Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design
Kroo, Ilan; Altus, Steve; Braun, Robert; Gage, Peter; Sobieski, Ian
1994-01-01
This paper describes a research program aimed at improved methods for multidisciplinary design and optimization of large-scale aeronautical systems. The research involves new approaches to system decomposition, interdisciplinary communication, and methods of exploiting coarse-grained parallelism for analysis and optimization. A new architecture, that involves a tight coupling between optimization and analysis, is intended to improve efficiency while simplifying the structure of multidisciplinary, computation-intensive design problems involving many analysis disciplines and perhaps hundreds of design variables. Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.
Khalid, Adeel Syed
Rotorcraft's evolution has lagged behind that of fixed-wing aircraft. One of the reasons for this gap is the absence of a formal methodology to accomplish a complete conceptual and preliminary design. Traditional rotorcraft methodologies are not only time consuming and expensive but also yield sub-optimal designs. Rotorcraft design is an excellent example of a multidisciplinary complex environment where several interdependent disciplines are involved. A formal framework is developed and implemented in this research for preliminary rotorcraft design using IPPD methodology. The design methodology consists of the product and process development cycles. In the product development loop, all the technical aspects of design are considered including the vehicle engineering, dynamic analysis, stability and control, aerodynamic performance, propulsion, transmission design, weight and balance, noise analysis and economic analysis. The design loop starts with a detailed analysis of requirements. A baseline is selected and upgrade targets are identified depending on the mission requirements. An Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC) is developed that is used to measure the goodness of the design or to compare the design with competitors. The requirements analysis and baseline upgrade targets lead to the initial sizing and performance estimation of the new design. The digital information is then passed to disciplinary experts. This is where the detailed disciplinary analyses are performed. Information is transferred from one discipline to another as the design loop is iterated. To coordinate all the disciplines in the product development cycle, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) techniques e.g. All At Once (AAO) and Collaborative Optimization (CO) are suggested. The methodology is implemented on a Light Turbine Training Helicopter (LTTH) design. Detailed disciplinary analyses are integrated through a common platform for efficient and centralized transfer of design
Preliminary design and optimization of slotted tube grain for solid rocket motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In this paper,design and optimization technique of slotted tube grain for solid rocket motors has been discussed.In doing so,the design objectives and constraints have been set,geometric parameters identified,performance prediction parameters calculated,thereafter preliminary designs completed and finally optimal design reached.Geometric model for slotted tube grain configuration has been developed.Average thrust has been taken as the objective function with constraints of burning time,mass of propellant,fixed length and diameter of chamber case.Lumped parameter method has been used for calculating the performance prediction parameters.A set of preliminary designs has been completed and an analysis of these results conducted.Although all the preliminary results fulfill the design requirements in terms of objective function and constraints,however in order tO attain the optimal design,Sequen-tial quadratic programming optimization technique has been adopted.As the slotted tube grain ge-ometry is totally dependent upon various independent variables and each of these variables has a bearing on explicit characteristic of grain designing,hence affects of the independent variables on performance parameters have been examined,thus variation laws have been developed.Basing on the variation laws and the analysis of preliminary design results,upper and lower limits have been defined for the independent geometric variables and an initial guess provided for conducting optimi-zation.Resuhs attained exhibits that an optimal result has been attained and the value of objective function has been maximized.All the design constraint limits have also been met while ensuring sound values of volumetric loading fraction,web fraction and neutrality.This methodology of design and optimization of slotted tube grain for solid rocket motors can be used by engineers as a reference guide for actual design and engineering purposes.
Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.
2017-01-01
Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004
Cost-based optimization of a nuclear reactor core design: a preliminary model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sacco, Wagner F.; Alves Filho, Hermes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Modelagem Computacional]. E-mails: wfsacco@iprj.uerj.br; halves@iprj.uerj.br; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Reatores]. E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br
2007-07-01
A new formulation of a nuclear core design optimization problem is introduced in this article. Originally, the optimization problem consisted in adjusting several reactor cell parameters, such as dimensions, enrichment and materials, in order to minimize the radial power peaking factor in a three-enrichment zone reactor, considering restrictions on the average thermal flux, criticality and sub-moderation. Here, we address the same problem using the minimization of the fuel and cladding materials costs as the objective function, and the radial power peaking factor as an operational constraint. This cost-based optimization problem is attacked by two metaheuristics, the standard genetic algorithm (SGA), and a recently introduced Metropolis algorithm called the Particle Collision Algorithm (PCA). The two algorithms are submitted to the same computational effort and their results are compared. As the formulation presented is preliminary, more elaborate models are also discussed (author)
Burt, Adam O.; Tinker, Michael L.
2014-01-01
In this paper, genetic algorithm based and gradient-based topology optimization is presented in application to a real hardware design problem. Preliminary design of a planetary lander mockup structure is accomplished using these methods that prove to provide major weight savings by addressing the structural efficiency during the design cycle. This paper presents two alternative formulations of the topology optimization problem. The first is the widely-used gradient-based implementation using commercially available algorithms. The second is formulated using genetic algorithms and internally developed capabilities. These two approaches are applied to a practical design problem for hardware that has been built, tested and proven to be functional. Both formulations converged on similar solutions and therefore were proven to be equally valid implementations of the process. This paper discusses both of these formulations at a high level.
Analysis of Optimization for Preliminary Design of Multi-Component Mooring Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Long; TAN Jia-hua
2005-01-01
Multi-component mooring systems become widely used in deep water position-keeping of drilling and production platforms. However, versatile materials make it difficult to design appropriate mooring lines made of several segments. Based on catenary equations of a multi-component mooring line at a specific water depth, this paper establishes a minimum model for designing this kind of lines. The model is solved by Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Objective Planning respectively. The model is verified by its application to a practical mooring design assignment-a quasi-static analysis for a large semi-submersible. The optimal result is finally obtained with the aid of design graphs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Moustafa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.
Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1989-03-01
A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.
1981-07-01
Sheinman (61], which are based on multi-term, two-dimensional trigonometric expansions. PANDA overestimates the shear buckling loads for curved panels...design of stiffened cylinders under axial compression," AIA J, Vol. 13, pp 750-755 (1975) [34] I. Sheinman and G. J. Simitses, "Buckling analysis of...1978) 136] G. J. Simitses and I. Sheinman , "Optimization of geometrically imperfect stiffened cylindrical shells under axial compression," Comp
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-01-01
This appendix to a report which evaluates the technical, economic, and institutional aspects of industrial cogeneration for conserving energy in the food, chemical, textile, paper, and petroleum industries contains data, descriptions, and diagrams on conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications for cogeneration facilities; characterization of cogeneration systems in terms of fuel utilization, performance, air pollution control, thermal energy storage systems, and capital equipment costs; and optimized cogeneration systems for specific industrial plants. (LCL)
A Toolbox for Rotorcraft Preliminary Design
Lier, Max; Krenik, Alex; Kunze, Philipp; Kohlgrüber, Dieter; Schwinn, Dominik; Lützenberger, Marius
2015-01-01
The German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a toolbox, which is able to reflect the conceptual and preliminary design process of rotorcraft configuration. Such a toolbox is a valuable aid for the design engineer and can be used for the assessment of new technologies with regard to the overall configuration. This toolbox is currently extended to model novel rotorcraft configurations. Automated optimization procedures will be added in the future as well. This paper describes the too...
KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others
2000-08-01
This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.
Preliminary format design guidelines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Nørregaard, J.
2013-01-01
The strategic research centre PolyNano aims at becoming the Danish competence centre for production-ready fabrication of polymer, nano-scale lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. In order to provide a competitive edge for Danish biotech companies launching LoC products by removal of the technology barrier...... between lab-scale proof-of-principle and high-volume low-cost production of LoCs, the PolyNano project will develop a readily accessible fabrication platform for those companies aiming at developing and manufacturing their LoCs design.......The strategic research centre PolyNano aims at becoming the Danish competence centre for production-ready fabrication of polymer, nano-scale lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. In order to provide a competitive edge for Danish biotech companies launching LoC products by removal of the technology barrier...
MULTIDISCIPLINARY ROBUST OPTIMIZATION DESIGN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jianjiang; Xiao Renbin; Zhong Yifang; Dou Gang
2005-01-01
Because uncertainty factors inevitably exist under multidisciplinary design environment, a hierarchical multidisciplinary robust optimization design based on response surface is proposed. The method constructs optimization model of subsystem level and system level to coordinate the coupling among subsystems, and also the response surface based on the artificial neural network is introduced to provide information for system level optimization tool to maintain the independence of subsystems,i.e. to realize multidisciplinary parallel design. The application case of electrical packaging demonstrates that reasonable robust optimum solution can be yielded and it is a potential and efficient multidisciplinary robust optimization approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡添元; 余雄庆
2011-01-01
以飞翼布局飞机总体设计为例,展示如何将多学科设计优化(MDO)方法有效地应用于非常规布局飞机总体设计.基于二级优化方法,提出一种飞机总体MDO实施流程.该流程包括系统级优化、子系统级优化(或评估)和多学科模型生成器3个部分.系统级优化的任务是优化全局设计变量,使系统目标最优.子系统级优化涉及的学科包括气动、隐身、结构、总体布置、重量和性能,其任务是调整局部设计变,满足本学科的设计要求,并使本学科目标最优,或对给定方案进行评估.多学科模型生成器的功能是根据飞机外形几何模型自动生成各学科分析模型,它是实现MDO流程自动化的一个关键环节.根据飞机MDO实施流程,集成各学科的分析模型和优化模型,建立了飞机总体MDO计算环境.应用算例表明:所提出的MDO实施流程能成功解决非常规布局飞机总体设计问题.%This article is aimed at demonstrating how multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) can be effectively applied to the preliminary design of an unconventional configuration aircraft, using the flying wing configuration aircraft as an example.Based on the two-level optimization method, a procedure is proposed for the implementation of MDO of the aircraft preliminary design, which consists of three main parts: system level optimization, subsystem level optimization (or evaluation) and multidisciplinary model generator.The objective of the system level optimization is to obtain overall optimal performance through the adjustment of the global design variables.The subsystem lever consists of several disciplines, including aerodynamics, stealth, structure, internal layout, mass and performance.The task of the subsystem level optimization is to optimize the design goal of each discipline under the discipline constraints by the adjustment of local shape design variables.A multidisciplinary model generator is used to generate
ATHENA optimized coating design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen
2012-01-01
The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in ...
Ship design methodologies of preliminary design
Papanikolaou, Apostolos
2014-01-01
This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E). The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile
2010-09-15
Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.
Preliminary design data package. Appendix C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-07-25
The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)
Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques
Rao, R Venkata
2012-01-01
Mechanical design includes an optimization process in which designers always consider objectives such as strength, deflection, weight, wear, corrosion, etc. depending on the requirements. However, design optimization for a complete mechanical assembly leads to a complicated objective function with a large number of design variables. It is a good practice to apply optimization techniques for individual components or intermediate assemblies than a complete assembly. Analytical or numerical methods for calculating the extreme values of a function may perform well in many practical cases, but may fail in more complex design situations. In real design problems, the number of design parameters can be very large and their influence on the value to be optimized (the goal function) can be very complicated, having nonlinear character. In these complex cases, advanced optimization algorithms offer solutions to the problems, because they find a solution near to the global optimum within reasonable time and computational ...
ATHENA optimized coating design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen
2012-01-01
baseline including on- and off-axis effective area curves are presented. We find that the use of linear graded multilayers can increas by 37% the integraed effective area of ATHENA in the energy range between 0.1 keV and 15keV.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE......The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...
ERIS: preliminary design phase overview
Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro
2014-07-01
The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the
OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN
Yuen, J. H.
1994-01-01
This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.
十级高压压气机气动方案设计的优化%Aerodynamic Preliminary Design Optimization of Ten-stage High Pressure Compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
斯夏依; 钟勇健; 滕金芳; 刘程远; 羌晓青
2016-01-01
对 HARIKA 程序进行改进，创新性地修正了效率模型并引入 Koch 失速静压升系数模型，采用 E3十级高压压气机气动特性试验数据验证此改进 HARIKA 程序，结果表明改进 HARIKA 程序对压气机100％转速失速边界的预估精度达到了99％。采用 NSGA －II 多目标遗传算法进行气动方案设计优化，优化后的方案与初始方案相比设计点的总效率提高了3．4％，喘振裕度提高了6％；通过调节进口导叶和前五级静子叶片的安装角，使得优化方案在非设计转速下的特性也得到了提高。%The efficiency models Firstly,was improved based on the HARIKA program.The stalling pressure rise method pro-posed by C.C.Koch was used to predict stall margin of axial flow compressors.Then,the modified program was applied to cal-culate the characteristic of a ten-stage compressor.The results show that the accuracy of predicting stall margin achieves 99%. Finally,the NSGA-II was used to optimize the overall aerodynamic design.After optimization,the compressor peak efficiency at the design rotational speed increase by 3.4% compared to the initial characters and its surge margin increase from 1 1.6% to 17.6%.The off-design performances also increase by optimizing the angles of both the inlet guide vanes and the former five vanes.The character lines of 90% design rotational speed shows a higher peak efficiency and surge margin after optimization the stator value.
Integrated controls design optimization
Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl H.
2015-09-01
A control system (207) for optimizing a chemical looping process of a power plant includes an optimizer (420), an income algorithm (230) and a cost algorithm (225) and a chemical looping process models. The process models are used to predict the process outputs from process input variables. Some of the process in puts and output variables are related to the income of the plant; and some others are related to the cost of the plant operations. The income algorithm (230) provides an income input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of input parameters (215) of the power plant. The cost algorithm (225) provides a cost input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of output parameters (220) of the power plant. The optimizer (420) determines an optimized operating parameter solution based on at least one of the income input and the cost input, and supplies the optimized operating parameter solution to the power plant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansborough, L.; Hamm, R.; Stovall, J.; Swenson, D.
1980-01-01
PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator design, optimized for pion production and cancer treatment use in a hospital environment. Technology developed during a four-year PIGMI Prototype experimental program allows the design of smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linacs. A new type of low-energy accelerating structure, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been tested; it produces an exceptionally good-quality beam and allows the use of a simple 30-kV injector. Average axial electric-field gradients of over 9 MV/m have been demonstrated in a drift-tube linac (DTL) structure. Experimental work is underway to test the disk-and-washer (DAW) structure, another new type of accelerating structure for use in the high-energy coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Sufficient experimental and developmental progress has been made to closely define an actual PIGMI. It will consist of a 30-kV injector, and RFQ linac to a proton energy of 2.5 MeV, a DTL linac to 125 MeV, and a CCL linac to the final energy of 650 MeV. The total length of the accelerator is 133 meters. The RFQ and DTL will be driven by a single 440-MHz klystron; the CCL will be driven by six 1320-MHz klystrons. The peak beam current is 28 mA. The beam pulse length is 60 ..mu..s at a 60-Hz repetition rate, resulting in a 100-..mu..A average beam current. The total cost of the accelerator is estimated to be approx. $10 million.
Optimization Design for Digital Binoculars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CEN Jun-bo; CHEN Wei-min; LI Hui; HUANG Shang-lian
2005-01-01
In order to develop competitive and high performance/cost ratio of digital binoculars, design scheme should be optimized in term of technical capacity, economic benefit, product performance, risk management, etc. The common optimization method is limited in qualitative analysis, and the parameter optimization method is limited in obtaining optimal parameter only from technical side. Each method has its limitation. Based on the analysis of digital binoculars parameters, optional design schemes are laid down.Analytic hierarchy process combined the qualitative analysis with the quantitative analysis together. The design schemes are optimized, and result is worked out.
Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)
2009-05-15
Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)
Multidisciplinary design using collaborative optimization
Sobieski, Ian Patrick
Management of the modern aircraft design process is a substantial challenge. Formal iterative optimization is commonly used with disciplinary design tools to aid designers in the definition of optimal subsystems. However, the expense in executing high fidelity analysis, the decomposition of the design expertise into disciplines, and the size of the design space, often precludes the use of direct optimization in the overall design process. Collaborative optimization is a recently developed methodology that shows promise in enabling formal optimization of the overall design. The architecture preserves disciplinary design autonomy while providing a coordinating mechanism that leads to interdisciplinary agreement and improved designs. The basic formulation has been applied to a variety of sample design problems which demonstrate that the method successfully discovers correct optimal solutions. This work places collaborative optimization in the context of other multidisciplinary design optimization methods and characterizes problems for which the basic formulation is applicable. Artifacts of the problem formulation are discussed and methods for handling high bandwidth coupling, such as that found in aeroelasticity, are presented. The use of response surfaces for representing expensive analyses has become increasingly popular in design optimization. Response surfaces are smooth analytic functions that are inexpensive to evaluate and may be generated from data points obtained from the parallel execution of analyses. These properties motivate the introduction of response surfaces into collaborative optimization. Response surfaces have been previously used to model subproblem analyses and were generated just once. Here, approximate models are used to represent the subproblem optimization results, not the analysis, and are regenerated as the design is modified. The use of response surfaces in collaborative optimization requires an inexpensive method for generating the
Multicopter Design Optimization and Validation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øyvind Magnussen
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for optimizing the design of a multicopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, also called multirotor or drone. In practice a set of datasheets is available to the designer for the various components such as battery pack, motor and propellers. The designer can not normally design the parameters of the actuator system freely, but is constrained to pick components based on available datasheets. The mixed-integer programming approach is well suited to design optimization in such cases when only a discrete set of components is available. The paper also includes an experimental section where the simulated dynamic responses of optimized designs are compared against the experimental results. The paper demonstrates that mixed-integer programming is well suited to design optimization of multicopter UAVs and that the modeling assumptions match well with the experimental validation.
Optimal Hospital Layout Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine
This PhD project presents a design model that generates and evaluates hospital designs with respect to long-term performances and functionalities. By visualizing and quantifying costs and performances in the early design phases, it is possible to make design choices based on a qualified, profound...... foundation. The basis of the present study lies in solving the architectural design problem in order to respond to functionalities and performances. The emphasis is the practical applicability for architects, engineers and hospital planners for assuring usability and a holistic approach of functionalities...... and performances. By formal descriptions, a design model can weigh and compare the impact of different perspectives and, even in the early design phase, it can visualize and quantify consequences for design choices. By qualitative study of hospital design and hospital functionality, formal descriptions develop...
Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector
1978-01-01
The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.
Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles
Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.
1987-01-01
Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
4MOST systems engineering: from conceptual design to preliminary design review
Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Frey, Steffen; Barden, Samuel C.; Brynnel, Joar; Giannone, Domenico; Haynes, Roger; de Jong, Roelof S.; Phillips, Daniel; Schnurr, Olivier; Walcher, Jakob; Winkler, Roland
2016-08-01
The 4MOST Facility is a high-multiplex, wide-field, brief-fed spectrograph system for the ESO VISTA telescope. It aims to create a world-class spectroscopic survey facility unique in its combination of wide-field multiplex, spectral resolution, spectral coverage, and sensitivity. At the end of 2014, after a successful concept optimization design phase, 4MOST entered into its Preliminary Design Phase. Here we present the process and tools adopted during the Preliminary Design Phase to define the subsystems specifications, coordinate the interface control documents and draft the system verification procedures.
NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-01
This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.
Solid Rocket Motor Design Using Hybrid Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Albarado
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A particle swarm/pattern search hybrid optimizer was used to drive a solid rocket motor modeling code to an optimal solution. The solid motor code models tapered motor geometries using analytical burn back methods by slicing the grain into thin sections along the axial direction. Grains with circular perforated stars, wagon wheels, and dog bones can be considered and multiple tapered sections can be constructed. The hybrid approach to optimization is capable of exploring large areas of the solution space through particle swarming, but is also able to climb “hills” of optimality through gradient based pattern searching. A preliminary method for designing tapered internal geometry as well as tapered outer mold-line geometry is presented. A total of four optimization cases were performed. The first two case studies examines designing motors to match a given regressive-progressive-regressive burn profile. The third case study studies designing a neutrally burning right circular perforated grain (utilizing inner and external geometry tapering. The final case study studies designing a linearly regressive burning profile for right circular perforated (tapered grains.
Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, Tarek [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)
2015-09-30
Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
On Adaptive Optimal Input Design
Stigter, J.D.; Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.
2003-01-01
The problem of optimal input design (OID) for a fed-batch bioreactor case study is solved recursively. Here an adaptive receding horizon optimal control problem, involving the so-called E-criterion, is solved on-line, using the current estimate of the parameter vector at each sample instant {tk, k =
Optimal Design of Porous Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik
The focus of this thesis is topology optimization of material microstructures. That is, creating new materials, with attractive properties, by combining classic materials in periodic patterns. First, large-scale topology optimization is used to design complicated three-dimensional materials with ...
Hydrodynamic Design Optimization Tool
2011-08-01
techniques (Yang et al., 2008; Kim et al. 2010): (i) A modified NURBS technique is combined with a parametric global hull modification technique by...varying the sectional area curve with a shifting method, in which the design variables in the NURBS technique can be reduced via a grouping method after
Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-05-12
The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)
Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pop, Paul
2005-01-01
of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...... in use has become larger than the number of humans on the planet. The complexity of embedded systems is growing at a very high pace and the constraints in terms of functionality, performance, low energy consumption, reliability, cost and time-to-market are getting tighter. Therefore, the task......-to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...
Preliminary design of a coffee harvester
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.
Optimization-Based Layout Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Abdel-Malek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The layout problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, designers concerned with the placement of levers, knobs, controls, etc. in the reachable workspace of a human, and also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method (gradient-based optimization and simulated annealing to obtain the layout design. We implemented the proposed algorithm for a project at Oral-B Laboratories, where a manufacturing cell involves an operator who handles three objects, some with the left hand, others with the right hand.
Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview
Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry
2014-07-01
We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the
PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.A. Kappes
1999-09-16
The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).
Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1999-03-01
The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)
System Synthesis in Preliminary Aircraft Design Using Statistical Methods
DeLaurentis, Daniel; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.
1996-01-01
This paper documents an approach to conceptual and early preliminary aircraft design in which system synthesis is achieved using statistical methods, specifically Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). These methods are employed in order to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, a methodology incorporating three uses of these techniques is presented. First, response surface equations are formed which represent aerodynamic analyses, in the form of regression polynomials, which are more sophisticated than generally available in early design stages. Next, a regression equation for an Overall Evaluation Criterion is constructed for the purpose of constrained optimization at the system level. This optimization, though achieved in an innovative way, is still traditional in that it is a point design solution. The methodology put forward here remedies this by introducing uncertainty into the problem, resulting in solutions which are probabilistic in nature. DOE/RSM is used for the third time in this setting. The process is demonstrated through a detailed aero-propulsion optimization of a High Speed Civil Transport. Fundamental goals of the methodology, then, are to introduce higher fidelity disciplinary analyses to the conceptual aircraft synthesis and provide a roadmap for transitioning from point solutions to probabilistic designs (and eventually robust ones).
Preliminary design for a maglev development facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhang, Z.Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. [Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States); Williams, J.R. [Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States)
1992-04-01
A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.
Preliminary design for a maglev development facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zhang, Z.Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. (Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States)); Williams, J.R. (Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States))
1992-04-01
A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.
Preliminary design for a MAGLEV development facility
Coffey, H. T.; He, J. L.; Chang, S. L.; Bouillard, J. X.; Chen, S. S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L. O.; Lottes, S. A.; Rote, D. M.; Zhang, Z. Y.
1992-04-01
A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh from 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.
Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TRIFA, V.
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.
Optimization methods in structural design
Rothwell, Alan
2017-01-01
This book offers an introduction to numerical optimization methods in structural design. Employing a readily accessible and compact format, the book presents an overview of optimization methods, and equips readers to properly set up optimization problems and interpret the results. A ‘how-to-do-it’ approach is followed throughout, with less emphasis at this stage on mathematical derivations. The book features spreadsheet programs provided in Microsoft Excel, which allow readers to experience optimization ‘hands-on.’ Examples covered include truss structures, columns, beams, reinforced shell structures, stiffened panels and composite laminates. For the last three, a review of relevant analysis methods is included. Exercises, with solutions where appropriate, are also included with each chapter. The book offers a valuable resource for engineering students at the upper undergraduate and postgraduate level, as well as others in the industry and elsewhere who are new to these highly practical techniques.Whi...
Telemanipulator design and optimization software
Cote, Jean; Pelletier, Michel
1995-12-01
For many years, industrial robots have been used to execute specific repetitive tasks. In those cases, the optimal configuration and location of the manipulator only has to be found once. The optimal configuration or position where often found empirically according to the tasks to be performed. In telemanipulation, the nature of the tasks to be executed is much wider and can be very demanding in terms of dexterity and workspace. The position/orientation of the robot's base could be required to move during the execution of a task. At present, the choice of the initial position of the teleoperator is usually found empirically which can be sufficient in the case of an easy or repetitive task. In the converse situation, the amount of time wasted to move the teleoperator support platform has to be taken into account during the execution of the task. Automatic optimization of the position/orientation of the platform or a better designed robot configuration could minimize these movements and save time. This paper will present two algorithms. The first algorithm is used to optimize the position and orientation of a given manipulator (or manipulators) with respect to the environment on which a task has to be executed. The second algorithm is used to optimize the position or the kinematic configuration of a robot. For this purpose, the tasks to be executed are digitized using a position/orientation measurement system and a compact representation based on special octrees. Given a digitized task, the optimal position or Denavit-Hartenberg configuration of the manipulator can be obtained numerically. Constraints on the robot design can also be taken into account. A graphical interface has been designed to facilitate the use of the two optimization algorithms.
Heat Sink Design and Optimization
2015-12-01
Natural convection Radiation Design Modeling Optimization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Hs = 3.94 in. Width Ws = 5.42 in. Fins Height Hf = 0.98 in. Length...different fin thicknesses (tf) The next parameter considered was fin height, Hf . Smaller height has a negative influence on overall heat sink
Aeroelastic Considerations in the Preliminary Design Aircraft
1983-09-01
DESIGN OBJECTIVES FEM FASO MODELINGWEGS TRNFRAIS SIZING RIGID AtP .FIRST FIRST FLEX FIRST FLEXSTATICLOADS [ IZING STATIC LOADS SIZING UPDATEFLEX SIZING...Structural Optimization by ASAT A computer software system called ASAT (Automatische Struktur Auslegung von Trag- flchen) exists at MBB which allows
ISSA/TSS power preliminary design
Main, John A.
1996-01-01
A projected power shortfall during the initial utilization flights of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) has prompted an inquiry into the use of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) to provide station power. The preliminary design of the combined ISSA/TSS system is currently underway in the Preliminary Design Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This document focuses on the justification for using a tether system on space station, the physical principles behind such a system, and how it might be operated to best utilize its capabilities. The basic components of a simple DC generator are a magnet of some type and a conductive wire. Moving the wire through the magnetic field causes forces to be applied to the electric charges in the conductor, and thus current is induced to flow. This simple concept is the idea behind generating power with space-borne tether systems. The function of the magnet is performed by the earth's magnetic field, and orbiting a conductive tether about the earth effectively moves the tether through the field.
Design and Optimization of Composite Gyroscope Momentum Wheel Rings
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2007-01-01
Stress analysis and preliminary design/optimization procedures are presented for gyroscope momentum wheel rings composed of metallic, metal matrix composite, and polymer matrix composite materials. The design of these components involves simultaneously minimizing both true part volume and mass, while maximizing angular momentum. The stress analysis results are combined with an anisotropic failure criterion to formulate a new sizing procedure that provides considerable insight into the design of gyroscope momentum wheel ring components. Results compare the performance of two optimized metallic designs, an optimized SiC/Ti composite design, and an optimized graphite/epoxy composite design. The graphite/epoxy design appears to be far superior to the competitors considered unless a much greater premium is placed on volume efficiency compared to mass efficiency.
CTF3 Design Report Preliminary Phase
Allard, D; Bernard, M; Bertuzzi, J P; Bienvenu, G; Bonzano, R; Bossart, Rudolf; Braun, H; Bravin, Enrico; Borburgh, J; Buttkus, J; Chazarenc, E; Chaput, R; Chohan, V; Cloye, J J; Corsini, R; Coudert, G; Damiani, M; Deghaye, S; Delahaye, J P; Di Maio, F; Dobers, T; Dubief, P; Dupuy, B; Durieu, L; Ferrari, A; Garvey, Terence; Geschonke, Günther; Hansen, J; Hellgren, H; Hourican, M; Lamidon, M; Le Duff, J; Lefèvre, T; Lewis, J H; Lindroos, J; Mahner, E; McMonagle, G; Monteiro, J; Mourier, J; Mouton, B; Odier, P; Otto, T; Pearce, P; Pittin, R; Poehler, M; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Rettig, M; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Riva, R; Rossat, G; Royer, P; Sermeus, L; Setas, K; Simonet, G; Sladen, Jonathan P H; Søby, L; Tanner, L; Tecker, F A; Thomi, J C; Wilson, Ian H; Yvon, G
2001-01-01
The design of CLIC is based on a two-beam scheme, where the short pulses of high power 30 GHz RF are extracted from a drive beam running parallel to the main beam. The 3rd generation CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) will demonstrate the generation of the drive beam with the appropriate time structure, the extraction of 30 GHz RF power from this beam, as well as acceleration of a probe beam with 30 GHz RF cavities. The project makes maximum use of existing equipment and infrastructure of the LPI complex, which became available after the closure of LEP. In the first stage of the project, the "Preliminary Phase", the existing LIL linac and the EPA ring, both modified to suit the new requirements, are used to investigate the technique of frequency multiplication by means of interleaving bunches from subsequent trains. This report describes the design of this phase.
NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dierker, S.
2007-11-01
Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility
NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dierker, S.
2007-11-01
Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility
Design optimization of deployable wings
Gaddam, Pradeep
Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.
Preliminary conceptual design about the CEPC calorimeters
Yang, Haijun
2016-11-01
The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory was proposed in September 2013. The preliminary conceptual design report was completed in 2015.1 The CEPC detector design was using International Linear Collider Detector — ILD2 as an initial baseline. The CEPC calorimeters, including the high granularity electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) and the hadron calorimeter (HCAL), are designed for precise energy measurements of electrons, photons, taus and hadronic jets. The basic resolution requirements for the ECAL and HCAL are about 16%E (GeV) and 50%E (GeV), respectively. To fully exploit the physics potential of the Higgs, W, Z and related Standard Model processes, the jet energy resolution is required to reach 3%-4%, or 30%/E (GeV) at energies below about 100 GeV. To achieve the required performance, a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) — oriented calorimetry system is being considered as the baseline design. The CEPC ECAL detector options include silicon-tungsten or scintillator-tungsten structures with analog readout, while the HCAL detector options have scintillator or gaseous detector as the active sensor and iron as the absorber. Some latest R&D studies about ECAL and HCAL within the CEPC working group is also presented.
Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver
Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.
2000-01-01
Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.
Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-12-01
This report presents the preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois mode Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector. Information in this package includes the Subsystem Design and Development Approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the Preliminary Design Review.
Optimal Design of Stiffeners for Bucket Foundations
Courtney, William Tucker; Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Bitsche, Robert; Hallum, Nicolai; Nielsen, Søren A.
2015-01-01
The potential for structural optimization of the bucket foundation’s outer stiffeners is investigated using commercial optimization software. In order to obtain the optimal design both shape and topology optimization problems are formulated and solved using the structural optimization software Tosca Structure coupled with the finite element software Abaqus. The solutions to these optimization problems are then manually interpreted as a new design concept. Results show that shape optimization ...
[Design and optimization of a centrifugal pump for CPCR].
Pei, J; Tan, X; Chen, K; Li, X
2000-06-01
Requirements for an optimal centrifugal pump, the vital component in the equipment for cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation(CPCR), have been presented. The performance of the Sarns centrifugal pump (Sarns, Inc./3M, Ann arbor, MI, U.S.A) was tested. The preliminarily optimized model for CPCR was designed according to the requirements of CPCR and to the comparison and analysis of several clinically available centrifugal pumps. The preliminary tests using the centrifugal pump made in our laboratory(Type CPCR-I) have confirmed the design and the optimization.
Design optimization of solar cooker
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirdha, U.S.; Dhariwal, S.R. [Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 005 (India)
2008-03-15
Various designs of solar cookers have been theoretically investigated with a view to optimize their performance. Starting from a conventional box type cooker, various combinations of booster mirrors have been studied to arrive at a final design, aimed at providing a cooker, which can be fixed on a south facing window (for countries of northern hemisphere, mainly situated near the tropic of Cancer). This cooker, with a rear window opening, may provide higher cooking temperature for a fairly large duration of the day. Two or three changes in positions of the side booster mirrors, without moving the cooker as a whole has been proposed. The new design has been experimentally implemented and compared with a conventional box type solar cooker. Besides the convenience of a rear window opening, the cooker provides temperatures sufficiently high to enable cooking two meals a day. (author)
Emergency design framework: a satellite preliminary scheme design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Hongfei; WANG Yishou; ZHANG Bao
2007-01-01
The emergency design of mechanical products or equipment(such as a satellite)is significant for disaster relief when the natural disasters occur.Most of us are unaware about the little information that is available in literature about emergency designs.Against the background of the preliminary scheme design of satellite payloads,emergency design was studied in the case of natural disasters.We presented some definitions about emergency design.Then,we proposed the basic ideas of how to realize the emergency design.These ideas were inspired by two aspects:1)the evolutionary algorithms,the agent,the human-computer cooperation,and the collaborative design theory;2)the emergency behaviors in ant colonies.Following the ideas,first we constructed the human-computer cooperation agents(hereinafter called the HC-Agents)that combine the human intelligence with evolutionary algorithms.These HC-Agents had specific features like the division of labor in the ant colony.Second,we developed the multiagents cooperative design system on the basis of a hybrid P2P(peer-to-peer)model.Therefore,the emergency design system has shown some capabilities,such as anti-interference,adaptation,and rapid response.
