WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary comparative evaluation

  1. A preliminary evaluation of comparative effectiveness of riluzole in therapeutic regimen for irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surya Prakash Mishra; Sunit Kumar Shukla; Bajrang Lal Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop agents that are specifically effective in controlling the key disturbance of visceral hyperalgesia besides abating of associated multiple symptoms, and evaluate comparative effectiveness for IBS symptom relief for standard regimen (antispasmodic and probiotic) and add-on amitriptyine or riluzole regimens following two weeks administration.Methods:groups were studied. First group received standard treatment (mebeverine 200 mg twice daily and probiotic 200 mg twice daily). Second group received add-on amitriptyline 25 mg before bedtime, while the third group got add-on riluzole 50 mg twice daily. Overall gastrointestinal symptom rating scale improving symptoms and hospital anxiety depression scale improving associated psychological morbidity were employed as measures at induction and at two-week follow-up period. Individual symptom scores were also examined to define the outcome profiles.Results:108 patients with visceral hypersensitivity accompanying IBS, divided into three rating scale score, not the other two regimens. Pain relief was seen with both riluzole and amitriptyline regimens significantly superior to standard treatment regimen, but riluzole effect appeared specific and independent anxiolytic effect. Amitriptyline caused relief in diarrhea and did not benefit in constipation point to non-specific remedial role in IBS. Riluzole regimen resulted in significant reduction of overall gastrointestinal symptom Conclusions: Riluzole specifically relieves visceral hypersensitivity and is proved to be superior to current treatments in IBS patients. It appears a lead remedy based on glutamate transporter mechanisms in visceral hypersensititvity.

  2. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  3. Comparative evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2008-03-01

    My response to Engelmann (2008) will be based on several questions that will allow both its author and the general reader to determine whether the assumptions I make as an interpreter of this complex paper are congruent or incongruent with their own interpretations of the text. The interpretations by the writer, by any commentator, and the diverse interpretations of a general audience together with my own interpretations will, I hope, facilitate some fruitful 'comparative evaluations.' I articulate my inferences of the most dense part of the paper, namely the 'concrete immediate Consciousness and the developing absent outside.' My hope is to address Engelmann's question: "Am I in a better disposition to judge modern theories of consciousness?" The last section of my response spells out more personal comments to my all too brief and single encounter with Arno Engelmann. It is there that Arno Engelmann's fascinating statement "I am a citizen of the world" is addressed through its counterparts in my life.

  4. Teaching Comparative Politics: Beyond Preliminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrels, John

    1978-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers of comparative European politics attempt to broaden the geographic scope of the subject matter, integrate fact and theory, and make the course interesting and relevant to undergraduate students. (Author/DB)

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Shivayogi M; Hugar, Shweta S; Gokhale, Niraj; Assudani, Harsha

    2017-01-01

    Aims Despite various advents in technology, the present era marks a shift to phytotherapeutics and alternative modalities to conventional endodontic treatments. Newer endodontic modalities have been developed inculcating the ancient system of medicine. The present study was done to compare and evaluate the clinical pulp response and radiographic signs after pulpotomy in four groups of primary molar teeth treated with formocresol (control), propolis extract, turmeric gel, and calcium hydroxide respectively. Materials and methods Following ethical clearance, 90 primary molar teeth in 45 pediatric patients, aged between 4 and 9 years, were selected for pulpotomy. These were then randomly divided by split-mouth technique into two groups as experimental (propolis extract/turmeric gel/calcium hydroxide) and control (formocresol) groups. The patients were followed up for 6 months for clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms to evaluate the success of treatment. Results A comparable clinical and radiographic success rate was seen with all experimental groups as compared to the control (formocresol) group. Conclusion With concerns about the safety of formocresol appearing in the dental and medical literature for more than 20 years, the materials used in this study can be considered as promising alternatives for formocresol in pediatric endodontic treatment. How to cite this article Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Hugar SS, Gokhale N, Assudani H. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):18-23.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Shivayogi M; Kukreja, Pratibha; Hugar, Shweta S; Gokhale, Niraj; Assudani, Harsha

    2017-01-01

    Despite various advents in technology, the present era marks a shift to phytotherapeutics and alternative modalities to conventional endodontic treatments. Newer endodontic modalities have been developed inculcating the ancient system of medicine. The present study was done to compare and evaluate the clinical pulp response and radiographic signs after pulpotomy in four groups of primary molar teeth treated with formocresol (control), propolis extract, turmeric gel, and calcium hydroxide respectively. Following ethical clearance, 90 primary molar teeth in 45 pediatric patients, aged between 4 and 9 years, were selected for pulpotomy. These were then randomly divided by split-mouth technique into two groups as experimental (propolis extract/turmeric gel/calcium hydroxide) and control (formocresol) groups. The patients were followed up for 6 months for clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms to evaluate the success of treatment. A comparable clinical and radiographic success rate was seen with all experimental groups as compared to the control (formocresol) group. With concerns about the safety of formocresol appearing in the dental and medical literature for more than 20 years, the materials used in this study can be considered as promising alternatives for formocresol in pediatric endodontic treatment. Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Hugar SS, Gokhale N, Assudani H. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):18-23.

