid transport and behaviour in the subsurface. In environmental and soil physical practice, it is mainly determined by scaling based on the water retention of soils or with charts of average empirical values of organic liquid retention or the fitting parameters of hydraulic functions. Predicting the fitting parameters of organic liquid retention curves with pedotransfer functions might be a promising alternative method, but this topic has only been researched to a limited extent. Thus we investigated the applicability of different hydraulic functions (3- and 4- parameter form of the van Genuchten equation and Brutsaert equation) for fitting organic liquid retention characteristics. Multivariate linear regression was used to build and develop pedotransfer functions, modelling relations between original and transformed values of basic soil properties and organic liquid retention. We attempted to generate parametric pedotransfer functions. According to our results, the applicability of hydraulic functions for fitting nonaqueous phase liquid retention curves to the experimental data was proven. The investigations gave promising results for the possibility to estimate soil nonaqueous phase liquid retention with parametric pedotransfer functions.

  18. A preliminary investigation of cell growth after irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Regina [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Davey, Ross [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, Sydney University, NSW 2006 (Australia); Oliver, Lyn [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Harvie, Rozelle [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, Sydney University, NSW 2006 (Australia); Baldock, Clive [Bill Walsh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Medical Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2006-08-07

    In this study we have investigated a spatial distribution of cell growth after their irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern. An A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was grown in a 6-well culture. Two of the wells were the unirradiated control wells, whilst another two wells were irradiated with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern and the third two wells were uniformly irradiated. A number of plates were incubated for various times after irradiation and stained with crystal violet. The spatial distribution of the stained cells within each well was determined by measurement of the crystal violet optical density at multiple positions in the plate using a microplate photospectrometer. The crystal violet optical density for a range of cell densities was measured for the unirradiated well and this correlated with cell viability as determined by the MTT cell viability assay. An exponential dose response curve was measured for A549 cells from the average crystal violet optical density in the uniformly irradiated well up to a dose of 30 Gy. By measuring the crystal violet optical density distribution within a well the spatial distribution of cell growth after irradiation with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern can be plotted. This method can be used for in vitro investigation into the changes in radiation response associated with treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

  19. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Investigational Ebola Virus Disease Treatments on Viral Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L M; Albariño, César; Shepard, Samuel S; Dudas, Gytis; Sheth, Mili; Brown, Shelley C; Cannon, Deborah; Erickson, Bobbie R; Gibbons, Aridth; Schuh, Amy; Sealy, Tara; Ervin, Elizabeth; Frace, Mike; Uyeki, Timothy M; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute

    2016-10-15

     Several patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) managed in the United States have received ZMapp monoclonal antibodies, TKM-Ebola small interfering RNA, brincidofovir, and/or convalescent plasma as investigational therapeutics.  To investigate whether treatment selected for Ebola virus (EBOV) mutations conferring resistance, viral sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from clinical blood specimens from patients with EVD following treatment, and putative viral targets were analyzed.  We observed no major or minor EBOV mutations within regions targeted by therapeutics.  This small subset of patients and clinical specimens suggests that evolution of resistance is not a direct consequence of antiviral treatment. As EVD antiviral treatments are introduced into wider use, it is essential that continuous viral full-genome surveillance is performed, to monitor for the emergence of escape mutations. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargiulo GD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano D Gargiulo,1–3 Armin Mohamed,1 Alistair L McEwan,1 Paolo Bifulco,2 Mario Cesarelli,2 Craig T Jin,1 Mariano Ruffo,2 Jonathan Tapson,3 André van Schaik31School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni "Federico II" University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3BENS Laboratory, MARCS Institute, The University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI, particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous µ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone.Keywords: brain computer interface, dry electrodes, subject feedback

  2. Safety Assessment of Low-Contaminated Equipment Dismantling at Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Babilas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The decommissioning of nuclear facilities requires adequate planning and demonstration that dismantling and decontamination activities can be conducted safely. Existing safety standards require that an appropriate safety assessment be performed to support the decommissioning plan for each facility (International Atomic Energy Agency, 2006. This paper presents safety assessment approach used in Lithuania during the development of the first dismantling and decontamination project for Ignalina NPP. The paper will mainly focus on the identification and assessment of the hazards raised due to dismantling and decontamination activities at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and on the assessment of the nonradiological and radiological consequences of the indicated most dangerous initiating event. The drop of heavy item was indicated as one of most dangerous initiating events for the discussed Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant dismantling and decontamination project. For the analysis of the nonradiological impact the finite element model for the load drop force calculation was developed. The radiological impact was evaluated in those accident cases which would lead to the worst radiological consequences. The assessments results show that structural integrity of the building and supporting columns of building structures will be maintained and radiological consequences are lower than the annual regulatory operator dose limit.

  3. Dismantling of the heater 1 at the FEBEX in situ test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcena, I.; Fuentes-Cantillana, J. L.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.

    2003-07-01

    The partial dismantling of the FEBEX in situ test was carried out as planned during the summer of 2002, following 5 years of continuos heating. The operation included the demolition of the concrete plug and the removal of the section of the test corresponding to the first heater. A large number of samples from all types of materials have been taken for analysis. The dismantling was carried out causing minimum disturbance to the section of the test corresponding to the second heater, which remained in operation at all times and continues in place and fully operational. The process of data acquisition was also maintained during the dismantling. Due to the need to install new instruments in the remaining part of the test, a temporary concrete plug measuring 1 m in thickness was constructed immediately following the dismantling operation, in July 2002. A second section of the plug, of approximately 2 m in length, was built later, in June 2003. This report describes the planning and execution of the different operations carried out, the sampling performed, and the experiences obtained. Given the nature of the works, and the modifications introduced throughout the different phases of the project, the operations are described in a sequential manner, following the order of execution. (Author)

  4. Sustainable design for automotive products: dismantling and recycling of end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Chen, Ming

    2014-02-01

    The growth in automotive production has increased the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) annually. The traditional approach ELV processing involves dismantling, shredding, and landfill disposal. The "3R" (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle) principle has been increasingly employed in processing ELVs, particularly ELV parts, to promote sustainable development. The first step in processing ELVs is dismantling. However, certain parts of the vehicle are difficult to disassemble and use in practice. The extended producer responsibility policy requires carmakers to contribute in the processing of scrap cars either for their own developmental needs or for social responsibility. The design for dismantling approach can be an effective solution to the existing difficulties in dismantling ELVs. This approach can also provide guidelines in the design of automotive products. This paper illustrates the difficulty of handling polymers in dashboards. The physical properties of polymers prevent easy separation and recycling by using mechanical methods. Thus, dealers have to rely on chemical methods such as pyrolysis. Therefore, car designers should use a single material to benefit dealers. The use of materials for effective end-of-life processing without sacrificing the original performance requirements of the vehicle should be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the Development and Dismantling of Equivalence Classes Involving Terrorist Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Zlomke, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Ashton

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving the developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. In the first study, 8 United States citizen participants were trained to match nonterrorist stimuli to American and terrorist images. Afterwards,…

  6. Value estimation of end of life vehicles as a source of competitive advantage for dismantling station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kosacka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Background: End of Life vehicles become an emerging problem because of the type of waste which they are. Each country is creating own recycling network where ELVs are well secured and recycled. Poland is a country where the system is not working correct because of a high absorption of ELVs by illegal dismantling entities which are more competitive than legal elements of recycling network. The problem is well known but there is still lack of solution. The purpose of this article is to present the concept of tools for the valuation of ELVs in order to improve the competitiveness of disassembly stations. Methods: The research methodology consists of a literature review as well as observations, surveys, BPMN and UML diagrams. On the basis of literature review and observations the problem was identified. The surveys were elaborated in order to identify requirements for the concept of the tool. BPMN and UML diagrams were used to model the processes in dismantling station and the information flow between the user and the tool. Results: There was established a concept of the tool - ELV's Calculator which support decisions of ELV's value estimation. Conclusions: Improving competitiveness of legal dismantling station is extremely important issue in order to provide safe for Environment and People and economically justified ELVs' management. Legal entities have to follow the law what makes their business cost higher. This paper provides a solution of encouraging people to return ELVs to legal dismantlers by offering them price adequate to market demand.    

  7. PRELIMINARY PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GRAVEL PIT AND WINTERPONDS NEAR JAGODNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of plankton populations have been performed in the gravel pit and two winterponds near the place Jagodno, Novo Čiće, in the vicinity of Velika Gorica. Our goal was to examine plankton composition of the gravel pit and winterponds, two ecosystems characterized by specific life–conditions which change with time and space. Investigations were conducted during June 2007. Plankton samples were collected from water surface layer at four locations (two locations in the gravel pit and one location in each of two winterponds. Along with plankton sample collecting, measurements were made of some physico–chemical parameters (water temperature, pH–values and dissolved oxygen content in water. Water temperature at two sampling locations in the gravel pit and one location at each of the winterponds depended on the surrounding air temperature, and ranged from 22.5ºC to 23.6ºC. pH–reaction was alkaline, ranging from 8. 23 to 9. 02. Dissolved oxygen content in the gravel pit was around 10 mg/O2; in winterponds it ranged from 7.6 to 9.7 mg/O2 (Table 1. At the gravel pit locations total number of 32 phytoplankton species were determined; in winterponds were determined 37 (microphytic species? while zooplankton was represented in the phytoplankton community composition at the four locations with 5 species. Phytoplankton species determined in the samples from two gravel pit locations belonged to the system groups Dinophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta while in the samples from winterpond locations, along with the mentioned system groups, were found as well the representatives from the groups Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Zooplankton species belonged to the groups Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda (Table 2. In gravel pit locations dominated diatoms or Bacillarophyceae while in winterponds the majority of phytoplankton mass consisted of the representatives of the species Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Qualitative

  8. Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, R

    1980-11-28

    In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6%) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7%) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed by Microsporum cookei (21.7%) and then Trichophyton ajelloi (8.0%). No other dermatophytes were recovered. Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1% of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5% of the soil samples.

  9. The Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) Invades Hawaii: Preliminary Investigations on Trap Response and Alternate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Russell H

    2012-07-11

    In August 2010 the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was first reported to have invaded the Kona coffee growing region of Hawaii, posing a severe economic challenge to the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the State. Despite its long and widespread occurrence throughout the tropics as the most serious pest of coffee, there are still discrepancies in the literature regarding several basic aspects of berry borer biology relevant to its control. In Kona coffee plantations, we investigated the beetles' response to several trap and lure formulations, and examined the occurrence of beetles in seeds of alternate host plants occurring adjacent to coffee farms. While traps were shown to capture significant numbers of beetles per day, and the occurrence of beetles in alternate hosts was quite rare, the unique situation of coffee culture in Hawaii will make this pest extremely challenging to manage in the Islands.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of pod and seed extract ofCrotalaria incana L. subsp. purpurscens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathewos Anza; Habtamu Gelaw

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate various phytochemical constituents present in pod and seed of Crotalaria incanaL. (C. incana). Methods:A number of phytochemical tests were applied to identify the class of compounds in the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incana. Results: Phytochemical screening of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incanasubsp.purpurscens revealed that the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and stroids. Conclusions: The present work conducted on the CH2Cl2:CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract of C. incana identified various classes of compounds present on the pod and seed extract.

  11. Does athletic training in volleyball modulate the components of visual evoked potentials? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Lubiński, Wojciech; Lesiakowski, Piotr; Steciuk, Hanna; Piasecki, Leszek; Krzepota, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 11 young female volleyball players who participated in extensive training for 2 years. The control group consisted of 7 age-matched female students who were not involved in any regular sports activity. Recordings of VEPs were performed twice: baseline recording (i.e., before training began) and after 2 years of systematic, volleyball-specific athletic training. The effect of athletic training on visual signal conductivity was assessed by recording the latency of N75, P100 and N135 components of the VEPs waveform. Extensive experience with volleyball training reduced signal conductivity time through visual pathway. Specifically, the latency of P100 was reduced on average by 2.2 ms during binocular viewing. Moreover, athletes had reduced N75 latency (difference of 3.3 ms) for visual stimuli that generated greater response from peripheral retina. These results indicate that sport training can affect very early sensory processing in athletes.

  12. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  14. Effect of Reinforcement on Early-Age Concrete Temperature Stress: Preliminary Experimental Investigation and Analytical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianda Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For concrete under short-term loading, effect of reinforcement on concrete crack resistance capability is usually negligible; however, recent research results show that extension of this viewpoint to concrete under long-term loading (temperature variation may be unsuitable. In order to investigate this phenomenon, this paper presents the experimental and analytical results of early-age reinforced concrete temperature stress development under uniaxial restraint. The experiments were carried out on a temperature stress testing machine (TSTM. Experimental results show that the coupling of reinforcement and concrete creep behavior influenced the concrete temperature stress development, and nearly 16% of concrete stress was reduced in the current research. Moreover, the cracking time of reinforced concrete was also delayed. Finally, based on the principle of superposition, analytical simulations of effect of reinforcement on concrete temperature stress have been performed.

  15. Sexual orientation and the sleep-wake cycle: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q; Silber, K

    2000-04-01

    The sleep-wake cycle as a function of sexual orientation was investigated. Male and female, heterosexual and homosexual subjects completed a sexual-orientation questionnaire and four sets of recording sheets of activities for a 16-day period. Mean sleep duration was calculated from the record sheets using waking-up and going-to-sleep times. It was predicted that homosexual males and females would awake earlier, go to sleep later, and thus have shorter sleep duration compared to heterosexuals. This was supported by the results. Although a sexual orientation by sex interaction just failed to reach significance, additional analyses of the results indicated that differences in sleep duration between heterosexuals and homosexuals were markedly related to sex. The possibility that these results reflect dimorphic features of the human supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is discussed.

  16. A preliminary investigation into the moral reasoning abilities of UK veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, C E M; Creed, A; McKeegan, D E F

    2015-08-01

    Veterinary medicine is an ethically challenging profession, but the ethical reasoning abilities of practising veterinarians in the UK have never been formally assessed. This study investigated moral reasoning ability in 65 qualified veterinarians (38 practising and 27 academic) and 33 members of the public in the UK using the Defining Issues Test. Academic veterinarians had higher scores than members of the public but practising veterinarians did not. There was large variation in moral reasoning abilities among qualified veterinarians. Moral reasoning score in veterinarians did not improve with years of experience. These results show that despite having a professional degree moral reasoning skills of practising veterinarians may be insufficient to deal with the demands of their profession. This could have implications for animal welfare, client services and veterinarian wellbeing. The results highlight the need for more training in this area. British Veterinary Association.

  17. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  18. A preliminary investigation of materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Pirog, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims The primary objective of the present research is to investigate the drivers of technological addiction in college students - heavy users of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study places cell phone and instant messaging addiction in the broader context of consumption pathologies, investigating the influence of materialism and impulsiveness on these two technologies. Clearly, cell phones serve more than just a utilitarian purpose. Cell phones are used in public and play a vital role in the lives of young adults. The accessibility of new technologies, like cell phones, which have the advantages of portability and an ever increasing array of functions, makes their over-use increasingly likely. Methods College undergraduates (N = 191) from two U.S. universities completed a paper and pencil survey instrument during class. The questionnaire took approximately 15-20 minutes to complete and contained scales that measured materialism, impulsiveness, and mobile phone and instant messaging addiction. Results Factor analysis supported the discriminant validity of Ehrenberg, Juckes, White and Walsh's (2008) Mobile Phone and Instant Messaging Addictive Tendencies Scale. The path model indicates that both materialism and impulsiveness impact the two addictive tendencies, and that materialism's direct impact on these addictions has a noticeably larger effect on cell phone use than instant messaging. Conclusions The present study finds that materialism and impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. As Griffiths (2012) rightly warns, however, researchers must be aware that one's addiction may not simply be to the cell phone, but to a particular activity or function of the cell phone. The emergence of multi-function smart phones requires that research must dig beneath the technology being used to the activities that draw the user to the particular technology.

  19. Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

  20. Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Gunn, Peter R; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2009-12-01

    The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and 'bag snatch' offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the ability to recover DNA from human cells on outdoor surfaces decreases significantly over two weeks. Conversely, no clear trends were identified in the casework data, indicating that many other factors are involved affecting the recovery of trace DNA. Nevertheless, to ensure that valuable trace evidence is not lost, it is recommended that crime scenes

  1. A preliminary mixed-method investigation of trust and hidden signals in medical consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP consultations. OBJECTIVE: We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. METHOD: A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. RESULTS: The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social "honest signals" rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the

  2. Blood pressure and heart rate during ovariohysterectomy in pyometra and control dogs: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Odd Viking; Lövebrant, Johanna; Olsson, Ulf; Höglund, Katja

    2016-11-17

    Surgery causes a stress response, a physiologic response to trauma. The intraoperative surgical stress response in dogs diagnosed with pyometra has not previously been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraoperative surgical stress response, assessed by blood pressure and heart rate measurements, in dogs diagnosed with pyometra and healthy controls. All dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and methadone, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane, where after the dogs were subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Eight dogs diagnosed with pyometra and eight healthy controls were used. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to assess the surgical stress response. Additionally propofol dosage at induction of anaesthesia and the end-tidal isoflurane concentration were investigated. The surgery was split into four phases. Phase 0 was the period 10 min before the skin incision, phase 1 was skin incision and opening of abdomen, phase 2 was manipulation of uterine horns, lifting of the ovary with stretching of the mesovarium, ligation and transection of mesovarium and phase 3 was ligation and transection of cervix, removal of organs and closing of the abdomen. Dosage of propofol at induction of anaesthesia was 3.6 ± 1 mg/kg in dogs with pyometra and 4.1 ± 1 in healthy controls (P = 0.37). In both groups, systolic blood pressure increased between phase 1 and 2, from 87 ± 15 to 114 ± 19 mmHg in dogs with pyometra, and from 88 ± 18 to 106 ± 20 mmHg in healthy controls, (both P blood pressure did not differ significantly between groups in any of the phases. Heart rate and end-tidal concentration of isoflurane did not differ significantly between phases or between groups. The increased blood pressure at removal of ovaries during ovariohysterectomy suggests a pronounced noxious stimulus at this part of the procedure. In principle, the study parameters and response to surgery did not differ

  3. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of −3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of −1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of −23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  4. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Amanlou, Arash; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of the Application of Modern Crustal Deformation Data in Seismic Zonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bengang; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    Using GPS observation data for the middle segment of the Fenwei seismic zone during the time period of 1996 ~ 2001, the velocity field of crustal movement is calculated. Thus, the vectors of relative horizontal movement between measuring points in the region are also obtained.Adopting a deformation model of homogeneous elastic body, the principal strain rate parameters of deformation units are calculated. A method is introduced to calculate the rate of seismic moment accumulation due to crustal deformation. The problems of using this rate to analyze the tendency of seismicity in the zone, and to estimate the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the potential seismic source areas (PSSA) are discussed. The results show that the rate of seismic moment accumulation in the middle segment of the Fenwei zone is 4.22 × 1017 Nm/a, which is much higher than the average release rate of seismic moment in the current activity period. This means that the belt is now in a stage of seismic strain accumulation and that the seismicity would become stronger in the future than now. The results of estimation of the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the Dingxiang and Huozhou PSSA are close to the results obtained from studying active faults. This implies that the use of the proposed estimation method is worthy of further investigation. In particular, it is of greater practical significance for those regions that have shorter history of earthquake records or lower degree of active structure study.

  6. Laser vibrometry characterisation of a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device: a preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fury, C.; Gélat, P. N.; Jones, P. H.; Memoli, G.

    2014-04-01

    Since their original inception as ultrasound contrast agents, potential applications of microbubbles have evolved to encompass molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery. As these areas develop, so does the need to understand the mechanisms behind the interaction of microbubbles both with biological tissue and with other microbubbles. There is therefore a metrological requirement to develop a controlled environment in which to study these processes. Presented here is the design and characterisation of such a system, which consists of a microfluidic chip, specifically developed for manipulating microbubbles using both optical and acoustic trapping. A laser vibrometer is used to observe the coupling of acoustic energy into the chip from a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the surface. Measurement of the velocity of surface waves on the chip is investigated as a potential method for inferring the nature of the acoustic fields excited within the liquid medium of the device. Comparison of measured surface wavelengths with wave types suggests the observation of anti-symmetric Lamb or Love-Kirchhoff waves. Further visual confirmation of the acoustic fields through bubble aggregation highlights differences between the model and experimental results in predicting the position of acoustic pressure nodes in relation to excitation frequency.

  7. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodi, G; Pala, A; Barbu, E; Peptanariu, D; Hritcu, D; Popa, M I; Tamba, B I

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV-Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers.

  8. Preliminary Numerical Investigations of Entropy Generation in Electric Machines Based on a Canonical Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Eger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes numerically the entropy generation induced by forced convection in a canonical configuration. The configuration itself includes two well known fluid dynamic problems: (1 an external flow (flow around a cylinder, Kármán flow; and (2 an internal flow (flow between two concentric rotating cylinders, Couette flow. In many daily engineering issues (e.g., cooling of electric machines, a combination of these problems occurs and has to be investigated. Using the canonical configuration, the fields of entropy generation are analyzed in this work for a constant wall heat flux but varying two key parameters (Reynolds numbers Re∞ and Re0. The entropy generation due to conduction shows an absolute minimum around Re0 = 10,000. The same minima can be found by a detailed analysis of the temperature profile. Thus, entropy generation seems to be a suitable indicator for optimizing heat exchange processes and delivers a large amount of information concerning fluid and heat transport.

  9. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance P (SP is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement.

  10. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena.

  11. Fractionating the role of executive control in control over worry: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Lauren S; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Jha, Amishi P

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrollable anxious thought characterizes a number of emotional disorders. Little is known, however, about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the ability to control these thoughts. The present study investigated the extent to which two well-characterized executive control processes--working memory and inhibition--are engaged when an individual attempts to control worry. Participants completed a concurrent assessment of these processes while attempting to control personally-relevant worried and neutral thoughts. To examine the specificity of these effects to attempts to control worry, versus a residual "depletion" effect of having previously engaged in worry, a subset of participants completed the assessment without instructions to control their worried or neutral thoughts. Attempts to control worry engaged working memory and inhibition to a greater extent than did attempts to control neutral thought. This increased engagement was not explained solely by anxious affect, nor was it significantly associated with trait worry. Engagement did not differ by group, suggesting that executive control depletion by worry cannot be dismissed as an alternative explanation of these findings. These results highlight working memory and inhibition as potentially valuable constructs for deepening our understanding of the nature and treatment of worry and its control.