Optimal Design of Stiffeners for Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Courtney, William Tucker; Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas;
2015-01-01
The potential for structural optimization of the bucket foundation’s outer stiffeners is investigated using commercial optimization software. In order to obtain the optimal design both shape and topology optimization problems are formulated and solved using the structural optimization software...... Tosca Structure coupled with the finite element software Abaqus. The solutions to these optimization problems are then manually interpreted as a new design concept. Results show that shape optimization of the initial design can reduce stress concentrations by 38%. Additionally, topology optimization has...
Preliminary design of pseudo satellites: Basic methods and feasibility criteria
Klimenko, N. N.
2016-12-01
Analytical models of weight and energy balances, aerodynamic models, and solar irradiance models to perform pseudo-satellite preliminary design are presented. Feasibility criteria are determined in accordance with the aim of preliminary design dependent on mission scenario and type of payload.
Design of microfluidic bioreactors using topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik
2007-01-01
We address the design of optimal reactors for supporting biological cultures using the method of topology optimization. For some years this method have been used to design various optimal microfluidic devices.1-4 We apply this method to distribute optimally biologic cultures within a flow of nutr...
The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z.Y.
2016-06-01
BISOL, which was named as Beijing-ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He{sup 2+} beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.
STACEE-32: Design, performance, and preliminary results
Ong, Rene A.
2000-06-01
The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is designed to detect astrophysical sources of γ-rays at energies between 25 and 500 GeV. STACEE uses large solar mirrors (heliostats) to collect the atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in γ-ray air showers. The use of a large mirror collection area will allow STACEE to probe γ-ray sources at energies above the reach of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), but below the reach of conventional Cherenkov telescopes. During the 1998-99 observing season, a portion of STACEE using 32 heliostats was installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) of Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM). This initial configuration (STACEE-32) observed a number of astronomical sources, including the Crab and several active galactic nuclei (AGN). Here we report on these observations. We highlight the experimental configuration and the preliminary results from the Crab data. The full STACEE experiment using 64 heliostats will be commissioned in 2000. .
ALMA Nutator Design and Preliminary Performance
Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M; Ni, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wei-Long; Chen, Ming-Tang; Raffin, Philippe; Ong, Chin-Long; Ho, Paul T P; Symmes, Arthur
2013-01-01
We report the past two years of collaboration between the di?erent actors on the ALMA nutator. Building on previous developments, the nutator has seen changes in much of the design. A high-modulus carbon ?fiber structure has been added on the back of the mirror in order to transfer the voice coils forces with less deformation, thus reducing delay problems due to flexing. The controller is now an off?-the-shelf National Instrument NI-cRIO, and the ampli?fier a class D servo drive from Advanced Motion Controls, with high peak power able to drive the coils at 300 Volts DC. The stow mechanism has been totally redesigned to improve on the repeatability and precision of the stow position, which is also the reference for the 26 bits Heidenhain encoders. This also improves on the accuracy of the stow position with wind loading. Finally, the software, written largely with National Instrument's LabView, has been developed. We will discuss these changes and the preliminary performances achieved to date. Keywords: ALMA, ...
The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL
Peng, S. X.; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.
2016-06-01
BISOL, which was named as Beijing_ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He2+ beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.
Preliminary Design Through Graphs: A Tool for Automatic Layout Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Biagini
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Diagrams are essential in the preliminary stages of design for understanding distributive aspects and assisting the decision-making process. By drawing a schematic graph, designers can visualize in a synthetic way the relationships between many aspects: functions and spaces, distribution of layouts, space adjacency, influence of traffic flows within a facility layout, and so on. This process can be automated through the use of modern Information and Communication Technologies tools (ICT that allow the designers to manage a large quantity of information. The work that we will present is part of an on-going research project into how modern parametric software influences decision-making on the basis of automatic and optimized layout distribution. The method involves two phases: the first aims to define the ontological relation between spaces, with particular reference to a specific building typology (rules of aggregation of spaces; the second entails the implementation of these rules through the use of specialist software. The generation of ontological relations begins with the collection of data from historical manuals and analyses of case studies. These analyses aim to generate a “relationship matrix” based on preferences of space adjacency. The phase of implementing the previously defined rules is based on the use of Grasshopper to analyse and visualize different layout configurations. The layout is generated by simulating a process involving the collision of spheres, which represents specific functions of the design program. The spheres are attracted or rejected as a function of the relationships matrix, as defined above. The layout thus obtained will remain in a sort of abstract state independent of information about the exterior form, but will still provide a useful tool for the decision-making process. In addition, preliminary results gathered through the analysis of case studies will be presented. These results provide a good variety
Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system
1978-01-01
A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.
Preliminary design review: Brayton Isotope Power System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
none,
1977-03-01
The design aspects covered include flight system design, design criteria/margins/reliability, GDS design, system analysis, materials, system assembly procedure, and government furnished equipment-BTPS. (TFD)
Design optimization method for Francis turbine
Kawajiri, H.; Enomoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.
2014-03-01
This paper presents a design optimization system coupled CFD. Optimization algorithm of the system employs particle swarm optimization (PSO). Blade shape design is carried out in one kind of NURBS curve defined by a series of control points. The system was applied for designing the stationary vanes and the runner of higher specific speed francis turbine. As the first step, single objective optimization was performed on stay vane profile, and second step was multi-objective optimization for runner in wide operating range. As a result, it was confirmed that the design system is useful for developing of hydro turbine.
Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.
2000-01-01
An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.
Design Optimization of Internal Flow Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens Ingemann
The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies.......The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies....
Reliability based design optimization: Formulations and methodologies
Agarwal, Harish
Modern products ranging from simple components to complex systems should be designed to be optimal and reliable. The challenge of modern engineering is to ensure that manufacturing costs are reduced and design cycle times are minimized while achieving requirements for performance and reliability. If the market for the product is competitive, improved quality and reliability can generate very strong competitive advantages. Simulation based design plays an important role in designing almost any kind of automotive, aerospace, and consumer products under these competitive conditions. Single discipline simulations used for analysis are being coupled together to create complex coupled simulation tools. This investigation focuses on the development of efficient and robust methodologies for reliability based design optimization in a simulation based design environment. Original contributions of this research are the development of a novel efficient and robust unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization, the development of an innovative decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology, the application of homotopy techniques in unilevel reliability based design optimization methodology, and the development of a new framework for reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty. The unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the traditional nested formulation. Numerical test problems show that the unilevel methodology can reduce computational cost by at least 50% as compared to the nested approach. The decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology is an approximate technique to obtain consistent reliable designs at lesser computational expense. Test problems show that the methodology is computationally efficient compared to the nested approach. A framework for performing reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty is also developed
Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft
Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.
1989-01-01
The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.
A preliminary design of a knot undulator.
Xi, Fuchun; Shi, Tan; Fan, Qingyan; Prestemon, Soren; Wan, Weishi; An, Zhenghua; Qiao, S
2013-01-01
The magnetic field configuration of the previously proposed knot undulator [Qiao et al. (2009). Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 085108] is realised in the design of a hybridized elliptically polarized undulator, which is presented. Although the details of the field distribution are not the same as those in the theoretical proposal, it is demonstrated that the practical knot undulator could work perfectly. In order to understand the minor discrepancies of the two, mathematical formulae of the synchrotron radiation are derived based on the Fourier transform of the magnetic field. From the results of calculations by simulation program, the discrepancies could be well interpreted by the corresponding formulae. The results show the importance of optimization of the end sections of the knot undulator to suppress the on-axis heat load. Furthermore, a study of the impact of the undulator on beam dynamics of the storage ring was conducted using the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility as an example and the results show that the knot undulator has little effect on the beam.
Design Optimization Toolkit: Users' Manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics
2014-07-01
The Design Optimization Toolkit (DOTk) is a stand-alone C++ software package intended to solve complex design optimization problems. DOTk software package provides a range of solution methods that are suited for gradient/nongradient-based optimization, large scale constrained optimization, and topology optimization. DOTk was design to have a flexible user interface to allow easy access to DOTk solution methods from external engineering software packages. This inherent flexibility makes DOTk barely intrusive to other engineering software packages. As part of this inherent flexibility, DOTk software package provides an easy-to-use MATLAB interface that enables users to call DOTk solution methods directly from the MATLAB command window.
Optimal crossover designs for the proportional model
Zheng, Wei
2013-01-01
In crossover design experiments, the proportional model, where the carryover effects are proportional to their direct treatment effects, has draw attentions in recent years. We discover that the universally optimal design under the traditional model is E-optimal design under the proportional model. Moreover, we establish equivalence theorems of Kiefer-Wolfowitz's type for four popular optimality criteria, namely A, D, E and T (trace).
Overview: Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems
Miura, H.
1984-01-01
There are a number of helicopter design problems that are well suited to applications of numerical design optimization techniques. Adequate implementation of this technology will provide high pay-offs. There are a number of numerical optimization programs available, and there are many excellent response/performance analysis programs developed or being developed. But integration of these programs in a form that is usable in the design phase should be recognized as important. It is also necessary to attract the attention of engineers engaged in the development of analysis capabilities and to make them aware that analysis capabilities are much more powerful if integrated into design oriented codes. Frequently, the shortcoming of analysis capabilities are revealed by coupling them with an optimization code. Most of the published work has addressed problems in preliminary system design, rotor system/blade design or airframe design. Very few published results were found in acoustics, aerodynamics and control system design. Currently major efforts are focused on vibration reduction, and aerodynamics/acoustics applications appear to be growing fast. The development of a computer program system to integrate the multiple disciplines required in helicopter design with numerical optimization technique is needed. Activities in Britain, Germany and Poland are identified, but no published results from France, Italy, the USSR or Japan were found.
Topology Optimization for Architected Materials Design
Osanov, Mikhail; Guest, James K.
2016-07-01
Advanced manufacturing processes provide a tremendous opportunity to fabricate materials with precisely defined architectures. To fully leverage these capabilities, however, materials architectures must be optimally designed according to the target application, base material used, and specifics of the fabrication process. Computational topology optimization offers a systematic, mathematically driven framework for navigating this new design challenge. The design problem is posed and solved formally as an optimization problem with unit cell and upscaling mechanics embedded within this formulation. This article briefly reviews the key requirements to apply topology optimization to materials architecture design and discusses several fundamental findings related to optimization of elastic, thermal, and fluidic properties in periodic materials. Emerging areas related to topology optimization for manufacturability and manufacturing variations, nonlinear mechanics, and multiscale design are also discussed.
Design of an Optimal Biorefinery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John
2011-01-01
In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...
Design of an Optimal Biorefinery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nawaz, Muhammad; Zondervan, Edwin; Woodley, John
In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...
Acoustic design by topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2008-01-01
To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...
Design optimization of a torpedo shell structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU De-hai; SONG Bao-wei; LI Jia-wang; YANG Shi-xing
2008-01-01
An optimized methodology to design a more robust torpedo shell is proposed. The method has taken into account reliability requirements and controllable and uncontrollable factors such as geometry, load, material properties, manufacturing processes, installation, etc. as well as human and environmental factors. The result is a more realistic shell design. Our reliability optimization design model was developed based on sensitivity analysis. Details of the design model are given in this paper. An example of a torpedo shell design based on this model is given and demonstrates that the method produces designs that are more effective and reliable than traditional torpedo shell designs. This method can be used for other torpedo system designs.
Optimal design criteria - prediction vs. parameter estimation
Waldl, Helmut
2014-05-01
G-optimality is a popular design criterion for optimal prediction, it tries to minimize the kriging variance over the whole design region. A G-optimal design minimizes the maximum variance of all predicted values. If we use kriging methods for prediction it is self-evident to use the kriging variance as a measure of uncertainty for the estimates. Though the computation of the kriging variance and even more the computation of the empirical kriging variance is computationally very costly and finding the maximum kriging variance in high-dimensional regions can be time demanding such that we cannot really find the G-optimal design with nowadays available computer equipment in practice. We cannot always avoid this problem by using space-filling designs because small designs that minimize the empirical kriging variance are often non-space-filling. D-optimality is the design criterion related to parameter estimation. A D-optimal design maximizes the determinant of the information matrix of the estimates. D-optimality in terms of trend parameter estimation and D-optimality in terms of covariance parameter estimation yield basically different designs. The Pareto frontier of these two competing determinant criteria corresponds with designs that perform well under both criteria. Under certain conditions searching the G-optimal design on the above Pareto frontier yields almost as good results as searching the G-optimal design in the whole design region. In doing so the maximum of the empirical kriging variance has to be computed only a few times though. The method is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation experiment based on data provided by the Belgian institute Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models (MUMM) that describe the evolution of inorganic and organic carbon and nutrients, phytoplankton, bacteria and zooplankton in the Southern Bight of the North Sea.
Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.
1994-01-01
Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... be used in interactive optimization....
Optimal design of funded pension schemes
Bovenberg, A.L.; Mehlkopf, R.J.
2014-01-01
This article reviews the literature on the optimal design and regulation of funded pension schemes. We first characterize optimal saving and investment over an individual’s life cycle. Within a stylized modeling framework, we explore optimal individual saving and investing behavior. Subsequently, va
Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis.
Dette, Holger; Pepelyshev, Andrey; Wong, Weng Kee
2011-12-01
Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences, ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy, with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, and construct and study properties of optimal designs for (i) estimating model parameters, (ii) estimating the threshold dose, and (iii) testing for the presence of hormesis. We also determine maximin optimal designs that maximize the minimum of the design efficiencies when we have multiple design criteria or there is model uncertainty where we have a few plausible models of interest. We apply these optimal design strategies to a teratology study and show that the proposed designs outperform the implemented design by a wide margin for many situations.
Optimal design of isotope labeling experiments.
Yang, Hong; Mandy, Dominic E; Libourel, Igor G L
2014-01-01
Stable isotope labeling experiments (ILE) constitute a powerful methodology for estimating metabolic fluxes. An optimal label design for such an experiment is necessary to maximize the precision with which fluxes can be determined. But often, precision gained in the determination of one flux comes at the expense of the precision of other fluxes, and an appropriate label design therefore foremost depends on the question the investigator wants to address. One could liken ILE to shadows that metabolism casts on products. Optimal label design is the placement of the lamp; creating clear shadows for some parts of metabolism and obscuring others.An optimal isotope label design is influenced by: (1) the network structure; (2) the true flux values; (3) the available label measurements; and, (4) commercially available substrates. The first two aspects are dictated by nature and constrain any optimal design. The second two aspects are suitable design parameters. To create an optimal label design, an explicit optimization criterion needs to be formulated. This usually is a property of the flux covariance matrix, which can be augmented by weighting label substrate cost. An optimal design is found by using such a criterion as an objective function for an optimizer. This chapter uses a simple elementary metabolite units (EMU) representation of the TCA cycle to illustrate the process of experimental design of isotope labeled substrates.
Preliminary Design of IHTS Cold Trap for PGSFR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jewhan; Lee, Taeho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The main impurities in liquid sodium of the IHTS are oxygen and hydrogen. These impurities form oxides and hydrides with sodium and cause various problems. In order to eliminate the impurities the Cold Trap is installed in the loop. The life and capacity of the IHTS cold Trap depends the amount of impurities. For IHTS loop, the hydrogen has been identified as the major contamination from Steam Generator (SG) during the normal operation. In this study, the sizing of cold trap based on the source rate of hydrogen from SG from past experiences was conducted. Empirical relations among different variables were adopted to establish the temperature distribution, pressure drops, flow rates and geometries for the cold trap and its associated component. In this study, the IHTS cold trap for normal operation has been analyzed and the preliminary design of corresponding cold trap and economizer has been carried out. For further detailed design, R and D on basic sodium technology will be essential to optimize the Cold Trap.
Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft
Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.
1989-01-01
The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.
Universally optimal crossover designs under subject dropout
Zheng, Wei
2013-01-01
Subject dropout is very common in practical applications of crossover designs. However, there is very limited design literature taking this into account. Optimality results have not yet been well established due to the complexity of the problem. This paper establishes feasible, as well as necessary and sufficient conditions for a crossover design to be universally optimal in approximate design theory in the presence of subject dropout. These conditions are essentially linear equations with re...
Optimality of a Fully Stressed Design
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1998-01-01
For a truss a fully stressed state is reached and when all its members are utilized to their full strength capacity. Historically, engineers considered such a design optimum. But recently this optimality has been questioned, especially since the weight of the structure is not explicitly used in fully stressed design calculations. This paper examines optimality of the full stressed design (FSD) with analytical and graphical illustrations. Solutions for a set of examples obtained by using the FSD method and optimization methods numerically confirm the optimality of the FSD. The FSD, which can be obtained with a small amount of calculation, can be extended to displacement constraints and to nontruss-type structures.
Underwater Munitions Expert System: Preliminary Design Report
2015-08-21
coral reefs , can be added to future versions of UnMES. For this preliminary UnMES...administer areas polluted by discarded munitions. Towards this end, SERDP is sponsoring the development...estimating seawater pollution from dissolved chemical components of munitions.
Design Optimization of Gas Generator Hybrid Propulsion Boosters
Weldon, Vincent; Phillips, Dwight; Fink, Larry
1990-01-01
A methodology used in support of a study for NASA/MSFC to optimize the design of gas generator hybrid propulsion booster for uprating the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is presented. The objective was to compare alternative configurations for this booster approach, optimizing each candidate concept on different bases, in order to develop data for a trade table on which a final decision was based. The methodology is capable of processing a large number of independent and dependent variables, adjusting the overall subsystems characteristics to arrive at a best compromise integrated design to meet various specific optimization criteria subject to selected constraints. For each system considered, a detailed weight statement was generated along with preliminary cost and reliability estimates.
An improved group search optimizer for mechanical design optimization problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hai Shen; Yunlong Zhu; Ben Niu; Q.H. Wu
2009-01-01
This paper presents an improved group search optimizer (iGSO) for solving mechanical design optimization problems.In the pro-posed algorithm,subpopulations and a co-operation evolutionary strategy were adopted to improve the global search capability and convergence performance.The iGSO is evaluated on two optimization problems of classical mechanical design:spring and pressure vessel.The experimental results are analyzed in comparison with those reported in the literatures.The results show that iGSO has much better convergence performance and is easier to implement in comparison with other existing evolutionary algorithms.
Optimal Multiobjective Design of Digital Filters Using Taguchi Optimization Technique
Ouadi, Abderrahmane; Bentarzi, Hamid; Recioui, Abdelmadjid
2014-01-01
The multiobjective design of digital filters using the powerful Taguchi optimization technique is considered in this paper. This relatively new optimization tool has been recently introduced to the field of engineering and is based on orthogonal arrays. It is characterized by its robustness, immunity to local optima trapping, relative fast convergence and ease of implementation. The objectives of filter design include matching some desired frequency response while having minimum linear phase; hence, reducing the time response. The results demonstrate that the proposed problem solving approach blended with the use of the Taguchi optimization technique produced filters that fulfill the desired characteristics and are of practical use.
Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design
Kelley, Todd R.
2010-01-01
A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…
Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems
1978-01-01
A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.
Optimal design for nonlinear response models
Fedorov, Valerii V
2013-01-01
Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors' many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss ada
Satisfactory Optimization Design of IIR Digital Filters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin Weidong; Zhang Gexiang; Zhao Duo
2005-01-01
A new method called satisfactory optimization method is proposed to design IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) digital filters, and the satisfactory optimization model is presented. The detailed algorithm of designing IIR digital filters using satisfactory optimization method is described. By using quantum genetic algorithm characterized by rapid convergence and good global search capability, the satisfying solutions are achieved in the experiment of designing lowpass and bandpass IIR digital filters. Experimental results show that the performances of IIR filters designed by the introduced method are better than those by traditional methods.
Design and fabrication of topologically optimized structures;
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn
2012-01-01
Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard...... & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus...
Preliminary design review report - sludge offload system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mcwethy, L.M. Westinghouse Hanford
1996-06-05
This report documents the conceptual design review of the sludge offload system for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The design description, drawings, available analysis, and safety analysis were reviewed by a peer group. The design review comments and resolutions are documented.
Preliminary Design of a Femtosecond Oscilloscope
Gazazyan, Edmond D; Kalantaryan, Davit K; Laziev, Edouard; Margaryan, Amour
2005-01-01
The calculations on motion of electrons in a finite length electromagnetic field of linearly and circularly polarized laser beams have shown that one can use the transversal deflection of electrons on a screen at a certain distance after the interaction region for the measurement of the length and longitudinal particle distribution of femtosecond bunches. In this work the construction and preliminary parameters of various parts of a device that may be called femtosecond oscilloscope are considered. The influence of various factors, such as the energy spread and size of the electron bunches, are taken into account. For CO2 laser intensity 1016 W/cm2 and field free drift length 1m the deflection is 5.3 and 0.06 cm, while the few centimeters long interaction length between 2 mirrors requires assembling accuracy 6 mm and 1.3 micron for 20 MeV to 50 keV, respectively.
Finite Element Based Optimal Design Approach for High Voltage Pulse Transformers
Aguglia, D; Viarouge, P; Cros, J
2014-01-01
This paper presents an optimal design methodology of monolithic high voltage pulse transformers based on the direct 2D FEA identification of the electrical equivalent circuit parameters. This method is applied to the preliminary optimal design of the monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the future CLIC modulators under study at CERN. The feasibility of such a transformer with tight specifications is demonstrated. The predicted performances obtained with the direct 2D FEA optimization process is validated by 3D FEA simulation.
A Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Model for AUV Synthetic Conceptual Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BU Guang-zhi; ZHANG Yu-wen
2006-01-01
Autonomous undersea vehicle (AUV) is a typical complex engineering system. This paper studies the disciplines and coupled variables in AUV design with multidisciplinary design optimization (M DO) methods. The framework of AUV synthetic conceptual design is described first, and then a model with collaborative optimization is studied. At last,an example is given to verify the validity and efficiency of MDO in AUV synthetic conceptual design.
Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee
1999-03-01
SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.
Digital Design of Virtual Prototype based on Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Baogui; HUANG Hongzhong; TAO Ye
2006-01-01
In order to obtain digital design of complex mechanical product as optimal as possible in an efficient way, multidiscipline integrated design method is proposed, which integrates multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) into digital design process to design virtual prototype (VP) efficiently. Through combining MDO and multi-body system dynamics, MDO integration platform, which takes VP as the core, is constructed. Then automated MDO design of VP is realized and changes of mechanical design project can be expressed intuitively during MDO design process. The proposed approach is also demonstrated by using integrated analyzing flow of vehicle engineering design. The result shows that the method not only can feasibly realize the MDO of VP, but also can solve the optimization problem of vehicle multi-body system dynamic performance. It can be adopted to the digital design of other complex system.
Asteroid Rendezvous Mission Design Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya-zhong Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new preliminary trajectory design method for asteroid rendezvous mission using multiobjective optimization techniques is proposed. This method can overcome the disadvantages of the widely employed Pork-Chop method. The multiobjective integrated launch window and multi-impulse transfer trajectory design model is formulated, which employes minimum-fuel cost and minimum-time transfer as two objective functions. The multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO is employed to locate the Pareto solution. The optimization results of two different asteroid mission designs show that the proposed approach can effectively and efficiently demonstrate the relations among the mission characteristic parameters such as launch time, transfer time, propellant cost, and number of maneuvers, which will provide very useful reference for practical asteroid mission design. Compared with the PCP method, the proposed approach is demonstrated to be able to provide much more easily used results, obtain better propellant-optimal solutions, and have much better efficiency. The MOPSO shows a very competitive performance with respect to the NSGA-II and the SPEA-II; besides a proposed boundary constraint optimization strategy is testified to be able to improve its performance.
Circadian clocks are designed optimally
Hasegawa, Yoshihiko
2014-01-01
Circadian rhythms are acquired through evolution to increase the chances for survival by synchronizing to the daylight cycle. Reliable synchronization is realized through two trade-off properties: regularity to keep time precisely, and entrainability to synchronize the internal time with daylight. Since both properties have been tuned through natural selection, their adaptation can be formalized in the framework of mathematical optimization. By using a succinct model, we found that simultaneous optimization of regularity and entrainability entails inherent features of the circadian mechanism irrespective of model details. At the behavioral level we discovered the existence of a dead zone, a time during which light pulses neither advance nor delay the clock. At the molecular level we demonstrate the role-sharing of two light inputs, phase advance and delay, as is well observed in mammals. We also reproduce the results of phase-controlling experiments and predict molecular elements responsible for the clockwork...
Optimization design of electromagnetic shielding composites
Qu, Zhaoming; Wang, Qingguo; Qin, Siliang; Hu, Xiaofeng
2013-03-01
The effective electromagnetic parameters physical model of composites and prediction formulas of composites' shielding effectiveness and reflectivity were derived based on micromechanics, variational principle and electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The multi-objective optimization design of multilayer composites was carried out using genetic algorithm. The optimized results indicate that material parameter proportioning of biggest absorption ability can be acquired under the condition of the minimum shielding effectiveness can be satisfied in certain frequency band. The validity of optimization design model was verified and the scheme has certain theoretical value and directive significance to the design of high efficiency shielding composites.
Topology optimization design of space rectangular mirror
Qu, Yanjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bei; Li, Xupeng
2016-10-01
A conceptual lightweight rectangular mirror is designed based on the theory of topology optimization and the specific structure size is determined through sensitivity analysis and size optimization in this paper. Under the load condition of gravity along the optical axis, compared with the mirrors designed by traditional method using finite element analysis method, the performance of the topology optimization reflectors supported by peripheral six points are superior in lightweight ratio, structure stiffness and the reflective surface accuracy. This suggests that the lightweight method in this paper is effective and has potential value for the design of rectangular reflector.
Optimized design of low energy buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard
1999-01-01
concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... to evaluate different separate solutions when they interact in the building.When trying to optimize several parameters there is a need for a method, which will show the correct price-performance of each part of a building under design. The problem with not having such a method will first be showed...
Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design
Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.
1983-01-01
The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.
Optimal covariate designs theory and applications
Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar
2015-01-01
This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...
Optimal Design of Tidal Power Generator Using Stochastic Optimization Techniques
2014-01-01
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are usedto reduce the cost of a permanent magnet synchronous generator with concentratedwindings for tidal power applications. Reducing the cost of the electricalmachine is one way of making tidal energy more competitive compared to traditionalsources of electricity.Hybrid optimization combining PSO or GA with gradient based algorithmsseems to be suited for design of electrical machines. Results from optimizationwith Matlab indicat...
Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey
Miura, H.
1985-01-01
A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.
Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey
Miura, H.
1984-01-01
A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.
Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garavaglia, S., E-mail: garavaglia@ifp.cnr.it; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics “P.Caldirola”, National Research Council of Italy, Milan (Italy); Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D. [IAM-AWP, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [IHM, KIT, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, Q. M. [CRPP, EPFL, EURATOM Association, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2015-12-10
In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.
PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF NLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A physical and mathematical model is developed for describing nitrogen launching system (NLS)based on the dynamics of pneumatics and mechanisms. The multi-objective optimization function for the pitching angle and velocity of a missile was proposed for the first time. Singularity detection of wavelet analysis was conducted to find the optimum iteration points in a new direct algorithm of nonlinear programming. Comparison between wavelet optimization and complex method show that the former is better for optimization design.``
Optimality criteria solution strategies in multiple constraint design optimization
Levy, R.; Parzynski, W.
1981-01-01
Procedures and solution strategies are described to solve the conventional structural optimization problem using the Lagrange multiplier technique. The multipliers, obtained through solution of an auxiliary nonlinear optimization problem, lead to optimality criteria to determine the design variables. It is shown that this procedure is essentially equivalent to an alternative formulation using a dual method Lagrangian function objective. Although mathematical formulations are straight-forward, successful applications and computational efficiency depend upon execution procedure strategies. Strategies examined, with application examples, include selection of active constraints, move limits, line search procedures, and side constraint boundaries.
Interaction Prediction Optimization in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debiao Meng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The distributed strategy of Collaborative Optimization (CO is suitable for large-scale engineering systems. However, it is hard for CO to converge when there is a high level coupled dimension. Furthermore, the discipline objectives cannot be considered in each discipline optimization problem. In this paper, one large-scale systems control strategy, the interaction prediction method (IPM, is introduced to enhance CO. IPM is utilized for controlling subsystems and coordinating the produce process in large-scale systems originally. We combine the strategy of IPM with CO and propose the Interaction Prediction Optimization (IPO method to solve MDO problems. As a hierarchical strategy, there are a system level and a subsystem level in IPO. The interaction design variables (including shared design variables and linking design variables are operated at the system level and assigned to the subsystem level as design parameters. Each discipline objective is considered and optimized at the subsystem level simultaneously. The values of design variables are transported between system level and subsystem level. The compatibility constraints are replaced with the enhanced compatibility constraints to reduce the dimension of design variables in compatibility constraints. Two examples are presented to show the potential application of IPO for MDO.
Switched reluctance motor optimal geometry design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liviu Neamt
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM for geometrical optimization in terms of volume ratio of torque on the rotor, the so-called specific torque. The optimization parameter is the pair: stator and rotor pole angles, which forms a crucial part of the design process.
Optimal Design of Laminated Composite Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral
. Furthermore, the devised beam model is able account for the different levels of anisotropic elastic couplings which depend on the laminate lay-up. An optimization model based on multi-material topology optimization techniques is described. The design variables represent the volume fractions of the different...
Discrete design optimization accounting for practical constraints
Schevenels, M.; McGinn, S.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a heuristic algorithm for discrete design optimization, based on the optimality criteria method. Practical applicability is the first concern; special attention is therefore paid to the implementation of technological constraints. The method is generally applicable, but in order
Strategies for Optimal Design of Structural Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
1992-01-01
Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...... problems are described. Numerical tests indicate that a sequential technique called the bounds iteration method (BIM) is particularly fast and stable....
A semi-custom design methodology for design performance optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong-ming LV; Pei-yong ZHANG; Dan-dan ZHENG; Xiao-lang YAN; Bo ZHANG; Li QUAN
2008-01-01
We present a semi-custom design methodology based on transistor tuning to optimize the design performance.Compared with other transistor tuning approaches, our tuning process takes the cross-talk effect into account and prominently reduces the complexity for circuit simulation and analysis by decomposing the circuit network utilizing graph theory. Furthermore,the incremental placement and routing for the corresponding transistor tuning in conventional approaches is not required in our methodology, which might induce timing graph variation and additional iterations for design convergence. This methodology combines the flexible automated circuit tuning and physical design tools to provide more opportunities for design optimization throughout the design cycle.
Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution
Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine and compared to earlier methods. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.
Preliminary Conceptual Design for Safety Parameter display System of PGSFR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Hyunju; Seong, Seunghwan; Kim, Wansu; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Kwangseop; Jang, Gwisook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
A PGSFR (prototype Gen-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor) is under development at KAERI. A safety parameter display system (SPDS) should be designed for licensing the PGSFR in order to cope with the TMI action plan requirements. Thus, a preliminary conceptual design for the SPDS of PGSFR including licensing requirements, intrinsic function, critical variables and alarm legs for the SPDS of the PGSFR is studied herein. At first, some documents issued by NRC related to install a SPDS include the following: - NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements - NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities - NUREG-0835, Human Factors Acceptance Criteria for the Safety Parameter display System, Draft Report for Comment. The preliminary concept design for the SPDS of the PGSFR was studied. In designing of the PGSFR, the studied design concept will be refined and implemented through further studies to acquire the approval of a safety analysis report of the PGSFR.
OPTIMAL DESIGN OF SMART ANTENNA ARRAY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Feng; Liu Qizhong; Shan Runhong; Zhang Hou
2004-01-01
This letter investigates an efficient design procedure integrating the Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) for the fast optimal design of Smart Antenna Arrays (SAA). The FDTD is used to analyze SAA with mutual coupling. Then,on the basis of the Maximal Signal to Noise Ratio (MSNR) criteria, the GA is applied to the optimization of weighting elements and structure of SAA. Finally, the effectiveness of the analysis is evaluated by experimental antenna arrays.
Optimizing Design of UHVDC Converter Stations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Weimin; NIE Dingzhen; CAO Yanming
2012-01-01
Based on the consultation and study for Xiangjiaba-Shanghai ±800 kV UHVDC(ultra high voltage direct current) project, this paper presents an optimal design for key technique solutions. In this paper, the DC system electrical scheme design, the DC filter design, the DC harmonic component suppression, the over voltage and insulation coordination, the requirements for converter station equipment, the main equipment technical parameters of equipment (including thyristor valve, converter transformer, smoothing reactor, DC breaker), the configuration of measuring device and DC control protection system, and the de-icing operation design are investigated. According to the UHVDC technology researched conclusions and the development of the project construction, the UHVDC system design for converter stations becomes an optimal combination. The optimized design solves numbers of technical problems of the world's first UHVDC project, and it is applied to the project's construction. Under the actual operating condition, the optimized design is proved to be correct and superior. These optimal design conclusions are impartment for developing UHVDC technique and equipment, and provide reference for future UHVDC projects.
Systematic design of microstructures by topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
The topology optimization method can be used to determine the material distribution in a design domain such that an objective function is maximized and constraints are fulfilled. The method which is based on Finite Element Analysis may be applied to all kinds of material distribution problems like...... extremal material design, sensor and actuator design and MEMS synthesis. The state-of-the-art in topology optimization will be reviewed and older as well as new applications in phononic and photonic crystals design will be presented....
EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Du Beiliang
2007-01-01
A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.