  7. Prospective comparative evaluation of quantitative-elastosonography (Q-elastography) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the evaluation of thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Consorti, F. [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Guerrisi, A.; Guerrisi, I.; Ricci, P.; Di Segni, M.; Mancuso, E. [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Scardella, L.; Milazzo, F. [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Antonaci, A. [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of semiquantitative elastosonography (Q-elastography) compared with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Forty-eight consecutive patients (35 males, 13 females, range: 34–69 years, mean: 49.4 years), candidate to surgery, previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated semiquantitative software (Q-Elastography, Toshiba XG) and CEUS (Technos Mylab 70 Gold X, and Toshiba XG) before surgery. CEUS and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. Comparison between the CEUS pattern and elastonographic strain ratio observed and expected frequencies for the diagnoses was evaluated with χ{sup 2} test or with Fisher exact test. Results: Fifty-three nodules (19 papillary carcinoma, 32 hyperplasia, and 2 follicular adenoma) in 48 patients were available for analysis. Regarding echogenicity score, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of conventional US were 81%, 50%, 56%, 77%; according to Q-elastography, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 95%, 88%, 97% and 91% respectively; whereas concerning CEUS, sensitivity specificity PPV and NPV were 79%, 91%, 83% and 89% respectively. Both CEUS and Q-elastography were more specific than US (p < 0.01), with not statistical significant difference with regard to sensitivity. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that Q-elastography is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be more sensitive than CEUS.

  8. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  9. An in-vivo comparative evaluation of two herbal extracts Emblica officinalis and Terminalia Chebula with chlorhexidine as an anticaries agent: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Velmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinallis with chlorhexidine as an anticaries mouthwash - an in vivo study. Methodology: 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis were prepared. Forty five high caries risk patients were divided into group 1,2,3 [ n=15]and asked to rinse with 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis, 0.2% Chlorhexidine for 40 seconds respectively. Salivary samples were collected for pH, buffering capacity before and after rinsing at repeated intervals of 10, 30,60 and 90 minutes and except for microbial analysis for which it was collected before and 90 minutes after rinsing. The pH and the buffering capacity analysis was done using chairside kit and percentage of reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: For salivary pH, Group 2 showed the highest peak value followed by group 1. For salivary buffering capacity,there was no significant difference between any of the groups. For microbial count, highest percentage of reduction was seen in group 2 followed by group 1 and 3. However group 3 was more efficient at 90 minutes followed by group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Embilica officinalis extract and Terminalia chebula was more effective anticaries mouthwash but with less time of action than chlorhexidine.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  11. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  12. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  13. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  14. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  15. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS. The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview; and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.

  16. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  17. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  18. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  19. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  20. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  1. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation: The What, Where, How Approach to Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Akimoto, T.

    2016-01-01

    The SCoR is driving for preliminary clinical evaluation (PCE) however; currently there is no method of quantification to assess quality. FRCR has an approach to quantify comments in the rapid reporting examination (CR2B).The aim of this project was to develop a robust scoring system that enables comprehensive image evaluation regardless of profession. An image test bank was administered using RadBench with equal prevalence of normal /abnormal. A random sample of attempts was selected to pilot...

  2. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of two new cable surface innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, S.V.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up to a Reyno......In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up...... to a Reynolds number of 3.2 x 105. The tests confirmed the results obtained from the preliminary tests performed by Kleissl and Georgakis (2013) on the prototype cable surfaces with the concave fillets. Despite a more than 100% increase of the fillet height compared to a traditional helical fillet profile...

  6. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak system represents a typical example of the potential of performance management and performance financing being significantly limited, if not destroyed. Not only because of improperly defined indicators, which are too much input and quantity orientated, but very much also due to a lack of resources (the ratio of public expenditures for higher education to the GDP in Slovakia is significantly below EU average, as well as the politicization of the system.

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  8. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  10. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    of STA imaging in comparison to conventional imaging. The purpose is to evaluate whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo. and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and artifacts. Acquisition...... using randomized blinded presentation. Penetration and image quality were scored and evaluated statistically. Results show that in-vivo imaging using STA imaging is feasible with improved image quality compared to conventional imaging.......Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of timing training accelerator for the SPRINT rowing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffaldi Emanuele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the selection and preliminary evaluation of rowing gesture timing training on the SPRINT platform. After the analysis of experts’ gestures and a literature review of rowing technique features, the selection of proper feedbacks and the development of the training protocol are investigated. The general problem discussed here is the learning of timing of complex motor pattern under the effect of load. Eight novice adults participated the experiment, half of them receiving vibrotactile feedback (VIB, both receiving knowledge of results (KR after training blocks. Preliminary results show the difficulty people had to accomplish the task and to exploit feedback. There is in fact no evidence of feedback effectiveness when comparing VIB-KR and KR group. Some causes were hypothesized and a side effect of load condition arisen from data. Therefore timing training will be further investigated exploiting information gathered.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  13. Comparing tools for Service Quality Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo

    1998-01-01

    Service quality evaluation is one of the main issues that have recently drawn managers' and researchers' attention. The definition of an evaluation standard not dependent on any particular service context has determined the popularity of many different quality tools. In this paper we show a comparative analysis of the affected tools that are widely used. These are summarized in an orientation map. Moreover we present some results of an experiment carried out with two of the major quality tool...

  14. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  15. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  16. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl. The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA. The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%. No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  17. Preliminary Safety Evaluation of a New Bacteroides xylanisolvens Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounian, Kawe; Schmidt, Jens; Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Besides conferring some health benefit to the host, a bacterial strain must present an unambiguous safety status to be considered a probiotic. We here present the preliminary safety evaluation of a new Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain (DSM 23964) isolated from human feces. First results suggest that it may be able to provide probiotic health benefits. Its identity was confirmed by biochemical analysis, by sequencing of its 16S rRNA genes, and by DNA-DNA hybridization. Virulence determinants known to occur in the genus Bacteroides, such the bft enterotoxin and other enzymatic activities involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the capsular polysaccharide PS A, were absent in this strain. The investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility indicated that strain DSM 23964 was sensitive to metronidazole, meropenem agents, and clindamycin. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was identified to be conferred by the β-lactamase cepA gene and could therefore be restored by adding β-lactamase inhibitors. The localization of the cepA gene in the genome of strain DSM 23964 and the absence of detectable plasmids further suggest that a transfer of β-lactamase activity or the acquisition of other antibiotic resistances are highly improbable. Taken together, the presented data indicate that the strain B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 has no virulence potential. Since it also resists the action of gastric enzymes and low-pH conditions, this strain is an interesting candidate for further investigation of its safety and potential health-promoting properties. PMID:22101046

  18. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml; tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml; Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00, compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%; loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%; pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00 and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively; total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies.