  12. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  13. Preliminary investigation of relations between young students' self-regulatory strategies and their metacognitive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated second-graders' self-regulative behav ior during task engagement and its relations to performance and to students' on-line metacognitive experiences. Participants were 25 individually examined Greek second graders (13 boys and 12 girls; M age: 7.6 yr., SD = 0.2). Students' use of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational regulatory strategies while performing a cognitive task were directly observed and recorded by two independent observers. Students' task-specific performance was also evaluated. Finally, students' feeling of satisfaction with the solution produced, their estimate of effort expenditure, and estimate of the solution's correctness were assessed. Analysis showed these second grade students' use of self-regulatory strategies and feeling of satisfaction were significantly associated with their performance. However, metacognitive experiences reported after the solution were only slightly related to the students' actual self-regulative behavior during the task, implying that the relations of students' regulatory efforts with their metacognitive processes are still developing at such a young age.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Lamp in Open Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; WANG Wei-Wei; CHANG Xi-Jiang; LIANG Rong-Qing

    2011-01-01

    @@ A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp is investigated by using sinusoidal power with a 10 kHz frequency in open air at atmospheric pressure.With increasing applied voltages, the different discharge phenomena appear.At relatively low voltages, the discharge states are general stochastic filamentary discharges with weak light.However, at relatively high voltages, the walls of quartz tubes are heated sharply by plasma, and then the dazzling light is emitted very quickly to form the DBD Lamp, corresponding to the low maintaining voltage that is lower than the ignited voltage.The discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp that corresponds to the glow discharge is deduced according to the wave form of the circuit current, which is evidently different from the filamentary discharges.Under these conditions, the spectrum of the DBD lamp is continuous in the range 400-932nm, which is scanned in the range 300-932nm.It is also shown that there is another discharge state or mode that is different from the traditional filamentary discharges.Therefore, it is concluded that the discharge state or mode of the DBD lamp is a glow discharge.

  15. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  16. Voluntary emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa: A preliminary emotion-modulated startle investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Forbush, Kelsie T; Wildes, Jennifer E; Hagan, Kelsey E; Pollack, Lauren O; May, Casey

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties are implicated in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, research has been limited by an almost exclusive reliance on self-report. This study is the first to use the emotion-modulated startle paradigm (EMSP) to investigate emotional reactivity and voluntary emotion regulation in individuals with AN. Twenty women with AN viewed negative, positive, neutral, and food images and were asked to enhance, suppress, or maintain their emotional responses mid-way through picture presentation. Startle eyeblink magnitudes in response to startle probes administered prior, and subsequent, to regulation instructions indexed emotional reactivity and regulation, respectively. On emotional reactivity trials, startle magnitudes were greater for negative, positive, and food images, compared to neutral images. Participants had difficulty suppressing startle responses to negative and food images, as indicated by non-significant suppress-maintain comparisons. In contrast, startle responses to enhance and suppress cues during presentation of pleasant images were comparable and significantly lower than maintain cues. Findings converge with self-report data to suggest that patients with AN have difficulties with voluntary emotion regulation. The EMSP may be a promising trans-diagnostic method for examining emotion regulation difficulties that underlie risk for eating disorders and other psychiatric conditions.

  17. Preliminary investigation into the pollution reduction performance of swales used in a stormwater treatment train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchu Mohamed, M A; Lucke, T; Boogaard, F

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements have been shown to be effective stormwater treatment devices that can greatly reduce surface runoff and significantly improve the quality of stormwater runoff in urban areas. However, the potential problems with sediment clogging and consequent maintenance requirements have been identified as the main barriers to more widespread adoption of permeable pavements in urban developments. This Australian study investigates the effectiveness of using grass swales as pre-treatment devices for permeable pavements in order to reduce clogging and extend the life span of these systems. The results of simulated runoff experiments demonstrated that between 50 and 75% of the total suspended sediment (TSS) was removed within the first 10 m of the swale length. This suggests swales of this length could potentially increase the effective life of permeable pavement systems by reducing clogging, and therefore maintenance. Nutrient removal was also tested in the study and the results indicated the tested swales were of limited effectiveness in the removal of these pollutants. However, in real runoff situations, reduction of TSS will have a direct influence on removing nutrients because a significant proportion of nutrients (and other pollutants) are attached to the sediments.

  18. Changes of Substance P in the Crevicular Fluid in relation to Orthodontic Movement Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Sacerdote, Paola; Moretti, Sarah; Panzi, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin released from both the central and the peripheral endings of primary afferent neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter. As a transmitter signaling pain, substance P is involved in nociception and is an extremely potent vasodilator. We found several studies about this neuropeptide especially in relation to parodontology and a few orthodontic reviews. This is because in the past the importance of this neuropeptide in dental element undergoing periodontal inflammation was observed. The aims of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the substance P was present in gingival crevicular fluid in dental elements undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign technique compared to teeth belonging to the same series but not undergoing orthodontic movement. We analysed gengival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from four young subjects, using a paper cone for a time of 60 seconds. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. During the literature analysis, we have found a lot of papers describing involvement of SP in periodontitis and inflammatory diseases, but further studies are needed in order to demonstrate the role of this neuropeptide during teeth movement. PMID:23737731

  19. Impact of Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Immiscible Polymer Blends: Preliminary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, G.; Acierno, D.

    2010-06-01

    The control of the morphology represents one of the most important aspects in designing polymer blends. A particular arrangement of the phases known as co-continuity can be promoted within a narrow range of compositions and using appropriate expedients during the mixing process. The distinguishing feature of co-continuous morphologies is the mutual interpenetration of the phases, which is often desirable as it may result in a remarkable combination of functional and structural properties of the blend constituents. Besides acting on the composition and processing conditions, adding nanoparticles in polymer systems with an existing phase-separated morphology such as polymer blends represents an innovative way to promote co-continuity in blends with low amounts of either phase. In the present work we focus on this topic, investigating the ability of nanoparticles to affect the morphology and properties of different kinds of immiscible polymer blends. In addition, the implications of the microstructural changes promoted by the filler on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of the blends are discussed.

  20. Properties of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEB For Low-Cost Housing Construction: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Shehu Waziri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials used for the construction of walls are normally required to possess adequate strength and erosion resistance. The study investigates the suitability of stabilized laterite soils for the production of compressed earth blocks for low-cost housing construction.  Soil samples for the experiment were obtained at two different locations. Sample I was obtained at a borrow pit along Gujba road in Damaturu Yobe state while Sample II was taken at a borrow pit near lake Alau in Borno sate, Nigeria. The results of the study revealed that the specific gravity, bulk density, moisture content and plasticity index of both samples showed satisfactory performance. Different cement stabilization levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% were used to prepare the specimens for testing. The blocks were moulded using hand operated CINVA-Ram machine. The maximum compressive strength of 2.48N/mm2 was obtained with stabilization level of 7.5% with sample I at 28 days curing.  The strength of the specimens increases with increasing cement content with an average value of 0.35N/mm2. For higher strength requirements different stabilization options can be considered.

  1. Preliminary results from the investigation of the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, John; Barton, Henry; Bodin, Paul; Buckwalter, Theodore; Cox, Jon; Cranswick, Edward; Dewey, James; Fleeger, Gary; Hopper, Margaret; Horton, Stephen; Hoskins, Donald; Kilb, Deborah; Meremonte, Mark; Metzger, Ann; Risser, Dennis; Seeber, Leonardo; Shedlock, Kaye; Stanley, Katherine; Withers, Mitchell; Zirbes, Madeleine

    1998-01-01

    The Pymatuning earthquake occurred on Friday, September 25, 1998, at 19:52:52 Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), or 3:52:52 p.m. EDT, near Jamestown, Pa., at the southern end of the Pymatuning Reservoir, which straddles the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) determined that the event had a magnitude of 5.2 mbLg (a magnitude scale used to measure the size of earthquakes that are regional distances away [100 to 1,000 km, or 60 to 600 mi]), an epicenter of 41.5°N latitude, 80.4°W longitude, and an estimated depth of 5 km (3 mi). One person was reported injured as a result of being thrown to the ground by the earthquake, and it caused minor damage to buildings and seriously disrupted many water wells in the GreenvilleJamestown, Pa., area. The earthquake was generally felt over an area of approximately 200,000 km2 (77,230 mi2) throughout northern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and much of southern Ontario, Canada (see map on back cover). It was also felt as far west as Illinois and Wisconsin, as far east as New Jersey, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia, and as far south as Kentucky and Virginia. During the aftershock field investigation that commenced within 12 hours of the main shock, a World Wide Web site, http://groundmotion.cr.usgs.gov/pym/pym.htm>, was established from the field headquarters. The web site was used not only to transmit investigation results to the world in near real time but also to receive information from the local community as new earthquake effects were reported. As of March 1999, at least 11 aftershocks have occurred, the largest being a magnitude 2.3. The largest recent previous earthquake in the region was the northeastern Ohio (Leroy) earthquake of magnitude 5.0 that occurred on January 31, 1986, about 65 km (40 mi) west-northwest of the Pymatuning shock. This event was also felt by many of those who felt the Pymatuning earthquake. Similar to most of the seismicity east of the Rocky

  2. Wireless capsule endoscopy in the investigation of patients with chronic renal failure and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (preliminary data)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanos Karagiannis; Spyros Goulas; Georgios Kosmadakis; Petros Galanis; Dimitrios Arvanitis; John Boletis; Evangelos Georgiou; Christos Mavrogiannis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in detection of small bowel (SB) pathology in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and obscure bleeding.METHODS: Consecutive CRF patients with obscure bleeding were prospectively studied. Patients with normal renal function and obscure bleeding, investigated during the same period with WCE, were used for the interpretation of results.RESULTS: Seventeen CRF patients (11 overt, 6 occult bleeding) and 51 patients (33 overt, 18 occult bleeding) with normal renal function were enrolled in this study.Positive SB findings were detected in 70.6% of CRF patients and in 41.2% of non-CRF patients (P < 0.05). SB angiodysplasia was identified in 47% of CRF patients and in 17.6% of non-CRF patients. Univariate logistic regression revealed CRF as a significant predictive factor for angiodysplasia (P < 0.05). Therapeutic measures were undertaken in 66% of the patients with the positive findings.CONCLUSION: According to our preliminary results, SB angiodysplasia was found in an increased prevalence among CRF patients with obscure bleeding. WCE is useful in diagnosis of gastrointestinal pathologies and in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention and, therefore, should be included in the work-up of this group of patients.

  3. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    Full Text Available Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function.

  4. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  5. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  6. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  7. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  8. Is orientation week a gateway to persistent alcohol use in university students? A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Benjamin C; Scarf, Damian; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-03-01

    Orientation Week is common at many universities throughout the world and is a way to introduce students to their new environment. Despite some benefits, Orientation Week is often typified by heavy alcohol use. Although typically viewed as a "one-time" event, the higher levels of drinking that students engage in during Orientation Week may persist into the academic year. We investigated this possibility in the present study. Freshman-year students (n = 143; 41% male) residing in a dormitory were surveyed about their alcohol intake before university. During Orientation Week, students were sent a daily text message asking about the number of drinks they consumed the previous night. Then, during the academic year, students were sent one text message each month to record their weekend drinking. Participants consumed a higher number of standard drinks during Orientation Week (M = 26.0, SD = 28.6) than they did either before entering university (M = 13.1, SD = 13.6) or during the academic year (M = 6.4, SD = 8.5). For male students, but not female students, higher Orientation Week drinking uniquely contributed to higher rates of drinking during the academic year when controlling for pre-university drinking (b = 0.122, p Students who drank at low levels before entering university were particularly susceptible to the negative effects of Orientation Week drinking. Orientation Week may act as a gateway for male students, as drinking during Orientation Week predicted their subsequent drinking throughout the academic year. Based on these findings, Orientation Week could be a prime period for interventions aimed at curbing academic-year drinking.

  9. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  10. Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Monte Scott

    While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When

  11. Preliminary investigation on the role of microorganisms in the production of phosphine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhipei; Jia Shengfen; Wang Baojun; Zhang Tao; Liu Shuangjiang

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the phosphine content and various microbial populations, activities of different enzymes were investigated firstly. The results indicated that the phosphine content of samples from various environments was positively related to total anaerobic microorganisms, organic phosphate compound-dissolving bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and the activities of alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase, with correlation coefficients (R2) up to 0.93, 0.90, 0.69, 0.79, and 0.82, respectively. Results also showed that the phosphine content was not related to total aerobic microorganisms, inorganic phosphate compound-dissolving bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, and the acidic phosphatase activity. Nutrients such as yeast extract and glucose were added, at a time and individually, to normal or autoclaved soil samples. The soil samples were inoculated with sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments (SRB) and/or denitrifying bacterial enrichment (DNB). After incubation for one month at 30℃, the phosphane content of these samples was analyzed. The results indicated that the addition of glucose or yeast extract could greatly increase the phosphane content. Moreover, it was revealed that inoculation with SRB or DNB could also promote the formation of phosphine. The DNB, however, was more efficient in this regard. The highest phosphine content, about 5 times that of the control, was detected in the sample that was added with both glucose and yeast extract and inoculated with SRB and DNB simultaneously. SRB and DNB were enriched for several generations and the phosphane content of different generations was analyzed. Furthermore, SRB and DNB enrichments were inoculated into different media, in the beginning of enriching, the phosphane content was about the same for different enrichments, and differed more significantly as the enrichment process was carried further. In forth generation, the phosphane content of DNB enrichment was about 3 times of that of SRB

  12. Preliminary investigation of cardiopulmonary function in stroke patients with stable heart failure and exertional dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Yu-Chi; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, perceived dyspnea, degree of fatigue, and activity of daily living with motor function and neurological status in stroke patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). This was a cohort study in a tertiary care medical center. Stroke patients with CHF and exertional dyspnea (New York Heart Association class I–III) were recruited. The baseline characteristics included duration of disease, Brunnstrom stage, spirometry, resting heart rate, resting oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), Borg scale, fatigue scale, and Barthel index. A total of 47 stroke patients (24 males, 23 females, mean age 65.9 ± 11.5 years) were included. The average Brunnstrom stages of affected limbs were 3.6 ± 1.3 over the proximal parts and 3.5 ± 1.4 over the distal parts of upper limbs, and 3.9 ± 0.9 over lower limbs. The average forced vital capacity (FVC) was 2.0 ± 0.8 L, with a predicted FVC% of 67.9 ± 18.8%, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 1.6 ± 0.7 L, predicted FEV1% of 70.6 ± 20.1%, FEV1/FVC of 84.2 ± 10.5%, and maximum mid-expiratory flow of 65.4 ± 29.5%. The average MIP and MEP were −52.9 ± 33.3 cmH2O and 60.8 ± 29.0 cmH2O, respectively. The Borg scale was 1.5 ± 0.8. MIP was negatively associated with the average Brunnstrom stage of the proximal (r = −0.318, P lower extremities (r = −0.288, P lower extremities (r = −0.311, P limbs. FVC was more strongly associated with MIP and MEP than predicted FVC%. FEV1/FVC may be used as a reference for the pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:27749577

  13. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  14. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  15. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  16. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  17. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  20. The persistence of and resistance to social norms regarding the appropriate amount to Eat: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Justin R; Pliner, Patricia; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance. For the high eating norm, it took three eating alone sessions to create resistance. In the portion of the experiment examining persistence of social influence, when participants ate alone following a session with norm-setting remote confederates, the effect of the social influence persisted. However, the persistence effect varied by norm and weakened over time. Participants modeled a low eating norm for only one additional session and the size of the effect was markedly weaker. By contrast, the high norm persisted for all of the remaining sessions. Thus, individuals' social influence histories can affect their eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a mobility and fuel strategy for Germany. Preliminary investigation; Entwicklung einer Mobilitaets- und Kraftstoffstrategie fuer Deutschland. Voruntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Mobility is a key element in our society and often synonymous with traffic. It is desirable to secure a clean and diversified energy supply, to design a more sustainable transport structure and to minimize the burden on people and environment. This requires an updating of the fuel strategy 2004 and its progress toward a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration presents a preliminary investigation of the development of a mobility strategy and fuel strategy in Germany. Over the past ten years, the transport sector has reduced its energy consumption only slightly. The targets for the energy reduction now are -10 % up to 2020 and -40 % up to 2050. The transport sector challenges a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to advance the necessary energy political as well as climate political changes the Federal Government wants to develop a comprehensive mobility strategy and fuel strategy. For this purpose, the contribution under consideration provides nine concrete recommendations for action for this.

  2. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  3. A Preliminary Empirical Investig ation of ‘Brick-to-Click’ Banking Presence in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Budd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study undertakes to investigate the extent and quality of electronic banking (e-banking in UAE. Banks worldwide are now moving rapidly to an era of technological change. Online versions of ne arly all existing payment methods are appearing rapidly bringing about profound changes in the whole system of financial services and intermediation. While many banks especially in Europe and the U.S. have adopted internet banking, this research shows that the majority of banks in U.A.E. are still in the early stages of developing e-bank ing. Only 18 of the 46 banks in this emerging nation have well-developed e-banking facilicities, despite all banks having an internet banking website for the convenience of their customers. This study sets out to answer several important questions. Namely, what is e-banking? What services does e-banking provide in the UAE and what prov isions are made to improve customer relationship using this technology? Using a functionality-interactivity matrix cell model and a survey of 46 banks, evidence shows that the development of electronic ban king services within the UAE are moving closer towards western models, albeit, slowly. Evidence shows that reluctance of many banks to whole-heartedly brace e-banking is caused by security fears

  4. Preliminary investigation of a novel technique for the quantification of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of the vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paulo G; Sobieraj, Michael; Tovar, Nick; Andrews, Kenneth; Paul, Benjamin; Govil, Nandini; Jeswani, Seema; Amin, Milan R; Janal, Malvin N; Branski, Ryan C

    2014-12-01

    The human vocal fold is a complex structure made up of distinct layers that vary in cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Elucidating the mechanical properties of vocal fold tissues is critical for the study of both acoustics and biomechanics of voice production, and essential in the context of vocal fold injury and repair. Both quasistatic and dynamic behavior in the 10-300 Hz range was explored in this preliminary investigation. The resultant properties of the lamina propria were compared to that of the nearby thyroarytenoid muscle. Er, quantified via quasistatic testing of the lamina propria, was 609±138 MPa and 758±142 MPa in the muscle (p=0.001). E' of the lamina propria as determined by dynamic testing was 790±526 MPa compared to 1061±928 MPa in the muscle. Differences in E' did not achieve statistical significance via linear mixed effect modeling between the tissue types (p=0.95). In addition, frequency dependence was not significant (p=0.18). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Y Zahavi

    Full Text Available Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, dopamine transporter (DAT1, dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression.

  6. Synthesis and Preliminary Investigations of the siRNA Delivery Potential of Novel, Single-Chain Rigid Cationic Carotenoid Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Leopold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary in vitro siRNA delivery effectiveness and cellular toxicity. The efficiency of siRNA delivery by the single-chain lipid series was compared with that of known cationic lipid vectors, 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphoethanolamine (EPC as positive controls. All cationic lipids (controls and single-chain lipids were co-formulated into liposomes with the neutral co-lipid, 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE. Cationic lipid-siRNA complexes of varying (+/− molar charge ratios were formulated for delivery into HR5-CL11 cells. Of the five single-chain carotenoid lipids investigated, lipids 1, 2, 3 and 5 displayed significant knockdown efficiency with HR5-CL11 cells. In addition, lipid 1 exhibited the lowest levels of cytotoxicity with cell viability greater than 80% at all (+/− molar charge ratios studied. This novel, single-chain rigid carotenoid-based cationic lipid represents a new class of transfection vector with excellent cell tolerance, accompanied with encouraging siRNA delivery efficiency.

  7. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  8. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  9. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Service contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling. Following a market survey carried out among 34 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2769/SL/LEP) was sent on 13 March 2000 to seven firms and three consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from three firms and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH), NFI (SE) and ISS GEBÄUDESERVICE (DE), the lowest technically qualified bidder, for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling for a total amount of 990 792 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-59%, DE-26%, SE-15%.

  10. Development of dismantling and sodium removal technique for large sodium components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakai, Satoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    Large sodium test facilities that had been constructed to perform R and D for Monju were dismantled after the removal of sodium. Because experience of such tasks in limited, for the establishment of the technology, information on past experiences, R and D results, the results of small-scale sodium removal experiments and related information were gathered worldwide. Different sodium removal processes such as the alcohol process, water vapor nitrogen process, aestivation process etc. were selected based on the component structure and were applied to various components such as the steam generator, cold trap, intermediate heat exchanger etc. As a result, sodium removal and dismantling of these facilities were conducted successfully without sodium fires, injuries caused by sodium and with little burden to the environment. Furthermore, problems to be solved when applying these processes to the radioactive sodium components were identified and an R and D plan was drawn up. (author)

  11. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    New Haven area and from new information on groundwater levels collected during October 2009-June 2010. For the scenario with a 3-ft rise in sea level and no increase in recharge, simulated groundwater levels near the coast rose 3 ft; this increased water level tapered off toward a discharge area at the only nontidal stream in the study area. Simulated stream discharge increased at the nontidal stream because of the increased gradient. Although groundwater levels rose, the simulated difference between the groundwater levels in the aquifer and the increased sea level declined, indicating that the depth to the interface between freshwater and saltwater may possibly decline. Simulated water levels were affected by rise in sea level even in areas where the water table was at 17-24 ft (5.2-7.3 m) above current (2011) sea level. For the scenario with increased recharge, simulated groundwater levels were as much as an additional foot higher at some locations in the study area. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that groundwater levels in coastal areas can be expected to rise and may rise higher if groundwater recharge also increases. This finding has implications for the disposal of stormwater through infiltration, a low-impact development practice designed to improve water quality and reduce overland peak discharge. Other implications include increased risk of basement flooding and increased groundwater seepage into underground sewer pipes and utility corridors in some areas. These implications will present engineering challenges to New Haven and Yale University. The preliminary model developed for this study can be the starting point for further simulation of future alternative scenarios for sea-level rise and recharge. Further simulations could identify those areas of New Haven where infrastructure may be at greatest risk from rising levels of groundwater. The simulations described in this report have limitations due to the preliminary scope of the work

  12. SGDES: Management system dismantling of ENRESA; SGDES: Sistema de gestion de desmantelamiento de ENRESA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, A. de; Fernandez, M.; Vidaechea, S.