A decision support system for preliminary design
Groot, E.H. de; Mallory, S.M.; Zutphen, R.H.M. van; Vries, B. de
1999-01-01
The design of buildings is a complex task for a variety of reasons. In the conceptual stage, particularly in the inception phase, a small number of people make decisions that have far reaching impact on the final result in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Decision-making in the inception phase
A decision support system for preliminary design
Groot, E.H. de; Mallory, S.M.; Zutphen, R.H.M. van; Vries, B. de
1999-01-01
The design of buildings is a complex task for a variety of reasons. In the conceptual stage, particularly in the inception phase, a small number of people make decisions that have far reaching impact on the final result in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Decision-making in the inception phase
Performative Computation-aided Design Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Tang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This article discusses a collaborative research and teaching project between the University of Cincinnati, Perkins+Will’s Tech Lab, and the University of North Carolina Greensboro. The primary investigation focuses on the simulation, optimization, and generation of architectural designs using performance-based computational design approaches. The projects examine various design methods, including relationships between building form, performance and the use of proprietary software tools for parametric design.
Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm
Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley
2009-01-01
Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!
Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...
Product model structure for generalized optimal design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The framework of the generalized optimization product model with the core of network- and tree-hierarchical structure is advanced to improve the characteristics of the generalized optimal design. Based on the proposed node-repetition technique, a network-hierarchical structure is united with the tree-hierarchical structure to facilitate the modeling of serialization and combination products. The criteria for product decomposition are investigated. Seven tree nodes are defined for the construction of a general product model, and their modeling properties are studied in detail. The developed product modeling system is applied and examined successfully in the modeling practice of the generalized optimal design for a hydraulic excavator.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-12-04
Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Desigh Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume presents the preliminary design configuration and system optimization. (WHK)
Optimized design of low energy buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard
1999-01-01
by 33% compared to current level and that the CO2 emission should be halved. This calls for sustainable development in the building sector, but at the same time, it has to be economically efficient. People are conscious about savings in energy, but consideration to economic aspects are their primary...... concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... life time). The design and construction of buildings should take into account both energy, environment and economical aspects. The design of a building is very complex and the work on optimizing the design raises several questions. Which criteria are the decisive when choosing a solution? How...
Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Logsdon, Randall J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlane, Joanna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-09-01
Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment. In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year’s efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.
Design optimization for active twist rotor blades
Mok, Ji Won
This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION METHOD USED IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SCURTU Iacob Liviu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization study in mechanical engineering. First part of the research describe the structural optimization method used, followed by the presentation of several optimization studies conducted in recent years. The second part of the paper presents the CAD modelling of an agricultural plough component. The beam of the plough is analysed using finite element method. The plough component is meshed in solid elements, and the load case which mimics the working conditions of agricultural equipment of this are created. The model is prepared to find the optimal structural design, after the FEA study of the model is done. The mass reduction of part is the criterion applied for this optimization study. The end of this research presents the final results and the model optimized shape.
Controller Design Automation for Aeroservoelastic Design Optimization of Wind Turbines
Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Zaayer, M.B.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to integrate the controller design of wind turbines with structure and aerodynamic analysis and use the final product in the design optimization process (DOP) of wind turbines. To do that, the controller design is automated and integrated with an aeroelastic simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李珺; 杨永; 顾祥玉
2014-01-01
在飞行器概念－初步设计阶段，建立基于C FD的气动优化链对于提高优化计算的效率具有较好的工程应用价值。使用德国宇航院开发的CPACS数据格式给出飞行器平面形状，结合NURBS翼型参数化方法对飞行器几何外形进行参数化；自动生成计算网格并求解Euler方程数值模拟流场以评估参数化气动外形的气动特性，进而构建响应面模型；使用SQP梯度算法搜索响应面模型以获取满足约束的最优解。以Onera M6机翼为例，对该优化链进行验证。结果表明：在满足约束的条件下，基于C FD的气动优化链能够成功地进行气动外形优化。%An aerodynamic optimization chain based on CFD is of great significance for conceptual and prelimina‐ry design .The combination of NURBS(Non‐Uniform Rational B‐Splines) parameterization method and CPACS (Common Parametric Aircraft Configuration Schema) data format developed by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft‐und Raumfahrt(DLR) can successfully describe the parameterized configuration of the entire aircraft .The grids for calculating the Euler equations are automatically generated and the aerodynamic characteristics of parameterized aerodynamic shape are evaluated .Then the response surface model(RSM ) is built .Based on RSM the SQP(Se‐quential Quadratic Programming) gradient algorithm is sought under satisfying constraints .An Onera M6 wing is chosen to validate the optimization chain .The optimization results indicate that under conditions of constraint ,aerody‐namic configuration can be optimized successfully by an aerodynamic optimization chain based on CFD .
Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles
1979-01-01
The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.
Preliminary Thermal Design of Cryogenic Radiation Shielding
Li, Xiaoyi; Mustafi, Shuvo; Boutte, Alvin
2015-01-01
Cryogenic Hydrogen Radiation Shielding (CHRS) is the most mass efficient material radiation shielding strategy for human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Future human space flight, mission beyond LEO could exceed one year in duration. Previous radiation studies showed that in order to protect the astronauts from space radiation with an annual allowable radiation dose less than 500 mSv, 140 kgm2 of polyethylene is necessary. For a typical crew module that is 4 meter in diameter and 8 meter in length. The mass of polyethylene radiation shielding required would be more than 17,500 kg. The same radiation study found that the required hydrogen shielding for the same allowable radiation dose is 40 kgm2, and the mass of hydrogen required would be 5, 000 kg. Cryogenic hydrogen has higher densities and can be stored in relatively small containment vessels. However, the CHRS system needs a sophisticated thermal system which prevents the cryogenic hydrogen from evaporating during the mission. This study designed a cryogenic thermal system that protects the CHRS from hydrogen evaporation for one to up to three year mission. The design also includes a ground based cooling system that can subcool and freeze liquid hydrogen. The final results show that the CHRS with its required thermal protection system is nearly half of the mass of polyethylene radiation shielding.
Design Buildings Optimally: A Lifecycle Assessment Approach
Hosny, Ossama
2013-01-01
This paper structures a generic framework to support optimum design for multi-buildings in desert environment. The framework is targeting an environmental friendly design with minimum lifecycle cost, using Genetic Algorithms (Gas). GAs function through a set of success measures which evaluates the design, formulates a proper objective, and reflects possible tangible/intangible constraints. The framework optimizes the design and categorizes it under a certain environmental category at minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC). It consists of three main modules: (1) a custom Building InformationModel (BIM) for desert buildings with a compatibility checker as a central interactive database; (2) a system evaluator module to evaluate the proposed success measures for the design; and (3) a GAs optimization module to ensure optimum design. The framework functions through three levels: the building components, integrated building, and multi-building levels. At the component level the design team should be able to select components in a designed sequence to ensure compatibility among various components, while at the building level; the team can relatively locate and orient each individual building. Finally, at the multi-building (compound) level the whole design can be evaluated using success measures of natural light, site capacity, shading impact on natural lighting, thermal change, visual access and energy saving. The framework through genetic algorithms optimizes the design by determining proper types of building components and relative buildings locations and orientations which ensure categorizing the design under a specific category or meet certain preferences at minimum lifecycle cost.
Preliminary Mechanical Design of FHX for PGSFR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choo, Jinyup; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this paper, more specific data from analysis and mechanical method of approach to design will be addressed. Especially, frame of tube bundle and housing of FHX. Heretofore, it is concept design by mechanical basic knowledge and research of various structures that are activating in realities. Especially, to reduce thermal stress, we have planning to attach insulations inside the housing. In as much as FHX is as important on SFR as the other part, hereafter, we will develop FEM to check feasibility of the FHX's housing design in order to perform static and thermal analysis as well as bucking, seismic and so on. The Forced-draft sodium-to-air Heat Exchanger system (FHX) (employed in the Active Decay Heat Removal System (ADHRS) is a shell-and-tube type counter-current flow heat exchanger with serpentine finned-tube arrangement. Liquid sodium flows over the finned tubes. The unit is placed above the reactor building and has function of dumping the system heat load into the final heat sink, i. e., the atmosphere. Heat is transmitted from the primary hot sodium pool into the ADHRS sodium loop via Decay Heat Exchanger (DHX), and a direct heat exchange occurs between the tube-side sodium and the shell-side air through the FHX sodium tube wall. Cold atmospheric air is introduced into the air inlet duct at the lower part of the unit by using an electrically driven air blower. Air flows across the finned tube bank rising upward direction to make uniform air flow with perfect mixing across the tubes. The finned tube bundle is placed inside a well-insulated casing. The air heated at the tube bank region is collected at the top of the unit and then is discharged through the air stack above the unit. Although a blower supplies atmospheric air into the FHX unit, a tall air stack is also provided to secure natural draft head of natural circulation air flow against a loss power supply. The stack also has rain protecting structures to prevent inflow of rain drops or undesired
Design optimization of shape memory alloy structures
Langelaar, M.
2006-01-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of design optimization techniques for designing shape memory alloy structures. Shape memory alloys are materials which, after deformation, can recover their initial shape when heated. This effect can be used for actuation. Emerging applications for shape memory
Design optimization of shape memory alloy structures
Langelaar, M.
2006-01-01
This thesis explores the possibilities of design optimization techniques for designing shape memory alloy structures. Shape memory alloys are materials which, after deformation, can recover their initial shape when heated. This effect can be used for actuation. Emerging applications for shape memory
A design optimization methodology for Li+ batteries
Golmon, Stephanie; Maute, Kurt; Dunn, Martin L.
2014-05-01
Design optimization for functionally graded battery electrodes is shown to improve the usable energy capacity of Li batteries predicted by computational simulations and numerically optimizing the electrode porosities and particle radii. A multi-scale battery model which accounts for nonlinear transient transport processes, electrochemical reactions, and mechanical deformations is used to predict the usable energy storage capacity of the battery over a range of discharge rates. A multi-objective formulation of the design problem is introduced to maximize the usable capacity over a range of discharge rates while limiting the mechanical stresses. The optimization problem is solved via a gradient based optimization. A LiMn2O4 cathode is simulated with a PEO-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte and both a Li Foil (half cell) and LiC6 anode. Studies were performed on both half and full cell configurations resulting in distinctly different optimal electrode designs. The numerical results show that the highest rate discharge drives the simulations and the optimal designs are dominated by Li+ transport rates. The results also suggest that spatially varying electrode porosities and active particle sizes provides an efficient approach to improve the power-to-energy density of Li+ batteries. For the half cell configuration, the optimal design improves the discharge capacity by 29% while for the full cell the discharge capacity was improved 61% relative to an initial design with a uniform electrode structure. Most of the improvement in capacity was due to the spatially varying porosity, with up to 5% of the gains attributed to the particle radii design variables.
Design Process Optimization Based on Design Process Gene Mapping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Bo; TONG Shu-rong
2011-01-01
The idea of genetic engineering is introduced into the area of product design to improve the design efficiency. A method towards design process optimization based on the design process gene is proposed through analyzing the correlation between the design process gene and characteristics of the design process. The concept of the design process gene is analyzed and categorized into five categories that are the task specification gene, the concept design gene, the overall design gene, the detailed design gene and the processing design gene in the light of five design phases. The elements and their interactions involved in each kind of design process gene signprocess gene mapping is drawn with its structure disclosed based on its function that process gene.
Optimal Design of a Subsonic Submerged Inlet
Taskinoglu, Ezgi; Jovanovic, Vasilije; Elliott, Gregory; Knight, Doyle
2003-11-01
A multi-objective optimization study based on an epsilon-constraint method is conducted for the design optimization of a subsonic submerged air vehicle inlet. The multi-objective optimization problem is reformulated by minimizing one of the objectives and restricting the other objectives within user specified values. The figures of merits are the engine-face distortion and swirl that determines the inlet/engine compatibility. The distortion index is minimized while the feasible design space is determined by the swirl index. The design variables are the geometrical parameters defining the surface alteration. The design algorithm is driven by a gradient-based optimizer, and is constructed by integrating the optimizer with a solid modeller (Pro/Engineer), a mesh generator (Grid/Pro) and a flow solver (GASPex). The optimizer is CFSQP (C code for Feasible Sequential Quadratic Programming). Integration of the software packages is achieved by a Perl script. In order to verify the numerical results, an experimental setup for the same inlet geometry is prepared to run at the same flow conditions. The presentation will describe the numerical approach and summarize the results.
Information optimal compressive sensing: static measurement design.
Ashok, Amit; Huang, Liang-Chih; Neifeld, Mark A
2013-05-01
The compressive sensing paradigm exploits the inherent sparsity/compressibility of signals to reduce the number of measurements required for reliable reconstruction/recovery. In many applications additional prior information beyond signal sparsity, such as structure in sparsity, is available, and current efforts are mainly limited to exploiting that information exclusively in the signal reconstruction problem. In this work, we describe an information-theoretic framework that incorporates the additional prior information as well as appropriate measurement constraints in the design of compressive measurements. Using a Gaussian binomial mixture prior we design and analyze the performance of optimized projections relative to random projections under two specific design constraints and different operating measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. We find that the information-optimized designs yield significant, in some cases nearly an order of magnitude, improvements in the reconstruction performance with respect to the random projections. These improvements are especially notable in the low measurement SNR regime where the energy-efficient design of optimized projections is most advantageous. In such cases, the optimized projection design departs significantly from random projections in terms of their incoherence with the representation basis. In fact, we find that the maximizing incoherence of projections with the representation basis is not necessarily optimal in the presence of additional prior information and finite measurement noise/error. We also apply the information-optimized projections to the compressive image formation problem for natural scenes, and the improved visual quality of reconstructed images with respect to random projections and other compressive measurement design affirms the overall effectiveness of the information-theoretic design framework.
Heat exchanger design based on economic optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caputo, Antonio C.; Pelagagge, Marcello P.; Salini, Paolo [University of l' Aquila (Italy). Faculty of Engineering], e-mail: caputo@ing.inivaq.it, e-mail: pelmar@ing.inivaq.it, e-mail: salini@ing.inivaq.it
2006-07-01
Owing to the wide utilization of heat exchangers in industrial processes their cost minimization is an important target for both designers and users. Traditional design approaches are based on iterative procedures which assume a configuration and gradually change design parameters until a satisfying solution is reached which meets the design specifications. However, such methods, besides being time consuming, do not guarantee the reach of an optimal solution. In this paper a procedure for optimal design for shell and tube heat exchangers is proposed which utilizes a genetic algorithm to minimize the total discounted cost of the equipment including the capital investment and pumping related annual energy expenditures. In order to verify the performances of the proposed method four case studies are also presented showing that total cost reductions greater than 15% are feasible respect traditionally designed exchangers. (author)
Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system
Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.
1987-01-01
The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.
Optimization-based controller design for rotorcraft
Tsing, N.-K.; Fan, M. K. H.; Barlow, J.; Tits, A. L.; Tischler, M. B.
1993-01-01
An optimization-based methodology for linear control system design is outlined by considering the design of a controller for a UH-60 rotorcraft in hover. A wide range of design specifications is taken into account: internal stability, decoupling between longitudinal and lateral motions, handling qualities, and rejection of windgusts. These specifications are investigated while taking into account physical limitations in the swashplate displacements and rates of displacement. The methodology crucially relies on user-machine interaction for tradeoff exploration.
Preliminary design report for OTEC stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-12-12
Lockheed Ocean Systems with IMODCO prepared these preliminary designs for OTEC Stationkeeping Subsystems (SKSS) under contract to NOAA in support of the Department of Energy OTEC program. The results of Tasks III, V, and VI are presented in this design report. The report consists of five sections: introduction, preliminary designs for the multiple anchor leg (MAL) and tension anchor leg (TAL), costs and schedule, and conclusions. Extensive appendixes provide detailed descriptions of design methodology and include backup calculations and data to support the results presented. The objective of this effort is to complete the preliminary designs for the barge-MAL and Spar-TAL SKSS. A set of drawings is provided for each which show arrangements, configuration, component details, engineering description, and deployment plan. Loads analysis, performance assessment, and sensitivity to requirements are presented, together with the methodology employed to analyze the systems and to derive the results presented. Life cycle costs and schedule are prepared and compared on a common basis. Finally, recommendations for the Commercial Plant SKSS are presented for both platform types.
Optimal experiment design for time-lapse traveltime tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ajo-Franklin, J.B.
2009-10-01
Geophysical monitoring techniques offer the only noninvasive approach capable of assessing both the spatial and temporal dynamics of subsurface fluid processes. Increasingly, permanent sensor arrays in boreholes and on the ocean floor are being deployed to improve the repeatability and increase the temporal sampling of monitoring surveys. Because permanent arrays require a large up-front capital investment and are difficult (or impossible) to re-configure once installed, a premium is placed on selecting a geometry capable of imaging the desired target at minimum cost. We present a simple approach to optimizing downhole sensor configurations for monitoring experiments making use of differential seismic traveltimes. In our case, we use a design quality metric based on the accuracy of tomographic reconstructions for a suite of imaging targets. By not requiring an explicit singular value decomposition of the forward operator, evaluation of this objective function scales to problems with a large number of unknowns. We also restrict the design problem by recasting the array geometry into a low dimensional form more suitable for optimization at a reasonable computational cost. We test two search algorithms on the design problem: the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method and the Multilevel Coordinate Search algorithm. The algorithm is tested for four crosswell acquisition scenarios relevant to continuous seismic monitoring, a two parameter array optimization, several scenarios involving four parameter length/offset optimizations, and a comparison of optimal multi-source designs. In the last case, we also examine trade-offs between source sparsity and the quality of tomographic reconstructions. One general observation is that asymmetric array lengths improve localized image quality in crosswell experiments with a small number of sources and a large number of receivers. Preliminary results also suggest that high-quality differential images can be generated using only a small
Computational Methods for Design, Control and Optimization
2007-10-01
34scenario" that applies to channel flows ( Poiseuille flows , Couette flow ) and pipe flows . Over the past 75 years many complex "transition theories" have...other areas of flow control, optimization and aerodynamic design. approximate sensitivity calculations and optimization codes. The effort was built on a...for fluid flow problems. The improved robustness and computational efficiency of this approach makes it practical for a wide class of problems. The
Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design
Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen
2015-01-01
Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...
Gemini Planet Imager: Preliminary Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macintosh, B
2007-05-10
completely limited by quasi-static wave front errors, so that contrast does not improve with integration times longer than about 1 minute. Using the rotation of the Earth to distinguish companions from artifacts or multiwavelength imaging improves this somewhat, but GPI will still need to surpass the performance of existing systems by one to two orders of magnitude--an improvement comparable to the transition from photographic plates to CCDs. This may sound daunting, but other areas of optical science have achieved similar breakthroughs, for example, the transition to nanometer-quality optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography, the development of MEMS wave front control devices, and the ultra-high contrast demonstrated by JPL's High Contrast Imaging Test-bed. In astronomy, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, long baseline radio interferometry, and multi-object spectrographs have led to improvements of similar or greater order of magnitude. GPI will be the first project to apply these revolutionary techniques to ground-based astronomy, with a systems engineering approach that studies the impact of every design decision on the key metric--final detectable planet contrast.
An optimal design problem in wave propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellido, J.C.; Donoso, Alberto
2007-01-01
We consider an optimal design problem in wave propagation proposed in Sigmund and Jensen (Roy. Soc. Lond. Philos. Trans. Ser. A 361:1001-1019, 2003) in the one-dimensional situation: Given two materials at our disposal with different elastic Young modulus and different density, the problem consists...... of finding the best distributions of the two initial materials in a rod in order to minimize the vibration energy in the structure under periodic loading of driving frequency Omega. We comment on relaxation and optimality conditions, and perform numerical simulations of the optimal configurations. We prove...
Investigation of Navier-Stokes Code Verification and Design Optimization
Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar
2004-01-01
With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the CFD solutions be quantified over the chosen design space. The present dissertation investigates the issues related to code verification, surrogate model-based optimization and sensitivity evaluation. For Navier-Stokes (NS) CFD code verification a least square extrapolation (LSE) method is assessed. This method projects numerically computed NS solutions from multiple, coarser base grids onto a freer grid and improves solution accuracy by minimizing the residual of the discretized NS equations over the projected grid. In this dissertation, the finite volume (FV) formulation is focused on. The interplay between the xi concepts and the outcome of LSE, and the effects of solution gradients and singularities, nonlinear physics, and coupling of flow variables on the effectiveness of LSE are investigated. A CFD-based design optimization of a single element liquid rocket injector is conducted with surrogate models developed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on CFD solutions. The computational model consists of the NS equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-6 turbulence closure. With the aid of these surrogate models, sensitivity and trade-off analyses are carried out for the injector design whose geometry (hydrogen flow angle, hydrogen and oxygen flow areas and oxygen post tip thickness) is optimized to attain desirable goals in performance (combustion length) and life/survivability (the maximum temperatures on the oxidizer post tip and injector face and a combustion chamber wall temperature). A preliminary multi-objective optimization
Dynamic optimization and adaptive controller design
Inamdar, S. R.
2010-10-01
In this work I present a new type of controller which is an adaptive tracking controller which employs dynamic optimization for optimizing current value of controller action for the temperature control of nonisothermal continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). We begin with a two-state model of nonisothermal CSTR which are mass and heat balance equations and then add cooling system dynamics to eliminate input multiplicity. The initial design value is obtained using local stability of steady states where approach temperature for cooling action is specified as a steady state and a design specification. Later we make a correction in the dynamics where material balance is manipulated to use feed concentration as a system parameter as an adaptive control measure in order to avoid actuator saturation for the main control loop. The analysis leading to design of dynamic optimization based parameter adaptive controller is presented. The important component of this mathematical framework is reference trajectory generation to form an adaptive control measure.
Optimal Design of Noisy Transmultiplexer Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xie Lihua
2006-01-01
Full Text Available An optimal design method for noisy transmultiplexer systems is presented. For a transmultiplexer system with given transmitters and desired crosstalk attenuation, we address the problem of minimizing the reconstruction error while ensuring that the crosstalk of each band is below a prescribed level. By employing the mixed optimization, we will ensure that the system with suboptimal reconstruction error is more robust and less sensitive to the changes of input signals and channel noises. Due to the overlapping of adjacent subchannels, crosstalk between adjacent channels is expected. And the problem of crosstalk attenuation is formulated as an optimization problem, solved in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The simulation examples demonstrate that the proposed design performs better than existing design methods.
Novel Optimized Designs for QCA Serial Adders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mostafaee
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new and efficient technology to implement logic Gates and digital circuits at the nanoscale range. In comparison with the conventional CMOS technology, QCA has many attractive features such as: low-power, extremely dense and high speed structures. Adders are the most important part of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU. In this paper, four optimized designs of QCA serial adders are presented. One of the proposed designs is optimized in terms of the number of cells, area and delay without any wire crossing methods. Also, two new designs of QCA serial adders and a QCA layout equivalent to the internal circuit of TM4006 IC are presented. QCADesigner software is used to simulate the proposed designs. Finally, the proposed QCA designs are compared with the previous QCA, CNTFET-based and CMOS technologies.
Variant Designing in the Preliminary Small Ship Design Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karczewski Artur
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Ship designing is a complex process, as the ship itself is a complex, technical multi-level object which operates in the air/water boundary environment and is exposed to the action of many different external and internal factors resulting from the adopted technical solutions, type of operation, and environmental conditions. A traditional ship design process consists of a series of subsequent multistage iterations, which gradually increase the design identification level. The paper presents problems related to the design of a small untypical vessel with the aid of variant methodology making use of optimisation algorithms. The computer-aided design methodology has been developed which does not need permanent reference to already built real ships and empirical-statistical relations. Possibilities were indicated for integrating together early design stages, and parallel designing of hull shape and parameters.
A Framework for Preliminary Design of Aircraft Structures Based on Process Information. Part 1
Rais-Rohani, Masoud
1998-01-01
This report discusses the general framework and development of a computational tool for preliminary design of aircraft structures based on process information. The described methodology is suitable for multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) activities associated with integrated product and process development (IPPD). The framework consists of three parts: (1) product and process definitions; (2) engineering synthesis, and (3) optimization. The product and process definitions are part of input information provided by the design team. The backbone of the system is its ability to analyze a given structural design for performance as well as manufacturability and cost assessment. The system uses a database on material systems and manufacturing processes. Based on the identified set of design variables and an objective function, the system is capable of performing optimization subject to manufacturability, cost, and performance constraints. The accuracy of the manufacturability measures and cost models discussed here depend largely on the available data on specific methods of manufacture and assembly and associated labor requirements. As such, our focus in this research has been on the methodology itself and not so much on its accurate implementation in an industrial setting. A three-tier approach is presented for an IPPD-MDO based design of aircraft structures. The variable-complexity cost estimation methodology and an approach for integrating manufacturing cost assessment into design process are also discussed. This report is presented in two parts. In the first part, the design methodology is presented, and the computational design tool is described. In the second part, a prototype model of the preliminary design Tool for Aircraft Structures based on Process Information (TASPI) is described. Part two also contains an example problem that applies the methodology described here for evaluation of six different design concepts for a wing spar.
Design optimization for cost and quality: The robust design approach
Unal, Resit
1990-01-01
Designing reliable, low cost, and operable space systems has become the key to future space operations. Designing high quality space systems at low cost is an economic and technological challenge to the designer. A systematic and efficient way to meet this challenge is a new method of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost, called Robust Design. Robust Design is an approach for design optimization. It consists of: making system performance insensitive to material and subsystem variation, thus allowing the use of less costly materials and components; making designs less sensitive to the variations in the operating environment, thus improving reliability and reducing operating costs; and using a new structured development process so that engineering time is used most productively. The objective in Robust Design is to select the best combination of controllable design parameters so that the system is most robust to uncontrollable noise factors. The robust design methodology uses a mathematical tool called an orthogonal array, from design of experiments theory, to study a large number of decision variables with a significantly small number of experiments. Robust design also uses a statistical measure of performance, called a signal-to-noise ratio, from electrical control theory, to evaluate the level of performance and the effect of noise factors. The purpose is to investigate the Robust Design methodology for improving quality and cost, demonstrate its application by the use of an example, and suggest its use as an integral part of space system design process.
Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
US Bonneville Power Administration
1990-04-01
A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Task 1. Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Task 2. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Task 3. Completion of an experimental design plan. Task 4. Development of a harvest management plan. Task 5. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Task 6. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Task 7. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Task 8. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.
Preliminary design of the ITER ECH Upper Launcher
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strauss, D., E-mail: dirk.strauss@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chavan, R. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Baar, M. de [FOM, Van Vollenhovenlaan 659, 3527 JP, Utrecht (Netherlands); Farina, D. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Gantenbein, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goodman, T.P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Henderson, M.A. [ITER Organization, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kasparek, W. [Institut für Plasmaforschung, IPF, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kleefeldt, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landis, J.-D. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Meier, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moro, A.; Platania, P. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Plaum, B. [Institut für Plasmaforschung, IPF, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Poli, E. [Max-Planck-IPP, Euratom Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ramponi, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Ronden, D. [FOM, Van Vollenhovenlaan 659, 3527 JP, Utrecht (Netherlands); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); and others
2013-11-15
Highlights: • Front steering mirror design. • Plasma facing blanket shield module/first wall panel design. • Fixed frequency torus CVD diamond window serving as first tritium barrier. • Prototypes and tests of the above key components in the Launcher Handling and Testing Facility. -- Abstract: The design of the ITER electron cyclotron launchers recently reached the preliminary design level - the last major milestone before design finalization. The ITER ECH system contains 24 installed gyrotrons providing a maximum ECH injected power of 20 MW through transmission lines towards the tokamak. There are two EC launcher types both using a front steering mirror; one equatorial launcher (EL) for plasma heating and four upper launchers (UL) for plasma mode stabilization (neoclassical tearing modes and the sawtooth instability). A wide steering angle range of the ULs allows focusing of the beam on magnetic islands which are expected on the rational magnetic flux surfaces q = 1 (sawtooth instability), q = 3/2 and q = 2 (NTMs). In this paper the preliminary design of the ITER ECH UL is presented, including the optical system and the structural components. Highlights of the design include the torus CVD-diamond windows, the frictionless, front steering mechanism and the plasma facing blanket shield module (BSM). Numerical simulations as well as prototype tests are used to verify the design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabi, Jose A.; Souza-Santos, Marcio L. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: jrabi@fem.unicamp.br; dss@fem.unicamp.br
2000-07-01
Modeling and simulation of fluidized-bed equipment have demonstrated their importance as a tool for design and optimization of industrial equipment. Accordingly, this work carries on an optimization study of a fluidized-bed boiler with the aid of a comprehensive mathematical simulator. The configuration data of the boiler are based on a particular Babcock and Wilcox Co. (USA) test unit. Due to their importance, the number of tubes in the bed section and the air excess are chosen as the parameters upon which the optimization study is based. On their turn, the fixed-carbon conversion factor and the boiler efficiency are chosen as two distinct optimization objectives. The results from both preliminary searches are compared. The present work is intended to be just a study on possible routes for future optimization of larger boilers. Nonetheless, the present discussion might give some insight on the equipment behavior. (author)
The optimal design of standard gearsets
Savage, M.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.
1983-01-01
A design procedure for sizing standard involute spur gearsets is presented. The procedure is applied to find the optimal design for two examples - an external gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1 and an internal gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1. In the procedure, the gear mesh is designed to minimize the center distance for a given gear ratio, pressure angle, pinion torque, and allowable tooth strengths. From the methodology presented, a design space may be formulated for either external gear contact or for internal contact. The design space includes kinematics considerations of involute interference, tip fouling, and contact ratio. Also included are design constraints based on bending fatigue in the pinion fillet and Hertzian contact pressure in the full load region and at the gear tip where scoring is possible. This design space is two dimensional, giving the gear mesh center distance as a function of diametral pitch and the number of pinion teeth. The constraint equations were identified for kinematic interference, fillet bending fatigue, pitting fatigue, and scoring pressure, which define the optimal design space for a given gear design. The locus of equal size optimum designs was identified as the straight line through the origin which has the least slope in the design region.
Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norbert ANGI
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.
Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayman T. Hameed
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.
System deployment optimization in architecture design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaoxue Zhang; Shu Tang; Aimin Luo; Xueshan Luo
2014-01-01
Optimization of architecture design has recently drawn research interest. System deployment optimization (SDO) refers to the process of optimizing systems that are being deployed to activi-ties. This paper first formulates a mathematical model to theorize and operationalize the SDO problem and then identifies optimal so-lutions to solve the SDO problem. In the solutions, the success rate of the combat task is maximized, whereas the execution time of the task and the cost of changes in the system structure are mini-mized. The presented optimized algorithm generates an optimal solution without the need to check the entire search space. A novel method is final y proposed based on the combination of heuristic method and genetic algorithm (HGA), as wel as the combination of heuristic method and particle swarm optimization (HPSO). Experi-ment results show that the HPSO method generates solutions faster than particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algo-rithm (GA) in terms of execution time and performs more efficiently than the heuristic method in terms of determining the best solution.
OPTIMAL DESIGN OF QUADRATIC SANDWICH PLATE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TIMAR Dr. Imre
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we show the optimal design of the three-layered sandwich plates. The objective function contains the material and fabrication costs. The design constraints are the maximal stresses, the deflection of plates and damping of vibrations. The unknown is the thickness of the filling foam. By the mathematical method, we define the minima of the cost function and the optimal thickness of the filling layer of foam. The active constraint is the deflection, so we calculate of the costs of the sandwich plate with the homogeneous plate.
Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report
Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James
2011-01-01
The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...
The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.
Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets
Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.
1981-01-01
A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large microwave radiometer satellite (MRS) is selected as an application, and the far-field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.
OSU TOMF Program Site Selection and Preliminary Concept Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spadling, Steve [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)
2012-05-10
The purpose of this report is to confirm the programmatic requirements for the new facilities, identify the most appropriate project site, and develop preliminary site and building concepts that successfully address the overall project goals and site issues. These new facilities will be designed to accommodate the staff, drivers and maintenance requirements for the future mixed fleet of passenger vehicles, Transit Style Buses and School Buses.
The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.
Biomechanics of injury prediction for anthropomorphic manikins - preliminary design considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engin, A.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)
1996-12-31
The anthropomorphic manikins are used in automobile safety research as well as in aerospace related applications. There is now a strong need to advance the biomechanics knowledge to determine appropriate criteria for injury likelihood prediction as functions of manikin-measured responses. In this paper, three regions of a manikin, namely, the head, knee joint, and lumbar spine are taken as examples to introduce preliminary design considerations for injury prediction by means of responses of theoretical models and strategically placed sensing devices.
Preliminary design of the PANSAT electrical power subsystem
Noble, Michael Lynn
1990-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a preliminary design of the electrical power system (EPS) for the Naval Postgraduate School's Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT). The EPS is a photovoltaic silicon cell system consisting of solar array, batteries, battery charge regulator (BCR), and dc-dc convertors. The EPS provides power for up to two years of low earth orbit (480 km) operations. The solar array consists of 17 panels with thirty-two 2x4 cm sola...
Shape optimization techniques for musical instrument design
Henrique, Luis; Antunes, Jose; Carvalho, Joao S.
2002-11-01
The design of musical instruments is still mostly based on empirical knowledge and costly experimentation. One interesting improvement is the shape optimization of resonating components, given a number of constraints (allowed parameter ranges, shape smoothness, etc.), so that vibrations occur at specified modal frequencies. Each admissible geometrical configuration generates an error between computed eigenfrequencies and the target set. Typically, error surfaces present many local minima, corresponding to suboptimal designs. This difficulty can be overcome using global optimization techniques, such as simulated annealing. However these methods are greedy, concerning the number of function evaluations required. Thus, the computational effort can be unacceptable if complex problems, such as bell optimization, are tackled. Those issues are addressed in this paper, and a method for improving optimization procedures is proposed. Instead of using the local geometric parameters as searched variables, the system geometry is modeled in terms of truncated series of orthogonal space-funcitons, and optimization is performed on their amplitude coefficients. Fourier series and orthogonal polynomials are typical such functions. This technique reduces considerably the number of searched variables, and has a potential for significant computational savings in complex problems. It is illustrated by optimizing the shapes of both current and uncommon marimba bars.