  20. Compressive sensing in reflectance confocal microscopy of skin images: a preliminary comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Fernando X.; Sierra, Heidy; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Arzuaga, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Compressive Sensing (CS)-based technologies have shown potential to improve the efficiency of acquisition, manipulation, analysis and storage processes on signals and imagery with slight discernible loss in data performance. The CS framework relies on the reconstruction of signals that are presumed sparse in some domain, from a significantly small data collection of linear projections of the signal of interest. As a result, a solution to the underdetermined linear system resulting from this paradigm makes it possible to estimate the original signal with high accuracy. One common approach to solve the linear system is based on methods that minimize the L1-norm. Several fast algorithms have been developed for this purpose. This paper presents a study on the use of CS in high-resolution reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of the skin. RCM offers a cell resolution level similar to that used in histology to identify cellular patterns for diagnosis of skin diseases. However, imaging of large areas (required for effective clinical evaluation) at such high-resolution can turn image capturing, processing and storage processes into a time consuming procedure, which may pose a limitation for use in clinical settings. We present an analysis on the compression ratio that may allow for a simpler capturing approach while reconstructing the required cellular resolution for clinical use. We provide a comparative study in compressive sensing and estimate its effectiveness in terms of compression ratio vs. image reconstruction accuracy. Preliminary results show that by using as little as 25% of the original number of samples, cellular resolution may be reconstructed with high accuracy.

  1. Comparative evaluation of methods to quantify dissolution of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna B.; Kruse, Susanne; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    dissolved concentration or by the solubility constant (Ksp). For nanomaterials it is essential to also assess solubility kinetics as nanomaterials will often not dissolve instantaneously upon contact with artificial aqueous media or natural waters. Dissolution kinetics will thereby influence their short...... and long-term environmental fate as well as laboratory test results. This highlights the need to evaluate and improve the reliability of methods applied to assess the solubility kinetics of nanomaterials. Based on existing OECD guidelines and guidance documents on aqueous dissolution of metals and metal....... Preliminary results showed that by using the DGT method the measured dissolved fraction was 5-7 times higher compared to using ultracentrifugation and dialysis membranes. Possible explanations include metal-specific interactions with the dialysis membranes as well as the DGT unit influencing the dissolution...

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  5. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  6. Methods for the comparative evaluation of pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Political background: As a German novelty, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen; IGWiG was established in 2004 to, among other tasks, evaluate the benefit of pharmaceuticals. In this context it is of importance that patented pharmaceuticals are only excluded from the reference pricing system if they offer a therapeutic improvement. The institute is commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA or by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The German policy objective expressed by the latest health care reform (Gesetz zur Modernisierung der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung, GMG is to base decisions on a scientific assessment of pharmaceuticals in comparison to already available treatments. However, procedures and methods are still to be established. Research questions and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report was commissioned by the German Agency for HTA at the Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DAHTA@DIMDI. It analysed criteria, procedures, and methods of comparative drug assessment in other EU-/OECD-countries. The research question was the following: How do national public institutions compare medicines in connection with pharmaceutical regulation, i.e. licensing, reimbursement and pricing of drugs? Institutions as well as documents concerning comparative drug evaluation (e.g. regulations, guidelines were identified through internet, systematic literature, and hand searches. Publications were selected according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Documents were analysed in a qualitative matter following an analytic framework that had been developed in advance. Results were summarised narratively and presented in evidence tables. Results and discussion: Currently licensing agencies do not systematically assess a new drug's added value for patients and society. This is why many

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Software Features and Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of two-dimensional gel images is a crucial step for the determination of changes in the protein expression, but at present, it still represents one of the bottlenecks in 2-DE studies. Over the years, different commercial and academic software packages have been developed for the analysis of 2-DE images. Each of these shows different advantageous characteristics in terms of quality of analysis. In this chapter, the characteristics of the different commercial software packages are compared in order to evaluate their main features and performances.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of diabatic heating distribution from FGGE level 3b analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, A.; Mizzi, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the global distribution of diabatic heating rate. Preliminary results of global heating rate evaluated from the European center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Level IIIb analysis data is also presented.

  9. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuohua; Zecca, Massimiliano; Sessa, Salvatore; Bartolomeo, Luca; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance evaluation of our new wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU) WB-4 by compared with the Vicon motion capture system. The WB-4 IMU primarily contains a mother board for motion sensing, a Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission with PC, and a Li-Polymer battery for power supply. The mother board is provided with a microcontroller and 9-axis inertial sensors (miniaturized MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) to measure orientation. A quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) integrated with an R-Adaptive algorithm for automatic estimation of the measurement covariance matrix is implemented for the sensor fusion to retrieve the attitude. The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the expected radiation damage of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it; Agostini, P. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy); Fasanella, D. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper summarises and discusses the results of a preliminary damage assessment of the non-seizure coating of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate. Neutron-induced kerma factors, dpa and gas production cross sections libraries were produced in a multigroup structure for neutron energies up to 60 MeV, by processing evaluated nuclear data files with NJOY-99.259 system. The material damage evaluations in terms of heat deposition, displacement and gas production rates were calculated using these libraries and compared with the values obtained using the data contained in the pointwise ACE format files of MCNP5 code package. The calculations were performed with MCNP5 code both using the McEnea and the McDelicious neutron source models to reproduce the energy-angle distributions of the neutrons produced in IFMIF d-Li interactions.