    2013-07-01

    ENRESA, the Spanish public company responsible for managing radioactive waste and nuclear facilities decommissioning, has developed a management information system (SGDES) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both under human and technological point of view. SGDES system is capable of responding to the mentioned operational needs, efficiently and safely.

  13. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  14. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  15. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni S M Kiiski

    Full Text Available Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS. This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

  16. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C.; Gonçalves, Nuno R.; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  17. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  19. Preliminary on the isotope hydrology investigations at the Nevada test site: Hydrologic resources management program; FY 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M.L.; Kenneally, J.M.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive isotope data base of the NTS groundwaters collected during FY 92-93 is presented with preliminary interpretations. Multiple samples were collected from over 30 sites on pumped wells and open-holes by wireline bailing. Field water level measurements indicate essentially a bimodal distribution separated by water levels at higher elevations (e.g. Pahute Mesa) from water levels of lower elevations (e.g. Yucca and Frenchman Flats). Down hole temperature measurements have confirmed anomalous temperature gradients in the eastern Yucca Flat area and on Pahute Mesa, where horizontal temperature gradients up to 0.33{degrees}F/100ft are found. Consistent with previous reports by others, the major ion geochemistry of the NTS groundwater are dominated by Na-K-HCO{sub 3} and Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water types, where the Na-rich water appears to be related to dissolution in the volcanic tuffs and the Ca-rich water to the Paleozoic carbonates. Increases in dissolved Si also seems to be indicative of groundwater that resides in the volcanic tuffs. Processes controlling the Na/Ca ratios are complex and may include ion exchange reactions with clays, evaporative concentration in the vadose zone, and lithological heterogeneities in addition to simple differential dissolution between the volcanic tuffs and the Paleozoic carbonates. Apparent {sup 14}C ages range between 4000 and 38,000 years for groundwaters at the NTS. The uncertainty is large for exact age determinations at this time. The {sup 14}C abundance decreases with increased dissolved HCO{sub 3}, and {sup 13}C suggests dissolution of the ``dead`` Paleozoic carbonates significantly influence the ages, but more work is needed to investigate the influence of vadose zone carbonate.

  20. Preliminary investigation by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of perfluorinated compounds presence in bass reared and fished in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Farabegoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term perfluorinated compounds (PFCs defines synthetic fully-fluorinated compounds; since the 50s they have been largely employed in a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, due to their chemical and physical properties. Only recently, research on their potential adverse effects on both the environment and human health has been conducted, highlighting carcinogenic activity, toxic effects on reproduction, liver and kidney. Human exposure to PFCs is mainly through diet, and in particular fishery products are one of the most contaminated food. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA are the two most important and investigated compounds of this group. The aim of this work was to carry out a preliminary monitoring on the presence of these two molecules in 50 bass muscle samples, of which 30 reared and 20 fished, collected from different Italian areas of the Mediterranean Sea. The method used was based on extraction with organic solvent followed by two purification steps: one with salts and one with dispersive solid phase. The extract was finally analysed by means of an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometric system. Data showed a relevant contamination of this species and evidenced a significant difference of concentrations between fished (PFOS 112.4- >2000 ng/L and PFOA 3.3-487.0 ng/L and reared basses (PFOS 11.1-104.5 ng/L and PFOA <3-51.4 ng/L. Even if these levels of contamination are sensibly lower than those observed in several studies, fished basses could represent a more relevant source of PFCs exposure in human diet.

  1. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  2. A comparison between nuclear dismantling during plant and animal programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2012-12-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process of organized destruction of cells, essential for the development and maintenance of cellular homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Cells undergoing PCD begin a degenerative process in response to internal or external signals, whereby the nucleus becomes one of the targets. The process of nuclear dismantling includes events affecting the nuclear envelope, such as formation of lobes at the nuclear surface, selective proteolysis of nucleoporins and nuclear pore complex clustering. In addition, chromatin condensation increases in coordination with DNA fragmentation. These processes have been largely studied in animals, but remain poorly understood in plants. The overall process of cell death has different morphological and biochemical features in plants and animals. However, recent advances suggest that nuclear dismantling in plant cells progresses with morphological and biochemical characteristics similar to those in apoptotic animal cells. In this review, we summarize nuclear dismantling in plant PCD, focusing on the similarities and differences with their animal counterparts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 当阳峪窑址群考察纪略%THE INVESTIGATION AND PRELIMINARY STUDY OF DANG YANG YU KILNSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建保

    2011-01-01

    Through the investigation and preliminary study of 19 kilnsites at Dang Yang Yu kiln , I basically master the modeling, decoration and fire craft of porcelain works with white glaze, dichroic glaze,twistable glaze, twistable color, dark brown glaze, black glaze, green glaze, Jun glaze and three-color glazed pottery, emerald glazed pottery of Dang Yang Yu kiln, and find the material about “double-firing process” .Through the investigation, I find Dang Yang Yu kiln' s first burning was in the late Tang Dynasty. During its first burning and development phases, Dang Yang Yu kiln was influenced by Gongyi kiln, Yaozhou kiln,Xing kiln, Ding kiln, Cizhou kiln, Jun kiln and other kilns nearby at different degree. The generalized Dang Yang Yu kiln is Huaiqing kiln according to the literature, and the ancient kiln at Boai county local is Henei kiln. Dang Yang Yu kiln reached its height of prosperity at Song and Jin period, it influenced and promoted the development of Zibo kiln and other kilns nearby, and went down to Qing Dynasty. Besides satisfying common market consumption, Dang Yang Yu kiln also went into the rank of tribute because of its outstanding quality.%通过对当阳峪窑19处窑址的考察与初步研究,基本掌握了当阳峪窑白釉、双色釉、绞胎、绞彩、酱釉、黑釉、青釉、钧釉瓷器和三彩、翠兰釉陶器的造型、装饰和烧造工艺,发现"二次烧成"的资料.通过研究,发现当阳峪窑始烧于唐代晚期.在其创烧与发展阶段,受到了巩义窑、耀州窑、邢窑、定窑、磁州窑及钧窑等周边窑口不同程度的影响.广义的当阳峪窑即文献记载的怀庆窑,博爱县地域的古代窑场即文献记载的河内窑.当阳峪窑在宋金时期达到鼎盛,影响、促进了淄博窑等周边窑口的发展,并延续至清代.除了满足一般性的市场消费,由于品质优秀,还跻身贡奉之列.

  4. Dismantling of the EB experiment: Experimental research on the retrieved GBM and bentonite blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng, E-mail: jeafliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Skoczylas, Frédéric [Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Talandier, Jean [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pu, Hai [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a demonstration of a new concept of HLW (high-level waste) repositories. • The hydro-mechanical characteristics of GBM and blocks were determined. • The water retention curves (WRCs) of GBM and blocks were presented. • The effective gas permeability of the GBM and blocks were measured. • The homogeneity of the GBM and blocks were investigated. - Abstract: The Engineered Barrier Emplacement Experiment in Opalinus Clay (EB experiment) was a full-scale test for the demonstration of a new concept of high-level waste (HLW) repositories in horizontal drifts in the Opalinus Clay formation. After 10.5 years of hydration, the EB experiment was dismantled in autumn 2012. Samples obtained from the granular bentonite material (GBM), and bentonite blocks were sent to a laboratory for further analysis. The bentonite samples analyzed at the Laboratory of Mechanic of Lille (LML) were obtained from the CMT1, CMT2, CMT3 and RW sections. Their physical states were determined, as were their effective gas permeability and swelling capacity at different relative humidity (RH) levels. The results indicate that the water contents of the GBM determined in the laboratory ranged between 25.63% and 44.88% and that the dry densities ranged between 1.13 and 1.44 g/cm{sup 3}. The blocks had water contents similar to (or slightly higher than) those of the GBM, and their dry densities had decreased from an initial value of 1.69 g/cm{sup 3} to values close to 1.30 g/cm{sup 3}, which were similar to the average values found in the GBM. The effective gas permeabilities of the GBM samples were within the range of 1.50 × 10{sup −22} m{sup 2} and 1.03 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}, whereas, the corresponding values of the samples obtained from the blocks were between 2.20 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} and 5.12 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2}. The permeability values are primarily related to the dry densities and water contents of the samples. Contact with

  5. Application of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation to the neurosurgical scenario: method and preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Caldiroli, Dario; Acerbi, Francesco; Scholtze, Maurizio; Piro, Alfonso; Schiariti, Marco; Orena, Eleonora F; Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Perin, Alessandro; DiMeco, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Incident reporting systems are universally recognized as important tools for quality improvement in all complex adaptive systems, including the operating room. Nevertheless, introducing a safety culture among neurosurgeons is a slow process, and few studies are available in the literature regarding the implementation of an incident reporting system within a neurosurgical department. The authors describe the institution of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation in neurosurgery, focusing on the method they have used and presenting some preliminary results. In 2010, the Inpatient Safety On-Board project was developed through cooperation between a team of human factor and safety specialists with aviation backgrounds (DgSky team) and the general manager of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta. In 2011, after specific training in safety culture, the authors implemented an aviation-derived prototype of incident reporting within the Department of Neurosurgery. They then developed an experimental protocol to track, analyze, and categorize any near misses that happened in the operating room. This project officially started in January 2012, when a dedicated team of assessors was established. All members of the neurosurgical department were asked to report near misses on a voluntary, confidential, and protected form (Patient Incident Reporting System form, Besta Safety Management Programme). Reports were entered into an online database and analyzed by a dedicated team of assessors with the help of a facilitator, and an aviation-derived root cause analysis was performed. Since January 2012, 14 near misses were analyzed and classified. The near-miss contributing factors were mainly related to human factors (9 of 14 cases), technology (1 of 14 cases), organizational factors (3 of 14 cases), or procedural factors (1 of 14 cases). Implementing an incident reporting system is quite demanding; the process should involve all of the people who work within

  6. The nuclear installations dismantling and the management of radioactive wastes; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires et la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    As other industrial activities, the nuclear industry causes risks. The risks bound to the dismantling operations are known and controlled. After a presentation of the dismantling and radioactive wastes challenge, this document proposes recommendations based on the first experiences of dismantling and wastes storage. It aims then to answer to the questions relative to the cost and the financing of the operations. Finally it wonders on the public information modalities. (A.L.B.)

  7. Analysing spatial trends in referral patterns to cancer genetics services: a preliminary investigation of regional variations in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kevin; Higgs, Gary; Iredale, Rachel; Tempest, Vanessa; Gray, Jonathon

    2004-11-01

    This paper discusses spatial trends in referral patterns to a cancer genetics service. It presents a literature review outlining the paucity of existing research, a preliminary analysis at the Unitary Authority level in Wales and advances a programme of further research to be conducted at a more detailed spatial level. The preliminary analysis shows a weak negative relationship between referral rates from primary care and social deprivation by Unitary Authority (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, sigma = -0.38). There is also a weak positive relationship between average settlement size and referral rates (sigma = +0.28), which taken together may indicate that primary care practices in affluent urban areas are more likely to refer than those in poorer rural areas. Future research will be conducted at a finer spatial scale, and will take into account characteristics of primary care practices and the patients being referred, amongst other variables.

  8. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...... metals (approx. 3%) the preliminary studies were performed on untreated samples to evaluate the possible application of the least expensive materials and processes. Pastes and mortars of low alkali sulphate resistant Portland cement with 0%, 10%, and 20% APC substitution were prepared. Mixes with 10......% and 20% APC showed a major retarding effect of APC on the development of hydration. The APC was found to be pozzolanic. Chemical shrinkage measurements indicated early expansive reactions of pastes with the APC including evolution of air. Crack formation was observed in mortars with APC, and strength...

  9. Modeling of the Radiation Doses during Dismantling of RBMK-1500 Reactor Pressurized Tanks from Emergency Core Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant involves multiple problems. One of them is personnel radiation safety during the performance of dismantling activities. In this paper, modeling results of radiation doses during the dismantling of the pressurized tank from the emergency core cooling system (ECCS PT of RBMK-1500 reactor are presented. The radiological surveys indicate that the inner surface of the ECCS PT is contaminated with radioactive products of corrosion and sediments due to the radioactive water. The effective doses to the workers have been modeled for different strategies of ECCS PT dismantling. In order to select the optimal personnel radiation safety, the modeling has been performed by the means of computer code “VISIPLAN 3D ALARA Planning tool” developed by SCK CEN (Belgium. The impacts of dismantling tools, shielding types, and extract ventilation flow rate on effective doses during the dismantling of ECCS PT have been analyzed. The total effective personnel doses have been obtained by summarizing the effective personnel doses from various sources of exposure, that is, direct radiation from radioactive equipment, internal radiation due to inhalation of radioactive aerosols, and direct radiation from radioactive aerosols arising during hot cutting in premises. The uncertainty of the collective doses is also presented in this paper.

  10. Dismantling the Silence: LGBTQ Aging Emerging From the Margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Historical, environmental, and cultural contexts intersect with aging, sexuality, and gender across communities and generations. My scholarship investigates health and well-being over the life course across marginalized communities, including LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) midlife and older adults, native communities experiencing cardiovascular risk, and families in China living with HIV, in order to balance the realities of unique lives in contemporary society. By probing the intersection of age, sexuality, and gender, my analysis is informed by both personal and professional experiences. With the death of my partner occurring at a time of profound invisibility and silence before HIV/AIDS, I found my life out of sync, experiencing a loss without a name. My life was thrust into a paradox: My relationship was defined by a world that refused to recognize it. This essay provides an opportunity for me to weave together how such critical turning points in my own life helped shape my approach to gerontology and how gerontology has informed my work and life. Reflecting on this journey, I illustrate the ways in which historical, structural, environmental, psychosocial, and biological factors affect equity, and the health-promoting and adverse pathways to health and well-being across marginalized communities. Although gerontology as a discipline has historically silenced the lives of marginalized older adults, it has much to learn from these communities. The growing and increasingly diverse older adult population provides us with unique opportunities to better understand both cultural variations and shared experiences in aging over the life course. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Dismantling the present and future threats of testicular cancer: a grounded theory of positive and negative adjustment trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Lauren; Boulton, Mary; Lavender, Verna; Protheroe, Andrew; Brand, Sue; Wanat, Marta; Watson, Eila

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer commonly affects men in the prime of their lives. While survival rates are excellent, little previous research has examined men's experiences of adjustment to survivorship. We aimed to explore this issue in younger testicular cancer survivors. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with testicular cancer survivors over two time points approximately 6 months apart in the year following treatment completion. Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. The sample included 18 testicular cancer survivors between 22 and 44 years (mean age 34). A grounded theory was developed, which explained the process of positive adjustment over the first year following the treatment completion in terms of men's ability to dismantle the present and future threats of cancer, involving the key transitions of gaining a sense of perspective and striving to get on with life and restore normality. These were facilitated by six key processes. The processes that explained a negative adjustment trajectory are also presented. These findings contribute to the understanding of the psychosocial impact of testicular cancer on younger men's lives and have implications for the provision of support to testicular cancer survivors. Further investigation into the feasibility of one-on-one peer support interventions is warranted, as well as informal support that respects men's desire for independence. Understanding the processes involved in adjustment highlights ways in which health professionals can offer support to those struggling to adjust through challenging illness beliefs, encouraging emotional disclosure and facilitating peer mentoring.

  12. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case.

  13. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for dismantling LEP cooling and ventilation equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Service contract for dismantling LEP cooling and ventilation equipment. Following a market survey carried out among 68 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2658/ST/SL) was sent on 11 February 2000 to 14 firms and one consortium in eight Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received nine tenders from seven firms and two consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm ZVVZ (CZ), the lowest bidder, for a total amount of 822 005 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for additional dismantling work in the LEP structure, specified in the tender, for a total amount of 313 311 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to a maximum of 1 135 316 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CZ-100%.

  14. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  15. Dismantling of the research reactor RTS-1 Galileo Galilei in Pisa (Italy); Desmantelamiento del reactor de investigacion RTS-1 Galileo Galilei en Pisa (Italia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Martinez, J. t.; Farella, G.; Cimini, E.; Russo, M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is about the most relevant aspects of the first phase of the dismantling, removal of the water in the pool, prior treatment through evaporation, the dismantling of all the submerged activated elements and other activated or contaminated elements that have been part of the nuclear facility. (Author)

  16. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  17. Preliminary investigation of an ultrasound method for estimating pressure changes in deep-positioned vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2016-01-01

    varying from -40 Pa to 15 Pa with a standard deviation of 32%, and a bias of 25% found relative to the peak simulated pressure drop. This preliminary study shows that pressure can be estimated non-invasively to a depth that enables cardiac scans, and thereby, the possibility of detecting the pressure......This paper presents a method for measuring pressure changes in deep-tissue vessels using vector velocity ultrasound data. The large penetration depth is ensured by acquiring data using a low frequency phased array transducer. Vascular pressure changes are then calculated from 2-D angle...... of angle-independent vector velocities are acquired using directional synthetic aperture vector flow imaging. The obtained results are evaluated by comparison to a 3-D numerical simulation model with equivalent geometry as the designed phantom. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom...

  18. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  19. Preliminary investigations of Monte Carlo Simulations of neutron energy and LET spectra for fast neutron therapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, T K

    2012-01-01

    No fast neutron therapy facility has been built with optimized beam quality based on a thorough understanding of the neutron spectrum and its resulting biological effectiveness. A study has been initiated to provide the information necessary for such an optimization. Monte Carlo studies will be used to simulate neutron energy spectra and LET spectra. These studies will be bench-marked with data taken at existing fast neutron therapy facilities. Results will also be compared with radiobiological studies to further support beam quality optimization. These simulations, anchored by this data, will then be used to determine what parameters might be optimized to take full advantage of the unique LET properties of fast neutron beams. This paper will present preliminary work in generating energy and LET spectra for the Fermilab fast neutron therapy facility.

  20. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

  1. An elasto-plastic approach to estimate lifetime of notched components under variable amplitude fatigue loading: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zuhair Faruq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the formulation of an elasto-plastic strain based approach suitable for assessing fatigue strength of notched components subjected to in-service variable amplitude cyclic loading. The hypothesis is formed that the crack initiation plane is closely aligned with the plane of maximum shear strain amplitude, its orientation and the associated stress/strain quantities being determined using the Maximum Variance Method. Fatigue damage is estimated by applying the Modified Manson-Coffin Curve Method (MMCCM along with the Point Method (PM. In the proposed approach, the required critical distance is treated as a material property whose value is not affected either by the sharpness of the notch being assessed or by the profile of the load spectrum being applied. The detrimental effect of non-zero mean stresses and degree of multiaxiality of the local stress/strain histories is also considered. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed design methodology was checked against several experimental data taken from the literature and generated under different uniaxial variable amplitude load histories. In order to determine the required local stress/strain states, refined elasto-plastic finite element models were solved using commercial software ANSYS®. This preliminary validation exercise allowed us to prove that the proposed approach is capable of estimates laying within an error factor of about 2. These preliminary results are certainly promising, strongly supporting the idea that the proposed design strategy can successfully be used to assess the fatigue lifetime of notched metallic components subjected to in-service multiaxial variable amplitude loading sequences.

  2. Ultrasonic synthetic technique to manufacture a pHEMA nanopolymeric-based vaccine against the H6N2 avian influenza virus: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinern GEJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern1, Xuan Thi Le1, Songhua Shan2, Trevor Ellis3, Stan Fenwick3, John Edwards3, Derek Fawcett11Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia; 2Australian Animal Health Laboratories, CSIRO, VIC, Australia; 3Veterinary School, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, AustraliaAbstract: This preliminary study investigated the use of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA nanoparticles for the delivery of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk, which expresses the full length hemagglutinin (HA gene of the avian influenza A/Eurasian coot/Western Australian/2727/1979 (H6N2 virus with a Kozak sequence which is in the form of a pCAGGS vector. The loaded and unloaded nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Further characterizations of the nanoparticles were made using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which was used to investigate particle size distributions. This preliminary study suggests that using 100 µg of pHEMA nanoparticles as a nanocarrier/adjuvant produced a reduction in virus shedding and improved the immune response to the DNA vaccine pCAG-HAk.Keywords: nanoparticles, ultrasound, deoxyribonucleic acid, plasmid, bird flu, pandemic

  3. Dismantling the School Sport Partnership Infrastructure: Findings from a Survey of Physical Education and School Sport Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the perceptions of education practitioners to the proposed changes to the school sport partnership (SSP) programme in England and in particular its implications for primary school physical education. It aims to explore insights into the dismantling of this partnership programme. The SSP system developed club links, increased…

  4. 2015 AERA Presidential Address: Morally Engaged Research/ers Dismantling Epistemological Nihilation in the Age of Impunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joyce E.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents Joyce E. King's 2015 AERA presidential address, which artfully combined scholarly discourse with performance elements and diverse voices in several multimedia formats. In discussing morally engaged research/ers dismantling epistemological nihilation, the article advances the argument that the moral stance, solidarity with…

  5. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of End-of-Life Vehicles’ Dismantling Scenarios with Respect to Technical Performance and Sustainability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Schmid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three scenarios of dismantling and shredding operations of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs were compared in this study with respect to technical and sustainability criteria, according to the level of dismantling applied to the vehicles. The scenarios differed from each other in the extent of the dismantling operations. They were implemented experimentally at the industrial scale on representative samples of 120 vehicles. The data collected from the monitoring of the experimental campaigns were used as feed data for the multi-criteria analysis of the scenarios using the PROMETHEE method. Nine criteria of evaluation were selected, namely global warming, local environmental impacts, tropospheric ozone production, ecotoxicity, operational costs, investment costs, occupational risks, employability, and technical performance. The medium-level dismantling scenario was identified as the best scenario with respect to the criteria of evaluation. This scenario included the steps of depollution, followed by the removal of easily accessible and identifiable plastics and glasses. Reasonable changes in the ponderation of the evaluation criteria did not significantly affect the ranking.

  6. Control of radioactive waste in dismantling of a nuclear facility; Control de residuos radiactivos en desmantelamiento de una instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the dismantling of a nuclear facility are generated radioactive waste that must be suitably processed. The overall process, in a simplified manner, contemplates the characterization in origin, their segregation on the basis of physical, mechanical, and radiological characteristics and their packaging. (Author)

  7. A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Lustig, Robert H; Hecht, Frederick M; Kristeller, Jean; Woolley, Josh; Adam, Tanja; Dallman, Mary; Epel, Elissa

    2014-03-01

    Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.