Integrated structural-aerodynamic design optimization
Haftka, R. T.; Kao, P. J.; Grossman, B.; Polen, D.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.
1988-01-01
This paper focuses on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration, with emphasis on the major difficulty associated with multidisciplinary design optimization processes, their enormous computational costs. Methods are presented for reducing this computational burden through the development of efficient methods for cross-sensitivity calculations and the implementation of approximate optimization procedures. Utilizing a modular sensitivity analysis approach, it is shown that the sensitivities can be computed without the expensive calculation of the derivatives of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix, and the derivatives of the structural flexibility matrix. The same process is used to efficiently evaluate the sensitivities of the wing divergence constraint, which should be particularly useful, not only in problems of complete integrated aircraft design, but also in aeroelastic tailoring applications.
Heuristic Algorithm in Optimal Discrete Structural Designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alongkorn Lamom
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a Heuristic Algorithm for Material Size Selection (HAMSS. It is developed to handle discrete structural optimization problems. The proposed algorithm (HAMSS, Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA and the conventional design algorithm obtained from a structural steel design software are studied with three selected examples. The HAMSS, in fact, is the adaptation from the traditional SA. Although the SA is one of the easiest optimization algorithms available, a huge number of function evaluations deter its use in structural optimizations. To obtain the optimum answers by the SA, possible answers are first generated randomly. Many of these possible answers are rejected because they do not pass the constraints. To effectively handle this problem, the behavior of optimal structural design problems is incorporated into the algorithm. The new proposed algorithm is called the HAMSS. The efficiency comparison between the SA and the HAMSS is illustrated in term of number of finite element analysis cycles. Results from the study show that HAMSS can significantly reduce the number of structural analysis cycles while the optimized efficiency is not different.
Stented artery biomechanics and device design optimization.
Timmins, Lucas H; Moreno, Michael R; Meyer, Clark A; Criscione, John C; Rachev, Alexander; Moore, James E
2007-05-01
The deployment of a vascular stent aims to increase lumen diameter for the restoration of blood flow, but the accompanied alterations in the mechanical environment possibly affect the long-term patency of these devices. The primary aim of this investigation was to develop an algorithm to optimize stent design, allowing for consideration of competing solid mechanical concerns (wall stress, lumen gain, and cyclic deflection). Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to estimate artery wall stress and systolic/diastolic geometries, from which single parameter outputs were derived expressing stress, lumen gain, and cyclic artery wall deflection. An optimization scheme was developed using Lagrangian interpolation elements that sought to minimize the sum of these outputs, with weighting coefficients. Varying the weighting coefficients results in stent designs that prioritize one output over another. The accuracy of the algorithm was confirmed by evaluating the resulting outputs of the optimized geometries using FEM. The capacity of the optimization algorithm to identify optimal geometries and their resulting mechanical measures was retained over a wide range of weighting coefficients. The variety of stent designs identified provides general guidelines that have potential clinical use (i.e., lesion-specific stenting).
Optimal design of stiffened composite underwater hulls
Messager, Tanguy; Chauchot, Pierre; Bigourdan, Benoit
2006-01-01
This numerical study deals with the stiffened composite underwater vessel design. The structures under investigation are laminated cylinders with rigid end-closures and inter-nal circumferential and longitudinal unidirectional composite stiffeners. Structural buckling induced by the high external hydrostatic pressure is considered as the major failure risk. An optimization design tool has been developed to obtain the reinforcement definition which maximizes the limit of stability: an analytic...
An Optimization Framework for Product Design
Leyuan Shi; Sigurdur Ólafsson; Qun Chen
2001-01-01
An important problem in the product design and development process is to use the part-worths preferences of potential customers to design a new product such that market share is maximized. The authors present a new optimization framework for this problem, the nested partitions (NP) method. This method is globally convergent and may utilize existing heuristic methods to speed its convergence. We incorporate several known heuristics into this framework and demonstrate through numerical experime...
On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models. In addition, the paper investigates four related issues namely; the effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.
Synthesis and design of optimal biorefinery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheali, Peam
of a large numberof alternatives at their optimality. The result is the identification of the optimal rawmaterial, the product (single vs multi) portfolio and the corresponding process technology selection for a given market scenario. The economic risk of investment due to market uncertainties is further...... products from bio-based feedstock. Since there are several bio-basedfeedstock sources, this has motivated development of different conversion concepts producing various desired products. This results in a number of challenges for the synthesis and design of the optimal biorefinery concept at the early...... process feasibility analysis is of a multidisciplinary nature, often limited and uncertain; (iii) Complexity challenge: this problem is complex requiring multi-criteria evaluation (technical, economic,sustainability). This PhD project aims to develop a decision support tool for identifying optimal...
Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingtao Zuo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.
Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Castillo-Martinez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.
Optimizing the integrated design of boilers - simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Condra, Thomas Joseph
2004-01-01
.) it is important to see the 3 components as an integrated unit and optimize these as such. This means that the burner must be designed and optimized exactly to the pressure part where it is utilized, the control system must have a conguration optimal for the pressure part and burner where it is utilized etc....... Traditionally boiler control systems have been designed in a rather simple manner consisting of a feed water controller and a pressure controller; two controllers which, in principle, operated without any interaction - for more details on boiler control see [4]. During the last year Aalborg Industries A/S has...... that are difcult to estimate/calculate have (on the basis of the tests) been determined by means of a least-square data tting, the minimums have been found by means of a Gauss-Newton algorithm and physically veried afterwards. The dynamic boiler model will be applied for developing controllers and adapting...
Design and volume optimization of space structures
Jiang, Caigui
2017-07-21
We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.
Optimization of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope design.
LaRocca, Francesco; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Kelly, Michael P; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A
2013-07-01
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) enables high-resolution and high-contrast imaging of the retina by employing spatial filtering for scattered light rejection. However, to obtain optimized image quality, one must design the cSLO around scanner technology limitations and minimize the effects of ocular aberrations and imaging artifacts. We describe a cSLO design methodology resulting in a simple, relatively inexpensive, and compact lens-based cSLO design optimized to balance resolution and throughput for a 20-deg field of view (FOV) with minimal imaging artifacts. We tested the imaging capabilities of our cSLO design with an experimental setup from which we obtained fast and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) retinal images. At lower FOVs, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles even without the use of adaptive optics. Through an experiment comparing our optimized cSLO design to a commercial cSLO system, we show that our design demonstrates a significant improvement in both image quality and resolution.
MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [multidisciplinary design optimization
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, Jan R.
1991-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.
FPGA adders: performance evaluation and optimal design
Xing, S.; Yu, WWH
1998-01-01
Delay models and cost analyses developed for ASIC technology are not useful in designing and implementing FPGA devices. The authors discuss costs and operational delays of fixed-point adders on Xilinx 4000 series devices and propose timing models and optimization schemes for carry-skip and carry-select adders.
Design Optimization of Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-03-06
Sensor networks drive decisions. Approach: Design networks to minimize the expected total cost (in a statistical sense, i.e. Bayes Risk) associated with making wrong decisions and with installing maintaining and running the sensor network itself. Search for optimal solutions using Monte-Carlo-Sampling-Adapted Genetic Algorithm. Applications include structural health monitoring and surveillance.
Non-probabilistic Robust Optimal Design Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Wei; XU Huanwei; ZHANG Xu
2009-01-01
For the purpose of dealing with uncertainty factors in engineering optimization problems, this paper presents a new non-probabilistic robust optimal design method based on maximum variation estimation. The method analyzes the effect of uncertain factors to objective and constraints functions, and then the maximal variations to a solution are calculated. In order to guarantee robust feasibility the maximal variations of constraints are added to original constraints as penalty term; the maximal variation of objective function is taken as a robust index to a solution; linear physical programming is used to adjust the values of quality characteristic and quality variation, and then a bi-level mathematical robust optimal model is coustructed. The method does not require presumed probability distribution of uncertain factors or continuous and differentiable of objective and constraints functions. To demonstrate the proposed method, the design of the two-bar structure acted by concentrated load is presented. In the example the robustness of the normal stress, feasibility of the total volume and the buckling stress are studied. The robust optimal design results show that in the condition of maintaining feasibility robustness, the proposed approach can obtain a robust solution which the designer is satisfied with the value of objective function and its variation.
Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design
1974-08-30
by estimation, compound helicopter performance, to think of the air- plots of effective lift and drag areas and pitching mo- craft as a biplane having...stncural design problems but may produce loads that where are critikal locally. A = presented arms ft’ Ca = drag coefficient, dimensionless F• V = wind speed...groups is to be provided in accordance with MIL-STD- 1374, Part I. The useful load condition shall be as I. W. H. Ballhaus, Clear Design Thinking Using
Preliminary design and R&D of ITER diagnostic-radial X-ray camera
Hu, L.; Chen, K.; Chen, Y.; Cao, H.; Li, S.; Yu, H.; Zhan, J.; Shen, J.; Qin, S.; Sheng, X.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.; Feng, C.; Ge, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, B.
2017-10-01
Preliminary design of ITER Radial X-ray Camera (RXC) has been finished. The structure design is optimized and installation process is studied considering the simplification and easiness of maintenance. Remote handling procedures are designed for the system maintenance after being activated. For detector cooling against high environment temperature which can be up to 240°, a dedicated gas cooling system using heat exchanger is designed. The structure analysis indicates that the stresses and displacements of most of the components under load combinations are within the allowable limits and no Safety Important Component (SIC) boundary is damaged. Through putting B4C material in the front part of DSM and around detectors for neutron shielding, the detectors are expected to survive the whole D-D phase. As for electronics, preliminary design of highly integrated pre-amplifier and program controllable mid-amplifier has been completed, both with bandwidth greater than 100 kHz to meet time resolution requirement of 20 kHz. To protect the electronics from intensive neutron and gamma irradiation, shielding cabinet capable of attenuating neutron flux down to 0.0001 and gamma dose 0.01 is designed. Besides, many R&D has been done to support the design. The tests of pre-amplifier and mid-amplifier indicated the electronics had no functional problem when debugging together and generally passed preliminary ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) test and nuclear test. The highly-integrated compact pre-amplifier has been used in EAST and proved useful. To test the feasibility of dedicated gas cooling system for detectors, a cooling test platform was built and preliminary cooling test has been done, indicating that during 250°baking the detector temperature is promising to be cooled down to the detector temperature limit of 75°. To increase signal to noise ratio, large area detector with dark current less than 2nA has been manufactured and worked steadily in EAST experiments.
Design Oriented Structural Modeling for Airplane Conceptual Design Optimization
Livne, Eli
1999-01-01
The main goal for research conducted with the support of this grant was to develop design oriented structural optimization methods for the conceptual design of airplanes. Traditionally in conceptual design airframe weight is estimated based on statistical equations developed over years of fitting airplane weight data in data bases of similar existing air- planes. Utilization of such regression equations for the design of new airplanes can be justified only if the new air-planes use structural technology similar to the technology on the airplanes in those weight data bases. If any new structural technology is to be pursued or any new unconventional configurations designed the statistical weight equations cannot be used. In such cases any structural weight estimation must be based on rigorous "physics based" structural analysis and optimization of the airframes under consideration. Work under this grant progressed to explore airframe design-oriented structural optimization techniques along two lines of research: methods based on "fast" design oriented finite element technology and methods based on equivalent plate / equivalent shell models of airframes, in which the vehicle is modelled as an assembly of plate and shell components, each simulating a lifting surface or nacelle / fuselage pieces. Since response to changes in geometry are essential in conceptual design of airplanes, as well as the capability to optimize the shape itself, research supported by this grant sought to develop efficient techniques for parametrization of airplane shape and sensitivity analysis with respect to shape design variables. Towards the end of the grant period a prototype automated structural analysis code designed to work with the NASA Aircraft Synthesis conceptual design code ACS= was delivered to NASA Ames.
Designing Complex Interplanetary Trajectories for the Global Trajectory Optimization Competitions
Izzo, Dario; Simões, Luís F; Märtens, Marcus
2015-01-01
The design of interplanetary trajectories often involves a preliminary search for options that are later refined into one final selected trajectory. It is this broad search that, often being intractable, inspires the international event called Global Trajectory Optimization Competition. In the first part of this chapter, we introduce some fundamental problems of space flight mechanics, building blocks of any attempt to participate successfully in these competitions and we describe the use of the open source software PyKEP to assemble them into a final global solution strategy. In the second part, we formulate an instance of a multiple asteroid rendezvous problem, related to the 7th edition of the competition, and we show step by step how to build a possible solution strategy. We introduce two new techniques useful in the design of this particular mission type: the use of an asteroid phasing value and its surrogates and the efficient computation of asteroid clusters. We show how basic building blocks, sided to...
Design Optimization for an Electro-Thermally Actuated Polymeric Microgripper
Voicu, R; Eftime, L
2008-01-01
Thermal micro-actuators are a promising solution to the need for large-displacement, gentle handling force, low-power MEMS actuators. Potential applications of these devices are micro-relays, assembling and miniature medical instrumentation. In this paper the development of thermal microactuators based on SU-8 polymer is described. The paper presents the development of a new microgripper which can realize a movement of the gripping arms with possibility for positioning and manipulating of the gripped object. Two models of polymeric microgripper electrothermo- mechanical actuated, using low actuation voltages, designed for SU-8 polymer fabrication were presented. The electro-thermal microgrippers were designed and optimized using finite element simulations. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations based on finite element method were performed for each of the model in order to compare the results. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out.
Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, P.; Meyer, R.; White, James S.
1977-01-01
A collection of documents submitted by the Fern Engineering Company for the preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. One of the two prototype units will be installed in Lansing, Michigan, and the other in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania.
Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-01-07
The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)
Design and preliminary testing of the RIC hybrid knee prosthesis.
Lenzi, T; Sensinger, J; Lipsey, J; Hargrove, L; Kuiken, T
2015-08-01
We present a novel hybrid knee prosthesis that uses a motor, transmission and control system only for active dynamics tasks, while relying on a spring/damper system for passive dynamics activities. Active dynamics tasks require higher torque, lower speed, and occur less frequently than passive dynamic activities. By designing the actuation system around active tasks alone, we achieved a lightweight design (1.7 Kg w/o battery) without sacrificing peak torque (85Nm repetitive). Preliminary tests performed by an able-bodied person using a bypass orthosis show that the hybrid knee can support reciprocal stairs ambulation with low electrical energy consumption.
AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell
2006-08-01
This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.
Parallel Guided Local Search and Some Preliminary Experimental Results for Continuous Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasser Tairan
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a Parallel Guided Local Search (PGLS framework for continuous optimization. In PGLS, several guided local search (GLS procedures (agents are run for solving the optimization problem. The agents exchan ge information for speeding up the search. For example, the information exchanged could be kno wledge about the landscape obtained by the agents. The proposed algorithm is applied to co ntinuous optimization problems. The preliminary experimental results show that the algo rithm is very promising .
Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems
Roboam, Xavier
2013-01-01
This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine
Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen
2016-06-01
In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.
Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization
Roth, Brian Douglas
Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component
TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 3, Design and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-06-30
Several models have been formed for investigating the maximum electromagnetic loading and magnetic field levels associated with the Tokamak Physics eXperiment (TPX) superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The analyses have been performed to support the design of the individual fourteen hoop coils forming the PF system. The coils have been sub-divided into three coil systems consisting of the central solenoid (CS), PF5 coils, and the larger radius PF6 and PF7 coils. Various electromagnetic analyses have been performed to determine the electromagnetic loadings that the coils will experience during normal operating conditions, plasma disruptions, and fault conditions. The loadings are presented as net body forces acting individual coils, spatial variations throughout the coil cross section, and force variations along the path of the conductor due to interactions with the TF coils. Three refined electromagnetic models of the PF coil system that include a turn-by-turn description of the fields and forces during a worst case event are presented in this report. A global model including both the TF and PF system was formed to obtain the force variations along the path of the PF conductors resulting from interactions with the TF currents. In addition to spatial variations, the loadings are further subdivided into time-varying and steady components so that structural fatigue issues can be addressed by designers and analysts. Other electromagnetic design issues such as the impact of the detailed coil designs on field errors are addressed in this report. Coil features that are analyzed include radial transitions via short jogs vs. spiral type windings and the effects of layer-to-layer rotations (i.e clocking) on the field errors.
Optimization of straight-sided spline design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2011-01-01
and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using different design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown......Spline connection of shaft and hub is commonly applied when large torque capacity is needed together with the possibility of disassembly. The designs of these splines are generally controlled by different standards. In view of the common use of splines, it seems that few papers deal with splines...... that large reductions in the maximum stress are possible. Fatigue life of a spline can be greatly improved with up to a 25% reduction in the maximum stress level. Design modifications are given as simple analytical functions (modified super elliptical shape) with only two active design parameters...
Optimal Control Design with Limited Model Information
Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H
2011-01-01
We introduce the family of limited model information control design methods, which construct controllers by accessing the plant's model in a constrained way, according to a given design graph. We investigate the achievable closed-loop performance of discrete-time linear time-invariant plants under a separable quadratic cost performance measure with structured static state-feedback controllers. We find the optimal control design strategy (in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics) when the control designer has access to the local model information and the global interconnection structure of the plant-to-be-controlled. At last, we study the trade-off between the amount of model information exploited by a control design method and the best closed-loop performance (in terms of the competitive ratio) of controllers it can produce.
LOCATORS OPTIMIZATION FOR MEASURING FIXTURE DESIGN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian; Zhou Jiangqi; Lin Zhongqin
2004-01-01
"N-2-1" principle is widely recognized in the fixture design for deformable sheet metal workpieces, where N, the locators on primary datum, is the key to sheet metal fixture design. However, little research is done on how to determine the positions and the number of N locators. In practice, the N locators are frequently designed from experience, which is often unsatisfactory for achieving the precision requirement in fixture design. A new method to lay out the N locators for measuring fixture of deformable sheet metal workpiece is presented, given the fixed number of N. Finite-element method is used to model and analysis the deformation of different locator layouts. A knowledge based genetic algorithm (KBGA) is applied to identify the optimum locator layout for measuring fixture design. An example of a door outer is used to verify the optimization approach.
Optimal design of capacitor-driven coilgun
Kim, Seog-Whan; Jung, Hyun-Kyo; Hahn, Song-Yop
1994-03-01
This paper presents an analysis and optimal design of a capacitor-driven inductive coilgun. An equivalent circuit is used for a launch simulation of the coilgun. The circuit equations are solved together with the equation of motion of the projectile by using the Runge-Kutta method. The numerical results are compared with the experimental values to verify the usefulness of the developed simulation program. It is shown that the numerical and the experimental results are in a good agreement. In the design of the system the optimization is achieved by employing the genetic algorithm. The resultant specifications of the coilgun optimally designed by the proposed algorithm are tested by experiment. Finally the obtained results are compared with those designed by approximate equations and by linear search methods as well. It is found that the proposed algorithm gives a better result in the energy efficiency of the system, namely it enables one to obtain a higher muzzle velocity of the projectile with the same amount of energy.
Automation enhancements in multidisciplinary design optimization
Wujek, Brett Alan
The process of designing complex systems has necessarily evolved into one which includes the contributions and interactions of multiple disciplines. To date, the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) process has been addressed mainly from the standpoint of algorithm development, with the primary concerns being effective and efficient coordination of disciplinary activities, modification of conventional optimization methods, and the utility of approximation techniques toward this goal. The focus of this dissertation is on improving the efficiency of MDO algorithms through the automation of common procedures and the development of improved methods to carry out these procedures. In this research, automation enhancements are made to the MDO process in three different areas: execution, sensitivity analysis and utility, and design variable move-limit management. A framework is developed along with a graphical user interface called NDOPT to automate the setup and execution of MDO algorithms in a research environment. The technology of automatic differentiation (AD) is utilized within various modules of MDO algorithms for fast and accurate sensitivity calculation, allowing for the frequent use of updated sensitivity information. With the use of AD, efficiency improvements are observed in the convergence of system analyses and in certain optimization procedures since gradient-based methods, traditionally considered cost-prohibitive, can be employed at a more reasonable expense. Finally, a method is developed to automatically monitor and adjust design variable move-limits for the approximate optimization process commonly used in MDO algorithms. With its basis in the well established and probably convergent trust region approach, the Trust region Ratio Approximation method (TRAM) developed in this research accounts for approximation accuracy and the sensitivity of the model error to the design space in providing a flexible move-limit adjustment factor. Favorable results
Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft
Crossley, William A.
2005-01-01
This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.
Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David
In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...... for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...
Optimizing the integrated design of boilers - simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Condra, Thomas Joseph
2004-01-01
.) it is important to see the 3 components as an integrated unit and optimize these as such. This means that the burner must be designed and optimized exactly to the pressure part where it is utilized, the control system must have a conguration optimal for the pressure part and burner where it is utilized etc...... together with Aalborg University and The Technical University of Denmark carried out a project to develop the Model based Multivariable Control System . This is foreseen to be a control system utilizing the continuously increasing computational possibilities to take all the important operation parameters...... formulated as Differential-Algebraic-Equation (DAE) systems. For integration in SIMULINK the models have been index-reduced to Ordinary- Differential-Equation (ODE) systems. The simulations have been carried out by means of the MATLAB/SIMULINK integration routines. For verifying the models developed...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA
2016-10-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.
Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design
Liu, Xin-Jun
2014-01-01
Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...
Optimized design for an electrothermal microactuator
Cǎlimǎnescu, Ioan; Stan, Liviu-Constantin; Popa, Viorica
2015-02-01
In micromechanical structures, electrothermal actuators are known to be capable of providing larger force and reasonable tip deflection compared to electrostatic ones. Many studies have been devoted to the analysis of the flexure actuators. One of the most popular electrothermal actuators is called `U-shaped' actuator. The device is composed of two suspended beams with variable cross sections joined at the free end, which constrains the tip to move in an arcing motion while current is passed through the actuator. The goal of this research is to determine via FEA the best fitted geometry of the microactuator (optimization input parameters) in order to render some of the of the output parameters such as thermal strain or total deformations to their maximum values. The software to generate the CAD geometry was SolidWorks 2010 and all the FEA analysis was conducted with Ansys 13 TM. The optimized model has smaller geometric values of the input parameters that is a more compact geometry; The maximum temperature reached a smaller value for the optimized model; The calculated heat flux is with 13% bigger for the optimized model; the same for Joule Heat (26%), Total deformation (1.2%) and Thermal Strain (8%). By simple optimizing the design the dimensions and the performance of the micro actuator resulted more compact and more efficient.
Design of optimal cyclers using solar sails
2002-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Ongoing interest in establishing a base on Mars has spurred a need for regular and repeated visits to the red planet using a cycling shuttle to transport supplies, equipment and to retrieve surface samples. This thesis presents an approach to designing an optimal heliocentric cycling orbit, or cycler, using solar sa ils. Results show that solar sails can be used to significantly reduce s VÃ at Mars and Earth. For example, using a rea...
Database Design and Management in Engineering Optimization.
1988-02-01
for 4 Steekanta Murthy, T., Shyy, Y.-K. and Arora, J. S. MIDAS: educational and research purposes. It has considerably Management of Information for...an education in the particular field of ,-". expertise. ..-. *, The types of information to be retained and presented depend on the user of the system...191 . ,. 110 Though the design of MIDAS is directly influenced by Obl- SPOC qUery-bioek the current structural optimization applications, it possesses
Design Optimization of Marine Reduction Gears.
1983-09-01
Approved by: A t/ 6 -A-,i Thesis Advisor Second Reader Chairman,De rtment or Mecanica Engineering I De&n of Science and Engineering 3...unconstrained problems. 1. Direct Methods Direct methods are popular constrained optimization algorithms. One well known direct method is the method of...various popular tooth forms and Appendix A contains a descriptive figure of gear tooth design variables. However, the following equations are a good
Application of Optimal Sinter Burden Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The application of the optimal sinter burden design in the sinter shop of No.1 Iron-making Plant in Tangshan Iron & Steel Corp was reported. By using burden calculation and simulating production under different situations, it is demonstrated that the technology can provide the relevant information in product quality and cost etc. for decision-makers. The technology has been used to guide production of the Sinter Shop since 2000, and a remarkable achievement has been obtained.
Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis
2010-01-01
Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, construct and study properties of...
Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, ﬁxed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...
General purpose optimization software for engineering design
Vanderplaats, G. N.
1990-01-01
The author has developed several general purpose optimization programs over the past twenty years. The earlier programs were developed as research codes and served that purpose reasonably well. However, in taking the formal step from research to industrial application programs, several important lessons have been learned. Among these are the importance of clear documentation, immediate user support, and consistent maintenance. Most important has been the issue of providing software that gives a good, or at least acceptable, design at minimum computational cost. Here, the basic issues developing optimization software for industrial applications are outlined and issues of convergence rate, reliability, and relative minima are discussed. Considerable feedback has been received from users, and new software is being developed to respond to identified needs. The basic capabilities of this software are outlined. A major motivation for the development of commercial grade software is ease of use and flexibility, and these issues are discussed with reference to general multidisciplinary applications. It is concluded that design productivity can be significantly enhanced by the more widespread use of optimization as an everyday design tool.
Voltage-Controlled Sapphire Oscillator: Design, Development, and Preliminary Performance
Wang, R. T.; Dick, G. J.; Tjoelker, R. L.
2007-08-01
We present the design for a new short-term frequency standard, the voltage-controlled sapphire oscillator, as a practical and lower-cost alternative to a cryogenic sapphire oscillator operating at liquid helium temperatures. Performance goals are a frequency stability of 1 x 10^-14 (1 second equal to or less than tau equal to or less than 100 seconds), more than 2 years of continuous operation, and practical operability. Key elements include the sapphire resonator, low-power and long-life cryocooler, frequency compensation method, and cryo-Pound design. We report the design verification, experimental results, and test results of the cryocooler environmental sensitivity, as well as a preliminary stability measurement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xueyong Ren
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The optimization extraction process, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Semen Juglandis (SJP were studied in this paper. Based on the Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology, the optimal extraction conditions for the SJP extraction were obtained as follows: temperature 88 °C, extraction time 125 min and ratio of liquid to solid 31 mL/g. Under these conditions, experimental extraction yield of SJP was (5.73 ± 0.014% (n = 5, similar to the predicted value of 5.78%. Furtherly, the purified SJP obtained from SJP extract by DEAE-52 and Sephacryl S-100 chromatography was analyzed to be rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose and fucose in the molar ratio of 1:6.34:1.38:3.21:1.56. And the weight-average molecular weight and radius of gyration of the purified SJP in 0.1 M NaCl were determined to be 2.76 × 104 g/mol and 122 nm by SEC-MALLS, respectively. More importantly, it exhibited appreciable antioxidant activities compared to the standard Vc, such as DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.21 mg/mL, strong reducing power, ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.29 mg/mL, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.38 mg/mL. These results indicate that SJP may be useful for developing functional health products or natural antioxidant.
Du, Hongtao; Chen, Juncheng; Tian, Shan; Gu, Hongling; Li, Na; Sun, Yao; Ru, Jiajia; Wang, Junru
2016-10-20
In this research, extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and immunological activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. pulp were investigated. A response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction process. The maximum EAP yield was 9.82±0.38%, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (9.93±0.24%). Two homogeneous polysaccharides, EAP-1a and EAP-1b with molecular weights of 8.70kDa and 4.39kDa respectively, were prepared by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns and characterized by HPLC, HPGPC, and FT-IR. Three polysaccharides (EAP, EAP-1a and EAP-1b) could stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytic activities of RAW 264.7 cells in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no significant difference between crude EAP group (400μg/mL) and positive control group (LPS) in effects on macrophages. The results implied that EAP had the potential to be developed as natural medicines or health foods.
Preliminary Development of an Object-Oriented Optimization Tool
Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a FORTRAN-based object-oriented optimization (O3) tool that leverages existing tools and practices and allows easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. The object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines, as opposed to relying on one code to perform analysis for all disciplines. Optimization can thus take place within each discipline module, or in a loop between the central executive module and the discipline modules, or both. Six sample optimization problems are presented. The first four sample problems are based on simple mathematical equations; the fifth and sixth problems consider a three-bar truss, which is a classical example in structural synthesis. Instructions for preparing input data for the O3 tool are presented.
Pareto Optimal Design for Synthetic Biology.
Patanè, Andrea; Santoro, Andrea; Costanza, Jole; Carapezza, Giovanni; Nicosia, Giuseppe
2015-08-01
Recent advances in synthetic biology call for robust, flexible and efficient in silico optimization methodologies. We present a Pareto design approach for the bi-level optimization problem associated to the overproduction of specific metabolites in Escherichia coli. Our method efficiently explores the high dimensional genetic manipulation space, finding a number of trade-offs between synthetic and biological objectives, hence furnishing a deeper biological insight to the addressed problem and important results for industrial purposes. We demonstrate the computational capabilities of our Pareto-oriented approach comparing it with state-of-the-art heuristics in the overproduction problems of i) 1,4-butanediol, ii) myristoyl-CoA, i ii) malonyl-CoA , iv) acetate and v) succinate. We show that our algorithms are able to gracefully adapt and scale to more complex models and more biologically-relevant simulations of the genetic manipulations allowed. The Results obtained for 1,4-butanediol overproduction significantly outperform results previously obtained, in terms of 1,4-butanediol to biomass formation ratio and knock-out costs. In particular overproduction percentage is of +662.7%, from 1.425 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹ (wild type) to 10.869 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹, with a knockout cost of 6. Whereas, Pareto-optimal designs we have found in fatty acid optimizations strictly dominate the ones obtained by the other methodologies, e.g., biomass and myristoyl-CoA exportation improvement of +21.43% (0.17 h⁻¹) and +5.19% (1.62 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹), respectively. Furthermore CPU time required by our heuristic approach is more than halved. Finally we implement pathway oriented sensitivity analysis, epsilon-dominance analysis and robustness analysis to enhance our biological understanding of the problem and to improve the optimization algorithm capabilities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piccolo, R.
1979-07-31
The assumptions made, analysis methods used, and preliminary results of research to determine the design specifications for a hybrid electric-powered and internal combustion engine-powered vehicle that would optimize the fuel economy of passenger automobiles are described. Information is included on body and component design, selection of spark-ignition engine and Ni-Zn batteries, life-cycle costs and life-cycle fuel consumption. (LCL)
Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Metallic Foam Insulations
Haftka, Raphael T.; Sankar, Bhavani; Venkataraman, Satchi; Zhu, Huadong
2002-01-01
simple nonlinear differential equation. Preliminary results of this work were presented at the American Society of Composites meeting, and the final version was submitted for publication in the AIAA Journal. In addition to minimizing the transmitted heat, we investigated the optimum design for minimum weight given an acceptable level of heat transmission through the insulation. The optimality criterion developed was different from that obtained for minimizing beat transfer coefficient. For minimum mass design, we had to find for a given temperature the optimum density, which minimized the logarithmic derivative of the insulation thermal conductivity with respect to its density. The logarithmic derivative is defined as the ratio of relative change in the dependent response (thermal conductivity) to the relative change in the independent variable (density). The results have been documented as a conference paper that will be presented at the upcoming AIAA.
Machine Learning Techniques in Optimal Design
Cerbone, Giuseppe
1992-01-01
Many important applications can be formalized as constrained optimization tasks. For example, we are studying the engineering domain of two-dimensional (2-D) structural design. In this task, the goal is to design a structure of minimum weight that bears a set of loads. A solution to a design problem in which there is a single load (L) and two stationary support points (S1 and S2) consists of four members, E1, E2, E3, and E4 that connect the load to the support points is discussed. In principle, optimal solutions to problems of this kind can be found by numerical optimization techniques. However, in practice [Vanderplaats, 1984] these methods are slow and they can produce different local solutions whose quality (ratio to the global optimum) varies with the choice of starting points. Hence, their applicability to real-world problems is severely restricted. To overcome these limitations, we propose to augment numerical optimization by first performing a symbolic compilation stage to produce: (a) objective functions that are faster to evaluate and that depend less on the choice of the starting point and (b) selection rules that associate problem instances to a set of recommended solutions. These goals are accomplished by successive specializations of the problem class and of the associated objective functions. In the end, this process reduces the problem to a collection of independent functions that are fast to evaluate, that can be differentiated symbolically, and that represent smaller regions of the overall search space. However, the specialization process can produce a large number of sub-problems. This is overcome by deriving inductively selection rules which associate problems to small sets of specialized independent sub-problems. Each set of candidate solutions is chosen to minimize a cost function which expresses the tradeoff between the quality of the solution that can be obtained from the sub-problem and the time it takes to produce it. The overall solution
A preliminary design for a satellite power system
Enriquez, Clara V.; Kokaly, Ray; Nandi, Saumya; Timmons, Mike; Garrard, Mark; Mercado, Rommel; Rogers, Brian; Ugaz, Victor
1991-01-01
Outlined here is a preliminary design for a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system. The SPS will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for mass consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy which can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting to one ground station. The SPs technology uses multi-layer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 sq km planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit and array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on the solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing panels (SSAPs). The primary truss elements used to support the arrays are composed on composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.
Design and optimization of tidal turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-03-15
To increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and, thereby, to reduce cost of energy, the use of specially tailored airfoils is needed. This work is focused on the design of an airfoil for marine application. Firstly, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed with reference to the requirements for wind turbine airfoils. Then, the design approach is presented. This is a numerical optimization scheme in which a gradient-based algorithm is used, coupled with the RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints .A section of the present work is dedicated to address this point; particular importance is given to the cavitation phenomenon. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high-efficiency hydrofoil is illustrated, and the results are compared with existing turbine airfoils, considering also the effect on turbine performance due to different airfoils.
Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2010-01-01
For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stress...... to mathematical programming, which with a large number of both design variables and strength constraints, is found non-practical, we choose simple recursive iterations to obtain uniform energy density and find by examples that the obtained designs are close to fulfilling also strength maximization. In compliance...... minimization it may be advantageous to decrease the total volume, but for strength maximization it is argued that it is advantageous to keep the total permissible volume. With the thermoelastic analysis presented directly in a finite element formulation, simple explicit formulas for equivalent thermoelastic...
Optimally designing games for behavioural research.
Rafferty, Anna N; Zaharia, Matei; Griffiths, Thomas L
2014-07-08
Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural data are a difficult task that typically requires significant trial and error. We address this issue by creating a new formal framework that extends optimal experiment design, used in statistics, to apply to game design. In this framework, we use Markov decision processes to model players' actions within a game, and then make inferences about the parameters of a cognitive model from these actions. Using a variety of concept learning games, we show that in practice, this method can predict which games will result in better estimates of the parameters of interest. The best games require only half as many players to attain the same level of precision.
Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense
Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.
2017-01-01
Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022''. However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission?s preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.
Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense
Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.
2017-01-01
Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022". However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission's preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.
Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design
Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah
achieving better designs with reduced risk in lesser time and cost. The approach is shown to eliminate the traditional boundary between the conceptual and the preliminary design stages, combining the two into one consolidated preliminary design phase. Several examples for the validation and utilization of the Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) Tool are presented using missions for the Medium and High Altitude Long Range/Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).
Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee
2000-07-01
The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and {gamma}-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-12-04
Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Design Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume describes system operation, a complete test program to verify mechanical reliability and thermal performance, fabrication and installation operations, and a cost analysis. (WHK)
Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation
Ozcer, Isik A.
product design. The simulation tools are used to optimize three geometries for sonic boom mitigation. The first is a simple axisymmetric shape to be used as a generic nose component, the second is a delta wing with lift, and the third is a real aircraft with nose and wing optimization. The objectives are to minimize the pressure impulse or the peak pressure in the sonic boom signal, while keeping the drag penalty under feasible limits. The design parameters for the meridian profile of the nose shape are the lengths and the half-cone angles of the linear segments that make up the profile. The design parameters for the lifting wing are the dihedral angle, angle of attack, non-linear span-wise twist and camber distribution. The test-bed aircraft is the modified F-5E aircraft built by Northrop Grumman, designated the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator. This aircraft is fitted with an optimized axisymmetric nose, and the wings are optimized to demonstrate optimization for sonic boom mitigation for a real aircraft. The final results predict 42% reduction in bow shock strength, 17% reduction in peak Deltap, 22% reduction in pressure impulse, 10% reduction in foot print size, 24% reduction in inviscid drag, and no loss in lift for the optimized aircraft. Optimization is carried out using response surface methodology, and the design matrices are determined using standard DoE techniques for quadratic response modeling.
Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders
2015-01-01
in topological optimization: Interactive control and continuous visualization; embedding flexible voids within the design space; consideration of distinct tension / compression properties; and optimization of dual material systems. In extension, optimization procedures for skeletal structures such as trusses...
Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)
Numerical design optimization of compressor blade based on ADOP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
An aerodynamic design optimization platform (ADOP) has been developed. The numerical optimization method is based on genetic algorithm (GA), Pareto ranking and fitness sharing technique. The platform was used for design optimization of the stator of an advanced transonic stage to seek high adiabatic efficiency. The compressor stage efficiency is increased by 0.502% at optimal point and the stall margin is enlarged by nearly 1.0% at design rotating speed. The flow fields of the transonic stage were simulated with FINE/Turbo software package. The optimization result indicates that the optimization platform is effective in 3D numerical design optimization problems.
Network inference via adaptive optimal design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stigter Johannes D
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research in network reverse engineering for genetic or metabolic networks very often does not include a proper experimental and/or input design. In this paper we address this issue in more detail and suggest a method that includes an iterative design of experiments based, on the most recent data that become available. The presented approach allows a reliable reconstruction of the network and addresses an important issue, i.e., the analysis and the propagation of uncertainties as they exist in both the data and in our own knowledge. These two types of uncertainties have their immediate ramifications for the uncertainties in the parameter estimates and, hence, are taken into account from the very beginning of our experimental design. Findings The method is demonstrated for two small networks that include a genetic network for mRNA synthesis and degradation and an oscillatory network describing a molecular network underlying adenosine 3’-5’ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP as observed in populations of Dyctyostelium cells. In both cases a substantial reduction in parameter uncertainty was observed. Extension to larger scale networks is possible but needs a more rigorous parameter estimation algorithm that includes sparsity as a constraint in the optimization procedure. Conclusion We conclude that a careful experiment design very often (but not always pays off in terms of reliability in the inferred network topology. For large scale networks a better parameter estimation algorithm is required that includes sparsity as an additional constraint. These algorithms are available in the literature and can also be used in an adaptive optimal design setting as demonstrated in this paper.
Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)
1995-05-10
Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a component of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technology, National Hydrogen Program. We report here on the progress on system analysis and preliminary engine testing. We have done system studies of series hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. The impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy are evaluated. Experiments with an available engine at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppm at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid vehicle simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppm to meet the 0.2 g/mile California Air Resources Board ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. We have designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing single cylinder Onan engine. This head currently features 14.8:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses.
Design optimization of a linear actuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rechenbach, B.; Willatzen, Morten; Preisler, K. Lorenzen
2013-01-01
The mechanical contacting of a dielectric elastomer actuator is investigated. The actuator is constructed by coiling the dielectric elastomer around two parallel metal rods, similar to a rubber band stretched by two index fingers. The goal of this paper is to design the geometry and the mechanical...... properties of a polymeric interlayer between the elastomer and the rods, gluing all materials together, so as to optimize the mechanical durability of the system. Finite element analysis is employed for the theoretical study which is linked up to experimental results performed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S....
Multidisciplinary design optimization in computational mechanics
Breitkopf, Piotr
2013-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic methods for the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of complex mechanical systems such as aircraft or car engines. We have focused on the presentation of strategies efficiently and economically managing the different levels of complexity in coupled disciplines (e.g. structure, fluid, thermal, acoustics, etc.), ranging from Reduced Order Models (ROM) to full-scale Finite Element (FE) or Finite Volume (FV) simulations. Particular focus is given to the uncertainty quantification and its impact on the robus
Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis & Design Optimization for Structural Designs
Deivanayagam, Arumugam
This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and implementation of probabilistic analysis in engineering designs through Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). First, the emphasis is on experimental data analysis focusing on probabilistic distribution models which characterize the randomness associated with the experimental data. The material properties of Kevlar® 49 are modeled using experimental data analysis and implemented along with an existing spiral modeling scheme (SMS) and user defined constitutive model (UMAT) for fabric based engine containment simulations in LS-DYNA. MCS of the model are performed to observe the failure pattern and exit velocities of the models. Then the solutions are compared with NASA experimental tests and deterministic results. MCS with probabilistic material data give a good prospective on results rather than a single deterministic simulation results. The next part of research is to implement the probabilistic material properties in engineering designs. The main aim of structural design is to obtain optimal solutions. In any case, in a deterministic optimization problem even though the structures are cost effective, it becomes highly unreliable if the uncertainty that may be associated with the system (material properties, loading etc.) is not represented or considered in the solution process. Reliable and optimal solution can be obtained by performing reliability optimization along with the deterministic optimization, which is RBDO. In RBDO problem formulation, in addition to structural performance constraints, reliability constraints are also considered. This part of research starts with introduction to reliability analysis such as first order reliability analysis, second order reliability analysis followed by simulation technique that
Handling Qualities Optimization for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design
Lawrence, Ben; Theodore, Colin R.; Berger, Tom
2016-01-01
Over the past decade, NASA, under a succession of rotary-wing programs has been moving towards coupling multiple discipline analyses in a rigorous consistent manner to evaluate rotorcraft conceptual designs. Handling qualities is one of the component analyses to be included in a future NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization framework for conceptual design of VTOL aircraft. Similarly, the future vision for the capability of the Concept Design and Assessment Technology Area (CD&A-TA) of the U.S Army Aviation Development Directorate also includes a handling qualities component. SIMPLI-FLYD is a tool jointly developed by NASA and the U.S. Army to perform modeling and analysis for the assessment of flight dynamics and control aspects of the handling qualities of rotorcraft conceptual designs. An exploration of handling qualities analysis has been carried out using SIMPLI-FLYD in illustrative scenarios of a tiltrotor in forward flight and single-main rotor helicopter at hover. Using SIMPLI-FLYD and the conceptual design tool NDARC integrated into a single process, the effects of variations of design parameters such as tail or rotor size were evaluated in the form of margins to fixed- and rotary-wing handling qualities metrics as well as the vehicle empty weight. The handling qualities design margins are shown to vary across the flight envelope due to both changing flight dynamic and control characteristics and changing handling qualities specification requirements. The current SIMPLI-FLYD capability and future developments are discussed in the context of an overall rotorcraft conceptual design process.
Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)
2004-06-01
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.
Optimal patch code design via device characterization
Wu, Wencheng; Dalal, Edul N.
2012-01-01
In many color measurement applications, such as those for color calibration and profiling, "patch code" has been used successfully for job identification and automation to reduce operator errors. A patch code is similar to a barcode, but is intended primarily for use in measurement devices that cannot read barcodes due to limited spatial resolution, such as spectrophotometers. There is an inherent tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of code levels available for encoding. Previous methods have attempted to address this tradeoff, but those solutions have been sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a method to design optimal patch codes via device characterization. The tradeoff between decoding robustness and the number of available code levels is optimized in terms of printing and measurement efforts, and decoding robustness against noises from the printing and measurement devices. Effort is drastically reduced relative to previous methods because print-and-measure is minimized through modeling and the use of existing printer profiles. Decoding robustness is improved by distributing the code levels in CIE Lab space rather than in CMYK space.
Global optimization framework for solar building design
Silva, N.; Alves, N.; Pascoal-Faria, P.
2017-07-01
The generative modeling paradigm is a shift from static models to flexible models. It describes a modeling process using functions, methods and operators. The result is an algorithmic description of the construction process. Each evaluation of such an algorithm creates a model instance, which depends on its input parameters (width, height, volume, roof angle, orientation, location). These values are normally chosen according to aesthetic aspects and style. In this study, the model's parameters are automatically generated according to an objective function. A generative model can be optimized according to its parameters, in this way, the best solution for a constrained problem is determined. Besides the establishment of an overall framework design, this work consists on the identification of different building shapes and their main parameters, the creation of an algorithmic description for these main shapes and the formulation of the objective function, respecting a building's energy consumption (solar energy, heating and insulation). Additionally, the conception of an optimization pipeline, combining an energy calculation tool with a geometric scripting engine is presented. The methods developed leads to an automated and optimized 3D shape generation for the projected building (based on the desired conditions and according to specific constrains). The approach proposed will help in the construction of real buildings that account for less energy consumption and for a more sustainable world.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁丽婷; 王笛; 张瑞; 牟定荣
2011-01-01
Low ignition propensity (LIP) cigarette can reduce the risk of fire ignited by cigarette.In order to apply LIP paper to flue-cured tobacco cigarette, base paper porosity, content of burning agent and diffusion rate of retardant belt were optimized.Then optimized paper was applied to flue-cured tobacco cigarette.The ignition performance, free air self extinguish and content of CO, tar and nicotine in new LIP cigarette were determined, besides, smoking quality was evaluated.The result showed that: ( 1 ) after optimization, base paper porosity was 95 CU, content of burning agent was 1.0％ with diffusion rate of retardant belt for 0.115 cm/s; (2)The ignition performance and free air self extinguish test of LIP cigarette met the requirement of ASTM E2187-04.Content of CO, tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke of LIP cigarette had no change.There was no significant difference in smoking quality between ordinary and LIP cigarette.%低引燃倾向(LIP)卷烟能减少卷烟引发火灾的风险,为了将LIP卷烟纸应用到烤烟型卷烟上,对LIP卷烟纸的原纸透气度、助燃剂含量和阻燃带扩散率进行优化,并将LIP卷烟纸初步应用到烤烟型卷烟上;测定了LIP卷烟的引燃性能、自由燃烧熄灭率及CO、焦油、烟碱含量,并进行感官质景评吸.结果表明,经过优化后,LIP卷烟纸的原纸透气度为95 CU,助燃剂含量为1.0%,阻燃带扩散率为0.115 cm/s;制备的LIP卷烟符合ASTM E2187-04的要求,能有效减少火灾的发生,CO、烟碱、焦油含量变化不大,抽吸品质也没有明显差别.
Yao, W.; Chen, X.; Ouyang, Q.; Van Tooren, M.
2011-01-01
Optimization procedure is one of the key techniques to address the computational and organizational complexities of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). Motivated by the idea of synthetically exploiting the advantage of multiple existing optimization procedures and meanwhile complying with
Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC
Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...
Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Zvi, I. [ed.
1993-02-01
This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).
Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Zvi, I. (ed.)
1993-02-01
This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).
A stepwise optimal design of water network☆
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ying Li⁎; Jintao Guan
2016-01-01
In order to take full advantage of regeneration process to reduce fresh water consumption and avoid the accumu-lation of trace contaminants, regeneration reuse and regeneration recycle should be distinctive. A stepwise opti-mal design for water network is developed to simplify solution procedures for the formulated MINLP problem. In this paper, a feasible water reuse network framework is generated. Some heuristic rules from water reuse net-work are used to guide the placement of regeneration process. Then the outlet stream of regeneration process is considered as new water source. Regeneration reuse network structure is obtained through an iterative optimal procedure by taking the insights from reuse water network structure. Furthermore, regeneration recycle is only utilized to eliminate fresh water usage for processes in which regeneration reuse is impossible. Compared with the results obtained by relevant researches for the same example, the present method not only provides an appro-priate regeneration reuse water network with minimum fresh water and regenerated water flow rate but also sug-gests a water network involving regeneration recycle with minimum recycle water flow rate. The design can utilize reuse, regeneration reuse and regeneration recycle step by step with minor water network structure change to achieve better flexibility. It can satisfy different demands for new plants and modernization of existing plants. © 2016 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.
Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant.
Hedia, H S; Mahmoud, Nemat-Alla
2004-01-01
The continuous increase of man's life span, and the growing confidence in using artificial materials inside the human body necessities introducing more effective prosthesis and implant materials. However, no artificial implant has biomechanical properties equivalent to the original tissue. Recently, titanium and bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite are extensively used as fabrication materials for dental implant due to their high compatibility with hard tissue and living bone. Titanium has reasonable stiffness and strength while hydroxyapatite has low stiffness, low strength and high ability to reach full integration with living bone. In order to obtain good dental implantation of the biomaterial; full integration of the implant with living bone should be satisfied. Minimum stresses in the implant and the bone must be achieved to increase the life of the implant and prevent bone resorption. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant made from functionally graded material (FGM) to achieve the above advantages. The finite element method and optimization technique are used to reach the required implant design. The optimal materials of the FGM dental implant are found to be hydroxyapatite/titanium. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the bone for the hydroxyapatite/titanium FGM implant has been reduced by about 22% and 28% compared to currently used titanium and stainless steel dental implants, respectively.
Preliminary design of the INPE's Solar Vector Magnetograph
Vieira, L E A; Lago, A Dal; Wrasse, C; Echer, E; Guarnieri, F L; Cardoso, F Reis; Guerrero, G; Costa, J Rezende; Palacios, J; Balmaceda, L; Alves, L Ribeiro; da Silva, L; Costa, L L; Sampaio, M; Soares, M C Rabello; Barbosa, M; Domingues, M; Rigozo, N; Mendes, O; Jauer, P; Dallaqua, R; Branco, R H; Stekel, T; Gonzalez, W; Kabata, W
2016-01-01
We describe the preliminary design of a magnetograph and visible-light imager instrument to study the solar dynamo processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field distribution. The instrument will provide measurements of the vector magnetic field and of the line-of-sight velocity in the solar photosphere. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in reaching the scientific goals of The Atmospheric and Space Science Coordination (CEA) at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). In particular, the CEA's space weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is acquiring progressively the know-how to build state-of-art sol...
A preliminary design of the collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zholents, A.; Gai, W.; Doran, S.; Lindberg, R.; Power, J.G.; Strelnikov, N.; Sun, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I. [ANL, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Li, Y. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); Gao, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Shchegolkov, D.Y.; Simakov, E.I. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2016-09-01
A preliminary design of the multi-meter long collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator that achieves a highly efficient transfer of the drive bunch energy to the wakefields and to the witness bunch is considered. It is made from ~0.5 m long accelerator modules containing a vacuum chamber with dielectric-lined walls, a quadrupole wiggler, an rf coupler, and BPM assembly. The single bunch breakup instability is a major limiting factor for accelerator efficiency, and the BNS damping is applied to obtain the stable multi-meter long propagation of a drive bunch. Numerical simulations using a 6D particle tracking computer code are performed and tolerances to various errors are defined.
The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.
2016-04-12
The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m^{2} plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.
The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report
Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fuchs, B; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hemery, N; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F
2016-01-01
The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m$^2$ plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.
Preliminary design for a pierce wiggler beamstick and addendum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pirkle, D.
1988-05-01
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a fast tunable microwave source for operation at 250 GHz and 10kW peak output power. This report presents the preliminary design of a Pierce gun and solenoid magnet that will be compatible with a Pierce-wiggler electron beam formation system (beamstick). The beamstick will be an appropriate power source for a tunable gyro-BWO at 250 GHz. Figure 1 presents the major components of the Pierce-wiggler beamstick: the electron gun, solenoid, beam tunnel, wiggler, and vacuum valve. Figure 2 shows an artistic conception of how the beamstick will interface with the interaction magnet, modulator and gyro-BWO circuit at MIT. 15 figs.
Preliminary design of 600 MWt HTGR-gas turbine plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muto, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Shiozawa, Shusaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
1999-07-01
In JAERI a feasibility study of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor - Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) system has been carried out since January, 1997 as an assigned work by the Science and Technology Agency. This paper describes a result of a preliminary design for a direct cycle plant of 600 MWt carried out in 1997 fiscal year within the framework of this feasibility study. A reactor inlet gas temperature of 460degC, a reactor outlet gas temperature of 850degC and a helium gas pressure of 6 MPa were selected. A power density of 6 MW/m{sup 3} and the maximum burnup of 10{sup 5} MWD/ton were achieved. A single-shaft horizontal turbomachine of 3600 rpm was selected and placed in a turbine vessel. A net thermal efficiency of 45.7% is expected to be achieved. (author)
Optimality criteria: A basis for multidisciplinary design optimization
Venkayya, V. B.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a generalization of what is frequently referred to in the literature as the optimality criteria approach in structural optimization. This generalization includes a unified presentation of the optimality conditions, the Lagrangian multipliers, and the resizing and scaling algorithms in terms of the sensitivity derivatives of the constraint and objective functions. The by-product of this generalization is the derivation of a set of simple nondimensional parameters which provides significant insight into the behavior of the structure as well as the optimization algorithm. A number of important issues, such as, active and passive variables, constraints and three types of linking are discussed in the context of the present derivation of the optimality criteria approach. The formulation as presented in this paper brings multidisciplinary optimization within the purview of this extremely efficient optimality criteria approach.
Research on Design Optimization Strategy in Virtual Product Development
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘军; 韩帮军; 范秀敏; 马登哲
2004-01-01
Simulation and optimization are the key points of virtual product development (VPD). Traditional engineering simulation software and optimization methods are inadequate to analyze the optimization problems because of its computational inefficiency. A systematic design optimization strategy by using statistical methods and mathematical optimization technologies is proposed. This method extends the design of experiments (DOE) and the simulation metamodel technologies. Metamodels are built to in place of detailed simulation codes based on effectively DOE, and then be linked to optimization routines for fast analysis, or serve as a bridge for integrating simulation software across different domains. A design optimization of composite material structure is used to demonstrate the newly introduced methodology.
Optimization in Data Cube System Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YilongLiang; ShaoweiXia
2004-01-01
The design of an OLAP system for supporting real-time queries is one of the major research issues．One approach is to use data cubes，which are pre-computed multidimensional views of data in the data warehouse．An initial set of data cubes can be derived．from which the answer to each frequently asked query can be retrieved directly．However，there are two practical problems concerning the design of a cube based system：1)the maintenance cost of the data cubes，and 2)the query cost to answer a selected set of frequently asked queries．Maintaining a data cube requires disk storage and CPU computation，So the maintenance cost is related to the total size of the data cubes materialized，and thus keeping all data cubes is impractical．The total size of cubes may be reduced by merging some cubes．However，the resulting larger cubes will increase the query cost of answering some queries．If the bounds on maintenance cost and query cost are strict．some of the queries need to be sacrificed．An optimization problem in data cube system design has been defined．With a maintenance-cost bound and a query-cost bound given by the user，it is necessary to opti-mize the initial set of data cubes such that the system can answer a maximum number of queries and satisfy the bounds．This is an NP-complete problem．Approximate algorithms Greedy Removing(GR)and 2-Greedy Merging with Multiple paths(2GGM)are proposed．Experiments have been done on a census database and the results show that our approach in both effbctive and efficient.
Optimal Design of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)
Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean
2014-06-01
The present work is an analytical study of the optimal design of an automotive thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed by our research group. The optimal design gives not only the optimal current but also the optimal geometry (i.e., the number of thermocouples, the geometric factor, or the hot fluid parameters). The optimal design for the TEAC is carried out with two configurations: air-to-liquid and air-to-air heat exchangers.
Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connell, Daniel P
2009-01-12
the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs. The multi-pollutant control system is being installed and tested on the AES Greenidge Unit 4 (Boiler 6) by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. All funding for the project is being provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and by AES Greenidge. AES Greenidge Unit 4 is a 107 MW{sub e} (net), 1950s vintage, tangentially-fired, reheat unit that is representative of many of the 440 smaller coal-fired units identified above. Following design and construction, the multi-pollutant control system will be demonstrated over an approximately 20-month period while the unit fires 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fires up to 10% biomass. This Preliminary Public Design Report is the first in a series of two reports describing the design of the multi-pollutant control facility that is being demonstrated at AES Greenidge. Its purpose is to consolidate for public use all available nonproprietary design information on the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project. As such, the report includes a discussion of the process concept, design objectives, design considerations, and uncertainties associated with the multi-pollutant control system and also summarizes the design of major process components and balance of plant considerations for the AES Greenidge Unit 4 installation. The Final Public Design Report, the second report in the series, will update this Preliminary Public Design Report to reflect the final, as-built design of the facility and to incorporate data on capital costs and projected operating costs.
Datte, P.; Ross, J. S.; Froula, D.; Galbraith, J.; Glenzer, S.; Hatch, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Landen, O.; Manuel, A. M.; Molander, W.; Montgomery, D.; Moody, J.; Swadling, G.; Weaver, J.; Vergel de Dios, G.; Vitalich, M.
2016-05-01
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion programs. We report on the preliminary design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beamsplitter and gratings before the shot. A deep-UV probe beam (λ0 between 185-215 nm) will optimally collect Thomson scattered light from plasma densities of 5 x 1020 electrons/cm3 while a 3ω probe will optimally collect Thomson scattered light from plasma densities of 1 x 1019 electrons/cm3. We report the phase I design of a two phase design strategy. Phase I includes the OTS recording system to measure background levels at NIF and phase II will include the integration of a probe laser.
Hyland, D. C.; Bernstein, D. S.
1987-01-01
The underlying philosophy and motivation of the optimal projection/maximum entropy (OP/ME) stochastic modeling and reduced control design methodology for high order systems with parameter uncertainties are discussed. The OP/ME design equations for reduced-order dynamic compensation including the effect of parameter uncertainties are reviewed. The application of the methodology to several Large Space Structures (LSS) problems of representative complexity is illustrated.
Optimality criteria for the design of 2-color microarray studies.
Kerr, Kathleen F
2012-01-13
We discuss the definition and application of design criteria for evaluating the efficiency of 2-color microarray designs. First, we point out that design optimality criteria are defined differently for the regression and block design settings. This has caused some confusion in the literature and warrants clarification. Linear models for microarray data analysis have equivalent formulations as ANOVA or regression models. However, this equivalence does not extend to design criteria. We discuss optimality criterion, and argue against applying regression-style D-optimality to the microarray design problem. We further disfavor E- and D-optimality (as defined in block design) because they are not attuned to scientific questions of interest.
Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics
Huan, Xun
2011-01-04
Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.
Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont
2015-04-15
Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.
Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)
2015-04-01
Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.
Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system
Strumpf, H. J.
1978-01-01
Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.
Piccolo, R.
1979-01-01
The methodology used for vehicle layout and component definition is described as well as techniques for system optimization and energy evaluation. The preliminary design is examined with particular attention given to body and structure; propulsion system; crash analysis and handling; internal combustion engine; DC motor separately excited; Ni-Zn battery; transmission; control system; vehicle auxiliarries; weight breakdown, and life cycle costs. Formulas are given for the quantification of energy consumption and results are compared with the reference vehicle.
Research on Multidisciplinary Optimization Design of Bridge Crane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tong Yifei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bridge crane is one of the most widely used cranes in our country, which is indispensable equipment for material conveying in the modern production. In this paper, the framework of multidisciplinary optimization for bridge crane is proposed. The presented research on crane multidisciplinary design technology for energy saving includes three levels, respectively: metal structures level, transmission design level, and electrical system design level. The shape optimal mathematical model of the crane is established for shape optimization design of metal structure level as well as size optimal mathematical model and topology optimal mathematical model of crane for topology optimization design of metal structure level is established. Finally, system-level multidisciplinary energy-saving optimization design of bridge crane is further carried out with energy-saving transmission design results feedback to energy-saving optimization design of metal structure. The optimization results show that structural optimization design can reduce total mass of crane greatly by using the finite element analysis and multidisciplinary optimization technology premised on the design requirements of cranes such as stiffness and strength; thus, energy-saving design can be achieved.
Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization
2014-08-01
Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization Sharon Vtipil ∗ and John G. Warner ∗ US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...number of passes per day given a satellite’s orbital altitude and inclination. These are used along with particle swarm optimization to determine optimal...well suited to use within a meta-heuristic optimization method such as the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). This method seeks to find the optimal set
Optimal screening designs for biomedical technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torney, D.C.; Bruno, W.J.; Knill, E. [and others
1997-10-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Screening a large number of different types of molecules to isolate a few with desirable properties is essential in biomedical technology. For example, trying to find a particular gene in the Human genome could be akin to looking for a needle in a haystack. Fortunately, testing of mixtures, or pools, of molecules allows the desirable ones to be identified, using a number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of experiments proportional only to the logarithm of the total number of types of molecules. We show how to capitalize upon this potential by using optimize pooling schemes, or designs. We propose efficient non-adaptive pooling designs, such as {open_quotes}random sets{close_quotes} designs and modified {open_quotes}row and column{close_quotes} designs. Our results have been applied in the pooling and unique-sequence screening of clone libraries used in the Human Genome Project and in the mapping of Human chromosome 16. This required the use of liquid-transferring robots and manifolds--for the largest clone libraries. Finally, we developed an efficient technique for finding the posterior probability each molecule has the desirable property, given the pool assay results. This technique works well, in practice, even if there are substantial rates of errors in the pool assay data. Both our methods and our results are relevant to a broad spectrum of research in modern biology.
Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment
Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel
2010-06-01
Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.
Repair Optimal Erasure Codes through Hadamard Designs
Papailiopoulos, Dimitris S; Cadambe, Viveck R
2011-01-01
In distributed storage systems that employ erasure coding, the issue of minimizing the total {\\it communication} required to exactly rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. This repair bandwidth depends on the structure of the storage code and the repair strategies used to restore the lost data. Designing high-rate maximum-distance separable (MDS) codes that achieve the optimum repair communication has been a well-known open problem. In this work, we use Hadamard matrices to construct the first explicit 2-parity MDS storage code with optimal repair properties for all single node failures, including the parities. Our construction relies on a novel method of achieving perfect interference alignment over finite fields with a finite file size, or number of extensions. We generalize this construction to design $m$-parity MDS codes that achieve the optimum repair communication for single systematic node failures and show that there is an interesting connection between our $m$-parity codes and the systematic-...
Particle Swarm Optimization for Structural Design Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamit SARUHAN
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to employ the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique to a mechanical engineering design problem which is minimizing the volume of a cantilevered beam subject to bending strength constraints. Mechanical engineering design problems are complex activities which are computing capability are more and more required. The most of these problems are solved by conventional mathematical programming techniques that require gradient information. These techniques have several drawbacks from which the main one is becoming trapped in local optima. As an alternative to gradient-based techniques, the PSO does not require the evaluation of gradients of the objective function. The PSO algorithm employs the generation of guided random positions when they search for the global optimum point. The PSO which is a nature inspired heuristics search technique imitates the social behavior of bird flocking. The results obtained by the PSO are compared with Mathematical Programming (MP. It is demonstrated that the PSO performed and obtained better convergence reliability on the global optimum point than the MP. Using the MP, the volume of 2961000 mm3 was obtained while the beam volume of 2945345 mm3 was obtained by the PSO.
Mass-based design and optimization of wave rotors for gas turbine engine enhancement
Chan, S.; Liu, H.
2017-03-01
An analytic method aiming at mass properties was developed for the preliminary design and optimization of wave rotors. In the present method, we introduce the mass balance principle into the design and thus can predict and optimize the mass qualities as well as the performance of wave rotors. A dedicated least-square method with artificial weighting coefficients was developed to solve the over-constrained system in the mass-based design. This method and the adoption of the coefficients were validated by numerical simulation. Moreover, the problem of fresh air exhaustion (FAE) was put forward and analyzed, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated. Parameter analyses and optimization elucidated which designs would not only achieve the best performance, but also operate with minimum EGR and no FAE.
Mass-based design and optimization of wave rotors for gas turbine engine enhancement
Chan, S.; Liu, H.
2016-04-01
An analytic method aiming at mass properties was developed for the preliminary design and optimization of wave rotors. In the present method, we introduce the mass balance principle into the design and thus can predict and optimize the mass qualities as well as the performance of wave rotors. A dedicated least-square method with artificial weighting coefficients was developed to solve the over-constrained system in the mass-based design. This method and the adoption of the coefficients were validated by numerical simulation. Moreover, the problem of fresh air exhaustion (FAE) was put forward and analyzed, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated. Parameter analyses and optimization elucidated which designs would not only achieve the best performance, but also operate with minimum EGR and no FAE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.
2013-12-26
This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements
The Study of Tactical Missile's Airframe Digital Optimization Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Zhiqing; QIAN Airong; LI Xuefeng; GAO Lin; LEI Jian
2006-01-01
Digital design and optimal are very important in modern design. The traditional design methods and procedure are not fit for the modern missile weapons research and development. Digital design methods and optimal ideas were employed to deal with this problem. The disadvantages of the traditional missile's airframe design procedure and the advantages of the digital design methods were discussed. A new concept of design process reengineering (DPR) was put forward. An integrated missile airframe digital design platform and the digital design procedure, which integrated the optimization ideas and methods, were developed. Case study showed that the design platform and the design procedure could improve the efficiency and quality of missile's airframe design, and get the more reasonable and optimal results.
Design and optimization of a brachytherapy robot
Meltsner, Michael A.
Trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy has become a popular procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer, the most common type of non-skin cancer among men. The current TRUS technique of LDR implantation may result in less than ideal coverage of the tumor with increased risk of negative response such as rectal toxicity and urinary retention. This technique is limited by the skill of the physician performing the implant, the accuracy of needle localization, and the inherent weaknesses of the procedure itself. The treatment may require 100 or more sources and 25 needles, compounding the inaccuracy of the needle localization procedure. A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy may increase the accuracy of needle placement while minimizing the effect of physician technique in the TRUS procedure. Furthermore, a robot may improve associated toxicities by utilizing angled insertions and freeing implantations from constraints applied by the 0.5 cm-spaced template used in the TRUS method. Within our group, Lin et al. have designed a new type of LDR source. The "directional" source is a seed designed to be partially shielded. Thus, a directional, or anisotropic, source does not emit radiation in all directions. The source can be oriented to irradiate cancerous tissues while sparing normal ones. This type of source necessitates a new, highly accurate method for localization in 6 degrees of freedom. A robot is the best way to accomplish this task accurately. The following presentation of work describes the invention and optimization of a new prostate brachytherapy robot that fulfills these goals. Furthermore, some research has been dedicated to the use of the robot to perform needle insertion tasks (brachytherapy, biopsy, RF ablation, etc.) in nearly any other soft tissue in the body. This can be accomplished with the robot combined with automatic, magnetic tracking.
Preliminary Neutronic Design of High Burnup OTTO Cycle Pebble Bed Reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Setiadipura
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble
A Framework for Designing Optimal Spacecraft Formations
2002-09-01
3 1. Reference Frame ..................................................................................6 B. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS ........................................7...spacecraft state. Depending on the model, there may be additional variables in the state, but there will be a minimum of these six. B. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS Until
Automated Design Framework for Synthetic Biology Exploiting Pareto Optimality.
Otero-Muras, Irene; Banga, Julio R
2017-07-21
In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, that is, the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, that is, finding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design, that is, analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits. Finally, we illustrate the capabilities and performance of this framework considering four case studies. In the first problem we consider the forward design of an oscillator. In the remaining problems, we illustrate how to apply the reverse design approach to find motifs for stripe formation, rapid adaption, and fold-change detection, respectively.