  11. Supervisory control of remote manipulation: A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    A system for supervisory control is described, and preliminary results are presented. Supervisory control, where control is traded between man and computer, offers benefits in the control of a remote manipulator. The system has the potential to accomplish sophisticated tasks. It is indicated that supervisory control yields lower task completion times and is preferred over manual control.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT...

  13. A multicentre comparative evaluation of catheter valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M; Pettersson, L; Brooks, R; Dean, G; Wells, M; Cottenden, A; Malone-Lee, J

    Catheter valves are an alternative to leg bags for urine drainage, but no studies have yet been published which have compared the performance of different valves. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the seven catheter valves available on the UK market in April 1996. The study was carried out by the Continence Products Evaluation (CPE) Network funded by the Medical Devices Agency (Department of Health). Each valve type was tested for 1 week by 19-36 cognitively unimpaired and manually dextrous subjects recruited from 11 test centres. At the end of each week, subjects completed an evaluation form (based on a three-point rating scale) to record product performance. The same catheter valves were also tested for ease of opening/closing by 33 subjects (mostly catheter users) who had some manual impairment. Performance scores varied widely between products. It was found that, to be successful, a valve needs to be easy to manipulate, leak-free, comfortable and inconspicuous. Prescribers need to be aware of the strengths and limitations of different valves for appropriate product selection.

  14. [Clinical diagnosis and standardized evaluation of borderline personality: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, F; Guelfi, J D; Monier, C; Brun, A; Seunevel, F

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 36 patients considered by French clinicians as suffering from a borderline personality disorder was evaluated using the International Personality Disorder Examination, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. First, global descriptive analysis of the sample elicited the socio-demographic and standard clinical characteristics of the borderline individuals. After diagnostic evaluation, the sample appeared to be quite homogeneous with 25 of the 36 patients evaluated (69.5%) being defined as borderline by two of the three diagnostic systems: ICD 10, DSM III-R and Gunderson (15/36 = 41.5% of patients were defined as borderline by all three systems). It is the types of BL personality co-diagnoses which differentiated the BL subjects in the sample from those classically described in the international literature, since the most frequent personalities were the Dependent and Avoiding ones, not the Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic or Schizotypic personalities of the DSM III-R. ICD 10 elicited the same significant prevalence of Anxious and Dependent personalities. Lastly, the patients diagnosed as borderline both by clinicians and by all diagnostic systems (forming the sample "core") were compared with the rest of the sample with regard to socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. A few hypotheses are proposed on the type of variables that may permit to discriminate between these two types of patients.

  15. A systematic comparative evaluation of biclustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Victor A; Campello, Ricardo J G B

    2017-01-23

    Biclustering techniques are capable of simultaneously clustering rows and columns of a data matrix. These techniques became very popular for the analysis of gene expression data, since a gene can take part of multiple biological pathways which in turn can be active only under specific experimental conditions. Several biclustering algorithms have been developed in the past recent years. In order to provide guidance regarding their choice, a few comparative studies were conducted and reported in the literature. In these studies, however, the performances of the methods were evaluated through external measures that have more recently been shown to have undesirable properties. Furthermore, they considered a limited number of algorithms and datasets. We conducted a broader comparative study involving seventeen algorithms, which were run on three synthetic data collections and two real data collections with a more representative number of datasets. For the experiments with synthetic data, five different experimental scenarios were studied: different levels of noise, different numbers of implanted biclusters, different levels of symmetric bicluster overlap, different levels of asymmetric bicluster overlap and different bicluster sizes, for which the results were assessed with more suitable external measures. For the experiments with real datasets, the results were assessed by gene set enrichment and clustering accuracy. We observed that each algorithm achieved satisfactory results in part of the biclustering tasks in which they were investigated. The choice of the best algorithm for some application thus depends on the task at hand and the types of patterns that one wants to detect.

  16. [Comparative evaluation of health services outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabiti, Nera; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Stafoggia, Massimo; Perucci, Carlo A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory guide represents an operative tool to conduct epidemiological studies in the area of comparative outcomes evaluation. It is based on the experience of epidemiological research in this field conducted in Italy within national (BPAC-Esiti del bypass aortocoronarico, Progetto mattoni outcome, Progetto Progressi) or regional (P.Re.Val.E. Programma Regionale di Valutazione degli Esiti, Lazio) health care outcomes projects and the National outcome programme. This guide is aimed to all those interested in conducting or interpreting health care outcomes studies within different levels of the Italian NHS. It gives an introductory description of the operative steps to build outcome indicators and to perform comparative analyses, with the general objective of measuring and promoting improvement in health care. A specific emphasis is given to the use of routinely collected health care databases that have found widespread use for epidemiological purposes. This guide has two parts: part A includes an introduction and comments on critical methodological points, part B shows three example of epidemiological studies (A. Complications after cholecystectomy: comparison between two surgical techniques, B. 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction: comparison among hospitals, C. 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction: comparison between time periods). The online version of this guide is organised as a hypertext as practical instrument of appraisal.

  17. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  19. Paintings pigmented with doped magnetite: preliminary evaluation of anticorrosive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Escobar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La magnetita pura y las magnetitas dopadas con cobre y cromo se sintetizaron a escala de laboratorio. El comportamiento relativo de estos productos como pigmentos anticorrosivos se comparó con la hematita disponible comercialmente (óxido rojo del hierro. Se prepararon mezclas especiales de los pigmentos con resina epoxy libre de solvente manteniendo el contenido del volumen de pigmento cerca del valor práctico crítico. El propósito es distinguir la acción inhibidora de los pigmentos con poca influencia de las características de la barrera de la resina epóxica. El comportamiento de las mezclas aplicadas sobre el acero se caracterizó mediante exposición acelerada al aire libre, en pruebas alternadas de inmersión y en condiciones de inmersión total. Esta última prueba se supervisó con medidas de potencial y de impedancia de circuito abierto, y fueron complementadas con evaluación de películas libres. Los resultados demuestran que la magnetita no es un pigmento inerte, y que la presencia de elementos dopantes puede mejorar el comportamiento de las pinturas anticorrosivas de magnetita. Basados en esos resultados, se sugirió una formulación completa con pigmento de magnetita, solvente y aditivos y se evaluó en laboratorio, teniendo como objetivo el uso posible como pintura anticorrosiva.