  8. Molecular characterization of dominant bacterial population in “Vastedda della Valle del Belice” cheese: preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics of raw-milk cheeses are linked to the cheese-making process, to the environmental factors as animal feeding and to the biochemical and microbiological composition of the milk. In this report we temped to characterize the microflora in the typical Sicilian historical cheese as Vastedda della valle del Belice. Each cheese was previous subjected to microbial isolation on specific media (M17 and MRS. The colony obtained on the solid medium were subject to biochemical tests and DNA extraction. The microbial diversity occurring in the strains was evaluated by PCR, RFLP and sequencing targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA. A number of closest relatives species of lactic and contaminating bacteria were identified in a total of 18 cheeses. The more represented genus were: Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Pediococcus. Moreover it was found only one strain Lactococcus lactis for producing bacteriocines. The different bacteria species probably could play a key role in the maturation of the cheese. The preliminary obtained data show the optimized method is usefully to detect and characterize the bacteria having implications in the fermentation process as well as preservation of traditional products.

  9. Preoperative characteristics of auditory brainstem response in acoustic neuroma with useful hearing: importance as a preliminary investigation for intraoperative monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Noritaka; Murakami, Shingo; Takahashi, Mariko; Yamada, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We classified the results of preoperative auditory brainstem response (ABR) in 121 patients with useful hearing and considered the utility of preoperative ABR as a preliminary assessment for intraoperative monitoring. Wave V was confirmed in 113 patients and was not confirmed in 8 patients. Intraoperative ABR could not detect wave V in these 8 patients. The 8 patients without wave V were classified into two groups (flat and wave I only), and the reason why wave V could not be detected may have differed between the groups. Because high-frequency hearing was impaired in flat patients, an alternative to click stimulation may be more effective. Monitoring cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) may be useful because CNAP could be detected in 4 of 5 wave I only patients. Useful hearing was preserved after surgery in 1 patient in the flat group and 2 patients in wave I only group. Among patients with wave V, the mean interaural latency difference of wave V was 0.88 ms in Class A (n = 57) and 1.26 ms in Class B (n = 56). Because the latency of wave V is already prolonged before surgery, to estimate delay in wave V latency during surgery probably underestimates cochlear nerve damage. Recording intraoperative ABR is indispensable to avoid cochlear nerve damage and to provide information for surgical decisions. Confirming the condition of ABR before surgery helps to solve certain problems, such as choosing to monitor the interaural latency difference of wave V, CNAP, or alternative sound-evoked ABR.

  10. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  11. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  12. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  13. Dismantling and decommissioning of Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant; El desmantelamiento y clausura de la central nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    With the start of the dismantling works at the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant now in sight, this is an appropriate moment to look back and consider recent history. The first time that the issue of nuclear power plant dismantling was dealt with was in 1975, at a conference in Paris entitled Nuclear Energy Maturity. Up until then the entire question had been one of design, construction and operation, but since that moment and it has been quite a while since that conference dismantling has begun to be seen as just another activity in the nuclear cycle, a final activity that will sooner or later affect all the facilities, an activity different from its predecessors and with the ultimate objective of restoring the sites for whatever use might be determined. During the 1960's and 1970's, the construction of nuclear power plants was widespread across the entire world. It was the baby boom of nuclear energy and now, forty or fifty years later, we are seeing the arrival of the end of the service lifetime of these plants and are faced with the corresponding general process of dismantling these installations. The dismantling of nuclear power plants has ceased to be an emerging issue and is now consolidated as a regular activity in the nuclear industry, albeit an activity that lacks adequate financing or specific regulation in certain countries. Fortunately this is not the case in Spain, since economic provisions have been planned and the regulatory framework developed. In view of the above, the dismantling of the nuclear power plants is an industrial activity involving specific technologies that implies new professional and business opportunities that should be absorbed and seized by society. In Spain the path followed in this direction has been a long one, as is underlined by the experiences of dismantling the Argos (Barcelona, 1998- 2004) and Arbi (Bilbao, 2002-2005) research reactors, the Andujar Uranium Mill (Jaen, 1991-1995), the Vandellos I nuclear power

  14. Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

    2010-05-01

    The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen.

  15. Decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East. Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Clark, F.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Garlock, G.A. [MOTA Corp., Cayce, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was completed in October 1997. Descriptions and evaluations of the activities performed and analyses of the results obtained during the JANUS D and D Project are provided in this Final Report. The following information is included: objective of the JANUS D and D Project; history of the JANUS Reactor facility; description of the ANL-E site and the JANUS Reactor facility; overview of the D and D activities performed; description of the project planning and engineering; description of the D and D operations; summary of the final status of the JANUS Reactor facility based upon the final survey results; description of the health and safety aspects of the project, including personnel exposure and OSHA reporting; summary of the waste minimization techniques utilized and total waste generated by the project; and summary of the final cost and schedule for the JANUS D and D Project.

  16. Decommissioning and Dismantling of the Floating Maintenance Base 'Lepse' - 13316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, D.; Mizen, K. [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Lepse was built in Russia in 1934 and commissioned as a dry cargo ship. In 1961 she was re-equipped for use as a nuclear service ship (NSS), specifically a floating maintenance base (FMB), to support the operation of the civilian nuclear fleet (ice-breakers) of the USSR. In 1988 Lepse was taken out of service and in 1990 she was re-classified as a 'berth connected ship', located at a berth near the port of Murmansk under the ownership of Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Atomflot. Lepse has special storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFA) that have been used to store several hundred SFAs for nearly 40 years. High and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is also present in the spent nuclear fuel assembly storage channels, in special tanks and also in the SFA cooling circuit. Many of the SFAs stored in Lepse are classified as damaged and cannot be removed using standard procedures. The removal of the SFA and LRW from the Lepse storage facilities is a hazardous task and requires specially designed tools, equipment and an infrastructure in which these can be deployed safely. Lepse is a significant environmental hazard in the North West of Russia. Storing spent nuclear fuel and high-level liquid radioactive waste on board Lepse in the current conditions is not acceptable with respect to Russian Federation health, safety and environmental standards and with international best practice. The approved concept design for the removal of the SFA and LRW and dismantling of Lepse requires that the ship be transported to Nerpa shipyard where specialist infrastructure will be constructed and equipment installed. One of the main complexities of the Project lies within the number of interested stakeholders involved in the Project. The Lepse project has been high focus on the international stage for many years with previous international efforts failing to make significant progress towards the objective of decommissioning Lepse. The

  17. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling of the biological shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dismantling of the inactive and activated areas of the biological shield of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf. The calculation of the parameters determining the activated areas at the shield (reference nuclide, nuclide vector in the barite concrete and horizontal and vertical reduction behaviors of activity concentration and the activation profiles within the biological shield for unrestricted release, release restricted to permanent deposit and radioactive waste are presented. Considerations of located activation anomalies in the shield, e.g. in the vicinities of the beam-tubes, were made according to the reactor's operational history. Finally, an overview of the materials removed from the biological shield is given.

  18. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues.

  19. The dismantling of the Tokai 1 Steam Raising Units using remotely controlled techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blight, J. [Business Development Manager Nuclear Business Unit Cybernetix SA, 13 - Marseille (France); Satoh, T. [General Manager Decommissioning Project Dept Japan Power Corporation, 13 - Marseille (France); Sawamoto, M. [General Manager Project Development Dept e-Energy Corp, SOJIZT Group, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Tokai 1 gas cooled reactor 166 MW(e) reactor went into service in 1966 and was shut down in 1998. Since that date the Japan Atomic Power Company, the owner of the plant has been planning and implementing an ambitious programme which will lead to the first Level 3 decommissioning of a commercial power reactor in Japan. JPC's basic strategy is to manage and perform the decommissioning work with in-house resources, calling on the support of specialist companies as and when required. This paper describes the JPC programme and in particular the dismantling of the 4 steam raising units (SRU) which is to be performed using remotely controlled equipment. (authors)

  20. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Delin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m{sup 3} and 27-2975 ng/m{sup 3} at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major {Sigma}PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured {phi} values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: > On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. > The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. > Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  1. ICP0 dismantles microtubule networks in herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Liu

    Full Text Available Infected-cell protein 0 (ICP0 is a RING finger E3 ligase that regulates herpes simplex virus (HSV mRNA synthesis, and strongly influences the balance between latency and replication of HSV. For 25 years, the nuclear functions of ICP0 have been the subject of intense scrutiny. To obtain new clues about ICP0's mechanism of action, we constructed HSV-1 viruses that expressed GFP-tagged ICP0. To our surprise, both GFP-tagged and wild-type ICP0 were predominantly observed in the cytoplasm of HSV-infected cells. Although ICP0 is exclusively nuclear during the immediate-early phase of HSV infection, further analysis revealed that ICP0 translocated to the cytoplasm during the early phase where it triggered a previously unrecognized process; ICP0 dismantled the microtubule network of the host cell. A RING finger mutant of ICP0 efficiently bundled microtubules, but failed to disperse microtubule bundles. Synthesis of ICP0 proved to be necessary and sufficient to disrupt microtubule networks in HSV-infected and transfected cells. Plant and animal viruses encode many proteins that reorganize microtubules. However, this is the first report of a viral E3 ligase that regulates microtubule stability. Intriguingly, several cellular E3 ligases orchestrate microtubule disassembly and reassembly during mitosis. Our results suggest that ICP0 serves a dual role in the HSV life cycle, acting first as a nuclear regulator of viral mRNA synthesis and acting later, in the cytoplasm, to dismantle the host cell's microtubule network in preparation for virion synthesis and/or egress.

  2. A Preliminary Teleseismic Investigation of the Crust and Mantle Lithosphere Obtained from BISN in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Snyder, D. B.; Cairns, S.; Elliot, B.; Audet, P.; Esteve, C.; Murray-Bergquist, L.; Falck, H.

    2016-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Beaufort Sea continental margin has contributed to the maturation of these rocks into a major petroleum reservoir. Recent shallow offshore seismic reflection data suggest that Banks Island represents thin crust along a rifted margin established during the opening of the Arctic Ocean. In this case, rifting of the margin caused Banks Island to subside and accumulate sediments rich in petroleum source material. The cooling history and further subsidence of these sediments is important for understanding the thermal maturation of petroleum products. Recently published surface-wave velocity models of North America indicate seismic velocities at 100-150 km depths similar to those beneath Canada's diamond mines in the central Slave craton north of Yellowknife. These results imply that Banks Island is part of the Canadian Shield and that any kimberlites found thereon might contain diamonds. However, the fast velocities are inconsistent with this being a tectonically disrupted and thinned lithosphere along the Arctic margin of the Canada Basin. The problem is therefore to reconcile mantle structure typical of the Canadian Shield with crust typical of a rifted passive margin. Possibly related seismicity beneath the Mackenize River Delta and offshore in the Beaufort Sea has been observed for decades but its origin remains unknown, although has been suggested as due to incipient subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the North American craton. Resolving these questions requires high-resolution 3-D seismic models obtained from an array of broadband seismograph stations. Here we present preliminary results on the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle underlying the western Canadian Arctic. These results are generated using new data from the Banks Island Seismograph Network (BISN), three stations installed over the summer of 2014 and 2015; augmented with several USArray Transportable Array stations and older POLARIS and CNSN stations on

  3. Preliminary efficacy investigations of oral fipronil against Anopheles arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, Richard M; Githaka, Naftaly; van Gool, Frans; Kading, Rebekah C; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Abworo, Edward Okoth; Nene, Vishvanath; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2017-12-01

    the treatment plot two was higher: zero females were collected after treatment. The indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.s. was not significantly different between the treatment (T1, T2) and their corresponding control plots (C1, C2). An. funestus s.s. showed an increase in density over time. The results of this preliminary study suggest that treating cattle orally with fipronil, to target exophagic and zoophagic malaria vectors, could be a valuable control strategy to supplement existing vector control interventions which target endophilic anthropophilic species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dance for PD: a preliminary investigation of effects on motor function and quality of life among persons with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Olie; McRae, Cynthia; Henchcliffe, Claire; Fesharaki, Arman; Glazman, Sofya; Ene, Heather; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    In 2001, Dance for Parkinson's disease (DfPD(®)) classes for persons with Parkinson's disease and care partners were developed by Brooklyn Parkinson Group and Mark Morris Dance Group. A previous assessment suggested that individuals experience positive benefits from DfPD(®). The current preliminary uncontrolled study investigated the effects of a dance intervention on several motor and quality of life aspects of PD following 16 sessions (8 weeks; 20 h) taught by professional dancers/teachers. A mixed methods design was used to determine the effects of the class. Assessment instruments administered at baseline and post-intervention included the Hoehn and Yahr, UPDRS (part III), Berg Balance Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and PDQ-39 and individual interviews after the last class. Hoehn and Yahr scores ranged from 1 to 4. UPDRS III total scores and sub scores of gait and tremor improved following the intervention (P dance with PD.

  5. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  6. Articular cartilage surface roughness as an imaging-based morphological indicator of osteoarthritis: A preliminary investigation of osteoarthritis initiative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michael D; Osborne, Jeffrey; Gawronski, Karissa; Baker, Kevin C; Maerz, Tristan

    2017-04-29

    Current imaging-based morphometric indicators of osteoarthritis (OA) using whole-compartment mean cartilage thickness (MCT) and volume changes can be insensitive to mild degenerative changes of articular cartilage (AC) due to areas of adjacent thickening and thinning. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate cartilage thickness-based surface roughness as a morphometric indicator of OA. 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets were collected from osteoarthritis initiative (OAI) subjects with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) OA grades of 0, 2, and 4 (n = 10/group). Femoral and tibial AC volumes were converted to two-dimensional thickness maps, and MCT, arithmetic surface roughness (Sa ), and anatomically normalized Sa (normSa ) were calculated. Thickness maps enabled visualization of degenerative changes with increasing KL grade, including adjacent thinning and thickening on the femoral condyles. No significant differences were observed in MCT between KL grades. Sa was significantly higher in KL4 compared to KL0 and KL2 in the whole femur (KL0: 0.55 ± 0.10 mm, KL2: 0.53 ± 0.09 mm, KL4: 0.79 ± 0.18 mm), medial femoral condyle (KL0: 0.42 ± 0.07 mm, KL2: 0.48 ± 0.07 mm, KL4: 0.76 ± 0.22 mm), and medial tibial plateau (KL0: 0.42 ± 0.07 mm, KL2: 0.43 ± 0.09 mm, KL4: 0.68 ± 0.27 mm). normSa was significantly higher in KL4 compared to KL0 and KL2 in the whole femur (KL0: 0.22 ± 0.02, KL2: 0.22 ± 0.02, KL4: 0.30 ± 0.03), medial condyle (KL0: 0.17 ± 0.02, KL2: 0.20 ± 0.03, KL4: 0.29 ± 0.06), whole tibia (KL0: 0.34 ± 0.04, KL2: 0.33 ± 0.05, KL4: 0.48 ± 0.11) and medial plateau (KL0: 0.23 ± 0.03, KL2: 0.24 ± 0.04, KL4: 0.40 ± 0.10), and significantly higher in KL2 compared to KL0 in the medial femoral condyle. Surface roughness metrics were sensitive to degenerative morphologic changes, and may be useful in OA characterization and early diagnosis

  7. Preliminary investigation of the nature and origin of the Sierra Mojada Non-sulfide Zn deposits, Coahuila, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H.; Kyle, J.; Gilg, H.; Kolvoord, R.

    2009-05-01

    . Euhedral hemimorphite is present in both mantos, although it is most abundant in the Iron Oxide Manto. Hemimorphite occurs in the Smithsonite Manto as layers with smithsonite suggesting that they may have precipitated together, although locally hemimorphite cross-cuts smithsonite bands. Locally, hemimorphite and smithsonite have been altered to sauconite and hydrozincite. Associated minerals include barite and calcite that seem to have formed later than the major Zn mineral formation. Preliminary isotope studies reveal that smithsonites from Sierra Mojada have δ18OVSMOW values ranging from 19.1 to 22.1 ‰ and δ13CVPDB values of -7.0 to +1.0 ‰. While the range of carbon isotope values is typical for supergene smithsonites, the oxygen isotope values are much lower than those recorded in most supergene deposits. The unusually low oxygen isotope values in smithsonite require either highly 18O- depleted waters of less than -12 ‰ if oxidation occurred at temperatures of less than 20C° or elevated temperatures (>40C°) during oxidation if waters had isotope compositions similar to present- day ground waters in the area. Studies are in progress to further constrain the paragenesis, mineralizing fluid character, and timing of mineralization in the Sierra Mojada district.

  8. Finger Forecasting: A Pointer to Athletic Prowess in Women--A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourelle, Sandra M.; Elwess, Nancy L.; Elwess, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    With all the technology today, the authors were surprised to read a recent British study that found a connection between the length of a woman's index (2D) and ring (4D) fingers to her athletic ability. Upon further investigation they found that many studies have examined the relationship between the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring…

  9. Preliminary results on Appendicularians from the Cicar (Cooperative Investigations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions) cruises 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de R.F.

    1974-01-01

    The Cicar-project (Cooperative Investigations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions project) offered an opportunity to collect epiplanktonic animals in the Southern part of the Caribbean Sea and in water north of Guyana in the Atlantic, to study the precise distribution of some groups in the area. A

  10. A preliminary investigation of the growth of an aneurysm with a multiscale monolithic Fluid-Structure interaction solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, D.; Manservisi, S.; Pozzetti, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the potentialities of multi-scale engineering techniques to approach complex problems related to biomedical and biological fields. In particular we study the interaction between blood and blood vessel focusing on the presence of an aneurysm. The study of each component of the cardiovascular system is very difficult due to the fact that the movement of the fluid and solid is determined by the rest of system through dynamical boundary conditions. The use of multi-scale techniques allows us to investigate the effect of the whole loop on the aneurysm dynamic. A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction model for the aneurysm is developed and coupled to a mono-dimensional one for the remaining part of the cardiovascular system, where a point zero-dimensional model for the heart is provided. In this manner it is possible to achieve rigorous and quantitative investigations of the cardiovascular disease without loosing the system dynamic. In order to study this biomedical problem we use a monolithic fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model where the fluid and solid equations are solved together. The use of a monolithic solver allows us to handle the convergence issues caused by large deformations. By using this monolithic approach different solid and fluid regions are treated as a single continuum and the interface conditions are automatically taken into account. In this way the iterative process characteristic of the commonly used segregated approach, it is not needed any more.

  11. Status and perspectives of the dismantling of nuclear power plants in Germany (Dismantling monitoring 2015); Stand und Perspektiven des Rueckbaus von Kernkraftwerken in Deutschland (''Rueckbau-Monitoring 2015'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wealer, Ben; Seidel, Jan Paul [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Gerbaulet, Clemens; Hirschhausen, Christian von [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The dismantling monitoring 2015 covers the nuclear power plants HDR Grosswelzheim, Niederaichbach (KKN), MZFR Karlsruhe, Lingen (KWL), Gundremmingen unit A (KRB-A), VAK Kahl, Muehlheim-Kaerlich (KMK), THTR-300 Hamm-Uentrop, AVR Juelich, Greifswald (KGR 1-5), KNK II Karlsruhe, Rheinsberg (KKR), Wuergassen (KWW), Stade (KKS), Obrigheim (KWO), SNR 300. The post-operational phase activities of other shut-down nuclear power plants and the active companies are summarized.

  12. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm: Preliminary note of analysis of data from spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    In February 1998, the Ministry of the Environment gave Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.a. approval to erect a wind farm, capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk off the west coast of Jutland. Construction activities at Horns Rev started in September 2001 and were finished in summer 2002. The entire project has been organised as a demonstration project to assess the technical, economic and environmental constraints on the future development of electric power production in Danish offshore environments. Within the framework of the environmental programme, bird investigations have been carried out in relation to the risk of collision between birds and wind turbines since 2002. To provide the latest update on the results from the bird investigations, this note presents results compiled during spring 2004 and deals with a preliminary analysis of effects on birds present at Horns Rev during commercial operation of the Horns Rev wind farm. Due to the remoteness of the area it has not been possible to obtain base-line investigation of bird occurrence and behaviour at the wind farm site. (au)

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Approaching and Receding Footstep Sounds in a Virtual Reality Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The emotional impact of approaching and receding sounds sources studies has previously been studied in seated laboratory experiments in with and without accompanying visual stimulus. This paper investigates the emotional responses to approaching and receding footstep sounds in an interactive...... virtual reality using a head-mounted display, 24-channel surround audio and a novel walking-in-place device utilizing acoustic detection of the user's input. Based on self-reports using the Self-Assessment Manikin, the subjects gave post-experiment evaluations of 7 seconds long footstep sequence...

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Approaching and Receding Footstep Sounds in a Virtual Reality Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf;

    2013-01-01

    The emotional impact of approaching and receding sounds sources studies has previously been studied in seated laboratory experiments in with and without accompanying visual stimulus. This paper investigates the emotional responses to approaching and receding footstep sounds in an interactive...... virtual reality using a head-mounted display, 24-channel surround audio and a novel walking-in-place device utilizing acoustic detection of the user's input. Based on self-reports using the Self-Assessment Manikin, the subjects gave post-experiment evaluations of 7 seconds long footstep sequence...

  15. Preliminary investigation of microbiological effect for radioactive waste disposal system. 1. Experimental investigation of tolerance of some bacterias under alkaline and reducing condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yui, Mikazu; Mihara, Morihiro [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Fukunaga, Sakae; Asano, Hidekazu

    1995-05-01

    Activities and tolerance of some bacteria were investigated under alkaline and reducing conditions for geological disposal. A fermenter was used to control pH and Eh with a liquid culture inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Growth of SRB was obtained at maximum pH 8.6 (Eh -340 mV) or maximum Eh -100 mV (pH 7). Ranges of Eh for the growth of MPB and SOB were estimated to be less than -210 mV at pH8, and more than +240 mV at pH 7.5, respectively. Activity for SOB was not observed in the pH range more than 8. (author)

  16. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sasidharan, Chithra Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS) is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were above the damage risk criteria (DRC) compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01). Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual.

  17. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs were above the damage risk criteria (DRC compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01. Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  19. 49 CFR 1242.30 - Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39, 62-17...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39, 62-17-00, 62-18-00, and 62-19-00). 1242.30 Section 1242.30....30 Dismantling retired road property and depreciation (accounts XX-17-39, XX-18-39, XX-19-39,...

  20. The Helpfulness of Spiritually Influenced Group Work in Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Coholic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research.