Preliminary Design Values, U.S., 2015, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains a map layer with preliminary design values for 2015. In July 2017 the 2015 design values will become official. At that time they will added...
Application of surrogate-based global optimization to aerodynamic design
Pérez, Esther
2016-01-01
Aerodynamic design, like many other engineering applications, is increasingly relying on computational power. The growing need for multi-disciplinarity and high fidelity in design optimization for industrial applications requires a huge number of repeated simulations in order to find an optimal design candidate. The main drawback is that each simulation can be computationally expensive – this becomes an even bigger issue when used within parametric studies, automated search or optimization loops, which typically may require thousands of analysis evaluations. The core issue of a design-optimization problem is the search process involved. However, when facing complex problems, the high-dimensionality of the design space and the high-multi-modality of the target functions cannot be tackled with standard techniques. In recent years, global optimization using meta-models has been widely applied to design exploration in order to rapidly investigate the design space and find sub-optimal solutions. Indeed, surrogat...
Design Time Optimization for Hardware Watermarking Protection of HDL Designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Castillo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available HDL-level design offers important advantages for the application of watermarking to IP cores, but its complexity also requires tools automating these watermarking algorithms. A new tool for signature distribution through combinational logic is proposed in this work. IPP@HDL, a previously proposed high-level watermarking technique, has been employed for evaluating the tool. IPP@HDL relies on spreading the bits of a digital signature at the HDL design level using combinational logic included within the original system. The development of this new tool for the signature distribution has not only extended and eased the applicability of this IPP technique, but it has also improved the signature hosting process itself. Three algorithms were studied in order to develop this automated tool. The selection of a cost function determines the best hosting solutions in terms of area and performance penalties on the IP core to protect. An 1D-DWT core and MD5 and SHA1 digital signatures were used in order to illustrate the benefits of the new tool and its optimization related to the extraction logic resources. Among the proposed algorithms, the alternative based on simulated annealing reduces the additional resources while maintaining an acceptable computation time and also saving designer effort and time.
Design time optimization for hardware watermarking protection of HDL designs.
Castillo, E; Morales, D P; García, A; Parrilla, L; Todorovich, E; Meyer-Baese, U
2015-01-01
HDL-level design offers important advantages for the application of watermarking to IP cores, but its complexity also requires tools automating these watermarking algorithms. A new tool for signature distribution through combinational logic is proposed in this work. IPP@HDL, a previously proposed high-level watermarking technique, has been employed for evaluating the tool. IPP@HDL relies on spreading the bits of a digital signature at the HDL design level using combinational logic included within the original system. The development of this new tool for the signature distribution has not only extended and eased the applicability of this IPP technique, but it has also improved the signature hosting process itself. Three algorithms were studied in order to develop this automated tool. The selection of a cost function determines the best hosting solutions in terms of area and performance penalties on the IP core to protect. An 1D-DWT core and MD5 and SHA1 digital signatures were used in order to illustrate the benefits of the new tool and its optimization related to the extraction logic resources. Among the proposed algorithms, the alternative based on simulated annealing reduces the additional resources while maintaining an acceptable computation time and also saving designer effort and time.
Design, integration and preliminary results of the IXV Catalysis experiment
Viladegut, Alan; Panerai, F.; Chazot, O.; Pichon, T.; Bertrand, P.; Verdy, C.; Coddet, C.
2016-08-01
The CATalytic Experiment (CATE) is an in-flight demonstration of catalysis effects at the surface of thermal protection materials. A high-catalytic coating was applied over the baseline ceramic material on the windward side of the intermediate experimental vehicle (IXV). The temperature jump due to different catalytic activities was detected during re-entry through measurements made with near-surface thermocouples on the windward side of the vehicle. The experiment aimed at contributing to the development and validation of gas/surface interaction models for re-entry applications. The present paper summarizes the design of CATE and its integration on the windward side of the IXV. Results of a qualification campaign at the Plasmatron facility of the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics are presented. They provided an experimental evidence of the temperature jump at the low-to-high catalytic interface of the heat shield under aerothermal conditions relevant to the actual IXV flight. These tests also gave confidence so that the high-catalytic patch would not endanger the integrity of the vehicle and the safety of the mission. A preliminary assessment of flight data from the thermocouple measurements shows consistency with results of the qualification tests.
Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips
Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John
2002-01-01
There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.
A Powerful Optimization Tool for Analog Integrated Circuits Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kubar
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new optimization tool for analog circuit design. Proposed tool is based on the robust version of the differential evolution optimization method. Corners of technology, temperature, voltage and current supplies are taken into account during the optimization. That ensures robust resulting circuits. Those circuits usually do not need any schematic change and are ready for the layout.. The newly developed tool is implemented directly to the Cadence design environment to achieve very short setup time of the optimization task. The design automation procedure was enhanced by optimization watchdog feature. It was created to control optimization progress and moreover to reduce the search space to produce better design in shorter time. The optimization algorithm presented in this paper was successfully tested on several design examples.
Assay optimization: a statistical design of experiments approach.
Altekar, Maneesha; Homon, Carol A; Kashem, Mohammed A; Mason, Steven W; Nelson, Richard M; Patnaude, Lori A; Yingling, Jeffrey; Taylor, Paul B
2007-03-01
With the transition from manual to robotic HTS in the last several years, assay optimization has become a significant bottleneck. Recent advances in robotic liquid handling have made it feasible to reduce assay optimization timelines with the application of statistically designed experiments. When implemented, they can efficiently optimize assays by rapidly identifying significant factors, complex interactions, and nonlinear responses. This article focuses on the use of statistically designed experiments in assay optimization.
An Expert System-Driven Method for Parametric Trajectory Optimization During Conceptual Design
Dees, Patrick D.; Zwack, Mathew R.; Steffens, Michael; Edwards, Stephen; Diaz, Manuel J.; Holt, James B.
2015-01-01
During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle cost. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult in both cost and schedule to enact. The current capability-based paradigm, which has emerged because of the constrained economic environment, calls for the infusion of knowledge usually acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bringing knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture yet little of the information required to successfully optimize a trajectory is known early in the design phase. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi-modal due to the interaction of various constraints. When these obstacles are coupled with the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), an industry standard program to optimize ascent trajectories that is difficult to use, expert trajectory analysts are required to effectively optimize a vehicle's ascent trajectory. Over the course of this paper, the authors discuss a methodology developed at NASA Marshall's Advanced Concepts Office to address these issues
Development of a Multi-Event Trajectory Optimization Tool for Noise-Optimized Approach Route Design
Braakenburg, M.L.; Hartjes, S.; Visser, H.G.; Hebly, S.J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research effort towards the development of a multi-event trajectory optimization methodology that allows to synthesize RNAV approach routes that minimize a cumulative measure of noise, taking into account the total noise effect aggregated for a
Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design
Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.
2015-01-01
During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi
Global Optimization Problems in Optimal Design of Experiments in Regression Models
Boer, E.P.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.
2000-01-01
In this paper we show that optimal design of experiments, a specific topic in statistics, constitutes a challenging application field for global optimization. This paper shows how various structures in optimal design of experiments problems determine the structure of corresponding challenging global
Configurable intelligent optimization algorithm design and practice in manufacturing
Tao, Fei; Laili, Yuanjun
2014-01-01
Presenting the concept and design and implementation of configurable intelligent optimization algorithms in manufacturing systems, this book provides a new configuration method to optimize manufacturing processes. It provides a comprehensive elaboration of basic intelligent optimization algorithms, and demonstrates how their improvement, hybridization and parallelization can be applied to manufacturing. Furthermore, various applications of these intelligent optimization algorithms are exemplified in detail, chapter by chapter. The intelligent optimization algorithm is not just a single algorit
Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.
King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J
2015-12-23
Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings.
Platform for dynamic tests: preliminary studies, design and construction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. E. Campuzano
Full Text Available This paper is about the design and construction of a platform for dynamic tests especially with people jumping, walking, etc. Initially it was tried to find out projects already implemented in platforms and dynamic tests and to study the loads produced by movement of people on slabs and the structural response to these loads. The limits established by different standards have been also studied for these dynamic responses, taking into account the ultimate limit state, as well as the structure in service, since the human body is very sensitive to structural vibrations. Parametric studies were performed considering various configurations of slabs (different spans, thicknesses and conditions of support have been done, looking for a configuration that could have natural frequency close to the frequencies of the human loads. The slab should have dimensions compatible with the available physical space, fundamental frequency below 5 Hz and maximum immediate deflection compatible with the indications of the Brazilian standard NBR6118: 2007. Based on these criteria was chosen a rectangular structure consists of a solid reinforced concrete rectangular slab studded in two opposite edges of steel beams with shear connectors type U. The other two edges are free. The steel beams supporting the slab, in turn, are supported on eight metal profiles (two in each corner of the slab that are supported on two to two short columns of steel profile H. Profiles U in steel are welded to four columns, forming a horizontal frame. Numerical analysis of the dynamic test platform have been performed for free and forced vibration, for obtaining the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes, considering the self-weight of the structure and the load that simulates people's weight. After obtaining a structural configuration that fulfilled the stipulated requirements, the design of the slab taking into account the recommendations of the Brazilian standard NBR6118: 2007
Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.
Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah
2015-05-01
The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.
Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Su
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.
Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders
2014-01-01
This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...... in topological optimization: Interactive control and continuous visualization; embedding flexible voids within the design space; consideration of distinct tension / compression properties; and optimization of dual material systems. In extension, optimization procedures for skeletal structures such as trusses...... and frames are implemented. The developed procedures allow for the exploration of new territories in optimization of architectural structures, and offer new methodological strategies for bridging conceptual gaps between optimization and architectural practice....
Analysis of Design Basis Events in a Preliminary Specific Design of PGSFR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developing a preliminary specific design of the PGSFR(Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), which is a pool type sodium cooled fast reactor with a thermal power of 392.2 MW. Many alterations were made on a preliminary specific design of the PGSFR compared with a conceptual design: a heat removal capability of the DHRS was decreased, the DHXs were submerged in a cold pool, a pressure drop through the core was increased, and a shape of a redon was changed to a peanut type, etc. For identification of safety characteristics including the design changes, 5 DBE's(Design Bases Events) were analyzed using MARS-LMR code. The representative DBE's are TOP(Transient of Over Power), LOF(Loss Of Flow), LOHS(Loss Of Heat Sink), Reactor Vessel Leak and Pipe Break accidents. The representative DBE's were analyzed using the MARS-LMR code. As a result, it was identified that the PGSFR were appropriately tripped by the RPS(Reactor Protection System) and cooled by the DHRS. But a high cladding temperature was estimated in a pipe break accident. Therefore, integrity of the structure should be evaluated in the further study.
An Efficient Method for Reliability-based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Hui; Li Weiji
2008-01-01
Design for modem engineering system is becoming multidisciplinary and incorporates practical uncertainties; therefore, it is necessary to synthesize reliability analysis and the multidiscipLinary design optimization (MDO) techniques for the design of complex engineering system. An advanced first order second moment method-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing multidisciplinary optimization techniques and the reliability analysis methods. It is seen through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current deterministic optimization process.
Simultaneous optimal experimental design for in vitro binding parameter estimation.
Ernest, C Steven; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C
2013-10-01
Simultaneous optimization of in vitro ligand binding studies using an optimal design software package that can incorporate multiple design variables through non-linear mixed effect models and provide a general optimized design regardless of the binding site capacity and relative binding rates for a two binding system. Experimental design optimization was employed with D- and ED-optimality using PopED 2.8 including commonly encountered factors during experimentation (residual error, between experiment variability and non-specific binding) for in vitro ligand binding experiments: association, dissociation, equilibrium and non-specific binding experiments. Moreover, a method for optimizing several design parameters (ligand concentrations, measurement times and total number of samples) was examined. With changes in relative binding site density and relative binding rates, different measurement times and ligand concentrations were needed to provide precise estimation of binding parameters. However, using optimized design variables, significant reductions in number of samples provided as good or better precision of the parameter estimates compared to the original extensive sampling design. Employing ED-optimality led to a general experimental design regardless of the relative binding site density and relative binding rates. Precision of the parameter estimates were as good as the extensive sampling design for most parameters and better for the poorly estimated parameters. Optimized designs for in vitro ligand binding studies provided robust parameter estimation while allowing more efficient and cost effective experimentation by reducing the measurement times and separate ligand concentrations required and in some cases, the total number of samples.
Topology optimization problems with design-dependent sets of constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schou, Marie-Louise Højlund
Topology optimization is a design tool which is used in numerous fields. It can be used whenever the design is driven by weight and strength considerations. The basic concept of topology optimization is the interpretation of partial differential equation coefficients as effective material...... structural topology optimization problems. For such problems a stress constraint for an element should only be present in the optimization problem when the structural design variable corresponding to this element has a value greater than zero. We model the stress constrained topology optimization problem...... using both discrete and continuous design variables. Using discrete design variables is the natural modeling frame. However, we cannot solve real-size problems with the technological limits of today. Using continuous design variables makes it possible to also study topology optimization problems...
Optimization design of blade shapes for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong
2010-01-01
For the optimization design of wind turbines, the new normal and tangential induced factors of wind turbines are given considering the tip loss of the normal and tangential forces based on the blade element momentum theory and traditional aerodynamic model. The cost model of the wind turbines...... and the optimization design model are developed. In the optimization model, the objective is the minimum cost of energy and the design variables are the chord length, twist angle and the relative thickness. Finally, the optimization is carried out for a 2 MW blade by using this optimization design model....... The performance of blades is validated through the comparison and analysis of the results. The reduced cost shows that the optimization model is good enough for the design of wind turbines. The results give a proof for the design and research on the blades of large scale wind turbines and also establish...
Advances in metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures
Kaveh, A
2014-01-01
This book presents efficient metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures. Many of these algorithms are developed by the author and his colleagues, consisting of Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization, Charged System Search, Magnetic Charged System Search, Field of Forces Optimization, Dolphin Echolocation Optimization, Colliding Bodies Optimization, Ray Optimization. These are presented together with algorithms which were developed by other authors and have been successfully applied to various optimization problems. These consist of Particle Swarm Optimization, Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm, Cuckoo Search Optimization, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, and Chaos Embedded Metaheuristic Algorithms. Finally a multi-objective optimization method is presented to solve large-scale structural problems based on the Charged System Search algorithm. The concepts and algorithms presented in this book are not only applicable to optimization of skeletal structures and finite element models, but can equally ...
Advances in metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures
Kaveh, A
2017-01-01
This book presents efficient metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures. Many of these algorithms are developed by the author and his colleagues, consisting of Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization, Charged System Search, Magnetic Charged System Search, Field of Forces Optimization, Dolphin Echolocation Optimization, Colliding Bodies Optimization, Ray Optimization. These are presented together with algorithms which were developed by other authors and have been successfully applied to various optimization problems. These consist of Particle Swarm Optimization, Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm, Cuckoo Search Optimization, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, and Chaos Embedded Metaheuristic Algorithms. Finally a multi-objective optimization method is presented to solve large-scale structural problems based on the Charged System Search algorithm. The concepts and algorithms presented in this book are not only applicable to optimization of skeletal structures and finite element models, but can equally ...
Optimal designs for the Michaelis Menten model with correlated observations
Dette, Holger; Kunert, Joachim
2012-01-01
In this paper we investigate the problem of designing experiments for weighted least squares analysis in the Michaelis Menten model. We study the structure of exact D-optimal designs in a model with an autoregressive error structure. Explicit results for locally D-optimal are derived for the case where 2 observations can be taken per subject. Additionally standardized maximin D-optimal designs are obtained in this case. The results illustrate the enormous difficulties to find e...
An optimization method for metamorphic mechanisms based on multidisciplinary design optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Wuxiang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The optimization of metamorphic mechanisms is different from that of the conventional mechanisms for its characteristics of multi-configuration. There exist complex coupled design variables and constraints in its multiple different configuration optimization models. To achieve the compatible optimized results of these coupled design variables, an optimization method for metamorphic mechanisms is developed in the paper based on the principle of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO. Firstly, the optimization characteristics of the metamorphic mechanism are summarized distinctly by proposing the classification of design variables and constraints as well as coupling interactions among its different configuration optimization models. Further, collaborative optimization technique which is used in MDO is adopted for achieving the overall optimization performance. The whole optimization process is then proposed by constructing a two-level hierarchical scheme with global optimizer and configuration optimizer loops. The method is demonstrated by optimizing a planar five-bar metamorphic mechanism which has two configurations, and results show that it can achieve coordinated optimization results for the same parameters in different configuration optimization models.
An optimization method for metamorphic mechanisms based on multidisciplinary design optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wuxiang; Wu Teng; Ding Xilun
2014-01-01
The optimization of metamorphic mechanisms is different from that of the conventional mechanisms for its characteristics of multi-configuration. There exist complex coupled design vari-ables and constraints in its multiple different configuration optimization models. To achieve the compatible optimized results of these coupled design variables, an optimization method for meta-morphic mechanisms is developed in the paper based on the principle of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). Firstly, the optimization characteristics of the metamorphic mechanism are summarized distinctly by proposing the classification of design variables and constraints as well as coupling interactions among its different configuration optimization models. Further, collabora-tive optimization technique which is used in MDO is adopted for achieving the overall optimization performance. The whole optimization process is then proposed by constructing a two-level hierar-chical scheme with global optimizer and configuration optimizer loops. The method is demon-strated by optimizing a planar five-bar metamorphic mechanism which has two configurations, and results show that it can achieve coordinated optimization results for the same parameters in different configuration optimization models.
Chemical optimization algorithm for fuzzy controller design
Astudillo, Leslie; Castillo, Oscar
2014-01-01
In this book, a novel optimization method inspired by a paradigm from nature is introduced. The chemical reactions are used as a paradigm to propose an optimization method that simulates these natural processes. The proposed algorithm is described in detail and then a set of typical complex benchmark functions is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed optimization algorithm can outperform other methods in a set of benchmark functions. This chemical reaction optimization paradigm is also applied to solve the tracking problem for the dynamic model of a unicycle mobile robot by integrating a kinematic and a torque controller based on fuzzy logic theory. Computer simulations are presented confirming that this optimization paradigm is able to outperform other optimization techniques applied to this particular robot application
Optimized Solution of Two Bar Truss Design Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Optimization Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir Dey
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The main goal of the structural optimization is to minimize the weight of structure or the vertical deflection of loaded joint while satisfying all design requirements imposed by design codes. In general fuzzy sets are used to analyze the fuzzy structural optimization. In this paper, a planer truss structural model in intuitionistic fuzzy environment has been developed. This paper proposes an intuitionistic fuzzy optimization approach to solve a non-linear programming problem in the context of a structural application. This approximation approach is used to solve structural optimization model with weight as objective function. This intuitionistic fuzzy optimization (IFO approach is illustrated on two-bar truss structural design problem. The result of the intuitionistic fuzzy optimization obtained is compared with the other results of optimization algorithms from the literary sources. It is shown that the proposed intuitionistic fuzzy optimization approach is more efficient than the analogous fuzzy technique for structural design.
Comparison of optimal design methods in inverse problems
Banks, H. T.; Holm, K.; Kappel, F.
2011-07-01
Typical optimal design methods for inverse or parameter estimation problems are designed to choose optimal sampling distributions through minimization of a specific cost function related to the resulting error in parameter estimates. It is hoped that the inverse problem will produce parameter estimates with increased accuracy using data collected according to the optimal sampling distribution. Here we formulate the classical optimal design problem in the context of general optimization problems over distributions of sampling times. We present a new Prohorov metric-based theoretical framework that permits one to treat succinctly and rigorously any optimal design criteria based on the Fisher information matrix. A fundamental approximation theory is also included in this framework. A new optimal design, SE-optimal design (standard error optimal design), is then introduced in the context of this framework. We compare this new design criterion with the more traditional D-optimal and E-optimal designs. The optimal sampling distributions from each design are used to compute and compare standard errors; the standard errors for parameters are computed using asymptotic theory or bootstrapping and the optimal mesh. We use three examples to illustrate ideas: the Verhulst-Pearl logistic population model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009 Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of Physical and Biological Processes (Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall/CRC)), the standard harmonic oscillator model (Banks H T and Tran H T 2009) and a popular glucose regulation model (Bergman R N, Ider Y Z, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1979 Am. J. Physiol. 236 E667-77 De Gaetano A and Arino O 2000 J. Math. Biol. 40 136-68 Toffolo G, Bergman R N, Finegood D T, Bowden C R and Cobelli C 1980 Diabetes 29 979-90).
PARAMETER COORDINATION AND ROBUST OPTIMIZATION FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY DESIGN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Jie; PENG Yinghong; XIONG Guangleng
2006-01-01
A new parameter coordination and robust optimization approach for multidisciplinary design is presented. Firstly, the constraints network model is established to support engineering change, coordination and optimization. In this model, interval boxes are adopted to describe the uncertainty of design parameters quantitatively to enhance the design robustness. Secondly, the parameter coordination method is presented to solve the constraints network model, monitor the potential conflicts due to engineering changes, and obtain the consistency solution space corresponding to the given product specifications. Finally, the robust parameter optimization model is established, and genetic arithmetic is used to obtain the robust optimization parameter. An example of bogie design is analyzed to show the scheme to be effective.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Min; CUI Wei-cheng
2007-01-01
Improving the efficiency of ship optimization is crucial for modern ship design. Compared with traditional methods, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is a more promising approach. For this reason, Collaborative Optimization (CO) is discussed and analyzed in this paper. As one of the most frequently applied MDO methods, CO promotes autonomy of disciplines while providing a coordinating mechanism guaranteeing progress toward an optimum and maintaining interdisciplinary compatibility. However, there are some difficulties in applying the conventional CO method, such as difficulties in choosing an initial point and tremendous computational requirements. For the purpose of overcoming these problems, optimal Latin hypercube design and Radial basis function network were applied to CO. Optimal Latin hypercube design is a modified Latin Hypercube design. Radial basis function network approximates the optimization model, and is updated during the optimization process to improve accuracy. It is shown by examples that the computing efficiency and robustness of this CO method are higher than with the conventional CO method.
Optimization of transmission system design based on genetic algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianbing Chen
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Transmission system is a crucial precision mechanism for twin-screw chemi-mechanical pulping equipment. The structure of the system designed by traditional method is not optimal because the structure designed by the traditional methods is easy to fall into the local optimum. To achieve the global optimum, this article applies the genetic algorithm which has grown in recent years in the field of structure optimization. The article uses the volume of transmission system as the objective function to optimize the structure designed by traditional method. Compared to the simulation results, the original structure is not optimal, and the optimized structure is tighter and more reasonable. Based on the optimized results, the transmission shafts in the transmission system are designed and checked, and the parameters of the twin screw are selected and calculated. The article provided an effective method to design the structure of transmission system.
Kunze, Philipp
2013-01-01
The creation of an integrated rotorcraft conceptual and preliminary design framework at DLR involved the development of geometry and fuselage aerodynamics modules at the Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology. After a short revision of the RIDE rotorcraft design environment architecture this paper focuses on the implementation of these disciplinary modules. The aim of the geometry module is to bridge the gap between conceptual and preliminary design and to allow for geometry parameter ...
Trajectory Optimization Design for Morphing Wing Missile
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ruisheng Sun; Chao Ming; Chuanjie Sun
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new particle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm to optimize the trajectory of morphing⁃wing missile so as to achieve the enlargement of the maximum range. Equations of motion for the two⁃dimensional dynamics are derived by treating the missile as an ideal controllable mass point. An investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of morphing⁃wing missile with varying geometries is performed. After deducing the optimizing trajectory model for maximizing range, a type of discrete method is put forward for taking optimization control problem into nonlinear dynamic programming problem. The optimal trajectory is solved by using PSO algorithm and penalty function method. The simulation results suggest that morphing⁃wing missile has the larger range than the fixed⁃shape missile when launched at supersonic speed, while morphing⁃wing missile has no obvious range increment than the fixed⁃shape missile at subsonic speed.
Inverse design-momentum, a method for the preliminary design of horizontal axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battisti, L [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Soraperra, G [TOZZI NORD wind turbines, via S. Sebastian s.n.c. 38100 Trento (Italy); Fedrizzi, R [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Zanne, L [DIMS - Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050 Trento (Italy)
2007-07-15
Wind turbine rotor prediction methods based on generalized momentum theory BEM routinely used in industry and vortex wake methods demand the use of airfoil tabulated data and geometrical specifications such as the blade spanwise chord distribution. They belong to the category of 'direct design' methods. When, on the other hand, the geometry is deduced from some design objective, we refer to 'inverse design' methods. This paper presents a method for the preliminary design of wind turbine rotors based on an inverse design approach. For this purpose, a generalized theory was developed without using classical tools such as BEM. Instead, it uses a simplified meridional flow analysis of axial turbomachines and is based on the assumption that knowing the vortex distribution and appropriate boundary conditions is tantamount to knowing the velocity distribution. The simple conservation properties of the vortex components consistently cope with the forces and specific work exchange expressions through the rotor. The method allows for rotor arbitrarily radial load distribution and includes the wake rotation and expansion. Radial pressure gradient is considered in the wake. The capability of the model is demonstrated first by a comparison with the classical actuator disk theory in investigating the consistency of the flow field, then the model is used to predict the blade planform of a commercial wind turbine. Based on these validations, the authors postulate the use of a different vortex distribution (i.e. not-uniform loading) for blade design and discuss the effect of such choices on blade chord and twist, force distribution and power coefficient. In addition to the method's straightforward application to the pre-design phase, the model clearly shows the link between blade geometry and performance allowing quick preliminary evaluation of non uniform loading on blade structural characteristics.
On CAD-integrated Structural Topology and Design Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olhoff, Niels; Bendsøe, M.P.; Rasmussen, John
1991-01-01
Concepts underlying an interactive CAD-based engineering design optimization system are developed, and methods of optimizing the topology, shape and sizing of mechanical components are presented. These methods are integrated in the system, and the method for determining the optimal topology is used...
On CAD-integrated Structural Topology and Design Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olhoff, Niels; Bendsøe, M.P.; Rasmussen, John
1991-01-01
Concepts underlying an interactive CAD-based engineering design optimization system are developed, and methods of optimizing the topology, shape and sizing of mechanical components are presented. These methods are integrated in the system, and the method for determining the optimal topology is used...
An Optimal Design Model for New Water Distribution Networks in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An Optimal Design Model for New Water Distribution Networks in Kigali City. ... a Linear Programming Problem (LPP) which involves the design of a new network of water distribution considering the cost in the form of unit price ... Article Metrics.
AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF LOW ASPECT RATIO TRANSONIC TURBINE STAGE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Liming; LI Jun; FENG Zhenping
2006-01-01
The advanced optimization method named as adaptive range differential evolution (ARDE)is developed. The optimization performance of ARDE is demonstrated using a typical mathematical test and compared with the standard genetic algorithm and differential evolution. Combined with parallel ARDE, surface modeling method and Navier-Stokes solution, a new automatic aerodynamic optimization method is presented. A low aspect ratio transonic turbine stage is optimized for the maximization of the isentropic efficiency with forty-one design variables in total. The coarse-grained parallel strategy is applied to accelerate the design process using 15 CPUs. The isentropic efficiency of the optimum design is 1.6% higher than that of the reference design. The aerodynamic performance of the optimal design is much better than that of the reference design.
Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Fošumpaur
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus.
Aeroelastic multidisciplinary design optimization of a swept wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Zahle, Frederik
2017-01-01
Mitigating loads on a wind turbine rotor can reduce the cost of energy. Sweeping blades produces a structural coupling between flapwise bending and torsion, which can be used for load alleviation purposes. A multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem is formulated including the blade sweep...... against time-domain full design load basis aeroelastic simulations to ensure that they comply with the constraints. A 10-MW wind turbine blade is optimized by minimizing a cost function that includes mass and blade root flapwise fatigue loading. The design space is subjected to constraints that represent...... this achievement, a set of optimized straight blade designs is compared to a set of optimized swept blade designs. Relative to the respective optimized straight designs, the blade mass of the swept blades is reduced of an extra 2% to 3% and the blade root flapwise fatigue damage equivalent load by a further 8%....
Optimal design of steel portal frames based on genetic algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yue CHEN; Kai HU
2008-01-01
As for the optimal design of steel portal frames, due to both the complexity of cross selections of beams and columns and the discreteness of design variables, it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results by traditional optimization. Based on a set of constraints of the Technical Specification for Light-weighted Steel Portal Frames of China, a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization program for portal frames, written in MATLAB code, was proposed in this paper. The graph user interface (GUI) is also developed for this optimal program, so that it can be used much more conveniently. Finally, some examples illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the genetic-algorithm-based optimal program.
Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S
2016-08-01
Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.
Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Zhou, E-mail: zhaozhou@swip.ac.cn; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu
2016-02-15
Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.
A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
Lambe, Andrew Borean
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and
Systematic design of acoustic devices by topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2005-01-01
We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range.......We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range....
DESIGN ATTRIBUTES OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR CUSTOMIZED PRODUCT AND ITS APPLICATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Le; Liu Fei; Lei Qi
2005-01-01
By formulating the design of customized product as a multi-objective optimization problem,a method for designing customized product according to the relative importance of customer needs is proposed. This method searches for the optimal design that maximizes customer satisfaction by establishing mapping from design attributes to the degree of customer satisfaction on each customer need.A window product is taken as an example for case study. The result indicates that this method is feasible.
Systematic design of acoustic devices by topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2005-01-01
We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range.......We present a method to design acoustic devices with topology optimization. The general algorithm is exemplified by the design of a reflection chamber that minimizes the transmission of acoustic waves in a specified frequency range....
Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo
2017-01-01
Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...... is presented and validated with the best available data from literature. The methodology allows the identification of the most suitable working fluid considering the trade-off between cycle and multistage turbine designs. The results of the optimization of cycle and turbine suggest that the fluid n...
Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL
2012-02-01
Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of coolant accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)]; Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components; and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004-design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by US ITER and AREVA Federal Services, the US ITER A and E Company. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design basis accident: a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassette lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA
Drain Tank Information for Developing Design Basis of the Preliminary Design - R00
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL
2011-01-01
Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) drain tanks (DTs) serve two functions: normal operation and safety operation. Normal DTs are used for regular maintenance operations when draining is necessary. Safety DTs are used to receive the water leaked into the Vacuum Vessel (VV) after an in-vessel loss of cooling accident (LOCA) event. The preliminary design of the DTs shall be based on the information provided by this document. The capacity of the normal DTs is estimated based on the internal volume of in-vessel components [e.g., First Wall/Blanket (FW/BLK) and Divertor (DIV)], Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) components, and TCWS piping, heat exchangers, electric heaters, pump casing, pressurizers, and valves. Water volumes have been updated based on 2004 design information, changes adopted because of approved Project Change Requests (PCRs), and data verification by U.S. ITER. Two tanks will store water from normal draining operations of the FW/BLK and DIV Primary Heat Transfer Systems (PHTSs). One tank will store water from normal draining operations of the NBI PHTS. The capacity of the safety DTs is based on analysis of a design-basis accident:1 a large leak from in-vessel components. There are two safety DTs that will receive water from a VV LOCA event and drainage from the VV, as needed. In addition, there is one sump tank for the DIV that will be used for collecting drain water from the draining and drying processes and specifically for draining the DIV system as the DIV cassettes lines are at a lower elevation than the DT connection point. Information documented in this report must be refined and verified during the preliminary design of the DTs, and there are several aspects to be considered to complete the preliminary design. Input to these design considerations is discussed in this report and includes, but is not limited to, water inventory; operating procedures/maintenance; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); tank layout anddimensions, including design
Optimization of Meridional Flow Channel Design of Pump Impeller
Miyauchi Sunao; Horiguchi Hironori; Fukutomi Jun-ichirou; Takahashi Akihiro
2004-01-01
The meridional flow channel design of a pump impeller affects its performance. However, since so many design parameters exist, a new design method is proposed in which a meridional and blade-to-blade flow channel is designed by the parallel use of the circulation distribution provided by the designer. Thus, an optimization method was used to design an axis-symmetrical meridional flow channel from the circulation distribution. In addition, the inverse design method proposed by Zangeneh et al. ...
Optimal design of network distribution systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. Passy
2003-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of finding the optimal distribution of pressure drop over a network is solved via an unconstrained gradient type algorithm. The developed algorithm is computationally attractive. Problems with several hundred variables and constraints were solved.
Designing optimal sampling schemes for field visits
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Debba, Pravesh
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This is a presentation of a statistical method for deriving optimal spatial sampling schemes. The research focuses on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF...
Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design
Konneman, Bram
2008-01-01
Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under
Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design
Konneman, Bram
2008-01-01
Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under developme
Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design
Konneman, Bram
2008-01-01
Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under developme
Multidisciplinary aircraft conceptual design optimization considering fidelity uncertainties
Neufeld, Daniel
Aircraft conceptual design traditionally utilizes simplified analysis methods and empirical equations to establish the basic layout of new aircraft. Applying optimization methods to aircraft conceptual design may yield solutions that are found to violate constraints when more sophisticated analysis methods are introduced. The designer's confidence that proposed conceptual designs will meet their performance targets is limited when conventional optimization approaches are utilized. Therefore, there is a need for an optimization approach that takes into account the uncertainties that arise when traditional analysis methods are used in aircraft conceptual design optimization. This research introduces a new aircraft conceptual design optimization approach that utilizes the concept of Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). RyeMDO, a framework for multi-objective, multidisciplinary RBDO was developed for this purpose. The performance and effectiveness of the RBDO-MDO approaches implemented in RyeMDO were evaluated to identify the most promising approaches for aircraft conceptual design optimization. Additionally, an approach for quantifying the errors introduced by approximate analysis methods was developed. The approach leverages available historical data to quantify the uncertainties introduced by approximate analysis methods in two engineering case studies: the conceptual design optimization of an aircraft wing box structure and the conceptual design optimization of a commercial aircraft. The case studies were solved with several of the most promising RBDO-MDO integrated approaches. The proposed approach yields more conservative solutions and estimates the risk associated with each solution, enabling designers to reduce the likelihood that conceptual aircraft designs will fail to meet objectives later in the design process.
Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization in Material Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas B.; Holzwarth, Natalie A.W.;
2007-01-01
We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...
APPLICATION OF FUZZY MATHEMATICS IN MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL DESIGN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
In order to overcome the problem that theoretical research lags behind practical application in the multi-objective optimal design,a practical method is suggested.In this method the fuzzy nearness is used to seek an overall solution of the multi-objective optimal design and analyse the features of the curved surface.The method is tested using three practical examples.
Mathematical Optimization Techniques for Multi-Phase Radiation Treatment Design
Sonderman, David
1983-01-01
A mathematical model for optimal external beam radiotherapy treatment design over multiple treatment phases is presented. The solution procedure is discussed and illustrated on a case of boost treatment for lung cancer. The models are integrated with current radiobiological software to produce an optimal design over both phases of treatment displayed by means of computer graphics.
Optimal input design for fault detection and diagnosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik; Holst, J.
1995-01-01
In the paper, the design of optimal input signals for detection and diagnosis in a stochastic dynamical system is investigated. The design is based on maximization of Kullback measure between the model under fault and the model under normal operation conditions. It is established that the optimal...
Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil...
Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations
Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara
2016-01-01
Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate into significant cost reductions.
Optimal Bayesian Adaptive Design for Test-Item Calibration
Linden, van der Wim J.; Ren, Hao
2015-01-01
An optimal adaptive design for test-item calibration based on Bayesian optimality criteria is presented. The design adapts the choice of field-test items to the examinees taking an operational adaptive test using both the information in the posterior distributions of their ability parameters and the
Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization
Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized acco
Design and Optimization of UWB for Air Coupled GPR Applications
2014-10-01
evaluate the preliminary physical dimensions that can achieve minimum reflections at antenna’s feed point. These dimensions are then used in SolidWorks ...antenna structure to optimize both gain and impedance matching. The SolidWorks 3-D structural model is finally used for antenna fabrication. The...dimensions that can achieve minimum reflections at antenna’s feed point. These dimensions are then used in SolidWorks to create a 3D model that is imported
Crashworthiness design of transient frame structures using topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf
2004-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present topology optimization as a method to obtain conceptual designs for crash-worthiness. The topology optimization formulation uses rigorously computed sensitivities. The large displacements and plasticity of the 2D beam elements are modelled with the co-rotational......-rotational formulation and the plastic zone formulation, respectively. Three examples are presented to show the results of combining topology optimization and crashworthiness optimization. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool
Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico
1990-01-01
The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.
1981-04-01
Operational, construction, and geotechnical requirements were examined. Overriding considerations including operating range, volume, construction methods, cavern cross section and reservoir layout were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to a preliminary arrangement of fourteen parallel caverns, each 60 ft wide by 85 ft high in cross section and 3610 ft in length. The requirements for and preliminary design of the intermediate reservoir in the case of a two step UPH facility is also described. The design and the cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage at a nominal head of 4600 ft.
Poly-optimization: a paradigm in engineering design in mechatronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarnowski, Wojciech [Koszalin University of Technology, Department of Control and Driving Systems, Institute of Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Vacuum Technique, Koszalin (Poland); Krzyzynski, Tomasz; Maciejewski, Igor; Oleskiewicz, Robert [Koszalin University of Technology, Department of Mechatronics and Applied Mechanics, Institute of Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Vacuum Technique, Koszalin (Poland)
2011-02-15
The paper deals with the Engineering Design that is a general methodology of a design process. It is assumed that a designer has to solve a design task as an inverse problem in an iterative way. After each iteration, a decision should be taken on the information that is called a centre of integration in a systematic design system. For this purpose, poly-optimal solutions may be used. The poly-optimization is presented and contrasted against the Multi Attribute Decision Making, and a set of the poly-optimal solutions is defined. Then Mechatronics is defined and its characteristics given, to prove that mechatronic design process vitally needs CAD tools. Three examples are quoted to demonstrate a key role of the poly-optimization in the mechatronic design. (orig.)
An uncertain multidisciplinary design optimization method using interval convex models
Li, Fangyi; Luo, Zhen; Sun, Guangyong; Zhang, Nong
2013-06-01
This article proposes an uncertain multi-objective multidisciplinary design optimization methodology, which employs the interval model to represent the uncertainties of uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The interval number programming method is applied to transform each uncertain objective function into two deterministic objective functions, and a satisfaction degree of intervals is used to convert both the uncertain inequality and equality constraints to deterministic inequality constraints. In doing so, an unconstrained deterministic optimization problem will be constructed in association with the penalty function method. The design will be finally formulated as a nested three-loop optimization, a class of highly challenging problems in the area of engineering design optimization. An advanced hierarchical optimization scheme is developed to solve the proposed optimization problem based on the multidisciplinary feasible strategy, which is a well-studied method able to reduce the dimensions of multidisciplinary design optimization problems by using the design variables as independent optimization variables. In the hierarchical optimization system, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, sequential quadratic programming method and Gauss-Seidel iterative approach are applied to the outer, middle and inner loops of the optimization problem, respectively. Typical numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
1988-12-01
for real-time analysis, or post-test aaalvsis innaediate;y foliowing the tesi , in a form that was iure easily interpreted. Because the test site will...in the baseline MURV design is the Teledyne 320. 11.6.2.4 Fuel Loading Trade Study With the propulsion system characteristics de- cided , the optimal
Gearbox design for uncertain load requirements using active robust optimization
Salomon, Shaul; Avigad, Gideon; Purshouse, Robin C.; Fleming, Peter J.
2016-04-01
Design and optimization of gear transmissions have been intensively studied, but surprisingly the robustness of the resulting optimal design to uncertain loads has never been considered. Active Robust (AR) optimization is a methodology to design products that attain robustness to uncertain or changing environmental conditions through adaptation. In this study the AR methodology is utilized to optimize the number of transmissions, as well as their gearing ratios, for an uncertain load demand. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem where the objectives are to satisfy the load demand in the most energy efficient manner and to minimize production cost. The results show that this approach can find a set of robust designs, revealing a trade-off between energy efficiency and production cost. This can serve as a useful decision-making tool for the gearbox design process, as well as for other applications.
Design optimization of a magnetorheological brake in powered knee orthosis
Ma, Hao; Liao, Wei-Hsin
2015-04-01
Magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have been utilized in devices like orthoses and prostheses to generate controllable braking torque. In this paper, a flat shape rotary MR brake is designed for powered knee orthosis to provide adjustable resistance. Multiple disk structure with interior inner coil is adopted in the MR brake configuration. In order to increase the maximal magnetic flux, a novel internal structure design with smooth transition surface is proposed. Based on this design, a parameterized model of the MR brake is built for geometrical optimization. Multiple factors are considered in the optimization objective: braking torque, weight, and, particularly, average power consumption. The optimization is then performed with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and the optimal design is obtained among the Pareto-optimal set considering the trade-offs in design objectives.
Finite Element Analysis and Design Optimization of Connecting Rod
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashwini Mane
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to improve the design of connecting rod of single cylinder four stroke Otto cycle engine by shape optimization. The main objective of this study is weight reduction of connecting rod and improving its performance without affecting its functionality. Finite element analysis is one of the most important tools of CAD/CAM CAE. For this study ANSYS analysis software is used for modeling, analysis and shape design optimization. Initially, according to design considerations maximum loads were calculated for various maximum operating loading conditions. Calculated loads used as a loading condition in various load steps of FEM analysis. Stresses generated across all the locations of connecting rod evaluated using ANSYS Workbench. For optimization ANSYS Shape optimization module is used and extracted the required shape of connecting rod. Final CAD model of optimized connecting rod is prepared in Design Modeler. Static structural analysis of modified design is performed and the results compared with baseline design. After result are validated with the help of Modified Goodman’s Diagram. From the shape optimization we could able to achieve 14.73% weight reduction in existing connecting rod. Since the optimized design is having sufficient life, the design is much improved as compared to the existing design
Less material, more design - Optimized concrete structures with fabric formwork
Prayudhi, B.; Borg Costanzi, C.; Van Baalen, S.
2015-01-01
This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual explains one of the many methods of design and fabrication of biomimicry design in structural element. Rethinking the way we design a column, by using topology optimization method to generate a
Less material, more design - Optimized concrete structures with fabric formwork
Prayudhi, B.; Borg Costanzi, C.; Van Baalen, S.
2015-01-01
This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual explains one of the many methods of design and fabrication of biomimicry design in structural element. Rethinking the way we design a column, by using topology optimization method to generate a
Preliminary design report: Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1990-02-01
The purpose of this document is to provide information on burnup credit as applied to the preliminary design of the BR-100 shipping cask. There is a brief description of the preliminary basket design and the features used to maintain a critically safe system. Following the basket description is a discussion of various criticality analyses used to evaluate burnup credit. The results from these analyses are then reviewed in the perspective of fuel burnups expected to be shipped to either the final repository or a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The hurdles to employing burnup credit in the certification of any cask are then outlines and reviewed. the last section gives conclusions reached as to burnup credit for the BR-100 cask, based on our analyses and experience. All information in this study refers to the cask configured to transport PWR fuel. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel satisfies the criticality requirements so that burnup credit is not needed. All calculations generated in the preparation of this report were based upon the preliminary design which will be optimized during the final design. 8 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.
Preliminary Design of a Pendulum Experiment for Searching for a Lorentz-Violation Signal
Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie
2016-01-01
This work mainly presents a preliminary design for a pendulum experiment with both the source mass and the test mass in a striped pattern to amplify the Lorentz-violation signal, since the signal is sensitive to edge effects.
Design of AC-DC Grid Connected Converter using Multi-Objective Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piasecki Szymon
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Power electronic circuits, in particular AC-DC converters are complex systems, many different parameters and objectives have to be taken into account during the design process. Implementation of Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO seems to be attractive idea, which used as designer supporting tool gives possibility for better analysis of the designed system. This paper presents a short introduction to the MOO applied in the field of power electronics. Short introduction to the subject is given in section I. Then, optimization process and its elements are briefly described in section II. Design procedure with proposed optimization parameters and performance indices for AC-DC Grid Connected Converter (GCC interfacing distributed systems is introduced in section III. Some preliminary optimization results, achieved on the basis of analytical and simulation study, are shown at each stage of designing process. Described optimization parameters and performance indices are part of developed global optimization method dedicated for ACDC GCC introduced in section IV. Described optimization method is under development and only short introduction and basic assumptions are presented. In section V laboratory prototype of high efficient and compact 14 kVA AC-DC converter is introduced. The converter is elaborated based on performed designing and optimization procedure with the use of silicon carbide (SiC power semiconductors. Finally, the paper is summarized and concluded in section VI. In presented work theoretical research are conducted in parallel with laboratory prototyping e.g. all theoretical ideas are verified in laboratory using modern DSP microcontrollers and prototypes of the ACDC GCC.
Torpedo Overall Multidisciplinary Design Based on Collaborative Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU De-hai; SONG Bao-wei; LI Jia-wang; YANG Shi-xing; GAO Zhi-yong
2008-01-01
A torpedo multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) based on the collaborative optimization is proposed. Through decomposition and coordination, some problems in torpedo design such as multidisciplinary coupling, large data volume and complex data relationships can be solved. Taking aim at some complex problems in the torpedo design, such as computation in multidisciplinary design, organization, modeling and information exchange, the collaborative optimization methods based on approximate technology are presented. An example to increase the torpedo range is also given. It demonstrates that the method can converge quickly, has higher reliability and smaller data throughput, and is a very effective MDO method.
Cost Optimal System Identification Experiment Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
the experiment design are not based on obtained experimental data. Instead the decisions are based on the expected experimental data assumed to be obtained from the measurements, estimated based on prior information and engineering judgement. The design method provides a system identification experiment design...
Optimal design of PV and HP system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo
2015-01-01
electric energy demand of the HP to hours where excess PV power is present. The self-consumption of the PV energy affects the overall net present value (NPV). In this paper, a method which maximizes the NPV by finding the cost-optimal combination of PV, HP and BT sizes, is proposed. Results show...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data....... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...
Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj
2006-01-01
A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first......-order derivatives between the mapped coarse model and the fine model at the current iteration point. We also consider an enhanced version in which the input SM coefficients are frequency dependent. The performance of our new algorithms is comparable with the recently published SMIS algorithm when applied...... to a benchmark problem. In comparison with SMIS, the models presented are simple and have a small number of parameters that need to be extracted. The new algorithm is applied to the optimization of coupled-line band-pass filter....
Optimization and improvement of Halbach cylinder design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;
2008-01-01
that this parameter was optimal for long Halbach cylinders with small rex. Using the previously mentioned additional blocks of magnets can improve the parameter by as much as 15% as well as improve the homogeneity of the field in the cylinder bore. ©2008 American Institute of Physics......In this paper we describe the results of a parameter survey of a 16 segmented Halbach cylinder in three dimensions in which the parameters internal radius, rin, external radius, rex, and length, L, have been varied. Optimal values of rex and L were found for a Halbach cylinder with the least...
Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)
2012-09-01
The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.
Current Mooring Design in Partner WECs and Candidates for Preliminary Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter
This report is the combined report of Commercial Milestone "CM1: Design and Cost of Current Mooring Solutions of Partner WECs" and Milestone "M3: Mooring Solutions for Preliminary Analysis" of the EUDP project "Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters". The report covers a description...... of the current mooring design of the partner Wave Energy Converter (WEC) developers in the project, together with a preliminary cost estimate of the systems....
A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research
Burrows, Timothy J.
2013-01-01
With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…
Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research
Browning, R. G. E.
1981-01-01
The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.
A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research
Burrows, Timothy J.
2013-01-01
With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…
Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training
Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen
2012-06-01
Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.
Research on virtual dynamic optimization design for NC machine tools
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Ru-fu; GUI Zhong-hua; CHEN Xiao-ping; SUN Qing-hong
2006-01-01
Virtual dynamic optimization design can avoid the repeated process from design to trial-manufacture and test. The designer can analyze and optimize the product structures in virtual visualization environment. The design cycle is shortened and the cost is reduced. The paper analyzed the peculiarity of virtual optimization design, and put forwards the thought and flow to implement virtual optimization design. The example to optimize the internal grinder was studied via establishing precise finite element model, modifying the layout of Stiffened Plates and designing parameters of the worktable, and using the technology of modal frequency revision and the technology of multiple tuned damper.The result of optimization design compared the new grinder with the original grinder shows that the entire machine's first orders natural frequency is enhanced by 17%, and the response displacement of the grinding-head has dropped by 28% under the first order natural frequency and by 41% under second order natural frequency. Finally, the dynamic performance of the internal grinder was optimized.
Optimal design of multi-conditions for axial flow pump
Shi, L. J.; Tang, F. P.; Liu, C.; Xie, R. S.; Zhang, W. P.
2016-11-01
Passage components of the pump device will have a negative flow state when axial pump run off the design condition. Combined with model tests of axial flow pump, this paper use numerical simulation and numerical optimization techniques, and change geometric design parameters of the impeller to optimal design of multi conditions for Axial Flow Pump, in order to improve the efficiency of non-design conditions, broad the high efficient district and reduce operating cost. The results show that, efficiency curve of optimized significantly wider than the initial one without optimization. The efficiency of low flow working point increased by about 2.6%, the designed working point increased by about 0.5%, and the high flow working point increased the most, about 7.4%. The change range of head is small, so all working point can meet the operational requirements. That will greatly reduce operating costs and shorten the period of optimal design. This paper adopted the CFD simulation as the subject analysis, combined with experiment study, instead of artificial way of optimization design with experience, which proves the reliability and efficiency of the optimization design of multi-operation conditions of axial-flow pump device.
Optimal Design of RF Energy Harvesting Device Using Genetic Algorithm
Mori, T.; Sato, Y.; Adriano, R.; Igarashi, H.
2015-11-01
This paper presents optimal design of an RF energy harvesting device using genetic algorithm (GA). In the present RF harvester, a planar spiral antenna (PSA) is loaded with matching and rectifying circuits. On the first stage of the optimal design, the shape parameters of PSA are optimized using . Then, the equivalent circuit of the optimized PSA is derived for optimization of the circuits. Finally, the parameters of RF energy harvesting circuit are optimized to maximize the output power using GA. It is shown that the present optimization increases the output power by a factor of five. The manufactured energy harvester starts working when the input electric field is greater than 0.5 V/m.
Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles
Sandberg, J. J.
1980-01-01
Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.
Optimizing Your K-5 Engineering Design Challenge
Coppola, Matthew Perkins; Merz, Alice H.
2017-01-01
Today, elementary school teachers continue to revisit old lessons and seek out new ones, especially in engineering. Optimization is the process by which an existing product or procedure is revised and refined. Drawn from the authors' experiences working directly with students in grades K-5 and their teachers and preservice teachers, the…
Optimizing Your K-5 Engineering Design Challenge
Coppola, Matthew Perkins; Merz, Alice H.
2017-01-01
Today, elementary school teachers continue to revisit old lessons and seek out new ones, especially in engineering. Optimization is the process by which an existing product or procedure is revised and refined. Drawn from the authors' experiences working directly with students in grades K-5 and their teachers and preservice teachers, the…
Modelling Robust Design Problems via Conic Optimization
Chaerani, D.
2006-01-01
This thesis deals with optimization problems with uncertain data. Uncertainty here means that the data is not known exactly at the time when its solution has to be determined. In many models the uncertainty is ignored and a representative nominal value of the data is used. The uncertainty may be due
Topology Optimization as a Conceptual Tool for Designing New Airframes
2016-01-01
During the two last decades, topology optimization has grown to be an accepted and used method to produce conceptual designs. Topology optimization is traditionally carried out on a component level, but in this project, the possibility to apply it to airframe design on a full scale aeroplane model is evaluated. The project features a conceptual flying-wing design on which the study is to be carried out. Inertia Relief is used to constrain the aeroplane instead of traditional single point cons...
Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions
He, Yuping; McPhee, John
2005-05-01
A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A'GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A'GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm in Matlab, then the combined mechanical and control model is optimized simultaneously using a genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables include passive parameters and control parameters. In the numerical optimizations, both random and deterministic road inputs and both perfect measurement of full state variables and estimated limited state variables are considered. Optimization results show that the active suspension systems based on the multidisciplinary optimization method have better overall performance than those derived using conventional design methods with the LQG algorithm.
Optimal experiment design revisited: fair, precise and minimal tomography
Nunn, J; Puentes, G; Lundeen, J S; Walmsley, I A
2009-01-01
Given an experimental set-up and a fixed number of measurements, how should one take data in order to optimally reconstruct the state of a quantum system? The problem of optimal experiment design (OED) for quantum state tomography was first broached by Kosut et al. [arXiv:quant-ph/0411093v1]. Here we provide efficient numerical algorithms for finding the optimal design, and analytic results for the case of 'minimal tomography'. We also introduce the average OED, which is independent of the state to be reconstructed, and the optimal design for tomography (ODT), which minimizes tomographic bias. We find that these two designs are generally similar. Monte-Carlo simulations confirm the utility of our results for qubits. Finally, we adapt our approach to deal with constrained techniques such as maximum likelihood estimation. We find that these are less amenable to optimization than cruder reconstruction methods, such as linear inversion.
Topology optimization problems with design-dependent sets of constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schou, Marie-Louise Højlund
Topology optimization is a design tool which is used in numerous fields. It can be used whenever the design is driven by weight and strength considerations. The basic concept of topology optimization is the interpretation of partial differential equation coefficients as effective material...... properties and designing through changing these coefficients. For example, consider a continuous structure. Then the basic concept is to represent this structure by small pieces of material that are coinciding with the elements of a finite element model of the structure. This thesis treats stress constrained...... structural topology optimization problems. For such problems a stress constraint for an element should only be present in the optimization problem when the structural design variable corresponding to this element has a value greater than zero. We model the stress constrained topology optimization problem...
Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools
Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.
2009-01-01
A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.
A knowledge-based design framework for airplane conceptual and preliminary design
Anemaat, Wilhelmus A. J.
The goal of work described herein is to develop the second generation of Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA) into an object-oriented structure which can be used in different environments. One such environment is the third generation of AAA with its own user interface, the other environment with the same AAA methods (i.e. the knowledge) is the AAA-AML program. AAA-AML automates the initial airplane design process using current AAA methods in combination with AMRaven methodologies for dependency tracking and knowledge management, using the TechnoSoft Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This will lead to the following benefits: (1) Reduced design time: computer aided design methods can reduce design and development time and replace tedious hand calculations. (2) Better product through improved design: more alternative designs can be evaluated in the same time span, which can lead to improved quality. (3) Reduced design cost: due to less training and less calculation errors substantial savings in design time and related cost can be obtained. (4) Improved Efficiency: the design engineer can avoid technically correct but irrelevant calculations on incomplete or out of sync information, particularly if the process enables robust geometry earlier. Although numerous advancements in knowledge based design have been developed for detailed design, currently no such integrated knowledge based conceptual and preliminary airplane design system exists. The third generation AAA methods are tested over a ten year period on many different airplane designs. Using AAA methods will demonstrate significant time savings. The AAA-AML system will be exercised and tested using 27 existing airplanes ranging from single engine propeller, business jets, airliners, UAV's to fighters. Data for the varied sizing methods will be compared with AAA results, to validate these methods. One new design, a Light Sport Aircraft (LSA), will be developed as an exercise to use the tool for designing a new airplane
A New Optimal Control System Design for Chemical Processes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丛二丁; 胡明慧; 涂善东; 邵惠鹤
2013-01-01
Based on frequency response and convex optimization, a novel optimal control system was developed for chemical processes. The feedforward control is designed to improve the tracking performance of closed loop chemical systems. The parametric model is not required because the system directly utilizes the frequency response of the loop transfer function, which can be measured accurately. In particular, the extremal values of magnitude and phase can be solved according to constrained quadratic programming optimizer and convex optimization. Simula-tion examples show the effectiveness of the method. The design method is simple and easily adopted in chemical industry.
Universal optimality of digital nets and lattice designs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HICKERNELL; Fred; J
2009-01-01
This article considers universal optimality of digital nets and lattice designs in a regression model. Based on the equivalence theorem for matrix means and majorization theory,the necessary and sufficient conditions for lattice designs being φp-and universally optimal in trigonometric function and Chebyshev polynomial regression models are obtained. It is shown that digital nets are universally optimal for both complete and incomplete Walsh function regression models under some specified conditions,and are also universally optimal for complete Haar wavelet regression models but may not for incomplete Haar wavelet regression models.
Universal optimality of digital nets and lattice designs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
AI MingYao; HICKERNELL Fred J
2009-01-01
This article considers universal optimality of digital nets and lattice designs in a regression model. Based on the equivalence theorem for matrix means and majorization theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions for lattice designs being φ_p- and universally optimal in trigonometric function and Chebyshev polynomial regression models are obtained. It is shown that digital nets are universally optimal for both complete and incomplete Walsh function regression models under some specified conditions, and are also universally optimal for complete Haar wavelet regression models but may not for incomplete Haar wavelet regression models.
Design of a New Research Reactor: Preliminary Conceptual Design (3rd Year)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T. and others
2006-01-15
A research reactor design is a kind of integral engineering project and a process to obtain a concrete shape through several years of concept development, conceptual design, basic design and detail design. So it requires close cooperation in various areas as well as lots of manpower and cost. The overall process at each stage may be said to be similar except for some stage-specific works. In 2005 as last year of a concept development stage, investigations on the various concepts of the fuel, reactor structure and systems which can meet the requirements established. The requirements for the process systems and I and C systems have also been embodied. The major tasks planned at the early of 2005 have been performed for each area of reactor design as follows: Establishment of the fuel and reactor core concept, and the core analysis, Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analyses for the conceptual cores, Establishment and improvement of analysis system, Concept developments of the reactor structures and major systems, Test and test plan to verify the developed concepts, International cooperation to establish the foundations for exporting a research reactor.
Lessons Learned During Solutions of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems
Patnaik, Suna N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.
2000-01-01
Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. During solution of the multidisciplinary problems several issues were encountered. This paper lists four issues and discusses the strategies adapted for their resolution: (1) The optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. (2) Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and air-breathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. (3) Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. (4) The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through six problems: (1) design of an engine component, (2) synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, (3) operation optimization of a supersonic engine, (4) design of a wave-rotor-topping device, (5) profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and (6) design of a cvlindrical shell. The combined effort of designers and researchers can bring the optimization method from academia to industry.
Origami Optimization: Role of Symmetry in Accelerating Design
Buskohl, Philip; Fuchi, Kazuko; Bazzan, Giorgio; Durstock, Michael; Reich, Gregory; Joo, James; Vaia, Richard
Origami structures morph between 2D and 3D conformations along predetermined fold lines that efficiently program the form, function and mobility of the structure. Design optimization tools have recently been developed to predict optimal fold patterns with mechanics-based metrics, such as the maximal energy storage, auxetic response and actuation. Origami actuator design problems possess inherent symmetries associated with the grid, mechanical boundary conditions and the objective function, which are often exploited to reduce the design space and computational cost of optimization. However, enforcing symmetry eliminates the prediction of potentially better performing asymmetric designs, which are more likely to exist given the discrete nature of fold line optimization. To better understand this effect, actuator design problems with different combinations of rotation and reflection symmetries were optimized while varying the number of folds allowed in the final design. In each case, the optimal origami patterns transitioned between symmetric and asymmetric solutions depended on the number of folds available for the design, with fewer symmetries present with more fold lines allowed. This study investigates the interplay of symmetry and discrete vs continuous optimization in origami actuators and provides insight into how the symmetries of the reference grid regulate the performance landscape. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Optimized Experiment Design for Marine Systems Identification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blanke, M.; Knudsen, Morten
1999-01-01
Simulation of maneuvring and design of motion controls for marine systems require non-linear mathematical models, which often have more than one-hundred parameters. Model identification is hence an extremely difficult task. This paper discusses experiment design for marine systems identification...
Network inference via adaptive optimal design
Stigter, J.D.; Molenaar, J.
2012-01-01
Background Current research in network reverse engineering for genetic or metabolic networks very often does not include a proper experimental and/or input design. In this paper we address this issue in more detail and suggest a method that includes an iterative design of experiments based, on the m
Robust Design Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle Prolusion System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aamir Raza
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust design optimization methodology under design uncertainties of an aerospace vehicle propulsion system. The approach consists of 3D geometric design coupled with complex internal ballistics, hybrid optimization, worst-case deviation, and efficient statistical approach. The uncertainties are propagated through worst-case deviation using first-order orthogonal design matrices. The robustness assessment is measured using the framework of mean-variance and percentile difference approach. A parametric sensitivity analysis is carried out to analyze the effects of design variables variation on performance parameters. A hybrid simulated annealing and pattern search approach is used as an optimizer. The results show the objective function of optimizing the mean performance and minimizing the variation of performance parameters in terms of thrust ratio and total impulse could be achieved while adhering to the system constraints.
Problem statement for optimal design of steel structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ginzburg Aleksandr Vital'evich
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The presented article considers the following complex of tasks. The main stages of the life cycle of a building construction with the indication of process entrance and process exit are described. Requirements imposed on steel constructions are considered. The optimum range of application for steel designs is specified, as well as merits and demerits of a design material. The nomenclature of metal designs is listed - the block diagram is constructed. Possible optimality criteria of steel designs, offered by various authors for various types of constructions are considered. It is established that most often the criterion of a minimum of design mass is accepted as criterion of optimality; more rarely - a minimum of the given expenses, a minimum of a design cost in business. In the present article special attention is paid to a type of objective function of optimization problem. It is also established that depending on the accepted optimality criterion, the use of different types of functions is possible. This complexity of objective function depends on completeness of optimality criterion application. In the work the authors consider the following objective functions: the mass of the main element of a design; objective function by criterion of factory cost; objective function by criterion of cost in business. According to these examples it can be seen that objective functions by the criteria of labor expenses for production of designs are generally non-linear, which complicates solving the optimization problem. Another important factor influencing the problem of optimal design solution for steel designs, which is analyzed, is account for operating restrictions. In the article 8 groups of restrictions are analyzed. Attempts to completely account for the parameters of objective function optimized by particular optimality criteria, taking into account all the operating restrictions, considerably complicates the problem of designing. For solving this
Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher
1990-01-01
A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies.
Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J
2016-01-01
In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs.
Design of Low Noise Microwave Amplifiers Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadık Ülker
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This short paper presents a work on the design of low noise microwave amplifiers using particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Particle Swarm Optimization is used as a method that is applied to a single stage amplifier circuit to meet two criteria: desired gain and desired low noise. The aim is to get the best optimized design using the predefined constraints for gain and low noise values. The code is written to apply the algorithm to meet the desired goals and the obtained results are verified using different simulators. The results obtained show that PSO can be applied very efficiently for this kind of design problems with multiple constraints.
Fully automatized quantum cascade laser design by genetic optimization
Bismuto, A.; Terazzi, R.; Hinkov, B.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.
2012-07-01
Using a transport model based on the density matrix formalism, a fully automatized technique to design quantum cascade structures in the mid-infrared is presented that implements a genetic algorithm where the wallplug efficiency has been used as merit factor. Starting from a reference design, the model converges after few generations on an optimized design that presents a better carrier injection in the upper lasing state. Both the designs have been fabricated using buried heterostructure process and the optimized design shows a pronounced increase in the laser operation range and higher output powers. In good agreement with the simulations, the laser efficiency increases from 5% to 12%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fix, Stuart; Richman, Russell [Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University (Canada)], email: sfix@ryerson.ca, email: richman@ryerson.ca
2011-07-01
With the depletion of energy resources and the rising concerns about the environment, building designers are shifting towards green building designs. However since no design optimization for an entire building exists, a significant degree of uncertainty is involved in design decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the brute force optimization process which is a method removing the uncertainty from green building designs. This method relies on the selection of optimization criteria and then several simulations are performed. A demonstration pilot was carried out in Toronto and over one million design permutations were conducted. Results showed that parameters such as total building area, window performance and infiltration level are the most important to the lifetime energy consumption of a building. This study pointed out the important parameters to optimize in order to reduce a building's energy consumption.
New approaches to the design optimization of hydrofoils
Beyhaghi, Pooriya; Meneghello, Gianluca; Bewley, Thomas
2015-11-01
Two simulation-based approaches are developed to optimize the design of hydrofoils for foiling catamarans, with the objective of maximizing efficiency (lift/drag). In the first, a simple hydrofoil model based on the vortex-lattice method is coupled with a hybrid global and local optimization algorithm that combines our Delaunay-based optimization algorithm with a Generalized Pattern Search. This optimization procedure is compared with the classical Newton-based optimization method. The accuracy of the vortex-lattice simulation of the optimized design is compared with a more accurate and computationally expensive LES-based simulation. In the second approach, the (expensive) LES model of the flow is used directly during the optimization. A modified Delaunay-based optimization algorithm is used to maximize the efficiency of the optimization, which measures a finite-time averaged approximation of the infinite-time averaged value of an ergodic and stationary process. Since the optimization algorithm takes into account the uncertainty of the finite-time averaged approximation of the infinite-time averaged statistic of interest, the total computational time of the optimization algorithm is significantly reduced. Results from the two different approaches are compared.
Optimization applications in aircraft engine design and test
Pratt, T. K.
1984-01-01
Starting with the NASA-sponsored STAEBL program, optimization methods based primarily upon the versatile program COPES/CONMIN were introduced over the past few years to a broad spectrum of engineering problems in structural optimization, engine design, engine test, and more recently, manufacturing processes. By automating design and testing processes, many repetitive and costly trade-off studies have been replaced by optimization procedures. Rather than taking engineers and designers out of the loop, optimization has, in fact, put them more in control by providing sophisticated search techniques. The ultimate decision whether to accept or reject an optimal feasible design still rests with the analyst. Feedback obtained from this decision process has been invaluable since it can be incorporated into the optimization procedure to make it more intelligent. On several occasions, optimization procedures have produced novel designs, such as the nonsymmetric placement of rotor case stiffener rings, not anticipated by engineering designers. In another case, a particularly difficult resonance contraint could not be satisfied using hand iterations for a compressor blade, when the STAEBL program was applied to the problem, a feasible solution was obtained in just two iterations.
Optimal Design of Experiments Subject to Correlated Errors
Pazman, Andrej; Müller, Werner
2000-01-01
In this paper we consider optimal design of experiments in the case of correlated observations, when no replications are possible. This situation is typical when observing a random process or random field with known covariance structure. We present a theorem which demonstrates that the computation of optimum exact designs corresponds to solving minimization problems in terms of design measures. (author's abstract)
An Optimal Design for Universal Multiport Interferometers
Clements, William R; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A
2016-01-01
Universal multiport interferometers, which can be programmed to implement any linear transformation between multiple channels, are emerging as a powerful tool for both classical and quantum photonics. These interferometers are typically composed of a regular mesh of beam splitters and phase shifters, allowing for straightforward fabrication using integrated photonic architectures and ready scalability. The current, standard design for universal multiport interferometers is based on work by Reck et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 58, 1994). We demonstrate a new design for universal multiport interferometers based on an alternative arrangement of beam splitters and phase shifters, which outperforms that by Reck et al. Our design occupies half the physical footprint of the Reck design and is significantly more robust to optical losses.
Unsteady Design Optimization for Aeroelasticity Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aeroelasticity plays an important role in the design and development of highly flexible flight vehicles and blended wing body configurations. The operating margins...