  20. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... agrees with the spectral flow angle. The vector velocity estimates agrees with the spectral estimates at PS and ED. From preliminary data it is concluded that vector flow angle estimation can replace the operator-dependent angle correction used for spectral velocity estimation....... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...

  2. Preliminary evaluation capability for some two-dimensional groundwater contamination problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    There are a variety of two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems where a preliminary evaluation of containment tansport is needed. A common difficulty in making this first assessment is the meager field data usually available. A preliminary evaluation capability has been developed for two-dimensional contamination problems that is consistent with the limited data initially available. Idealizations and simplifications have been introduced with special care so that worst-case final estimates will be provided. The preliminary evaluation results are produced using interactive computer programs that utilize self-help or coaching features for the user's convenience. The self-help programs aid the user by asking for the necessary input parameters and by guiding the user, in selecting the options needed to obtain the required results.

  3. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  4. Information Literacy Skills: Comparing and Evaluating Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismore, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this database comparison is to express the importance of teaching information literacy skills and to apply those skills to commonly used Internet-based research tools. This paper includes a comparison and evaluation of three databases (ProQuest, ERIC, and Google Scholar). It includes strengths and weaknesses of each database based…

  5. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Alcohol-Dependent Subjects Show Different Personality Traits Compared With Subjects With Multiple Substance Dependence: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Gabi; Preuss, Ullrich; Lü, Osman; Soyka, Michael; Pogarell, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We compared personality traits of 27 persons with multiple substance dependence with personality data of 52 alcohol-dependent persons regarding their personality traits and disorders (obtained by using SCID-II, TCI and NEO FFI). Both patient groups were free of any other mental disorder. In SKD-II, we found significant differences in the male group in dependent and scizotypic personality disorder. There were no significant differences in the female group, but sample was very small. We also found significant differences between alcohol-dependent and multiple substance-dependent persons in extraversion and novelty seeking. We detected significant differences in personality disorders evaluated by SCID-II. Temperament and character items—as evaluated by NEO FFI and TCI—showed also significant differences in personality traits. Given the limited number of subjects, the data should be regarded as preliminary until replicated in a larger sample. Nevertheless, the findings may be of clinical relevance with respect to prognosis or individualized treatment. These findings should be treated with caution until replicated.

  7. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  10. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  11. A preliminary study of visual memory and rule detection in fencing. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELOS VERTOPOULOS, CHARILAOS TSOLAKIS & MARIETTA REMOUNDOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate possible differences among a group of fencers and a group of swimmers, in the visual memory task and the spatial anticipation task. 15 national level fencers (aged between 16 to 23 years and 15 swimmers of a competitive swimming club (aged between 15 to 22 years, were studied. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test (BSAT was used as a measure of executive functioning. The second test was the Visual Patterns Test (VPT, which measured visual short-term memory. The Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS was also included as an estimate of general intelligence. There was a significant difference between fencers & swimmers in the BSAT, (F=5.261, p<0.030, while the analysis of the VPT test scores showed no significant differences among groups (F=0.325 p<=0.573. In conclusion, fencers showed no better performance on visual memory, while they were superior in rule detection, comparing to swimmers. The long training fencing program, may greatly affects the speed of constitute information process as attributes of the decision making speed in national level fencers.

  12. In vitro tests to evaluate immunotoxicity: A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M; Gennari, A; Malerba, I; Corsini, E; Pallardy, M; Pieters, R; Loveren, Henk van; Vohr, H W; Hartung, T; Gribaldo, L

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of new and existing Chemicals (REACH) will increase the number of laboratory animals used, if alternative methods will not be available. In the meantime, REACH promotes the use of in vitro tests and, therefore, a set of appropriated al

  13. Efficacy of oleuropein against UVB irradiation: preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, P; Vettor, M; Rona, C; Troisi, L; Villanova, L; Genta, I; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2008-04-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound derived from olive leaves and oil, is known to possess several biological properties, many of which may be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Nevertheless, up to now, the cosmetic activity of this molecule has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cosmetic properties of oleuropein against UVB-induced erythema. To this end, an emulsion and an emulgel containing oleuropein were prepared, applied and evaluated on healthy volunteers who had undergone UVB irradiation to investigate its protective and/or lenitive activity. Protective effect was assayed by application of topical preparations before irradiation and lenitive effect was evaluated after erythema induction. Vitamin E was used as the reference compound. Our study was carried out by using noninvasive techniques to assess specific skin parameters: barrier function, skin colour and microcirculation. Results clearly showed that oleuropein formulations highlighted lenitive efficacy by reducing erythema, transepidermal water loss and blood flow of about 22%, 35% and 30% respectively. The study allowed us to point out the lenitive property of oleuropein, opening the way to further trials to deepen our specific knowledge about this natural molecule, which could be used in association with other active ingredients in cosmetics to repair UV damages.