  1. Preliminary investigation of transfer between single-word decoding ability and contextual reading comprehension by poor readers in grade six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, J S

    1980-12-01

    The study sought to investigate transfer between single-word decoding skill and contextual reading comprehension using 60 sixth grade pupils classified as 30 poor and 30 very poor readers. There were two training groups, content-specific and non-content-specific. One group received single-word decoding training, which led to decoding mastery of all words to be read in narrative prose passages and the accompanying literal and inferential comprehension questions. The other group learned to identify and pronounce words, equal in difficulty and number to those of the content-specific group but never a part of the passages and questions for the study. Pupils given content-specific training answered significantly more literal and inferential questions correctly than did those given non-content-specific training. It is suggested that there is transfer between single-word decoding skill and contextual, literal and inferential comprehension.

  2. Technology-Based Communication and the Development of Interpersonal Competencies Within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between adolescents' technology-based communication and the development of interpersonal competencies within romantic relationships. A school-based sample of 487 adolescents (58% girls; Mage  = 14.1) participated at two time points, one year apart. Participants reported (1) proportions of daily communication with romantic partners via traditional modes (in person, on the phone) versus technological modes (text messaging, social networking sites) and (2) competence in the romantic relationship skill domains of negative assertion and conflict management. Results of cross-lagged panel models indicated that adolescents who engaged in greater proportions of technology-based communication with romantic partners reported lower levels of interpersonal competencies one year later, but not vice versa; associations were particularly strong for boys. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  3. Preliminary investigation of catalytic, antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal activity of green synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using Actinidia deliciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Li, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Herein we report a rapid low cost one step green synthetic method using Actinidia deliciosa fruit extract for preparation of stable and multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were successfully used as green catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB). The enhanced biological activity of the prepared nanoparticles was investigated based on its highly stable antioxidant, anticancer and bactericidal effects. TEM micrographs showed that the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed were predominantly spherical in shape having diameters ranging from 25 to 40nm, while gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) shown particle size ranges from 7 to 20nm. EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) results confirmed the presence of elemental silver and gold. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed the formation of face-centered cubic structure for AgNPs and AuNPs. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum indicated the presence of possible functional groups in the biomolecule responsible for capping the nanoparticles. The AgNPs treated HCT116 cells showed 78% viability at highest concentration (350μg/mL), while AuNPs showed 71% viability at highest concentration (350μg/mL) using MTT assay, which provides promising approach for alternative nano-drug development. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa) in which damaging the cell membrane was observed by TEM images. Our results revealed that the green synthesis method is easy, rapid, inexpensive, eco-friendly and efficient in developing multifunctional nanoparticles in near future in the field of biomedicine, water treatment and nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A preliminary investigation on the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the Beijiang River, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhao Ling; Ying Yang; Yuanli Huang; Shichun Zou; Tiangang Luan

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was investigated and quantified in 20 water samples collected in the Beijiang River,South China.Sulfonamide-and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were present in 17 and 14 of the collected 20 samples.For sulfonamide ARGs,sulⅠ and sulⅡ were frequently observed in the Beijiang River.The levels of sulⅠ were higher than sulⅡ (p < 0.05),with the mean values of (1.41 ± 1.12) × 10-2 and (1.58 ± 1.71) × 10-3 copies/16S rDNA,respectively.For tetracycline ARGs,tetG had the highest frequency,100%,followed by tetA (85%),tetO (85%),tetC (70%),tetX (60%),tetM (40%) and tetQ (20%),while tetE and tetS were not detected in all the samples from the Beijiang River.On the other hand,tetC had the highest concentration,ranging from 8.30 × 10-2 to 13.20 copies/16S rDNA.The poor correlation between ARGs and antibiotic concentrations revealed that the self-amplification and persistence of ARGs were the reasons that made ARGs exist in the water environment even though the antibiotic selecting pressure was absent.Because so few field measurements have been conducted for investigating the levels of ARGs in rivers in South China,this study provides an important insight on better understanding the occurrence and spread of ARGs in such an ecosystem.

  5. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling the auxiliary systems and clearance and reuse of the buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents work performed in the last phase of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Dismantling the pump room installations and the ventilation system, as well as the clearance of the buildings is described. Some conclusions and summary data regarding the timetable, material management, and the cost of the entire project are also presented.

  6. The Harper Government's New Right Neoliberal Agenda and the Dismantling of Status of Women Canada and the Family Violence Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth M Mann

    2016-01-01

    This paper situates the Harper government’s 2006 restructuring and effective dismantling of Status of Women Canada and its 2011 take down of the approximate 12,000 volume online library of the federal Family Violence Initiative in relation to two developments. These are the ascendant influence of men’s rights and other antifeminist activism in Canada and globally; and the concurrent rise of a Hayekian-animated New Right neoliberal agenda intent on subordinating civil society and democratic ru...

  7. Spatial distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soils from Taizhou, an e-waste dismantling area%短链氯化石蜡在台州电子拆解地区的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茹; 王亚韡; 王璞; 江桂斌

    2014-01-01

    以峰江为中心,采集了台州电子垃圾拆解区域的26个表层土壤样品,调查台州地区短链氯化石蜡( SCCPs)的污染状况、空间分布和单体构成情况.结果表明, SCCPs在所有土壤样品中均有检出,其浓度水平介于47�95-1298 ng·g-1干重,平均值为276.7 ng·g-1干重. C10和Cl6-7为土壤中SCCPs最主要的碳原子和氯原子同族体.空间分布表明短链氯化石蜡的浓度水平总体呈现随距采样点中心峰江距离增加而减少的趋势,说明电子垃圾拆解活动可能是SCCPs的一个潜在释放源.%Taizhou is a major e-waste dismantling area in China. A large quantity of contaminants in the electronic and electrical equipments can be released to the ambient environment through the unregulated e-waste dismantling activities. In this study, 26 soil samples from Fengjiang, a typical e-waste dismantling site in Taizhou, were collected in 2008-2009 to investigate the pollution levels, spatial distribution and congener patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins ( SCCPs) in the soils. SCCPs were detected in all soil samples, with the total concentrations ranging from 47.95 to 1298 ng·g-1 dw (mean value of 276.7 ng·g-1). The chlorine content of SCCPs in soil samples were in the range of 59.1%-62.8%. C10 and Cl6,7 were the dominant homologue groups among all SCCPs congeners. A significant decreasing trend of the total concentrations of∑SCCPs was found in the soil samples with increasing distance from Fengjiang, suggesting that e-waste dismantling activities might be a major source of SCCPs released to the ambient environment.

  8. A preliminary investigation into the design of pressure cushions and their potential applications for forearm robotic orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, N; Zampierin, S; Komeili, M; Cocuzza, S; Debei, S; Menon, C

    2017-05-08

    Load cells are often used in rehabilitation robotics to monitor human-robot interaction. While load cells are accurate and suitable for the stationary end-point robots used in rehabilitation hospitals, their cost and inability to conform to the shape of the body hinder their application in developing affordable and wearable robotic orthoses for assisting individuals in the activities of daily living. This exploratory work investigates the possibility of using an alternative technology, namely compliant polymeric air cushions, to measure interaction forces between the user and a wearable rigid structure. A polymeric air cushion was designed, analyzed using a finite element model (FEM), and tested using a bench-top characterization system. The cushions underwent repeatability testing, and signal delay testing from a step response while increasing the length of the cushion's tubes. Subsequently, a 3D printed wrist brace prototype was integrated with six polymeric air cushions and tested in static conditions where a volunteer exerted isometric pronation/supination torque and forces in vertical and horizontal directions. The load measured by integrating data recorded by the six sensors was compared with force data measured by a high quality load cell and torque sensor. The FEM and experimental data comparison was within the error bounds of the external differential pressure sensor used to monitor the pressure inside the cushion. The ratio obtained experimentally between the pressure inside the pressure cushion and the 8 N applied load deviated by only 1.28% from the FEM. A drift smaller than 1% was observed over 10 cycles. The rise times of the cushion under an 8 N step response for a 0.46, 1.03, and 2.02 m length tube was 0.45, 0.39, and 0.37 s. Tests with the wrist brace showed a moderate root mean square error (RMSE) between the force estimated by the pressure cushions and the external load cells. Specifically, the RMSE was 13 mNm, 500 mN, and 1.24 N for

  9. Alterations in autonomic tone during trauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)--results of a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Martin; Lempa, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Adrian; Lamprecht, Friedhelm; Hofmann, Arne

    2008-10-01

    EMDR combines stimuli that evoke divided attention--e.g. eye movements--with exposure to traumatic memories. Our objective was to investigate psycho-physiological correlates of EMDR during treatment sessions. A total of 55 treatment sessions from 10 patients with PTSD was monitored applying impedance cardiography. Onset of every stimulation/exposure period (n=811) was marked and effects within and across stimulation sets on heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiration rate were examined. At stimulation onsets a sharp increase of HRV and a significant decrease of HR was noticed indicating de-arousal. During ongoing stimulation, PEP and HRV decreased significantly while respiration rate significantly increased, indicating stress-related arousal. However, across entire sessions a significant decrease of psycho-physiological activity was noticed, evidenced by progressively decreasing HR and increasing HRV. These findings suggest that EMDR is associated with patterns of autonomic activity associated with substantial psycho-physiological de-arousal over time.

  10. Compositional Variation and Bioactivity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Montanoa guatemalensis from Monteverde, Costa Rica: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Flatt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Montanoa guatemalensis is a small to medium-sized tree in the Asteraceae that grows in Central America from Mexico south through Costa Rica. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oil of this tree. Methods: The leaf essential oils of M. guatemalensis were obtained from different individual trees growing in Monteverde, Costa Rica, in two different years, and were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Results: The leaf oils from 2008 were rich in sesquiterpenoids, dominated by α-selinene, β-selinene, and cyclocolorenone, with lesser amounts of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. In contrast, the samples from 2009 showed no α- or β-selinene, but large concentrations of trans-muurola-4(14,5-diene, β-cadinene, and cyclocolorenone, along with greater concentrations of α-pinene and limonene. The leaf oils were screened for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and did show selective cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Conclusion: M. guatemalensis leaf oil, rich in cyclocolorenone, α-selinene, and β-selinene, showed selective in vitro cytotoxic activity to MDA-MB-231 cells. The plant may be a good source of cyclocolorenone.

  11. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to AZT: a preliminary investigation with the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Valanzano, Angelina; Puopolo, Maria; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2005-01-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is the main therapeutic agent against HIV vertical transmission and is routinely administered to seropositive pregnant women and their newborns. Toxicity after chronic administration as well as citogenetic effects following developmental AZT exposure has been reported. Furthermore, recent animal data indicate alterations of several behavioral endpoints during the entire lifespan of mice and rats after developmental AZT exposure. In this study, we investigated specific central nervous system (CNS) effects of AZT administration during pregnancy on the offspring. CD-1 mouse females were administered twice daily from day 10 of pregnancy until delivery with either AZT (160 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl). On PND, 60 male offsprings received an intraperitoneal injection of the D1 receptor agonist 2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-7,8-diol-1-phenyl-(1H)-3-benzazepine (SKF 38393) (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg), and spontaneous behavior was assessed in an automated activity chamber for 40 min. At variance from what observed in control mice that displayed excessive grooming when administered the higher dose of the D1 agonist, SKF 38393 failed to increase duration of grooming in AZT-treated mice. These data suggest that the D1 receptorial dopaminergic subsystem might be hyporesponsive in mice prenatally exposed to AZT.

  12. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  13. Preliminary Experimental Results using a Steady State ICP Flow Reactor to Investigate Condensation Chemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Armstrong, Mike; Cappelli, Mark; Chernov, Alex; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Mehl, Marco; Radousky, Harry; Rose, Timothy; Zaug, Joe

    2016-10-01

    The high temperature chemistry of rapidly condensing matter is under investigation using a steady state inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flow reactor. The objective is to study chemical processes on cooling time scales similar to that of a low yield nuclear fireball. The reactor has a nested set of gas flow rings that provide flexibility in the control of hydrodynamic conditions and mixing of chemical components. Initial tests were run using two different aqueous solutions (ferric nitrate and uranyl nitrate). Chemical reactants passing through the plasma torch undergo non-linear cooling from 10,000K to 1,000K on time scales of <0.1 to 0.5s depending on flow conditions. Optical spectroscopy measurements were taken at different positions along the flow axis to observe the in situ spatial and temporal evolution of chemical species at different temperatures. The current data offer insights into the changes in oxide chemistry as a function of oxygen fugacity. The time resolved measurements will also serve as a validation target for the development of kinetic models that will be used to describe chemical fractionation during nuclear fireball condensation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Preliminary Investigations of the Anti-asthmatic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia pectoralis (Fresh Cut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C; Jacob, A S; Thomas, E A; Levy, A S

    2015-09-01

    Justicia pectoralis (fresh cut plant), family Acantheceae, is a herb that is native to central America and the Caribbean. A crude extract prepared from the leaves of Justicia pectoralis is commonly used in Jamaican ethnotraditional medicine to reduce difficulty in breathing and suppress wheezing in asthmatic individuals. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihistamine activity of an aqueous extract of Justicia pectoralis. In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem (1987). The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine. The crude extract was efficacious in reducing the formation of histamine-induced wheals (p Justicia pectoralis reduced the formation of histamine-induced wheals in sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.05) and also reduced histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions (p < 0.05). It blocked the effect of contraction produced by histamine in the airways; this property supports folklore claims for its use as an antihistamine.

  15. Preliminary Investigations of Creep Strain of Neogene Clay from Warsaw in Drained Triaxial Tests Assisted by Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz Dominik; Dobak, Paweł Józef; Kiełbasiński, Kamil

    2017-06-01

    The study concerns soil creep deformation in multistage triaxial stress tests under drained conditions. High resolution X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) was involved in structure recognition before and after triaxial tests. Undisturbed Neogene clay samples, which are widespread in central Poland, were used in this study. XμCT was used to identify representative sample series and informed the detection and rejection of unreliable ones. Maximum deviatoric stress for in situ stress confining condition was equal 95.1 kPa. This result helped in the design of further multistage investigations. The study identified the rheological strain course, which can be broken down into three characterizations: decreasing creep strain rate, transitional constant creep velocity, and accelerating creep deformation. The study found that due to multistage creep loading, the samples were strengthened. Furthermore, there is a visibly "brittle" character of failure, which may be the consequence of the microstructure transformation as a function of time as well as collapse of voids. Due to the glacial tectonic history of the analyzed samples, the reactivation of microcracks might also serve as an explanation. The number of the various sizes of shear planes after failure is confirmed by XμCT overexposure.

  16. Preliminary results of fisheries investigation associated with Skylab-3. [remotely sensed distribution and abundance of gamefish in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K. J. (Principal Investigator); Pastula, E. J., Jr.; Woods, G.; Faller, K.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to establish the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data acquired from aircraft and satellite platforms to provide information concerning the distribution and abundance of oceanic gamefish. Data from the test area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico has made possible the identification of fisheries significant environmental parameters for white marlin. Predictive models based on catch data and surface truth information have been developed and have demonstrated potential for reducing search significantly by identifying areas which have a high probability of being productive. Three of the parameters utilized by the model, chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature, and turbidity have been inferred from aircraft sensor data. Cloud cover and delayed receipt have inhibited the use of Skylab data. The first step toward establishing the feasibility of utilizing remotely sensed data to assess amd monitor the distribution of ocean gamefish has been taken with the successful identification of fisheries significant oceanographic parameters and the demonstration of the capability of measuring most of these parameters remotely.

  17. A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Chen, Zhi; Yi, Yanqing; Wang, Peizhong

    2014-04-02

    Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL.

  18. Fabrication of silk mesh with enhanced cytocompatibility: preliminary in vitro investigation toward cell-based therapy for hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, O; Park, J; Monforte, X; Gruber-Blum, S; Redl, H; Petter-Puchner, A; Teuschl, A H

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that combining cells with meshes prior to implantation successfully enhanced hernia repair. The idea is to create a biologic coating surrounding the mesh with autologous cells, before transplantation into the patient. However, due to the lack of a prompt and robust cell adhesion to the meshes, extensive in vitro cultivation is required to obtain a homogenous cell layer covering the mesh. In this context, the objective of this publication is to manufacture meshes made of silk fibres and to enhance the cytoadhesion and cytocompatibility of the biomaterial by surface immobilization of a pro-adhesive wheat germ agglutinin (lectin WGA). We first investigated the affinity between the glycoprotein WGA and cells, in solution and then after covalent immobilization of WGA on silk films. Then, we manufactured meshes made of silk fibres, tailored them with WGA grafting and finally evaluated the cytocompatibility and the inflammatory response of silk and silk-lectin meshes compared to common polypropylene mesh, using fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. The in vitro experiments revealed that the cytocompatibility of silk can be enhanced by surface immobilization with lectin WGA without exhibiting negative response in terms of pro-inflammatory reaction. Grafting lectin to silk meshes could bring advantages to facilitate cell-coating of meshes prior to implantation, which is an imperative prerequisite for abdominal wall tissue regeneration using cell-based therapy.

  19. Investigation on raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres and its preliminary application for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao, E-mail: yanjuntaonihao@163.com [Wuhan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Li, Zhanfeng; Wang, Hongyan; Cui, Xuejun [Jilin University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2013-09-15

    A series of raspberry-like magnetic-hollow silica nanospheres were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process, which was based on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} particles as the outer shell were compactly assembled on the surface of PS, and then magnetic-hollow nanospheres were obtained by calcination. Different synthesis conditions including the amount of NH{sub 4}OH, TEOS, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the adding time of PS were systematically investigated to discuss the influence of these conditions on the morphology and structure. The prepared magnetic-hollow nanospheres were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometry, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM images exhibited that the obtained samples with the perfect spherical profile and large cavities structure were well monodisperse and uniform under the optimized condition. Zeta-potential analysis was employed to make clear the formation mechanism of raspberry-like PS@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composite nanosphere. Moreover, the drug release of ibuprofen experiment results demonstrated that the magnetic-hollow nanospheres could be used as a drug carrier to slowly release and deliver drugs.

  20. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. T., E-mail: s164.smith@qut.edu.au; Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane 4006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Brisbane 4066 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  1. Preliminary investigation of commercially available pluronics as UV curable 3D printing inks for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A'Lester Cordell

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) emerged from simple beginnings in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) over 31 years ago as an economical technique for rapid prototyping. Now 3DP has become the premier method for fabricating materials from unique consumer products to lifesaving customized human organs. Current challenges in bioprinting center around balancing material properties such as stiffness, yield strength, and surface chemistry with non-Newtonian fluid flow to construct interconnected, porous scaffolding geometries that simulate the complex vasculature found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body needed to promote cell growth and regeneration. In this study, several copolymers of poly(ethlyene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) with a triblock structure were characterized using oscillatory shear measurements and thermogravimetric instruments to investigate the relationship between storage and loss moduli (G' and G") and printing behavior. The relationship between complex viscosity (eta*), yield stress (tauy), and fluid flow through a syringe yields some indirect correlations that depend on testing procedure. The overall relationship was more complex than originally understood. In the end, several self-supporting complex geometries were successfully printed using a photocurable formulations waxy (Pluronic P85, Jeffamine ED 2003) and liquid (Pluronic L121) triblock copolymers.

  2. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnica, V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Academy of Fine Arts, Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Zagreb (Croatia); Skaric, K.; Mudronja, D.; Pavlicic, M.; Peranic, I. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M. [Academy of Fine Arts, Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Vienna (Austria); Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh - one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily {mu}-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as {mu}-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment. (orig.)

  3. Experimental application of pulsed laser-induced water jet for endoscopic submucosal dissection: mechanical investigation and preliminary experiment in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chiaki; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamada, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Sato, Akira; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji; Satomi, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    A current drawback of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early-stage gastrointestinal tumors is the lack of instruments that can safely assist with this procedure. We have developed a pulsed jet device that can be incorporated into a gastrointestinal endoscope. Here, we investigated the mechanical profile of the pulsed jet device and demonstrated the usefulness of this instrument in esophageal ESD in swine. The device comprises a 5-Fr catheter, a 14-mm long stainless steel tube for generating the pulsed water jet, a nozzle and an optical quartz fiber. The pulsed water jet was generated at pulse rates of 3 Hz by irradiating the physiological saline (4°C) within the stainless steel tube with an holmium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser at 1.1 J/pulse. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated using a force meter. The device was used only for the part of submucosal dissection in the swine ESD model. Tissues removed using the pulsed jet device and a conventional electrocautery device, and the esophagus, were histologically examined to assess thermal damage. The peak impact force was observed at a stand-off distance of 40 mm (1.1 J/pulse). ESD using the pulsed jet device was successful, as the tissue specimens showed precise dissection of the submucosal layer. The extent of thermal injury was significantly lower in the dissected bed using the pulsed jet device. The results showed that the present endoscopic pulsed jet system is a useful alternative for a safe ESD with minimum tissue injury. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  4. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  5. Preliminary Findings from an Investigation of Zika Virus Infection in a Patient with No Known Risk Factors - Utah, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Carolyn; Dunn, Angela; Savage, Harry; Faraji, Ary; Rubin, Mike; Risk, Ilene; Garcia, Wendy; Cortese, Margaret; Novosad, Shannon; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth Raquel; Crain, Jacqueline; Hill, Mary; Atkinson, Annette; Peterson, Dallin; Christensen, Kimberly; Dimond, Melissa; Staples, J Erin; Nakashima, Allyn

    2016-09-16

    On July 12, 2016, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) was notified by a clinician caring for an adult (patient A) who was evaluated for fever, rash, and conjunctivitis that began on July 1. Patient A had not traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission; had not had sexual contact with a person who recently traveled; and had not received a blood transfusion, organ transplant, or mosquito bites (1). Patient A provided care over several days to an elderly male family contact (the index patient) who contracted Zika virus abroad. The index patient developed septic shock with multiple organ failure and died in the hospital on June 25, 2016. The index patient's blood specimen obtained 2 days before his death had a level of viremia approximately 100,000 times higher than the average level reported in persons infected with Zika virus (2). Zika virus infection was diagnosed in patient A by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing on a urine specimen collected 7 days after symptom onset. In addition, a serum specimen collected 11 days after symptom onset, after patient A's symptoms had resolved, was positive for antibodies to Zika virus by Zika immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and had neutralizing antibodies detected by plaque-reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Working with Salt Lake and Davis County Health Departments, UDOH requested assistance from CDC with an investigation to determine patient A's exposures and determine a probable source of infection.