Optimal Mechansim Design and Money Burning
Hartline, Jason D
2008-01-01
Mechanism design is now a standard tool in computer science for aligning the incentives of self-interested agents with the objectives of a system designer. There is, however, a fundamental disconnect between the traditional application domains of mechanism design (such as auctions) and those arising in computer science (such as networks): while monetary transfers (i.e., payments) are essential for most of the known positive results in mechanism design, they are undesirable or even technologically infeasible in many computer systems. Classical impossibility results imply that the reach of mechanisms without transfers is severely limited. Computer systems typically do have the ability to reduce service quality--routing systems can drop or delay traffic, scheduling protocols can delay the release of jobs, and computational payment schemes can require computational payments from users (e.g., in spam-fighting systems). Service degradation is tantamount to requiring that users burn money}, and such ``payments'' can...
Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package
1979-01-01
The design methodology, the design decision rationale, the vehicle preliminary design summary, and the advanced technology developments are presented. The detailed vehicle design, the vehicle ride and handling and front structural crashworthiness analysis, the microcomputer control of the propulsion system, the design study of the battery switching circuit, the field chopper, and the battery charger, and the recent program refinements and computer results are presented.
Efficient Hybrid Optimal Design Method for Power Electronics Converters
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)697719; Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel design methodology for dimensioning optimal power-electronic converters, which is able to achieve the precision of numerical simulation-based optimization procedures, however minimizing the overall computation time. The approach is based on the utilization of analytical and frequency-domain design models for a numerical optimization process, a validation with numerical simulations of the intermediate optimal solutions, and the correction of the analytical design models precision from the numerical simulation results. This method allows using the numerical simulation in an efficient way, where typically less than ten correction iterations are required. In order to demonstrate the performances of the proposed methodology, the calculation of the control parameters for an H-bridge DC-DC converter and the optimal dimensioning of a damped output filter for a buck converter using the proposed approach is presented.
Preliminary optical design of PANIC, a wide-field infrared camera for CAHA
Cárdenas, M. C.; Rodríguez Gómez, J.; Lenzen, R.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.
2008-07-01
In this paper, we present the preliminary optical design of PANIC (PAnoramic Near Infrared camera for Calar Alto), a wide-field infrared imager for the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope. The camera optical design is a folded single optical train that images the sky onto the focal plane with a plate scale of 0.45 arcsec per 18 μm pixel. A mosaic of four Hawaii 2RG of 2k x 2k made by Teledyne is used as detector and will give a field of view of 31.9 arcmin x 31.9 arcmin. This cryogenic instrument has been optimized for the Y, J, H and K bands. Special care has been taken in the selection of the standard IR materials used for the optics in order to maximize the instrument throughput and to include the z band. The main challenges of this design are: to produce a well defined internal pupil which allows reducing the thermal background by a cryogenic pupil stop; the correction of off-axis aberrations due to the large field available; the correction of chromatic aberration because of the wide spectral coverage; and the capability of introduction of narrow band filters (~1%) in the system minimizing the degradation in the filter passband without a collimated stage in the camera. We show the optomechanical error budget and compensation strategy that allows our as built design to met the performances from an optical point of view. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of the design showing the performances of PANIC at the CAHA 3.5m telescope.
Optimal Design of DC Electromagnets Based on Imposed Dynamic Characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiu Ivas
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for computing of optimal geometric dimensions of a DC electromagnet, based on the imposed dynamical characteristics. For obtaining the optimal design, it is built the criterion function in an analytic form that may be optimized in the order to find the constructive solution. Numerical simulations performed in Matlab software confirm the proposed work. The presented method can be extended to other electromagnetic devices which frequently operate in dynamic regime.
Optimization design of flat-band long-period grating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yumin Liu(刘玉敏); Zhongyuan Yu(俞重远); Jianzhong Zhang(张建忠); Bojun Yang(杨伯君); Xiaoguang Zhang(张晓光)
2004-01-01
We present a method to optimize the flat-band long-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in this letter. The method is based on the particle swarm optimization method and the matrix transmission method. The optimized refractive modulation profile does not introduce so many phase shifts and is easier to fabricate compared with that of layer-peeling method which introduces lots of π phase shift at each zero point of apodization profile in designing for the same problem.
Design Optimization and Simulation of Wave Propagation in Metamaterials
2014-09-24
simple-cubic lattices. wave propagation, metamaterials, periodic media, band - gap optimization, semidefinite programming, photonic crystal design...Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic -crystal band - gap structures,” with H. Men, K. Y. K. Lee, J. Peraire, and S. G...crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and
Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs
Rodriguez, Samuel
2013-11-01
In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.
Structural design optimization of vehicle components using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yildiz, Ali Riza [Bursa Technical Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Durgun, Ismail
2012-07-01
In order to meet today's vehicle design requirements and to improve the cost and fuel efficiency, there is an increasing interest to design light-weight and cost-effective vehicle components. In this research, a new optimization algorithm, called the Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CS) algorithm, is introduced for solving structural design optimization problems. This research is the first application of the CS to the shape design optimization problems in the literature. The CS algorithm is applied to the structural design optimization of a vehicle component to illustrate how the present approach can be applied for solving structural design problems. Results show the ability of the CS to find better optimal structural design. [German] Um heutige Anforderungen an das Fahrzeugdesign zu beruecksichtigen und um die Kosten- und Kraftstoffeffektivitaet zu erhoehen, nimmt das Interesse am Design leichter und kosteneffektiver Fahrzeugkomponenten weiterhin zu. In der diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde ein neuer Optimierungsalgorithmus angewendet, der so genannte Cuckoo Suchalgorithmus (CS). Es handelt sich um die erste CS-Applikation fuer das Formdesign in der Literatur. Der CS-Algorithmus wird hierbei zur Strukturdesignoptimierung einer Fahrzeugkomponente angewendet, um zu zeigen, wie er bei der Loesung von Strukturdesignaufgaben angewendet werden kann. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, wie damit ein verbessertes Design erreicht werden kann.
A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soprani, Stefano; Haertel, Jan Hendrik Klaas; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov;
2016-01-01
to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems....... The design method incorporates temperature dependent properties of the thermoelectric device and other materials. The3D topology optimization model developed in this work was used to design a thermoelectric system, complete with insulation and heat sink, that was produced and tested. Good agreement between...... experimental results and model forecasts was obtained and the system was able to maintain the load at more than 33 K below the oil well temperature. Results of this study support topology optimizationas a powerful design tool for thermal design of thermoelectric systems....
On adaptive optimal input design: A bioreactor case study
Stigter, J.D.; Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.
2006-01-01
The problem of optimal input design (OID) for a fed-batch bioreactor case study is solved recursively. Here an adaptive receding horizon optimal control problem, involving the so-called E-criterion, is solved on-line, using the current estimate of the parameter vector at each sample instant {tk, k =
An interactive system for aircraft design and optimization
Kroo, Ilan M.
1992-01-01
A system for aircraft design utilizing a unique analysis architecture, graphical interface, and suite of numerical optimization methods is described in this paper. The non-procedural architecture provides extensibility and efficiency not possible with conventional programming techniques. The interface for analysis and optimization, developed for use with this method, is described and its application to example problems is discussed.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Optimization of grid design for solar cells
Wen, Liu; Yueqiang, Li; Jianjun, Chen; Yanling, Chen; Xiaodong, Wang; Fuhua, Yang
2010-01-01
By theoretical simulation of two grid patterns that are often used in concentrator solar cells, we give a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the influence of the metal grid dimension and various losses directly associated with it during optimization of grid design. Furthermore, we also perform the simulation under different concentrator factors, making the optimization of the front contact grid for solar cells complete.
Reliability-based design optimization with progressive surrogate models
Kanakasabai, Pugazhendhi; Dhingra, Anoop K.
2014-12-01
Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) has traditionally been solved as a nested (bilevel) optimization problem, which is a computationally expensive approach. Unilevel and decoupled approaches for solving the RBDO problem have also been suggested in the past to improve the computational efficiency. However, these approaches also require a large number of response evaluations during optimization. To alleviate the computational burden, surrogate models have been used for reliability evaluation. These approaches involve construction of surrogate models for the reliability computation at each point visited by the optimizer in the design variable space. In this article, a novel approach to solving the RBDO problem is proposed based on a progressive sensitivity surrogate model. The sensitivity surrogate models are built in the design variable space outside the optimization loop using the kriging method or the moving least squares (MLS) method based on sample points generated from low-discrepancy sampling (LDS) to estimate the most probable point of failure (MPP). During the iterative deterministic optimization, the MPP is estimated from the surrogate model for each design point visited by the optimizer. The surrogate sensitivity model is also progressively updated for each new iteration of deterministic optimization by adding new points and their responses. Four example problems are presented showing the relative merits of the kriging and MLS approaches and the overall accuracy and improved efficiency of the proposed approach.
Design by continuous collaboration between manual and automatic optimization
Shahroudi, K.E.
1997-01-01
Numerical optimization is traditionally viewed as a machine centric activity. This view dominates the majority of numerical optimization packages today, where user interaction is normally limited to the problem definition phase or visualization of the results with little or no interaction at design
Optimal Design of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soo-Yong Cho
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An optimization study was conducted on a centrifugal compressor. Eight design variables were chosen from the control points for the Bezier curves which widely influenced the geometric variation; four design variables were selected to optimize the flow passage between the hub and the shroud, and other four design variables were used to improve the performance of the impeller blade. As an optimization algorithm, an artificial neural network (ANN was adopted. Initially, the design of experiments was applied to set up the initial data space of the ANN, which was improved during the optimization process using a genetic algorithm. If a result of the ANN reached a higher level, that result was re-calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD and was applied to develop a new ANN. The prediction difference between the ANN and CFD was consequently less than 1% after the 6th generation. Using this optimization technique, the computational time for the optimization was greatly reduced and the accuracy of the optimization algorithm was increased. The efficiency was improved by 1.4% without losing the pressure ratio, and Pareto-optimal solutions of the efficiency versus the pressure ratio were obtained through the 21st generation.
Post-optimality analysis in aerospace vehicle design
Braun, Robert D.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Gage, Peter J.
1993-01-01
This analysis pertains to the applicability of optimal sensitivity information to aerospace vehicle design. The present analysis demonstrates that post-optimality information generated through first-order computations can be used to accurately predict file effect of constraint and parameter perturbations on the optimal solution. This assessment is based on the solution of an aircraft design problem in which the post-optimality estimates are shown to be within a few percent of the true solution over the practical range of constraint and parameter variations. Through solution of a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle design problem, this optimal sensitivity information is also shown to improve the efficiency of the design process. For a hierarchically decomposed problem, this computational efficiency is realizable by estimating the main-problem objective gradient through optimal sensitivity calculations. By reducing the need for finite differentiation of a re-optimized subproblem, a significant decrease in the number of objective function evaluations required to reach the optimal solution is obtained.
Truss optimization with discrete design variables: a critical review
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias
2016-01-01
This review presents developed models, theory, and numerical methods for structural optimization of trusses with discrete design variables in the period 1968 – 2014. The comprehensive reference list collects, for the first time, the articles in the field presenting deterministic optimization meth...
Effective Length Design of Humanoid Robot Fingers Using Biomimetic Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byoung-Ho Kim
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose an effective design method for the phalangeal parameters and the total size of humanoid robot fingers based on a biomimetic optimization. For the optimization, an interphalangeal joint coordination parameter and the length constraints inherent in human fingers are considered from a biomimetic perspective. A reasonable grasp formulation is also taken into account from the viewpoint of power grasping, where the grasp space of a humanoid robot finger is importantly considered to determine the phalangeal length parameters. The usefulness of the devised biomimetic optimization method is shown through the design examples of various humanoid robot fingers. In fact, the optimization-based finger design method enables us to determine effectively the proper phalangeal size of humanoid robot fingers for human-like object handling tasks. In addition, we discuss its contribution to the structural configuration and coordinated motion of a humanoid robot finger, and address its practical availability in terms of effective finger design.
Optimal Design of Modern Transformerless PV Inverter Topologies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
The design optimization of H5, H6, neutral point clamped, active-neutral point clamped, and conergy-NPC transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters is presented in this paper. The components reliability in terms of the corresponding malfunctions, affecting the PV inverter maintenance cost during...... the operational lifetime period of the PV installation, is also considered in the optimization process. According to the results of the proposed design method, different optimal values of the PV inverter design variables are derived for each PV inverter topology and installation site. The H5, H6, neutral point...... clamped, active-neutral point clamped and conergy-NPC PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization process feature lower levelized cost of generated electricity and lifetime cost, longer mean time between failures and inject more PV-generated energy into the electric grid than their nonoptimized...
Fuzzy controller based on chaos optimal design and its application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹恩; 李祥飞; 张泰山
2004-01-01
In order to overcome difficulty of tuning parameters of fuzzy controller, a chaos optimal design method based on annealing strategy is proposed. First, apply the chaotic variables to search for parameters of fuzzy controller, and transform the optimal variables into chaotic variables by carrier-wave method. Making use of the intrinsic stochastic property and ergodicity of chaos movement to escape from the local minimum and direct optimization searching within global range, an approximate global optimal solution is obtained. Then, the chaos local searching and optimization based on annealing strategy are cited, the parameters are optimized again within the limits of the approximate global optimal solution, the optimization is realized by means of combination of global and partial chaos searching, which can converge quickly to global optimal value. Finally, the third order system and discrete nonlinear system are simulated and compared with traditional method of fuzzy control. The results show that the new chaos optimal design method is superior to fuzzy control method, and that the control results are of high precision, with no overshoot and fast response.
Optimal design of APD biasing circuit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Chun-sheng; QIN Shi-qiao; WANG Xing-shu; ZHU Dong-hua
2007-01-01
This paper proposes a control method for avalanche photodiode (APD) reverse bias with temperature compensation and load resistance compensation. The influence of background light and load resistance on APD detection circuit is analyzed in detail. A theoretical model of temperature compensation and load resistance compensation is established, which is used for APD biasing circuit designing. It is predicted that this control method is especially suitable for LD laser range finder used on vehicles. Experimental results confirm thatthe design proposed in this paper can considerablely improve the performance of range finder.
Reliability Design in Structural Optimization - Literature Survey
Tapankov, Martin
2013-01-01
This survey focuses primarily on the historical development of RBDO and the various classes of methods which emerged through the years. While reviews on contemporary RBDO methods have been done previously, they haven’t incorporated the basis on which such developments were possible in the first place — risk-based design and limit-state design. This study attempts to link the RBDO field with these methodologies for a more complete picture of the field of reliability and safety. ProOpt
Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing
Levy, R.
1982-01-01
Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.
Gheshlaghi, R; Scharer, J M; Moo-Young, M; Douglas, P L
2008-12-01
Modified resolution and overall separation factors used to quantify the separation of complex chromatography systems are described. These factors were proven to be applicable to the optimization of amino acid resolution in reverse-phase (RP) HPLC chromatograms. To optimize precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate, a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design in triplicate was employed. The five independent variables for optimizing the overall separation factor were triethylamine content of the aqueous buffer, pH of the aqueous buffer, separation temperature, methanol/acetonitrile concentration ratio in the organic eluant, and mobile phase flow rate. Of these, triethylamine concentration and methanol/acetonitrile concentration ratio were the most important. The methodology captured the interaction between variables. Temperature appeared in the interaction terms; consequently, it was included in the hierarchic model. The preliminary model based on the factorial experiments was not able to explain the response curvature in the design space; therefore, a central composite design was used to provide a quadratic model. Constrained nonlinear programming was used for optimization purposes. The quadratic model predicted the optimal levels of the variables. In this study, the best levels of the five independent variables that provide the maximum modified resolution for each pair of consecutive amino acids appearing in the chromatograph were determined. These results are of utmost importance for accurate analysis of a subset of amino acids.
Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft
Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji
2012-01-01
A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...
Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi
2016-01-01
This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on...
Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design,
1988-04-01
Memo No. 88-442 ~LECTE March 1988 31988 %,.. MvAY 1 98 0) PROCESS MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Emmanuel...Sachs and George Prueger Abstract A methodology is presented for the construction of process models by the combination of physically based mechanistic...253-8138. .% I " Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design" by Emanuel Sachs Assistant Professor and George
Optimal Design of Materials for DJMP Based on Genetic Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Zhong-ren; WANG Xiong-jiang
2004-01-01
The genetic algorithm was used in optimal design of deep jet method pile. The cost of deep jetmethod pile in one unit area of foundation was taken as the objective function. All the restrains were listed followingthe corresponding specification. Suggestions were proposed and the modified. The real-coded Genetic Algorithm wasgiven to deal with the problems of excessive computational cost and premature convergence. Software system of opti-mal design of deep jet method pile was developed.
Optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Peitao Zhao(赵培涛); Guohua Li(李国华)
2004-01-01
A large lateral shearing distance of parallel beam-splitting prism is often needed in laser modulation and polarization interference. In this letter, we present an optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism and list some different cases in detail. The optimized design widens the use range of parallel beam-splitting prism. At the wavelength of 632.8 nm, the law that the enlargement ratio changes with the refractive index and the apex angle is verified.
Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination
Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.
2009-01-01
Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…
Optimally designed quantum transport across disordered networks.
Walschaers, Mattia; Diaz, Jorge Fernandez-de-Cossio; Mulet, Roberto; Buchleitner, Andreas
2013-11-01
We establish a general mechanism for highly efficient quantum transport through finite, disordered 3D networks. It relies on the interplay of disorder with centrosymmetry and a dominant doublet spectral structure and can be controlled by the proper tuning of only coarse-grained quantities. Photosynthetic light harvesting complexes are discussed as potential biological incarnations of this design principle.
Optimizing Organization Design for the Future.
Creth, Sheila
2000-01-01
Discussion of planning organization design within the higher education environment stresses the goal of integrating structure and process to maintain stability while increasing organizational flexibility. Considers organization culture, organization structure and processes, networked organizations, a networked organization in action, and personal…
Design and Optimization of Valveless Pulsejet Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karthick Raja.R
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Simple design and efficiency make pulsejet engines attractive for aeronautical short-term operation applications. An active control system extends the operating range and reduces the fuel consumption considerably so that this old technology might gain a new interest. During the operations of these pulsejet engines the surfaces of engine will get more heated. In order to cool the engine surface and to get more thrust we have attached an additional component called secondary inlet in that valve less pulsejet engine. The pulsejet is the only jet engine combustor that shows a net pressure gain between the intake and the exhaust. The pulsejet is the only jet engine combustor that shows a net pressure gain between the intake and the exhaust. We choose the LOCKWOOD’s design of pulsejet engine. By using the CFD analysis we have analysed the modified design of valveless pulsejet engine. This project provides an overview of this unique process and the results of these design modifications are reported.
ON TIME-OPTIMAL PROCEDURE FOR ANALOG SYSTEM DESIGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Zemliak
2004-04-01
Full Text Available The process of any analog system design has been formulated on the basis of the control theory application. Thisapproach produces many different design strategies inside the same optimization procedure and allowsdetermining the problem of the optimal design strategy existence from the computer time point of view. Differentkinds of system design strategies have been evaluated from the operations number. The general methodology forthe analog system design was formulated by means of the optimum control theory. The main equations for thisdesign methodology were elaborated. These equations include the special control functions that are introducedartificially. This approach generalizes the design process and generates an infinite number of the different designstrategies. The problem of the optimum design algorithm construction is defined as the minimum-time problem ofthe control theory. Numerical results of some electronic circuit design demonstrate the efficiency and perspectiveof the proposed methodology. These examples show that the computer time gain of the optimal design strategywith respect to the traditional design strategy increases when the size and complexity of the system increase. Anadditional acceleration effect of the design process has been discovered by the analysis of various design strategieswith the different initial points. This effect is displayed for all analyzed circuits and it reduces additionally the totalcomputer time for the system design.
Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment
Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.
1989-01-01
An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.
A Hybrid Optimization Approach for SRM FINOCYL Grain Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Khurram Nisar; Liang Guozhu; Qasim Zeeshan
2008-01-01
This article presents a method to design and optimize 3D FINOCYL grain (FCG) configuration for solid rocket motors (SRMs). The design process of FCG configuration involves mathematical modeling of the geometry and parametric evaluation of various inde-pendent geometric variables that define the complex configuration. Vh'tually infinite combinations of these variables will satisfy the requirements of mass of propellant, thrust, and burning time in addition to satisfying basic needs for volumetric loading fraction and web fraction. In order to ensure the acquisition of the best possible design to be acquired, a sound approach of design and optimization is essentially demanded. To meet this need, a method is introduced to acquire the finest possible performance. A series of computations are carried out to formulate the grain geometry in terms of various combinations of key shapes inclusive of ellipsoid, cone, cylinder, sphere, torus, and inclined plane. A hybrid optimization (HO) technique is established by associating genetic algorithm (GA) for global solution convergence with sequential quadratic programming (SQP) for further local convergence of the solution, thus achieving the final optimal design. A comparison of the optimal design results derived from SQP, GA, and HO algorithms is presented. By using HO technique, the parameter of propellant mass is optimized to the minimum value with the required level of thrust staying within the constrained burning time, nozzle and propellant parameters, and a fixed length and outer diameter of grain,
$T$-optimal designs for discrimination between two polynomial models
Dette, Holger; Shpilev, Petr; 10.1214/11-AOS956
2012-01-01
This paper is devoted to the explicit construction of optimal designs for discrimination between two polynomial regression models of degree $n-2$ and $n$. In a fundamental paper, Atkinson and Fedorov [Biometrika 62 (1975a) 57--70] proposed the $T$-optimality criterion for this purpose. Recently, Atkinson [MODA 9, Advances in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis (2010) 9--16] determined $T$-optimal designs for polynomials up to degree 6 numerically and based on these results he conjectured that the support points of the optimal design are cosines of the angles that divide half of the circle into equal parts if the coefficient of $x^{n-1}$ in the polynomial of larger degree vanishes. In the present paper we give a strong justification of the conjecture and determine all $T$-optimal designs explicitly for any degree $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$. In particular, we show that there exists a one-dimensional class of $T$-optimal designs. Moreover, we also present a generalization to the case when the ratio between the coefficients...
Factorial design approach for optimization of floating microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mangal Singh Panwar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform optimization of floating microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride for the prolongation of gastric residence time. The microspheres were prepared by a nonaqueous solvent evaporation method using polycarbonate. A full factorial design was applied to optimize the formulation. Preliminary studies revealed that the concentration of polymer and stirring speed significantly affected the characteristics of floating microspheres. The optimum batch of microsphere exhibited smooth surfaces with good flow and packing properties, prolonged sustained drug release, remained buoyant for more than 10 h, high entrapment efficiency up to 97% w/w. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the hollow structure with particle size in the order of 190 μm. The studies revealed that the increase in concentration of polycarbonate increased the drug release from the floating microspheres. The results of two third full factorial design revealed that the concentration of polycarbonate (X1 and stirring speed (X2 significantly affected drug entrapment efficiency, percentage release.
Integrated Thermal-structural-electromagnetic Design Optimization of Large Space Antenna Reflectors
Adelman, H. M.; Padula, S. L.
1986-01-01
The requirements for low mass and high electromagnetic (EM) performance in large, flexible space antenna structures is motivating the development of a systematic procedure for antenna design. In contrast to previous work which concentrated on reducing rms distortions of the reflector surface, thereby indirectly increasing antenna performance, the current work involves a direct approach to increasing electromagnetic performance using mathematical optimization. The thermal, structural, and EM analyses are fully integrated in the context of an optimization procedure, and consequently, the interaction of the various responses is accounted for directly and automatically. Preliminary results are presented for sizing cross-sectional areas of a tetrahedral truss reflector. The results indicate potential for this integrated procedure from the standpoint of mass reduction, performance increase, and efficiency of the design process.
de Pascale, P.; Vasile, M.; Casotto, S.
The design of interplanetary trajectories requires the solution of an optimization problem, which has been traditionally solved by resorting to various local optimization techniques. All such approaches, apart from the specific method employed (direct or indirect), require an initial guess, which deeply influences the convergence to the optimal solution. The recent developments in low-thrust propulsion have widened the perspectives of exploration of the Solar System, while they have at the same time increased the difficulty related to the trajectory design process. Continuous thrust transfers, typically characterized by multiple spiraling arcs, have a broad number of design parameters and thanks to the flexibility offered by such engines, they typically turn out to be characterized by a multi-modal domain, with a consequent larger number of optimal solutions. Thus the definition of the first guesses is even more challenging, particularly for a broad search over the design parameters, and it requires an extensive investigation of the domain in order to locate the largest number of optimal candidate solutions and possibly the global optimal one. In this paper a tool for the preliminary definition of interplanetary transfers with coast-thrust arcs and multiple swing-bys is presented. Such goal is achieved combining a novel methodology for the description of low-thrust arcs, with a global optimization algorithm based on a hybridization of an evolutionary step and a deterministic step. Low thrust arcs are described in a 3D model in order to account the beneficial effects of low-thrust propulsion for a change of inclination, resorting to a new methodology based on an inverse method. The two-point boundary values problem (TPBVP) associated with a thrust arc is solved by imposing a proper parameterized evolution of the orbital parameters, by which, the acceleration required to follow the given trajectory with respect to the constraints set is obtained simply through
The FERMI @ Elettra Technical Optimization Study: PreliminaryParameter Set and Initial Studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox,Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander
2005-08-01
The goal of the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization Study is to produce a machine design and layout consistent with user needs for radiation in the approximate ranges 100 nm to 40 nm, and 40 nm to 10 nm, using seeded FEL's. The Study will involve collaboration between Italian and US physicists and engineers, and will form the basis for the engineering design and the cost estimation.
Preliminary design of a satellite observation system for Space Station Freedom
Cabe, Greg (Editor); Gallagher, Chris; Wilson, Brian; Rehfeld, James; Maurer, Alexa; Stern, Dan; Nualart, Jaime; Le, Xuan-Trang
1992-01-01
Degobah Satellite Systems (DSS), in cooperation with the University Space Research Association (USRA), NASA - Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the University of Texas, has completed the preliminary design of a satellite system to provide inexpensive on-demand video images of all or any portion of Space Station Freedom (SSF). DSS has narrowed the scope of the project to complement the work done by Mr. Dennis Wells at Johnson Space Center. This three month project has resulted in completion of the preliminary design of AERCAM, the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera, detailed in this design report. This report begins by providing information on the project background, describing the mission objectives, constraints, and assumptions. Preliminary designs for the primary concept and satellite subsystems are then discussed in detail. Included in the technical portion of the report are detailed descriptions of an advanced imaging system and docking and safing systems that ensure compatibility with the SSF. The report concludes by describing management procedures and project costs.
Quantum Multiplexer Designing and Optimization applying Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debarka Mukhopadhyay
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper shows how to design efficient quantum multiplexer circuit borrowed from classical computer design. The design will show that it is composed of some Toffole gates or C2NOT gate and some two input CNOT gates. Every C2NOT gate is synthesized and optimized by applying the genetic algorithm to get the best possible combination for the design of these gate circuits.
SPEED design optimization via Fresnel propagation analysis
Beaulieu, Mathilde; Abe, Lyu; Martinez, Patrice; Gouvret, Carole; Dejonghe, Julien; Preis, Oliver; Vakili, Farrokh
2016-08-01
Future extremely large telescopes will open a niche for exoplanet direct imaging at the expense of using a primary segmented mirror which is known to hamper high-contrast imaging capabilities. The focal plane diffraction pattern is dominated by bright structures and the way to reduce them is not straightforward since one has to deal with strong amplitude discontinuities in this kind of unfriendly pupil (segment gaps and secondary support). The SPEED experiment developed at Lagrange laboratory is designed to address this specific topic along with high-contrast at very small separation. The baseline design of SPEED will combine a coronagraph and two deformable mirrors to create dark zones at the focal plane. A first step in this project was to identify under which circumstances the deep contrast at small separation is achievable. In particular, the DMs location is among the critical aspect to consider and is the topic covered by this paper.
Optimizing standard cell design for quality
Yuan, Chimin; Tipple, Dave; Warner, Jeff
2014-03-01
To date, majority of the papers presented in the conference focused on how to print smaller transistors that run faster. In a different market such as safety-focused automotive market, "smaller and faster" are replaced by "tougher and living longer". In such a market, a chip has to endure a wide range of operating temperature from -40C to 150C, and is required to have an extremely low field failure rate over 10+ years. There is a wide range of design techniques that can be deployed to improve the quality of a chip. In this paper, we present some of these design techniques that are related to the physical aspects of standard cells.
A Preliminary Study of Automatic Delineation of Eyes on CT Images Using Ant Colony Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yong-jie; XIE Wei-fu; YAO De-zhong
2007-01-01
Eyes are important organs-at-risk (OARs) that should be protected during the radiation treatment of those head tumors. Correct delineation of the eyes on CT images is one of important issues for treatment planning to protect the eyes as much as possible. In this paper, we propose a new method, named ant colony optimization (ACO), to delineate the eyes automatically.In the proposed algorithm, each ant tries to find a closed path, and some pheromone is deposited on the visited path when the ant finds a path. After all ants finish a circle, the best ant will lay some pheromone to enforce the best path. The proposed algorithm is verified on several CT images, and the preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of ACO for the delineation problem.
Design and Optimization of Valveless Pulsejet Engine
Karthick Raja.R; Rio Melvin Aro.T
2014-01-01
Simple design and efficiency make pulsejet engines attractive for aeronautical short-term operation applications. An active control system extends the operating range and reduces the fuel consumption considerably so that this old technology might gain a new interest. During the operations of these pulsejet engines the surfaces of engine will get more heated. In order to cool the engine surface and to get more thrust we have attached an additional component called secondary inlet i...
Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods
Man Mohan, Rai
2006-01-01
Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The
Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahideh, A. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Korakianitis, T., E-mail: korakianitis@alum.mit.ed [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ruiz, P. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Keeble, T.; Rothman, M.T. [Cardiac Research and Development, Barts and the London NHS Trust, The London Chest Hospital, London E2 9JX (United Kingdom)
2010-11-15
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using a genetic algorithm. Characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. Electrical and mechanical requirements (i.e. voltage, torque and speed) and other limitations (e.g. upper and lower limits of the motor geometries) are cast into constraints of the optimization problem. One sample case is used to illustrate the design and optimization technique.
Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms
Rahideh, A.; Korakianitis, T.; Ruiz, P.; Keeble, T.; Rothman, M. T.
2010-11-01
This paper presents a method for the optimal design of a slotless permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor with surface mounted magnets using a genetic algorithm. Characteristics of the motor are expressed as functions of motor geometries. The objective function is a combination of losses, volume and cost to be minimized simultaneously. Electrical and mechanical requirements (i.e. voltage, torque and speed) and other limitations (e.g. upper and lower limits of the motor geometries) are cast into constraints of the optimization problem. One sample case is used to illustrate the design and optimization technique.
Application of clustering global optimization to thin film design problems.
Lemarchand, Fabien
2014-03-10
Refinement techniques usually calculate an optimized local solution, which is strongly dependent on the initial formula used for the thin film design. In the present study, a clustering global optimization method is used which can iteratively change this initial formula, thereby progressing further than in the case of local optimization techniques. A wide panel of local solutions is found using this procedure, resulting in a large range of optical thicknesses. The efficiency of this technique is illustrated by two thin film design problems, in particular an infrared antireflection coating, and a solar-selective absorber coating.
A general-purpose optimization program for engineering design
Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sugimoto, H.
1986-01-01
A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis) is a FORTRAN program for nonlinear constrained (or unconstrained) function minimization. The optimization process is segmented into three levels: Strategy, Optimizer, and One-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of nearly 100 possible combinations can be created. An example of available combinations is the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, using the BFGS variable metric unconstrained minimization together with polynomial interpolation for the one-dimensional search.
Superconducting Fault Current Limiter optimized design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tixador, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Tixador@grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, G2Elab – Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, G2Elab – Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Badel, Arnaud [CNRS, G2Elab – Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • A low cost design of YBCO Fault Current Limiter. • A high resistance conductor for reduced length. • An asymmetrical YBCO conductor (injection and AC losses). • A thickness suitable for non destructive hot spots. - Abstract: The SuperConducting Fault Current Limiter (SCFCL) appears as one of the most promising SC applications for the electrical grids. Despite its advantages and many successful field experiences the market of SCFCL has difficulties to take off even if the first orders for permanent operation in grids are taken. The analytical design of resistive SCFCL will be discussed with the objective to reduce the quantity of SC conductor (length and section) to be more cost-effective. For that the SC conductor must have a high resistivity in normal state. It can be achieved by using high resistivity alloy for shunt, such as Hastelloy®. One of the most severe constraint is that the SCFCL should operate safely for any faults, especially those with low prospective short-circuit currents. This constraint requires to properly design the thickness of the SC tape in order to limit the hot spot temperature. An operation at 65 K appears as very interesting since it decreases the SC cost at least by a factor 2 with a simple LN2 cryogenics. Taking into account the cost reduction in a near future, the SC conductor cost could be rather low, half a dollar per kV A.
Analog Circuit Design Optimization Based on Evolutionary Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansour Barari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates an evolutionary-based designing system for automated sizing of analog integrated circuits (ICs. Two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and PSO (Parswal particle swarm optimization algorithm, are proposed to design analog ICs with practical user-defined specifications. On the basis of the combination of HSPICE and MATLAB, the system links circuit performances, evaluated through specific electrical simulation, to the optimization system in the MATLAB environment, for the selected topology. The system has been tested by typical and hard-to-design cases, such as complex analog blocks with stringent design requirements. The results show that the design specifications are closely met. Comparisons with available methods like genetic algorithms show that the proposed algorithm offers important advantages in terms of optimization quality and robustness. Moreover, the algorithm is shown to be efficient.