  14. Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the latest manned spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype launch and reentry spacesuit architectures were evaluated for eventual down selection by NASA based on the performance of a set of designated tasks. A consolidated approach was taken to testing, concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances and movement strategies within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. To achieve the objectives of the test, a requirement was set forth to maintain high mockup fidelity while using advanced motion capture technologies. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The mockup was constructed such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motion capture system. This paper will describe the method used to create a motion capture compatible space vehicle mockup, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, as well as the various methods for generating hardware requirements for an entire population from the resulting complex data set using a limited number of test subjects. Kinematics, hardware clearance, suited anthropometry, and subjective feedback data were recorded on fifteen unsuited and five suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly by anthropometry, in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited subjects and tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. Since the prototype spacesuits were fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average sized male, the findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes of the population to anticipate likely problem areas. This extrapolation was achieved by first performing population analysis through a comparison of suited

  15. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Mobile Forensic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Osho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technology, over the years, has improved tremendously in sophistication and functionality. Today, there are mobile phones, known as smartphones, that can perform virtually most functions associated with personal computers. This has translated to increase in the adoption of mobile technology. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of attacks against and with the aid of this technology. Mobile phones will often contain data that are needed as evidence in a court of law. And, therefore, the need to be able to acquire and present this data in an admissible form cannot be overemphasized. This requires the right forensic tools. This is the focus of this study. We evaluated the ability of four forensic tools to extract data, with emphasis on deleted data, from Android phones. Our results show that AccessData FTK Imager and EnCase performed better than MOBILedit Forensic and Oxygen Forensic Suite at acquiring deleted data. The conclusion is that, finding a forensic tool or toolkit that is virtually applicable across all mobile device platforms and operating systems is currently infeasible.

  17. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  18. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  19. Synthesis, Computational Studies and Preliminary Pharmacological Evaluation of New Arylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel arylpiperazines were synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced climbing behavior (D2 antagonism, 5-HTP induced head twitches (5-HT2A antagonism and catalepsy studies in albino mice. The physicochemical similarity of the target compounds with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserine and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of physiochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds (3a-j demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. Among them, compound 3d has emerged as an important lead compound showing potential atypical antipsychotic like profile.

  20. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  1. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  2. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  3. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of the Diverse Protection System in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Taekyeong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chiwoong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Ha, Kwi-Seok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is defined as an abnormal transient with failure of scram actuation. It is one of the “worst case” accident based on the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC). Consideration frequently motivates the NRC to take regulatory action. An evaluation of this event is also a general requirement due to a potential safety issue that may lead to core damage under postulated condition. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of the diverse protection system (DPS) related with unprotected events of the prototype generation-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) including unprotected transient over power (UTOP) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) by MARS-LMR code. The variation of the power to flow (P/Q) of UTOP and ULOF is illustrated to conduct the set-points sensitivity test of DPS. Also we estimated the effect of the DPS introduction after selecting UTOP, ULOF event as the unprotected events which are predicted to aggravate the events. This paper estimated the set-points sensitivity test of DPS related with unprotected events of PGSFR including UTOP and ULOF by MARS-LMR code. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in both RPS and DPS about the initiating time of each event. Therefore, this study found that the urgent manage for safety of the reactor when RPS failed is possible by the applying DPS.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of the nonfuel mineral potential of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Additional exploration in Somalia is warranted for a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic deposits. In Precambrian rocks, deposit types favorable for exploration include: a banded iron formation; platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes; tin-bearing quartz veins; phosphorite; stratabound base-metal deposits; uranium associated with Precambrian(?) syenite; apatite, molybdenum, and alumina in alkalic rocks; Jurassic and Cretaceous black shales; possible bedded-barite and massive base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits; vein barite in Tertiary rocks in fault zones; sepiolite and bentonite for drilling muds and other industrial uses; celestite; possible Tertiary zeolite; and uranium deposits. Several of these deposit types could be Jointly developed and integrated into domestic industries; for example, phosphate and gypsum, or bentonite for pelletized iron from the banded iron deposits. Other deposits such as barite and sepiolite are of value because of their proximity to major drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf. Still other deposits, such as alumina and banded iron, might be marketable because of proximity to aluminum and iron-refining industries now being constructed in Saudi Arabia. Some deposits, such as celestite, can be developed with little capital investment; others, such as the iron deposits, would require large capital commitments. Exploration and evaluation for many of these deposits can be accomplished by Somali geologists with a few advisors. Most of the deposits require feasibility studies conducted by teams of economic geologists, extractive metallurgists, and economists. Some marginal deposits could be exploited if cooperative development schemes could be negotiated with governments in nearby countries.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of ultra-high pitch computed tomography enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, Andrew D.; Horst, Nicole D.; Mayes, Nicholas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston (United States)], E-mail: andrewdhardie@gmail.com