  6. Preliminary investigation on the effects of biological and synthetic insecticides on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of cabbage pests is oriented towards the use of efficient but high-risk insecticides, some of them being endocrine disruptors. Biopesticides are more environment-friendly, operator-and consumers-safe, but they have low initial toxicity, low efficacy to advanced larval stages, and they require certain knowledge of pest and host biology. In our laboratory experiments we have investigated the effects of formulated synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (0.3 l/ha and biological products - formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (2 and 3/ha and Spinosad (0.1 l/ha - on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae-instars 2, 3, 4 and 5. The effect of insecticides was inversely proportional to larval instars. Btk effect could be improved if tank-mixed with cypermethrin. The mixing of ready-made products allows a reduction 3 and 6 times compared with the recommended dose, still obtaining satisfactory results. Rate of leaf damage was reduced when tank mixtures were used. Use of two products in mixture would be of significance especially for control of advanced late instars late in season, when Btk action alone is insufficient. Spinosad was effective in inducing mortality and reducing leaf damage by all larval instars, therefore we assume that the dose could be reduced. Feeding rate and mortality are equally important parameters when assessing biopesticide efficacy. This strategy should also reduce the possibility of inducing resistance in pest population. It also tends to reduce the residues in commodities and is good solution in production of hygienic and health safe food.

  7. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  8. Frequency-Amplitude Ratio of Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials for Detecting Meniere's Disease: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Barman, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Several parameters of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) have been used to identify Meniere's disease. Nonetheless frequency-amplitude ratio (FAR), which is the ratio of amplitude between two frequencies, is one among the parameters that has failed to attract researchers' attention despite proving its worth in diagnosis of Meniere's disease when used in conjunction with cervical VEMP. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the utility of FAR of oVEMP in identifying Meniere's disease and finding out an optimum frequency pair for its diagnosis. Using a case-control design, oVEMPs were recorded for tone bursts of 500, 750, 1000, and 1500 Hz from 36 individuals with unilateral definite Meniere's disease in the age range of 15 to 50 years. For comparison purposes, oVEMP at the above frequencies were also obtained from an equal number of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. The amplitudes of 750, 1000, 1500 Hz and tuned frequency, which was the frequency with the largest peak to peak amplitude among the above-mentioned frequencies, were divided by the amplitude of 500 Hz to obtain FARs for 750/500, 1000/500, 1500/500, and tuned frequency/500 frequency pairs. The results revealed significantly higher FAR in the Meniere's disease group than the healthy controls for all the frequency pairs (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of almost 90% and the specificity 100% was obtained for 1000/500 and 750/500, whereas the other frequency pairs produced a sensitivity of about 56% while still showing a specificity of 100%. High sensitivity and specificity, coupled with considerably lowered test duration when using only two frequencies, makes the use of FAR a more attractive prerogative, with 1000/500 as the frequency pair of choice.

  9. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  11. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siwalee; Rattanapunya; Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Jiraporn; Kuesap; Ronnatrai; Ruengweerayut; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily investigate the prevalence of HIV co-infection in patients with malaria in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand.Methods: The study was a retrospective study on blood samples collected from a total of 256 patients with malaria(all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005-2007(148 samples) and 2010-2012(108 samples). Malaria diagnosis was performed based on microscopic examination of patients’ blood smears. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and gel particle passive agglutination were employed for the detection of HIV antigen in patients’ plasma. Results: Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) and Plasmodium vivax(P. vivax) are the two predominant malaria species with the ratio of about 1: 1 to 1.5:1. Most of the P. falciparum cases were presented with acute uncomplicated signs and symptoms with highest parasitemia of 1 045 000 asexual parasites/μL bloods. The prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection during 2005-2007 was 1.35%(2/148 cases, 1 each for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection), but was increased to 2.78%(3/108 cases, 2 and 1 for P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection, respectively) during 2010-2012.Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  12. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi2Te3 and (Bi0,5Sb1,5)Te3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  13. Dismantling of the 904 Cell at the HAO/Sud Facility - 13466

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudey, C.E.; Crosnier, S. [AREVA Clean-Up BU, 1 route de la Noue 91196 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renouf, M.; Gaspard, N. [AREVA Clean-Up BU, Site de La Hague - BV 35 - 50444 Beaumont Hague (France); Pinot, L. [AREVA D and D BU, Site de La Hague - 50444 Beaumont Hague (France)

    2013-07-01

    La Hague facility, in France, is the spent fuel recycling plant wherein a part of the fuel coming from some of the French, German, Belgian, Swiss, Dutch and Japanese nuclear reactors is reprocessed before being recycled in order to separate certain radioactive elements. The facility has been successively handled by the CEA (1962-1978), Cogema (1978-2006), and AREVA NC (since 2006). La Hague facility is composed of 3 production units: The UP2-400 production unit started to be operated in 1966 for the reprocessing of UNGG metal fuel. In 1976, following the dropout of the graphite-gas technology by EDF, an HAO workshop to reprocess the fuel from the light water reactors is affiliated and then stopped in 2003. - UP2-400 is partially stopped in 2002 and then definitely the 1 January 2004 and is being dismantled - UP2-800, with the same capacity than UP3, started to be operated in 1994 and is still in operation. And UP3 - UP3 was implemented in 1990 with an annual reprocessing capacity of 800 tons of fuel and is still in operation The combined licensed capacity of UP2-800 and UP3 is 1,700 tons of used fuel. (authors)

  14. High-speed fiber laser cutting of thick stainless steel for dismantling tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed fiber laser cutting technology of thick steels for dismantling tasks was achieved using a 6-kW fiber laser system. At first, a new cutting head for efficient cutting of thick steels was developed, which was composed by a collimator with a focal length of 160 mm and mirror-type focusing objects with a long focal length of 600 mm. The long focal length of the focusing object made it possible for the beam size to be small through the thick cutting material and the cutting efficiency was expected to increase compared with the short focal length. In addition, folding the beam facilitated the compact cutting head with a size of 160 mm (width) × 80 mm (height) × 640 mm (length) and a weight of 6.9 kg. In the cutting experiment, the laser beam was delivered to the cutting head by a 25-m long process fiber with a core diameter of 100 μm. The cutting performances were studied against the thicknesses of stainless steel plates. A maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min was obtained for the 60-mm thick stainless steel plate cutting and the cut specimen showed an excellent kerf shape and a narrow kerf width. To the best of our knowledge, this cutting speed was higher than other previously reported results when cutting with a 6-kW laser power.

  15. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  16. Integration of Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Dismantlement Requirements at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhns, Douglass Jack; Reese, Craig Lyle

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the Environmental Restoration Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) determined that it was necessary to remediate a Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA) site to address the risk of subsurface petroleum contamination to human health and the environment. This cleanup project was conducted utilizing the Non-time Critical Removal Action process. Due to the close proximity (above the contaminated soil) of a number of above ground storage tanks and a building, the CERCLA project team worked closely with the D&D group to ensure all requirements for each program were met. Lessons learned and regulatory requirements will be discussed in the paper, including the factors unknown to many ER personnel regarding the steps required to be completed prior to the dismantlement of structures. The paper will summarize the background associated with the site, why the removal action was conducted, the scope of the removal action, and the results. The emphasis of the paper will discuss the integration between ER and D&D requirements and processes. In the current environment where ER and D&D activities are commingled, it is imperative that ER and D&D personnel are aware of the requirements imposed upon each program. By working together and building upon the strengths of each program, the INEEL’s 1997 removal action was a tremendous success.

  17. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m{sup 2} of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite.

  19. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL): Preliminary investigation on effects of cement doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Si-Hyun, E-mail: sihyun2@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Batchelor, Bill [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The reactivities of various types of iron mixtures to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCE, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA) in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids were investigated. The iron mixtures included a mixture of Fe(II) and Portland cement (Fe(II)-C), a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III) and Ca(OH){sub 2} (Fe(II/III)-L), and a mixture of Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Portland cement (Fe(II/III)-C). When the same amount of Fe(II) was used, Fe(II)-C was more reactive with chlorinated ethylenes (i.e. PCE and TCE) than Fe(II/III)-L. The reductive pathway for high concentrations of total PCE (i.e. above solubility) with Fe(II)-C was determined to be a combination of two-electron transfer, {beta}-elimination and hydrogenolysis. Increasing the cement dose from 5% to 10% in Fe(II)-C did not affect PCE dechlorination rates, but it did favor the {beta}-elimination pathway. In addition, when Fe(II/III)-C with 5%C was used, PCE dechlorination was similar to that by Fe(II)-C, but this mixture did not effectively degrade TCE. A modified second-order kinetic model was developed and shown to appropriately describe degradation of TCE at high concentrations. Fe(II/III)-L effectively degraded high concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA at rates that were similar to those obtained with Fe(II)-C using 10% C. Moreover, both increasing cement doses and the presence of Fe(III) increased dechlorination rates of 1,1,1-TCA, which was mainly through the hydrogenolysis pathway. The reactivity of Fe(II/III)-L was strongly dependent on the target compound (i.e. less reactivity with TCE, more with 1,1,1-TCA). Therefore, Fe(II/III)-L could be a potential mixture for degrading 1,1,1-TCA, but it should be modified to degrade TCE more effectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCE yield indicated that PCE dechlorination was through hydrogenolysis and {beta}-elimination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-elimination, especially PCE to dichloroacetylene, was favored with the higher cement doses. Black

  20. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    detected in 4/8 (50 percent) of the surface water sites sampled. These initial results suggest that additional investigation into these relationships is warranted.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  2. A preliminary investigation of the dynamic characteristics of dried soil layers on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Shao, Hongbo

    2010-02-01

    SummarySerious soil desiccation, resulting from climatic conditions and poor land management, may lead to the formation of a dried soil layer (DSL), which can negatively affect ecological and hydrological processes. To mitigate these effects through management, it is necessary to understand property interactions within DSLs, compared with those in the whole soil profile, and DSL formation processes under different land uses. We investigated the relationships between soil water content (SWC) and plant root indices, and other soil properties, under various land uses in the Liudaogou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. We also studied the development of DSLs as a function of the growth age of two vegetation types. Rate of formation and thickness of DSLs were dependent on vegetation type: DSLs formed after 2 years of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) growth and 3 years of Caragana korshinskii growth; after 4 years of growth, DSLs under alfalfa were thicker than those under C. korshinskii, but after 31 years the DSL thickness under C. korshinskii (4.4 m) exceeded that formed under alfalfa (3 m). The more persistent DSLs occurred below a 100 cm thick upper soil layer that was seasonally dried and replenished by rainfall under both vegetation types. The degree of soil desiccation under natural vegetation was generally less than that under non-indigenous plant species, and was similarly less over a period of about 30 years for a natural plant succession sequence than for an artificial one. Thus, the use of natural vegetation succession management principles would possibly reduce soil desiccation during vegetative restoration. Densities of root length, weight, and surface area, and the average root diameter of soybean ( Glycine max), alfalfa, Stipa bubgeana, and C. korshinskii all decreased with increases in soil depths below 20 cm. Correlations between SWC and root indices, and various soil physical and chemical properties, were generally weaker within the DSL layers than

  3. Preliminary investigations on picoplankton-related precipitation of alkaline-earth metal carbonates in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Jaquet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a routine water-quality survey in meso-oligotrophic lake Geneva (Switzerland, suspended matter was collected by filtration on 0.2 μm membranes in July and August 2012 at the depth of maximal chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration (2 mg m–3. Examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous dark and gelatinous patches occluding the pores of the membranes, containing high numbers of picoplanktonic cells and, in places, clusters of high-reflectance smooth microspheres (1-2 μm in diameter. Their chemical composition, determined by semi-quantitative, energy-dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDS showed magnesium (Mg, calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba (alkaline earth metals to be the dominant cations. Among the anions, phosphorus (P and carbon (C were present, but only the latter is considered here (as carbonate. The microspheres were subdivided into four types represented in a Ca-Sr-Ba ternary space. All types are confined within a domain bound by Ca>45, Sr<10 and Ba<50 (in mole %. Type I, the most frequent, displays a broad variability in Ba/Ca, even within a given cluster. Types II and III are devoid of Ba, but may incorporate P. Type IV contains only Ca. The Type I composition resembles that of benstonite, a Group IIA carbonate that was recently found as intracellular granules in a cyanobacterium from alkaline lake Alchichica (Mexico.Lake Geneva microspheres are solid, featureless and embedded in a mucilage-looking substance in the vicinity of, but seemingly not inside, picoplanktonic cells morphologically similar to Chlorella and Synechococcus. In summer 2012, the macroscopic physico-chemical conditions in lake Geneva epilimnion were such as to allow precipitation of Ca but not of Sr and Ba carbonates. Favourable conditions did exist, though, in the micro-environment provided by the combination of active picoplankton and a mucilaginous envelope. Further studies are ongoing to investigate the

  4. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Preliminary investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Pagnout, Christophe [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, iCEINT, http://www.i-ceint.org (France); Jomini, Stephane [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Bennasroune, Amar, E-mail: amar.bennasroune@univ-metz.fr [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO{sub 2} NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25 mg/L during 24 h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25 mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phagocytosis inhibition at TiO{sub 2} NP exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP in freshwater mussel hemocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased phosphorylation level of p38 and ERK 1/2 after in vivo exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP.

  5. Quality of life of people living with HIV, preliminary results from IANUA (Investigation on Antiretroviral Therapy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Venturini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART has reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, and changed the patients’ perspective of life. As a result, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL has become a crucial clinical issue. Objective: Assessment of HRQOL in a sample of Italian patients from IANUA study. Investigate correlation between CD4 cell counts, viral load and changes in HRQOL. Materials and Methods: EQ-5D-3L self-reported questionnaire has been used in the evaluation of HRQOL. It assesses five dimensions: “mobility,” “self care,” “usual activities,” “pain/discomfort” and “anxiety/depression.” Each dimension has three levels: no problems, some problems and extreme problems. In addition, it includes a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS where one's own health “today” is rated from 0 “worst imaginable health” to 100 “best imaginable health.” The respondents provide information on marital status, education, employment/unemployment, other treatments used in addition to HAART (1,2,3,4,5 or more and number of hospitalizations due to HIV/AIDS. Results: 684 patients completed the questionnaire: 231 females and 453 males. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (range 21–78. The mean VAS score was 69.9. 558 patients (81.5% reported no problems in mobility. 642 patients (93.5% had no problems in self care. 423 patients (61.8% had no pain/discomfort while 219 had some problems. 326 patients (46.1% had some problems in anxiety/depression. Conclusions: The analysis of self-reported questionnaires indicates that HRQOL in our sample group is not deeply affected by HIV/AIDS. The dimensions that are affected in the least are “mobility” and “self care” while the major problem is “anxiety/depression” with half of the sample reporting moderate or high level.

  6. Concentration profiles, source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dumpsite soils from Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site, Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Akortia, Eric; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-06-01

    The concentrations of eighteen (18) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the 16 USEPA's priority PAHs as well as two alkyl-substituted naphthalenes were determined in dumpsite soils collected from different sampling sites within the Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site in Accra, Ghana. Following their isolation with ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique, the concentrations of the PAHs were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Loss-on-ignition (LOI) method was employed for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil samples. The mean Σ18PAHs obtained were 3006, 5627, 3046, 5555, and 7199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sampling sites A (mosque), B (dismantling site), C (residential house/police station), D (personal computer repairers' shop) and E (e-waste open burning area), respectively. In all cases, the prevalence of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was generally observed across the sampling sites. In this study, PAHs with two to three rings and four to six rings exhibited strong positive correlations, whereas BbF and BkF showed weak positive and negative correlations with other PAHs investigated. With the exception of BbF and BkF, all the PAHs had moderate to strong positive correlations with the TOC. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration is a useful indicator of the carcinogenic potency of environmental matrices and these ranged between 111 and 454 ng g(-1), which are generally below the 'safe' level of 600 ng g(-1) established for the protection of the environment and human health. Interestingly, the seven carcinogenic PAHs were the major contributors to the BaPeq concentrations accounting between 97.7 and 98.3 %. Despite the minimal risk to cancer via exposure to the investigated dumpsite soil as indicated in the present study, the prolonged exposure to these pollutants via various exposure pathways may result in increased risk to cancer over time. The application of several

  7. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  8. Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Karsch, Leonhard [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Jörg [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    dose profiles are in agreement with reference measurements. An inherent drawback of the scintillator is the nonlinear light output for high stopping-power radiation due to the quenching effect. It impacts the depth dose curves measured with the dosimeter. For single Bragg peak distributions this leads to a peak to plateau ratio of 2.8 instead of 4.5 for the reference ionization chamber measurement. Furthermore, the transmission of the clinical bremsstrahlung beams through the scintillator leads to the saturation of one camera, making dose reconstructions in that case presently not feasible.Conclusions: It is shown that distributions of scintillation light generated by proton or electron beams can be reconstructed by the dosimetry system within minutes. The quenching apparent for proton irradiation, and the yet not precisely determined position dependency of the imaging scale, require further investigation and corrections. Upgrading the prototype with larger or inorganic scintillators would increase the detectable proton and electron energy range. The presented results show that the determination of 3D dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography is a promising dosimetry method.

  9. Geothermal Potential of the Siǧacik Gulf (Seferihisar) and Preliminary investigations with Seismic and Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakak, Özde; Özel, Erdeniz; Ergün, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region, including both W. Turkey and Central Greece, is one of the world's most rapidly-deforming regions of continental crust and has a seismic rate is exceptional on a world scale. SW Turkey is one of the most rapidly extending regions in the world where the extension appears to have commenced in middle or late Miocene time. Paleomagnetic work in W Turkey and Aegean islands has revealed the horizontal rotation of some crustal blocks. In W Turkey clockwise rotation on Karaburun peninsula west of Izmir by 44° in the last few Ma is detected, and anticlockwise rotation of 37° for the Seferihisar region. The area of W Turkey and the Aegean islands has very strong geothermal gradient in the world scale. Sığacık Gulf is located on south of Karaburun Peninsula, and it is restricted by two important ridges as Karaburun and Seferihisar Ridges. Recent geological and geophysical studies suggested that this area is both E-W trending normal and NE-SW trending strike-slip faulting caused deformation. The Seferihisar earthquake series were occurred here during 17-20 October 2005. For investigation of geothermal potential and hot water outlets on the seafloor, shallow seismic and magnetic surveys are preferred, which were carried out onboard Dokuz Eylül-1 vessel belongs to Dokuz Eylül University, in 2011. Approximately 250km seismic reflection data was collected along 27 lines. During seismic method used Sparker system which has 1 channel and 12 hydrophone with 17 m long streamer, as a seismic source used SIG Seismic Marine ELC 80 (4 kV & 3.2 KV DC). Seismic data processing (band pass filter, bottom mute, top mute, true amplitude recovery, time migration) was made using Promax program in the Seismic Laboratory in the Institute of Marine Science and Technology. The basement topography map was prepared using Kingdom Suite program drawing seabed line on these sections. Sea floor topography changes between 30-120 m, and this increases towards Ikaria Basin

  10. A preliminary investigation comparing one and eight channels at fast and slow rates on music appraisal in adults with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R S; Gfeller, K; Mehr, M A

    2000-09-01

    Music perception is important to cochlear implant patients, but little effort has been devoted to improving signal processing for music. In this preliminary investigation, we probed the importance of number of channels and stimulus rate. We asked eight users of the Clarion cochlear implant to rate music quality on a scale from 0 to 100 on three different types of music (country and western, pop and classical). Patients rated eight- and one-channel processors running at a fast and slow rate. The stimulus rate was 200 pps for the slow rate. For the eight-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 394 to 765 pps. For the one-channel condition, the fast rate varied from 2601 to 4335 pps. Results indicated that the eight-channel condition was uniformly rated higher than the one-channel condition. However, the results for stimulus rate were less clear. No patients assigned higher ratings with the slow rate, but only three subjects assigned higher ratings with the fast rate. We conclude that music perception can be influenced and probably improved by signal processing. The number of channels, or perhaps spectral representation, is critical for music appreciation by cochlear implant recipients.

  11. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  12. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Supersonic Diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-01

    No. L5D20 This pressure was measured with a large mercury manometer . The total ’head after diffusion can be assumed equal to the static pressure at...of the entering kinetic energy. A mercury manometer was used to measure the difference between the total heads before and after diffusion. ‘J!hesetwo

  14. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  15. The 1911 Chon-Kemin (M 8.3) earthquake in the Tien-Shan region*: preliminary investigation results by means of historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, G.; Krüger, F.

    2012-04-01

    For many years the Tien-Shan region* attracts attention of geophysicists and geologists due to complexity and uniqueness of its tectonics. At the turn of the XIX. to the XX. century several destructive earthquakes have occurred in the region with estimated magnitudes between 7 and 8 and two of them even exceeding the magnitude of 8. Our main goal is to investigate the deformation processes responsible for this significant earthquake sequence and the possible interrelation between the single events. Here we present preliminary results of the Chon-Kemin earthquake as an example. On 3rd January 1911 the M 8.3 Chon-Kemin earthquake hit the Tien-Shan region. It is the strongest event in the history of Tien-Shan region for which instrumental recordings are available and one of the strongest intracontinental earthquakes in XX. century. Historical analog data were collected from different seismic archives in European and non-European countries. The data from 20 seismic station were collected, mostly stations at that time had only horizontal components although there are some vertical recordings as well. Preprocessing the analog data brings several difficulties, e.g. limited information on instrument characteristics. Digitization is the most time-consuming part among preprocessing. The quality of seismograms is not always good enough this is why it was necessary to combine different methods of data processing. Since at that time localizations have been done on the base of intensity distributions, the epicenter is poorly determined. Several localizations, differed in the value of up to 80 km, are available. The surface rupture was also estimated in previous studies (about 200 km) and the deformation on the surface can be still observed nowadays, which gives opportunity to calibrate new localization comparing it to the geological data. Thus, we located the earthquake epicenter and determined the magnitude again based on the digitized seismograms. From first motion body wave

  16. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    work on the possible relationship between the etiology of BEN and toxic aromatic substances leached from Pliocene lignites in well water is warranted.A distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and villages where Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs has been observed, indicating a possible link between BEN and the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites. Preliminary investigations by NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and leaching experiments show a high degree of organic functionality in the Pliocene lignites, high-leachability by groundwater of organic matter from these beds, and the presence of toxic aromatic compounds.