    2012-12-15

    Background. CT enterography (CTE) is a valuable tool in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Reducing imaging time, reduced motion artifacts, and decreased radiation exposure are important goals for optimizing CTE examinations. Purpose. To assess the potential impact of new CT technology (ultra-high pitch CTE) for the ability to reduce scan time and also potentially reduce radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. Material and Methods. This retrospective study compared 13 patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE with 25 patients who underwent routine CTE on the same CT scanner with identical radiation emission settings. Total scan time and radiation exposure were recorded for each patient. Image quality was assessed by measurement of image noise and also qualitatively by two independent observers. Results. Total scan time was significantly lower for patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE (2.1 s {+-} 0.2) than by routine CTE (18.6 s {+-} 0.9) (P < 0.0001). The mean radiation exposure for ultra-high pitch CTE was also significantly lower (10.1 mGy {+-} 1.0) than routine CTE (15.8 mGy {+-} 4.5) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in image noise was found between ultra-high pitch CTE (16.0 HU {+-} 2.5) and routine CTE (15.5 HU {+-} 3.7) (P > 0.74). There was also no significant difference in image quality noted by either of the two readers. Conclusion. Ultra-high pitch CTE can be performed more rapidly than standard CTE and offers the potential for radiation exposure reduction while maintaining image quality.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    insect vectors of publichealth importance.Northeastern region of India is considered as a majorbiodiversity hot spot. The eastern Himalayas range,which extends all through the northern border ofAssam, is a rich treasure house of many promisingmedicinal and aromatic plants. In the present communication,an attempt has been made to evaluate themosquito larvicidal efficacy of methanol and ethanolextracts of different parts of five indigenous plantsagainst Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culexquinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory conditions.Plant materials were collected from the foothill forestsof Sonitpur district, Assam bordering ArunachalPradesh during April and May 2005. They were segregatedas leaf, stem, bark, root and fruit/pericarp andair-dried in a shady place. Dried materials wereground in a table model grinder. The ground plant materialswere dipped in solvents (methanol and ethanolShort Research Communications146 J VECT BORNE DIS 44, JUNE 2007in tightly capped jars separately for 48 h. The solventsalong with extracts were drained out, filtered andsemisolid extracts were obtained in vacuum usingrotary evaporator. The semisolid extracts were lyophilisedto obtain solid extracts. Stock solutions of desiredconcentration were prepared in distilled waterusing 1 ppm teepol as emulsifying agent and subsequentdilutions were made as per requirement. Larvicidalbioassay was carried out as per standard WHOtechniques in 500 ml glass beakers containing 250 mlof water and 25 numbers of late III or early IV instarmosquito larvae for various concentrations. Threedifferent concentrations of each extract were tried outat a time with six replicates. One control was kept witheach set of experiment and mortality was recordedafter 24 h. Five sets of experiments were conductedfor each extract. Tests were carried out under controlledlaboratory conditions (temperature 27 ± 2oCagainst laboratory reared Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae larvae. Values

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  10. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of an Airfoil with Continuous Trailing-Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinwei; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Liu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design and evaluation of an airfoil with active continuous trailing-edge flap (CTEF) as a potential rotorcraft active control device. The development of structural cross-section models of a continuous trailing-edge flap airfoil is described. The CTEF deformations with MFC actuation are predicted by NASTRAN and UM/VABS analyses. Good agreement is shown between the predictions from the two analyses. Approximately two degrees of CTEF deflection, defined as the rotation angle of the trailing edge, is achieved with the baseline MFC-PZT bender. The 2D aerodynamic characteristics of the continuous trailing-edge flap are evaluated using a CFD analysis. The aerodynamic efficiency of a continuous trailing-edge flap is compared to that of a conventional discrete trailing-edge flap (DTEF). It is found that the aerodynamic characteristics of a CTEF are equivalent to those of a conventional DTEF with the same deflection angle but with a smaller flap chord. A fluid structure interaction procedure is implemented to predict the deflection of the continuous trailingedge flap under aerodynamic pressure. The reductions in CTEF deflection are overall small when aerodynamic pressure is applied: 2.7% reduction is shown with a CTEF deflection angle of two degrees and at angle of attack of six degrees. In addition, newly developed MFC-PMN actuator is found to be a good supplement to MFC-PZT when applied as the bender outside layers. A mixed MFC-PZT and MFC-PMN bender generates 3% more CTEF deformation than an MFC-PZT only bender and 5% more than an MFC-PMN only bender under aerodynamic loads.

  11. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Heriberto Hermosillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  12. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  14. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    , the least square methods outperformed the method based on minimum-phase approximation. However, the evaluation was only done for the best-case scenario, where the transfer functions used to design the filters correspond to the listener's transfer functions and his/her location and orientation relative...... to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...

  16. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  17. A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

  18. A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

  19. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF DIPTERACANTHUS PROSTRATUS NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy.P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteracanthus prostratus is an prostrate perennial herb. It is a small straggling, much branched herb it is purple at the nodes, internodes are long and hairy. It used as anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and Diuretics. The present study was carried out to preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant of Dipeteracanthus prostratus nees. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detail analysis. Fluorescence analysis of different successive extract and powder were noted under UV light and normal ordinary light, which signifies there characteristics. Preliminary qualitative chemical test for different extract shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats, phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage, flavonoids and carbohydrates.

  1. Self-reported vicarious trauma in asylum evaluators: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Mujawar, Imran; Ravi, Nirmal

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of clinicians in the US conduct asylum evaluations, to document evidence of torture and persecution of people fleeing their home countries. Participating in these encounters puts clinicians at risk for vicarious trauma (VT). Little research addressed VT in physicians. Even less is known about VT among asylum evaluators. A survey was distributed to members of the asylum network of Physicians for Human Rights in Spring 2012. The majority (65%) of survey participants denied having experienced VT. However, being female, being a mental health professional and having performed a greater number of evaluations was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting VT. We present preliminary data about VT in asylum evaluators. Recruiters and trainers should make every effort to address the issue and educate their volunteers about means of identifying and managing symptoms. Formal and informal support services and resources should be developed and shared with volunteers.

  2. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  3. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  5. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitasta Mandal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric. The result showed that the variety from Kangra showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content of 5.87 and 62.22 mg GAE/L respectively.

  7. Comparing evaluation activities across multiple theories of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    This article compares and contrasts the evaluation activities described in Practical Participatory Evaluation (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998), Values-engaged Evaluation (Greene, 2005), and Emergent Realist Evaluation (Mark, Henry, & Julnes, 1998). Using the logic models developed to depict each of the three evaluation theories (Hansen, Alkin, & Wallace, 2013) as a starting point, both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques are employed to discuss the similarities and differences across the practice prescriptions. The approaches are then described according to Miller's (2010) standards for empirical examinations of evaluation theory. Specifically, I offer speculation about their operational specificity and feasibility in practice. I argue that none of the models is completely specific, or wholly unique, and they all present challenges of adaptation into the field. However, the models each offer varying degrees of guidance and unique elements through their prescriptions.