  17. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-08-08

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  18. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  19. A microstructural analysis of solder joints from the electronic assemblies of dismantled nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Joining Dept.

    1997-05-01

    MC1814 Interconnection Boxes from dismantled B57 bombs, and MC2839 firing Sets from retired W70-1 warheads were obtained from the Pantex facility. Printed circuit boards were selected from these components for microstructural analysis of their solder joints. The analysis included a qualitative examination of the solder joints and quantitative assessments of (1) the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer that formed between the solder and circuit board Cu features, and (2) the Pb-rich phase particle distribution within the solder joint microstructure. The MC2839 solder joints had very good workmanship qualities. The intermetallic compound layer stoichiometry was determined to be that of Cu6Sn5. The mean intermetallic compound layer thickness for all solder joints was 0.885 mm. The magnitude of these values did not indicate significant growth over the weapon lifetime. The size distribution of the Pb-rich phase particles for each of the joints were represented by the mean of 9.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mm{sup 2}. Assuming a spherical geometry, the mean particle diameter would be 3.54 mm. The joint-to-joint difference of intermetallic compound layer thickness and Pb-rich particle size distribution was not caused by varying thermal environments, but rather, was a result of natural variations in the joint microstructure that probably existed at the time of manufacture. The microstructural evaluation of the through-hole solder joints form the MC2839 and MC1814 components indicated that the environmental conditions to which these electronic units were exposed in the stockpile, were benign regarding solder joint aging. There was an absence of thermal fatigue damage in MC2839 circuit board, through-hole solder joints. The damage to the eyelet solder joints of the MC1814 more likely represented infant mortality failures at or very near the time of manufacture, resulting from a marginal design status of this type of solder joint design.

  20. Reserves for shutdown/dismantling and disposal in nuclear technology. Theses and recommendations on reform options; Rueckstellungen fuer Stilllegung/Rueckbau und Entsorgung im Atombereich. Thesen und Empfehlungen zu Reformoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Bettina [Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft e.V. (FOeS), Berlin (Germany). Green Budget Germany (GBG)

    2012-04-11

    The study on reserves for shutdown, dismantling and disposal of nuclear facilities covers the following topics: cost for shutdown, dismantling and disposal and amount and transparency of nuclear reserves, solution by y stock regulated by public law for long-term liabilities, and improvement of the protection in the event of insolvency for the remaining EVU reserves for short- and intermediate-term liabilities. The appendix includes estimations and empirical values for the cost of shutdown and dismantling, estimation of disposal costs, and a summary of Swiss studies on dismantling and disposal and transfer to Germany.

  1. 能源互联网环境下的信息经济学初探%A Preliminary Investigation on Information Economics in Energy Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琳娜; 文福拴; 尚金成; 何洋

    2016-01-01

    信息系统是能源互联网的重要组成部分,能源互联网环境下的信息经济学是相关的一个有待研究的重要问题。在此背景下,展望了信息经济学在能源互联网信息经济研究中的应用前景,并试图建立相关的研究框架。首先总结了国内外现有的对能源互联网比较典型的定义,在此基础上展望了能源互联网环境下信息系统的基本架构、功能和运行机制。之后,概述了信息经济学的一些主流理论与方法。最后,从信息价值增值、信息价值评估、信息增值服务模式、基于信息的博弈分析和机制设计等几个方面,探讨了能源互联网环境下信息经济学需要研究的问题。%Information system represents important part of energy internet, and related information economics in energy internet environment is an important topic to systematically investigate. Given this background, a preliminary investigation on information economics in energy internet environment is carried out with attempt of establishing a research framework. First, existing energy internet definitions are summarized, and on this basis a prospect on infrastructure, function and operation condition of information system in energy internet is presented. Subsequently, some well-established theories and methods of information economics are briefly clarified. Finally, some issues to be investigated are addressed, including information value-addition and evaluation, information value-addition service mode, information based game analysis and mechanism design.

  2. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  3. A preliminary investigation into the morphology of oral papillae and denticles of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) with inferences about its functional significance across life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Bianca de S; Wosnick, Natascha; Hammerschlag, Neil; Ciena, Adriano P; Kfoury Junior, José Roberto; Rici, Rose E G

    2017-03-01

    Sensory organs in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) detect and respond to a different set of biotic and/or abiotic stimuli, through sight, smell, taste, hearing, mechanoreception and electroreception. Although gustation is crucial for survival and essential for growth, mobility, and maintenance of neural activity and the proper functioning of the immune system, comparatively little is known about this sensory system in elasmobranchs. Here we present a preliminary investigation into the structural and dimensional characteristics of the oral papillae and denticles found in the oropharyngeal cavity of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) during embryonic development through adulthood. Samples were obtained from the dorsal and ventral surface of the oropharyngeal cavity collected from embryos at different development stages as well as from adults. Our results suggest that development of papillae occurs early in ontogeny, before the formation of the oral denticles. The diameter of oral papillae gradually increases during development, starting from 25 μm in stage I embryos, to 110 μm in stage IV embryos and 272-300 μm in adults. Embryos exhibit papillae at early developmental stages, suggesting that these structures may be important during early in life. The highest density of papillae was observed in the maxillary and mandibular valve regions, possibly related to the ability to identify, capture and process prey. The oral denticles were observed only in the final embryonic stage as well as in adults. Accordingly, we suggest that oral denticles likely aid in ram ventilation (through reducing the hydrodynamic drag), to protect papillae from injury during prey consumption and assist in the retention and consumption of prey (through adhesion), since these processes are only necessary after birth. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  4. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid: Synthesis and its preliminary investigation as a new sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinniah, Subathra; Mohamad, Sharifah; Manan, Ninie S.A., E-mail: niniemanan@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A novel of β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid coated with magnetite nanoparticles is prepared via co-precipitation method. • The architecture of the material is successfully characterized and confirmed that β-cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid, has been effectively coated onto surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. • Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis confirmed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to attain an excellent magnetic properties. • Preliminary electrochemical study shows that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to recognize Biphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was coated with β-cyclodextrin-funclionalized ionic liquid (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL) via the co-precipitation method in alkaline salt medium. β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid has been effectively coated onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. The instruments used to investigate the architecture are: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscope, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm. A Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis verified that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL attained excellent magnetic properties. The analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope shows that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL produced monodisperse particles with minimal aggregation. Moreover, electrochemical studies have revealed that this new material showed outstanding ability to recognize Bisphenol A with lower electrochemical potential at 0.5 V than other comparative materials, as well as a higher detection current. Thus, this material has promising potential as a new electrode material in sensor applications.

  5. Clinical audit of posterior three-unit fixed-movable resin-bonded fixed partial dentures - A retrospective, preliminary clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Michael G; Dyson, John E; Mui, Thomas H F; Lam, Walter Y H

    2017-02-01

    Two-unit cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (RBFPDs) have higher retention rates over longer span fixed-fixed RBFPDs. It has been hypothesized that interabutment stresses associated with fixed-fixed designs cause prosthesis debonds therefore for the replacement of molar-sized and longer spans, non-rigid connectors have been used to allow independent movement between two abutment teeth. This preliminary study evaluates the clinical longevity and subjects' satisfaction of three-unit fixed-movable (FM3) RBFPDs provided at a dental teaching hospital. Subjects who had received FM3 RBFPD(s) in the posterior region were clinically reviewed for complications. History of any debonds and subjects' satisfaction to the prosthesis was recorded. Time-to-debond (retention rate) and time-to-loss (survival rate) of these prostheses were presented in life tables. Ninety-eight prostheses in 84 subjects were examined. Their mean service life was 31.8 months (SD 11.5, range 3-67 months). Twenty-two prostheses had a history of debond, resulting in a retention proportion of 77.6%; seventeen of these were rebonded and still present at the time of review. One prosthesis was lost after extraction of a periodontally-involved abutment tooth, giving a survival proportion of 93.9%. High subject satisfaction and no adverse outcome were reported. Three-unit fixed-movable RBFPDs have a shorter success than two-unit cantilevered RBFPDs. However, non-rigid connectors allow the possibility of rebonding giving satisfactory short-term survival rate. Further research is needed to investigate their long-term efficacy. Three-unit fixed-movable RBFPDs incorporating non-rigid connectors may be a feasible option for replacement of molar-size pontic in the posterior region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye-sensitized solar cells properties of functionalized anthracenyl-based bipyridyl and phenanthrolyl Ru(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adewale O Adeloye; Peter A Ajibade; Frances R Cummings; Lukas J Le Roux; Sampson N Mamphweli; Edson L Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Four new amphiphilic ligands: 4-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine (L1), 4-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine (L2), 5-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline (L3) and 5-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline (L4), with their corresponding homonuclear ruthenium(II) complexes formulated as cis-[Ru-(L1)3(PF6)2] (C1), cis-[Ru-(L2)3(PF6)2] (C2), cis-[Ru-(L3)3(PF6)2] (C3) and cis-[Ru-(L4)3(PF6)2] (C4), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C- NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The complexes exhibit broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition bands in the visible region (400-700 nm), and red light emitting properties at room temperature. By comparison however, complexes C1 and C2 bipyridine moiety gave lower molar absorptivity coefficient at relatively similar wavelength characteristics (410-520 nm) when compared to C3 and C4 with phenanthroline based molecules. Cyclic voltammograms of the complexes revealed complex C4 with most reduction potential which might be due to increase in the conjugation of the anthracene functionalized units. Preliminary investigation of the solar cell efficiency of the complexes on TiO2 nanocrystalline films gave the best result with efficiency of 0.103% for C1 under illumination at 1000 W/m2 AM 1.5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique however, revealed the charge transfer resistances (Rct) of the electrons on the TiO2 semiconductor.

  7. PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open burning of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly burned in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies.

  8. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.

  9. DOWNSIZING TO CORPORATE ANOREXIA WHILE DISMANTLING THE MIDDLE CLASS: ARE WE IN DANGER OF RECREATING THE 1920S?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Winpenny

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate downsizing has run rampant on the American scene during the 1990s. Indeed, Business Week claimed it had become a fad. Ironically, the new “lean and mean” look did not apply to CEO compensation packages. More critically, corporate downsizing hurt middle class purchasing power. The Big Lie that emerged from this was that America could dismantle the middle class and have a booming economy. Much of this reasoning sounds, sadly enough, like the thinking so prevalent in the 1920s.

  10. Preliminary investigation of the pests of Magnolia of ficinalis%厚朴病虫害种类的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏泉; 艾训儒; 彭琼; 卢宗荣; 王维

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the diseases and insect pests of Magnolia officinalis Rehd.et Wils was conducted in Enshi.The major pests included 13 species, 9 of which were leaf pests, 2 of which branch pests, and 2 of which root pests.Five major M.officinalis diseases were recorded.Asterococcus muratae Kuwana and Neocalaphis magnolicolens were reported in Hubei Province for the first time; Empoasca flavescens was a newly recorded species hosted by M.officinalis.Six natural enemies of A.muratae were also recorded, 2 of which were chalcid parasitoids and 4 ladybugs; 8 natural enemy insects of N.magnolicolens were recorded.Furthermore, a preliminary investigation into the occurrence of important diseases and pests of A.muratae and Cladiucha magnoliae Xiao and the root rot disease of Magnoliae officinalis was also carried out and the corresponding control measures were proposed.%采用标准地法和线路调查法,对湖北恩施市新塘乡双河厚朴基地的厚朴病虫害进行了系统调查,记录主要虫害13种,其中叶部害虫9种,枝干害虫2种,根部害虫2种.厚朴主要病害5种.藤壶蚧、厚朴枝角叶蜂和厚朴新丽斑蚜为湖北省首次报道,小绿叶蝉为厚朴新寄主记录种.同时记录了藤壶蚧的天敌6种,其中寄生小蜂2种,瓢虫4种;厚朴新丽斑蚜的天敌昆虫8种.对藤壶蚧、厚朴枝角叶蜂和厚朴苗木根腐病等重要病虫害的发生规律进行了初步调查,同时提出了防治建议.

  11. Dismantling processes of basaltic shield volcanoes - origin of the Piton des Neiges breccias - Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Bachèlery, B.; Cruchet, C.

    2003-04-01

    Reunion Island is mainly composed by two volcanic massifs: the active Piton de la Fournaise to the southeast and the Piton des Neiges to the northwest that has been inactive for about 12000 years. The latter corresponds to a dismantled volcanic massif, deeply cut by valleys and by three vast depressions, called “cirques” around the centre of the volcano. They offer the opportunity to observe the inside of a basaltic shield volcano. The first work dealing with the origin of the “cirques” very quickly showed the existence of a significant cover of breccia deposits. These breccias were often interpreted as the result of a major stage of erosion considered as partly at the origin of the “cirques” formation. Geological campaigns mainly achieved in the “cirque de Salazie” (eastern of the Piton des Neiges), allow to establish a first typology based on morphological, phenomenological and sedimentary features of the deposits. Two main complexes of breccias have been distinguished. An old complex outcropping in the internal parts of the cirque and an upper complex generally overlaying the lower complex. The old complex comprises two main units of breccias. These units show a strong alteration marked by the presence of clays, chlorites, serpentines and zeolites. In the inner part of the cirque, these breccias are closely related to the old lava formations from which they come. These units show frequent jigsaw-cracks, a chaotic stratigraphy, as well as large amounts of chlorite. The upper complex is constituted by four main units which are more or less geographically separated in the cirque of Salazie. Their limits are not yet well identified because of the significant relief and a strong vegetable cover. Several units display a very strong fracturation, jigsaw-cracks and a chaotic stratigraphy whereas many lava flows are pulverised and locally injected in scoria levels. Recent work on Saint-Gilles breccias (Fèvre et al., this meeting) allowed to identify

  12. 报废汽车拆解模式与应用简析%Dismantling mode and application of end-of-life vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季勇

    2016-01-01

    Combined with the actual state of the ELV dismantling industry, this paper summarized and classified the mode and method of ELV dismantling. It analyzed the adaptability and rationality under different conditions. Moreover, it is suggested ELV recycling enterprises choose the equipment and dismantling mode according to their own conditions and business philosophy.%结合国内报废汽车行业的实际情况,就报废汽车拆解的方式方法进行总结归类,分析其在不同条件下的适应性及合理性。希望报废汽车回收企业参考自身条件,结合运营理念进行拆解模式选择及设备选择。

  13. Analysis of Alternatives for Dismantling of the Equipment in Building 117/1 at Ignalina NPP - 13278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Audrius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Poskas, Gintautas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors which are under decommissioning now. In this paper dismantling alternatives of the equipment in Building 117/1 are analyzed. After situation analysis and collection of the primary information related to components' physical and radiological characteristics, location and other data, two different alternatives for dismantling of the equipment are formulated - the first (A1), when major components (vessels and pipes of Emergency Core Cooling System - ECCS) are segmented/halved in situ using flame cutting (oxy-acetylene) and the second one (A2), when these components are segmented/halved at the workshop using CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) technique. To select the preferable alternative MCDA method - AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is applied. Hierarchical list of decision criteria, necessary for assessment of alternatives performance, are formulated. Quantitative decision criteria values for these alternatives are calculated using software DECRAD, which was developed by Lithuanian Energy Institute Nuclear engineering laboratory. While qualitative decision criteria are evaluated using expert judgment. Analysis results show that alternative A1 is better than alternative A2. (authors)

  14. Days of dismantling activities of installations and rehabilitation of contaminated sites in France; Demantelement des installations et rehabilitation de sites contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The objective of these days, organized by the section environment of the French society of radiation protection, is to present a panorama of the activities of nuclear installations dismantling and contaminated sites rehabilitation in France, by leaning in the same time on practical cases and by stating the French rule and the national and international recommendations on the subject. These days have also for object to approach the stakes associated with the sectors of waste management and the materials generated by these activities and in a more general way, the stakes to come for the different actors of the dismantling and the rehabilitation. (N.C.)

  15. Computer-Based Reading Programs: A Preliminary Investigation of Two Parent Implemented Programs with Students At-Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Forbush, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, National Reading Panelists (NRP) reported that computer delivered reading instruction has potential for promoting the reading skills of students at-risk for reading failure. However, panelists also noted a scarcity of data present in the literature on the effects of computer-based reading instruction. This preliminary investigation…

  16. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger; Un traite plus inquietant qu'efficace. Les ogives demantelees ne seront pas detruites. Risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, P.; Despic-Popovic, H.; Nougayrede, N

    2002-07-01

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  17. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations on Melia Dubia Bark: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Rocklands, P.B. No.20, Ootacamund - 643 001, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The various parts of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) plant was observed to be used by the local tribes of Nilgiris for various infections. There was no report on antimicrobial activity of Melia dubia. Therefore, a preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial investigations were carried out on different extracts of Melia dubia bark. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark were found to posses significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (EC/LSS) for the space construction base manufacturing modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary data of the environmental control and life support subsystem for a space construction base manufacturing module was reported. A space processing module, which is capable of performing production biological experiments, was chosen as a baseline configuration. The primary assemblies and components considered for use were humidity and temperature control, ventilation fan, cabin fan, water separator, condensate storage, overboard dumping, distribution system, contaminant monitoring, cabin sensors, and fire and smoke detection.

  19. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β2-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g(-1), p0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (pe-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released from e-waste may contribute to abnormal changes in body levels of thyroid hormone, hematology and kidney injury markers.

  20. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fiber properties during full scale processing of cotton into carded yarn

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fassihi, A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available of fibers from dismantled yarn was higher, and SFC lower, than that in the twistless strand before twist insertion, indicating that, during twist insertion, short fibers were lost as fly and through suction. Fiber linear density and maturity showed similar...

  1. Dismantling products management on the Mounts Arree site; Gestion des produits de demantelement sur le site des Monts d'Arree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, G. [EDF / CEA, 29 - Brennilis (France); Ensuque, A. [Electricite de France (EDF/DIS/CNEPE), 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-07-01

    After a quick presentation of the historical aspect of the site, of works and organisation for these ones, we detail the different actions of radiological characterization implemented at the different steps of the project to guarantee the preparation of dismantling works and organize the waste management. (N.C.)

  2. Design of a package dedicated to the dismantlement wastes; Conception d'un emballage dedie aux dechets de deconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazot, M. [Robatel Industries, Genas (France)

    2011-11-15

    A package for nuclear transport has to comply with strict regulations and mechanical testing concerning free fall, overpressure, fire resistance, water immersion.... which makes its design very dependent on what it will contain. The Robatel firm was founded in 1830 and has been working in the nuclear sector for more than 50 years during which it has designed more than 70 different B-type packages and has manufactured more than 500 items. EDF asked the Robatel firm to design a new B-type package, called R73 to carry metal wastes coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants like Brennilis, Chinon A1, ... This article describes the design stage of R73 from the EDF initial demand to the reception of the agreement. It appears that the design process is more an iterative and cyclic process than a linear one because the different approaches concerning definition, design, safety and compliance to regulations are strongly correlated. (A.C.)

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  4. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura S.

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  5. Plutonium characterisation with prompt high energy gamma-rays from (n,gamma) reactions for nuclear warhead dismantlement verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postelt, Frederik; Gerald, Kirchner [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron induced gammas allow the characterisation of fissile material (i.e. plutonium and uranium), despite self- and additional shielding. Most prompt gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture reactions in fissile material have energies between 3 and 6.5 MeV. Such high energy photons have a high penetrability and therefore minimise shielding and self-absorption effects. They are also isotope specific and therefore well suited to determine the isotopic composition of fissile material. As they are non-destructive, their application in dismantlement verification is desirable. Disadvantages are low detector efficiencies at high gamma energies, as well as a high background of gammas which result from induced fission reactions in the fissile material, as well as delayed gammas from both, (n,f) and(n,gamma) reactions. In this talk, simulations of (n,gamma) measurements and their implications are presented. Their potential for characterising fissile material is assessed and open questions are addressed.

  6. The Harper Government's New Right Neoliberal Agenda and the Dismantling of Status of Women Canada and the Family Violence Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Mann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates the Harper government’s 2006 restructuring and effective dismantling of Status of Women Canada and its 2011 take down of the approximate 12,000 volume online library of the federal Family Violence Initiative in relation to two developments. These are the ascendant influence of men’s rights and other antifeminist activism in Canada and globally; and the concurrent rise of a Hayekian-animated New Right neoliberal agenda intent on subordinating civil society and democratic rule to the forces of twenty-first century global capitalism. The paper contends that anti-feminism is among a host of neoconservative forces that the New Right instrumentalizes to augment and advance and its neoliberal agenda. For the New Right, however, the enemy is not gender equality or feminism per se but rather the market inhibiting commitment to social justice that feminism participates in and advances.

  7. Effect of Bizhongxiao decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF levels in collagen-induced arthritis in rat synovial joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ya-jing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM provides alternatives. Bizhongxiao decoction (BZX is a TCM complex, which has been used clinically for many years to treat RA. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF-1 levels in rats with RA, and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Ninety healthy normal female SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal (control, model, BZX decoction, and the three dismantled formulae (I: heat-clearing and detoxication, II: dissipating dampness, and III: blood circulation promotion. Apart from the normal (control group, the rats in each group were injected subcutaneously with bovine type II collagen and complete Freund adjuvant to establish a collagen-induced arthritis model, so that inhibition of foot swelling in the rats by BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae could be observed. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF in synovial joints at various time points. Results Twenty-one days after the model was established, the levels of TNF and IL-1 were significantly higher in the model group, BZX decoction group and dismantled formula groups I, II and III than in the normal controls (P  Conclusions BZX decoction and the three dismantled formulae examined down-regulated the inflammatory factors IL-1 and TNF in collagen-induced arthritis rat models, but BZX exerted the strongest effect.

  8. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  9. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  10. Preliminary Investigation on the Pathogeny, Diagnosis and Treatment of Chondromalacia Patella%髌骨软化症的病因、诊断和治疗探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶启彬; 吴志宏; 王以朋; 林进; 邱贵兴

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the carilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage,the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chon drocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate) . In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.%总结近年来我科对髌骨软化症研

  11. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder.

  12. Management system information of characterization of the dismantling project of Jose Cabrera; Sistema de Gestion de la informacion de caracterizacion del proyecto de desmantelamiento de la CN Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno Blesa, M. E.; Martin Palomo, N.; Gomez Rodriguez, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    In the proposed dismantling and decommissioning of the Jose Cabrera NPP is designed and implemented a database of physical and radiological inventory, which provides a powerful tool to optimize the storage, monitoring and control of the characterization data. The database is a useful and reliable management system characterization information that facilitates access and information processing, and ensures their integrity and traceability along of the dismantling project.

  13. Sites with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling and their future from the public perspective; Standorte mit kerntechnischen Anlagen im Rueckbau und deren Zukunft aus der Perspektive der Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretz, Simon Philipp

    2015-07-17

    The thesis on the public perspective at sites of nuclear facility dismantling covers the following issues: the change of German energy landscapes under social and political points of view, theoretical frame of the work, combination of empirical studies and the theoretical approaches in a space concept, action model and hypotheses on the situation and development in communities with nuclear facilities in the state of dismantling, description of the interviewees, and the empirical results of the interviews.

  14. The PIRLA project (Paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification). Preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, N. Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.

    1986-09-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determime if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lakewater pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstructions for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950's; the cause has not been determined. 26 refs.

  15. Pirla Project (paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification): preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.; Hites, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determine if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lake water pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstruction for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950s; the cause has not been determined.

  16. Preliminary X-ray investigations of several crystal forms of the ferripyoverdine FpvA outer membrane receptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Christophe; Hoegy, Françoise; Pattus, Franc; Cobessi, David, E-mail: cobessi@esbs.u-strasbg.fr [Institut Gilbert-Laustriat UMR 7175 CNRS/Université Strasbourg I, Département Récepteurs et Protéines Membranaires, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brandt, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch (France)

    2006-05-01

    The crystallization and X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of the outer membrane pyoverdine transducer FpvA from P. aeruginosa bound to ferripyoverdine are described. The resolution of the crystals ranges from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form; all were obtained in the presence of C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent. Ferripyoverdine transport across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the pyoverdine receptor FpvA and the transcriptional regulation of FpvA involve interactions of the FpvA N-terminal TonB box and signalling domain with proteins from the inner membrane. Several crystallization conditions of FpvA–Pvd-Fe solubilized in C{sub 8}E{sub 4} detergent were obtained and X-ray data were collected from three crystal forms. The resolution limits range from 3.15 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. From preliminary analysis of the electron-density maps, the first full-length structure of an outer membrane receptor including a signalling domain should be determined.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), a protein from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Penmatsa; Rajini, Bheemreddy; Sharma, Yogendra; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan, E-mail: sankar@ccmb.res.in [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2006-03-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AIM1g1, a βγ-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma (AIM1) protein from H. sapiens, is reported. AIM1g1 is a single βγ-crystallin domain from the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1), which appears to play a role in the suppression of melanomas. This domain is known to bind calcium and its structure would help in identifying calcium-coordinating sites in vertebrate crystallins, which have hitherto been believed to have lost this ability during evolution. Crystallization of this domain was performed by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.86 Å and were found to belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 54.98, c = 59.73 Å. Solvent-content analysis indicated the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  18. 大数据时代职务犯罪初查工作转型探索%The Transformation of Preliminary Investigation of Duty Crime under the Big Data Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2016-01-01

    职务犯罪初查工作是一项综合性工作,靠检察机关传统初查模式获取基础信息和情报线索的数据量较为有限.在大数据、信息互联网时代,检察机关应抓住变革机会,通过构建与政府各部门的协作关系,建立适合自侦工作需要的各类数据信息库.在此基础上,设计符合侦查实战需求的侦查信息系统,通过运用话单、账单等智能化数据分析系统,实现对相关数据信息的动态查询和关联分析.并根据案件类型不同,实施标准化与个性化相结合的精细化初查策略.%As a comprehensive work, the preliminary investigation of duty crime is difficult to commit for the limit basic information and intelligence clues collected by traditional mode. In the era of Big Data and Internet, procuratorial organs should seize the chance to change by building collaborative relationships with government departments to establish all kinds of data base suitable for self investigation. The investigation information system is to be designed on this basis. Digitized data analysis system is applied to realize the dynamic query and analysis of related data information like bills. According to different types of cases, meticulous preliminary investigation strategies of standardization and individuation is to be formulated.

  19. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  20. Evaluation ofnest site preferences ofa nest dismantler, the Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) inDongzhai National Nature Reserve ofcentral China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the lfedging of the young. One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited, and sites are often reused. Methods: By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations, we determined the nest habitat prefer-ence of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, China. We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected. Results: We found that nest tree height, diameter at breast height, live crown ratio, tree rank, and presence of overstory were signiifcantly higher at nesting locations than random locations; slope, leaf litter cover percentage and depth, presence of understory and midstory, and number of trees per hectare were signiifcantly lower at nest sites than random sites. Drongos preferred to use some tree species, such asMetasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollis-sima, andPterocarya stenoptera for nesting. Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground. Conclusion: Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nest-dismantling behavior in this species.

  1. Distribution of metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sediments, soils and plants from an informal e-waste dismantling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Fu, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Long; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)) and metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and As) in sediments, soils and herb plants from unregulated e-waste disposal sites were examined. The metal concentrations, ∑PBDE and TBBPA concentrations in all samples from the examined e-waste dismantling sites were relatively high in comparison with those of rural and urban areas around the world. The PBDE and TBBPA levels in soils significantly decreased with increasing distance from the e-waste dismantling sites, indicating that PBDEs and TBBPA had similar transport potential from the e-waste dismantling process as a point source to the surrounding region. BDE-209 and TBBPA predominated in all samples, which is consistent with the evidence that the deca-BDE and TBBPA commercial mixtures were extensively used in electronic products. Metals, PBDEs and TBBPA displayed significant positive correlations with TOC, whereas the correlations with pH were insignificant, indicating that TOC was a major factor governing the spatial distribution, transportation and fate in sediments and soils. A significant relationship between log-transformed metals and BFR concentrations indicated common pollution sources. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis further confirmed that the metals and BFRs had a common source, and penta- and deca-BDE commercial products may be two sources of PBDEs in this region.

  2. Tools and tool application for the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Brennilis in France; Werkzeuge und Werkzeugeinsatz fuer den Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerks Brennilis Frankreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienia, Harald; Welbers, Philipp; Krueger, Peter; Noll, Thomas [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The EL-4 reactor in the NPP Brennilis in France is a CO2 cooled heavy water moderated test reactor with net power of 70 MW, the reactor started operation in 1967 and was decommissioned in 1985. Due to the construction features it was not necessary to enter the reactor area during operation, therefore the reactor pressure vessel and the surrounding piping systems are built in a very compact way. The dismantling procedures are therefore different from German BWR or PWR systems, the remote cutting and handling tools have to be adapted to the different features. Because of the high local dosage rate in the reactor hall it is also necessary to perform the erection of the dismantling equipment by robot systems. For cutting of the piping system a new plasma cutting technique, the hot wire method will be used. Other mechanical cutting techniques have to be used for instance for zircaloy containing components due to fire prevention purposes. The required time for tool and manipulator changes, including wearing part replacements constitute a significant part of the dismantling schedule. The suction/exhaust system for radioactive dust removal allowed a reduction of the total personal dose by one third of the allowed dose.

  3. Studies on pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thick stainless steel in dry air and underwater environment for dismantling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Jain, R. K.; Ali, Sabir; Singh, Ravindra; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Agrawal, D. K.; Arya, R.; Kaul, R.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Dismantling of old equipments and structures is an important application in nuclear facilities and shipping industry. This paper presents a study on process optimization during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of thick stainless steel (AISI SS304) sheets having a thickness in the range of 4-20 mm in dry air and underwater environment. Laser cutting experiments have been performed using a 500 W average power long pulse Nd:YAG laser system with fiber optic beam delivery. A water shielded laser cutting nozzle with coaxial gas jet was specifically developed to form a local dry cavity around the laser beam during the cutting experiments in underwater condition. It was found that for a given pulse energy, a higher cutting speed is possible with optimal value of pulse duration, spot overlapping, and assist gas pressure. Cutting speed of 20 mm thick SS sample was enhanced to about three times by means of increase in pulse duration from 14 ms to 20 ms and reduction in the required spot overlapping from a value of 80% to 40% using oxygen as the assist gas. A comparison of the cutting speed and heat affected zone in dry air and underwater environment has been performed. These results will be highly useful in laser based dismantling of old steel structures in radioactive and underwater environment to save time and minimize radiation dose consumption as compared to conventional dismantling methods.

  4. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  5. Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk of PBDEs in Water and Sediment from an Electronic Waste Dismantling Area in Taizhou%台州电子垃圾拆解区水和沉积物中多溴联苯醚污染特征与生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香平; 彭宝琦; 吕素平; 陈强; 张勇; 黄长江; 董巧香

    2016-01-01

    以台州某电子垃圾拆解工业园为圆心,在半径为16 km 的范围内,由近及远设计了 C(3 km)、 S(5~10 km)和 R(10~16 km)三圈共30个采样点,研究了该区域水及沉积物中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)的污染特征与生态风险.结果表明,水中 PBDEs 含量为9.4~57.2 ng.L -1,平均值为25.9 ng.L -1;沉积物中 PBDEs 含量为3.7~38775 ng.g -1,平均值为2779 ng.g -1; BDE-209均为主要成分.水及沉积物中 PBDEs 含量的空间分布态势均为:C 圈> S 圈> R 圈,沉积物中 PBDEs 含量和离工业园区中心的距离呈极显著负相关(P S > R. Furthermore, the concentrations of PBDEs in sediments showed significant negative correlation against the distance from the industrial park ( P < 0. 01). Compared with other regions around the world, the PBDEs contamination was more serious in the area, which indicated that e-waste dismantling activity was one of the significant sources for PBDEs pollution. It was estimated that a total of 30. 7 t PBDEs ( including 28. 9 t BDE- 209) was discharged into surrounding environment as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in water and sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method. The results demonstrated that the Penta-BDEs in the center of e-waste dismantling area (a radius of 1. 5 km) was at particularly high risk level and could cause serious influence on the ecological safety and human health.

  6. Preliminary clinical and pharmacologic investigation of photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 for primary or metastatic cutaneous cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy James Kinsella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m2 at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm2 of 675-nm light was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD. Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 hours post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of 3 patients (2 females with breast cancer and 1 male with cutaneous lymphoma were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m2 (first dose level to 0.54 mg/m2 (third dose level. Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a 3-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (~0.2 hrs and relatively long terminal elimination phase (~28 hrs, Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  7. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  8. Preliminary clinical and pharmacologic investigation of photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer pc 4 for primary or metastatic cutaneous cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Timothy James; Baron, Elma D; Colussi, Valdir C; Cooper, Kevin D; Hoppel, Charles L; Ingalls, Stephen T; Kenney, Malcolm E; Li, Xiaolin; Oleinick, Nancy L; Stevens, Seth R; Remick, Scot C

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous malignancies has been found to be an effective treatment with a range of photosensitizers. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 was developed initially for PDT of primary or metastatic cancers in the skin. A Phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of systemically administered Pc 4 followed by red light (Pc 4-PDT) in cutaneous malignancies. A dose-escalation study of Pc 4 (starting dose 0.135 mg/m(2)) at a fixed light fluence (135 J/cm(2) of 675-nm light) was initiated in patients with primary or metastatic cutaneous malignancies with the aim of establishing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Blood samples were taken at intervals over the first 60 h post-PDT for pharmacokinetic analysis, and patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response. A total of three patients (two females with breast cancer and one male with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) were enrolled and treated over the dose range of 0.135 mg/m(2) (first dose level) to 0.54 mg/m(2) (third dose level). Grade 3 erythema within the photoirradiated area was induced in patient 2, and transient tumor regression in patient 3, in spite of the low photosensitizer doses. Pharmacokinetic observations fit a three-compartment exponential elimination model with an initial rapid distribution phase (∼0.2 h) and relatively long terminal elimination phase (∼28 h), Because of restrictive exclusion criteria and resultant poor accrual, the trial was closed before MTD could be reached. While the limited accrual to this initial Phase I study did not establish the MTD nor establish a complete pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous Pc 4-PDT, these preliminary data support further Phase I testing of this new photosensitizer.

  9. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  10. RADIOECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SEA OF JAPAN AND THE NORTH-WEST PART OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN AFTER THE ACCIDENT AT THE NPP “FUKUSHIMA-1” IN JAPAN: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nikitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from April 22 until May 20, 2011, an expedition aboard the research vessel “Pavel Gordienko” (Russian Federation was carried out to the Sea of Japan and the Kuril-Kamchatka region of the Pacific Ocean. The main aim of the expedition was to study radioactive contamination of the atmospheric air and sea water after the accident at the NPP “Fukushima-1” in Japan. This paper provides preliminary results on the activity concentration of 137Cs and 134Cs in twenty four samples of sea water. The activity concentrations of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, and 7Be for twenty nine samples of atmospheric aerosols, which were sampled during the expedition, are also given. Despite the preliminary character of the results of this study, a generic conclusion on a negligible radiological impact of the anthropogenic gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides for the Far-Eastern sea areas of Russia can be reached. The investigations have been supported by a grant from the Russian Geographical Society.

  11. Effects of PCBs and PBDEs on thyroid hormone, lymphocyte proliferation, hematology and kidney injury markers in residents of an e-waste dismantling area in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang, E-mail: gqding@cdc.zj.cn; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two typical categories of contaminants released from e-waste dismantling environments. In China, the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs are associated with abnormal thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites, but the results are limited and contradictory. In this study, we measured the serum levels of PCBs and PBDEs and the thyroid hormone free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 40 residents in an e-waste dismantling area and in 15 residents in a control area. Additionally, we also measured some lymphocyte proliferation indexes, hematologic parameters and kidney injury markers, including white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, serum creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin (β{sub 2}-MG). The results indicated that the mean level of ΣPCBs in the exposure group was significantly higher than that in the control group (964.39 and 67.98 ng g{sup −1}, p < 0.0001), but the mean level of ΣPBDEs in the exposure group was not significantly higher than that in the controls (139.32 vs. 75.74 ng g{sup −1}, p > 0.05). We determined that serum levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes were significantly lower, whereas the levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, platelets and serum creatinine were significantly higher in the exposed group (p < 0.05). The mean level of ΣPCBs was negatively correlated with levels of FT3, FT4, monocytes and lymphocytes (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with levels of neutrophils, hemoglobin, serum creatinine and β{sub 2}-MG (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mean level of ΣPBDEs was positively correlated with levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelets (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that exposure to an e-waste dismantling environment may increase the body burdens of PCBs and the specific PBDEs congeners in native residents and that the contaminants released

  12. The dismantling of nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes management. Report of the President of the Republic followed by the answers of concerned administrations and organisms; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires et la gestion des dechets radioactifs. Rapport au President de la Republique suivi des reponses des administrations et des organismes interesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    The discussed subjects concerns the situation and the challenges of the nuclear installations dismantling and the radioactive wastes management (main intervenors, panorama of the situation, rules applied to the dismantling and the radioactive wastes), the first experiences of dismantling and radioactive wastes disposal (experiences at the CEA and EDF, implementing of solutions for the disposal), interrogations and certainties (provision for future expenses, public information). (A.L.B.00.

  13. Preliminary investigation into the simulation of a laser-induced plasma by means of a floating object in a spark gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an orthogonally laser-triggered spark gap is investigated. The laser beam is directed in the region of a 30mm spark gap at 90 degrees to the gap and focused on the axis. The influence of plasma position within the spark gap...

  14. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  15. 不同电子废弃物拆解场重金属经口暴露的健康风险研究%Health risk of heavy metals through oral exposure in different e-waste dismantling plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 于云江; 李定龙; 杨洁

    2012-01-01

    E-waste dismantling plants were surveyed in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province. The pollution in different dismantling plants (a burning plant, a manual dissembling plant and a pickling plant) caused by copper, lead and cadmium and other four kinds of metals were investigated with field survey and laboratory analysis. The health human exposure risk through oral ingestions in different dismantling plants was evaluated with US EPA models. In addition, the exposure parameters were optimized by questionnaires and actual measurement. Results obtained showed that oral exposure levels in the threedismantling plant exceeded the acceptable levels recommended by international organization, with the highest carcinogenic risk of human exposure in the manual dissembling plant and the highest non-carcinogenic risk of human exposure in the burning plant. In terms of the exposure way, the carcinogenic risk caused by food intake was the highest, while the non-carcinogenic risk caused by drinking groundwater was the highest. In terms of the elements, the carcinogenic risk caused by arsenic was the highest, while the non-cancer risk by chromium was the highest. Sensitivity analysis result illustrated that the measured parameters of body weight (BW) showed a negative sensitivity to health risk, which accounted for about 14%-15% , and the concentration of pollutants (C) , intake rate (IRW ,IRF ,IRS) exhibited a positive sensitivity, which accounted for 15%-16% and 15% , respectively.%以浙江台州电子废弃物拆解区为研究区域,采用现场调查和实验室分析相结合的方法对不同拆解场(焚烧场、手工拆解场、酸洗场)各环境介质中Cu、Pb、Cd等共7种重金属的污染状况进行调查,运用美国环保局健康风险评价模型对不同场地的人群经口暴露的健康风险进行评估,并通过调查问卷、实测等方式优化了暴露参数.研究结果表明:3个拆解场经口暴露的风险度均超过国际

  16. Rosie - mobile robot worksystem for decommissioning and dismantling operations. Final report, April 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. has undertaken development of an advanced remote worksystem - Rosie - specifically designed to meet the challenges of performing a wide range of decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) operations in nuclear environments. The Rosie worksystem includes a locomotor, heavy manipulator, operator console, and control system for remote operations. The locomotor is a highly mobile platform with tether management and hydraulic power onboard. The heavy manipulator is a high-payload, long-reach boom used to deploy a wide variety of tools and/or sensors into the work area. Rosie`s advanced control system, broad work capabilities, and hardening/reliability for hazardous duty make it a new and unique capability that facilitates completion of significant cleanup projects throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) and private sector. Endurance testing of the first Rosie system from September 1995 to March 1996 has proven its capabilities and appropriateness for D&D applications. Design enhancements were incorporated into the second Rosie system to improve and add features necessary for deployment at a DOE facility decommissioning. This second Rosie unit was deployed to the Argonne National Laboratory`s CP-5 reactor facility in early December 1996, and it is currently being used in the decommissioning of the reactor there. This report will overview this second Rosie system and the design enhancements made to it based on the lessons learned during the design, fabrication, and testing of the first Rosie system. The Rosie system has been designed to be a versatile and adaptable tool that can be used in many different applications in D&D work at nuclear facilities. It can carry a wide variety of tooling, sensors, and other robotic equipment at the tip of its heavy manipulator, and it can deploy those items to many different hazardous work areas. Rosie`s capabilities and system design address the need for durability and reliability in these environments.

  17. Activation calculation for the dismantling and decommissioning of a light water reactor using MCNP™ with ADVANTG and ORIGEN-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlömer Luc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The decommissioning of a light water reactor (LWR, which is licensed under § 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act, following the post-operational phase requires a comprehensive licensing procedure including in particular radiation protection aspects and possible impacts to the environment. Decommissioning includes essential changes in requirements for the systems and components and will mainly lead to the direct dismantling. In this context, neutron induced activation calculations for the structural components have to be carried out to predict activities in structures and to estimate future costs for conditioning and packaging. To avoid an overestimation of the radioactive inventory and to calculate the expenses for decommissioning as accurate as possible, modern state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo-Techniques (MCNP™ are applied and coupled with present-day activation and decay codes (ORIGEN-S. In this context ADVANTG is used as weight window generator for MCNP™ i. e. as variance reduction tool to speed up the calculation in deep penetration problems. In this paper the calculation procedure is described and the obtained results are presented with a validation along with measured activities and photon dose rates measured in the post-operational phase. The validation shows that the applied calculation procedure is suitable for the determination of the radioactive inventory of a nuclear power plant. Even the measured gamma dose rates in the post-operational phase at different positions in the reactor building agree within a factor of 2 to 3 with the calculation results. The obtained results are accurate and suitable to support effectively the decommissioning planning process.

  18. More Than a Text Message: Dismantling Digital Triggers to Curate Behavior Change in Patient-Centered Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Frederick; Baumel, Amit

    2017-05-26

    Digital triggers such as text messages, emails, and push alerts are designed to focus an individual on a desired goal by prompting an internal or external reaction at the appropriate time. Triggers therefore have an essential role in engaging individuals with digital interventions delivered outside of traditional health care settings, where other events in daily lives and fluctuating motivation to engage in effortful behavior exist. There is an emerging body of literature examining the use of digital triggers for short-term action and longer-term behavior change. However, little attention has been given to understanding the components of digital triggers. Using tailoring as an overarching framework, we separated digital triggers into 5 primary components: (1) who (sender), (2) how (stimulus type, delivery medium, heterogeneity), (3) when (delivered), (4) how much (frequency, intensity), and (5) what (trigger's target, trigger's structure, trigger's narrative). We highlighted key considerations when tailoring each component and the pitfalls of ignoring common mistakes, such as alert fatigue and habituation. As evidenced throughout the paper, there is a broad literature base from which to draw when tailoring triggers to curate behavior change in health interventions. More research is needed, however, to examine differences in efficacy based on component tailoring, to best use triggers to facilitate behavior change over time, and to keep individuals engaged in physical and mental health behavior change efforts. Dismantling digital triggers into their component parts and reassembling them according to the gestalt of one's change goals is the first step in this development work. ©Frederick Muench, Amit Baumel. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 26.05.2017.

  19. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  20. Activation calculation for the dismantling and decommissioning of a light water reactor using MCNP™ with ADVANTG and ORIGEN-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlömer, Luc; Phlippen, Peter-W.; Lukas, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    The decommissioning of a light water reactor (LWR), which is licensed under § 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act, following the post-operational phase requires a comprehensive licensing procedure including in particular radiation protection aspects and possible impacts to the environment. Decommissioning includes essential changes in requirements for the systems and components and will mainly lead to the direct dismantling. In this context, neutron induced activation calculations for the structural components have to be carried out to predict activities in structures and to estimate future costs for conditioning and packaging. To avoid an overestimation of the radioactive inventory and to calculate the expenses for decommissioning as accurate as possible, modern state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo-Techniques (MCNP™) are applied and coupled with present-day activation and decay codes (ORIGEN-S). In this context ADVANTG is used as weight window generator for MCNP™ i. e. as variance reduction tool to speed up the calculation in deep penetration problems. In this paper the calculation procedure is described and the obtained results are presented with a validation along with measured activities and photon dose rates measured in the post-operational phase. The validation shows that the applied calculation procedure is suitable for the determination of the radioactive i