  8. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  10. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  11. Characterization and comparative evaluation of novel planar electromagnetic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Gooneratne, C. P.; Sen, Gupta G.; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of three types of novel planar electromagnetic sensors: 1) meander; 2) mesh; and 3) interdigital configuration, has been studied and their comparative performance has been evaluated based on their areas of applications. All of them are suitable for inspection and evaluation of system properties without destroying them. The experiments on fabricated sensors have been conducted and the results are presented here. The target application is to use a mixture of different types...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of PGSFR DHR Heat Exchangers Performance Using STELLA-1 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jonggan; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Yeom, Sujin; Lee, Jewhan; Kim, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Inkoo; Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The STELLA program for PGSFR decay heat removal (DHR) performance demonstration is in progress at KAERI. As the first phase of the program, the STELLA-1 facility has been constructed and separate effect tests for heat exchangers of DHRS have been conducted. Two kinds of heat exchangers including a shell-and-tube type sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger (DHX) and a helical-tube type sodium-to-air heat exchanger (AHX) were tested for design codes V-V, e.g. SHXSA and AHXSA. In this paper, firstly, overall characteristics of the STELLA-1 facility are described briefly. Secondly, the performance tests of the DHX and AHX rely on a steady-state result of a heat transfer experiment. Thus experimental procedures to obtain the steady-state result are described and steady-state conditions for the heat exchanger performance test are clearly defined. Lastly, experimental results and calculation results obtained from the design codes are also compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The PGSFR DHR heat exchangers performance was experimentally demonstrated using the STELLA-1 facility, and the experimental results and the prediction of the design code were compared as a preliminary work for the design code V-V. The experimental results of the DHX and AHX were in good agreement with the estimation of the SHXSA and AHXSA codes, respectively.

  13. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  14. Detectability index of differential phase contrast CT compared with conventional CT: a preliminary channelized Hotelling observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2013-03-01

    Under the framework of model observer with signal and background exactly known (SKE/BKE), we investigate the detectability of differential phase contrast CT compared with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Using the channelized Hotelling observer and the radially symmetric difference-of-Gaussians channel template , we investigate the detectability index and its variation over the dimension of object and detector cells. The preliminary data show that the differential phase contrast CT outperforms the conventional attenuation-based CT significantly in the detectability index while both the object to be detected and the cell of detector used for data acquisition are relatively small. However, the differential phase contrast CT's dominance in the detectability index diminishes with increasing dimension of either object or detector cell, and virtually disappears while the dimension of object or detector cell approaches a threshold, respectively. It is hoped that the preliminary data reported in this paper may provide insightful understanding of the differential phase contrast CT's characteristic in the detectability index and its comparison with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT.

  15. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  16. Integrative medical education: educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    the development and preliminary evaluation of a new medical program aimed at educating students in patient-centered integrative care and developing appropriate educational strategies. The Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM) was developed with modules on anthroposophic medicine integrated into the full 6 years of the regular medical curriculum. The educational strategy is the ESPRI(2)T approach, combining Exploratory learning, Supported participation, Patient-based learning, Reflective practice, Integrated learning, an Integrative approach and Team-based learning. The student participation, assessed based on the number of credit points earned per year (ctp/year) through the ICURAM (1 ctp=30 h workload), served as a preliminary indicator of student interest. Of the 412 55%medical students participated in the program: 16% full participation (≥ 4 ctp/year), 18% partial participation (1-3.99 ctp/year) and 22% occasional participation (0.25-0.99 ctp/year). The amount of additional workload taken on by students was between 7.8h/year for occasional participants, 33 h/year for partial participants and 84 h/year for full participants. More than half of medical students were willing to invest a significant amount of additional time in the optional program. An integrative medical curriculum with a student-centered educational strategy seems to be of interest to most medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, three crosstalk cancellation techniques were evaluated and compared under different conditions. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain were evaluated along with a method based on minimum-phase approximation and a frequency independent delay. In general, the ...... at the horizontal plane and an elevated position, where a typical 60 degrees stereo setup is compared with two closely spaced loudspeaker. Additionally, two- and four-channels arrangements are evaluated....

  19. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  20. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Hedging Behavior: Comparing & Evaluating Grouping Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.; Irwin, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity, i.e., the notion that individuals respond differently to economic stimuli, can have profound consequences for the interpretation of behavior and the formulation of agricultural policy. This paper compares and evaluates three grouping techniques that can be used to account for

  1. Comparative evaluation of root canal disinfection by conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate in vivo the disinfecting ... laser containing the gallium aluminum and arsenic, which emitted 980 nm wavelengths. .... canal with pulp necrosis mainly involving obligate anaerobes .... 99.98% of the bacteria injected in the root canal could be.

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FILTERS USED IN TRACKING AIR TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Strekalovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an imitation model for a flow of heterogeneous air targets the comparative assessment of the αβ, αβγ and the Kalman filters efficiency is evaluated. In the case of slightly maneuvering target the difference in filters’ efficiency is statistically insignificant; in the case of sharp maneuvering the Kalman filter is significantly more precise.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Handheld Robot-Aided Intraocular Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Martel, Joseph N.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents robot-aided intraocular laser surgery using a handheld robot known as Micron. The micromanipulator incorporated in Micron enables visual servoing of a laser probe, while maintaining a constant distance of the tool tip from the retinal surface. The comparative study was conducted with various control methods for evaluation of robot-aided intraocular laser surgery. PMID:27019653

  4. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  5. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  6. Education, Social Capital and State Formation in Comparative Historical Perspective: Preliminary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between education and state formation in the United States differed from that in other countries in ways that have yet to be adequately accounted for in comparative and theoretical literatures. Specifically, in the northern United States, very high levels of mass school attendance and funding were achieved prior to and outside…

  7. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  8. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Gas Generation from the Korean LILW Repository using the SMOGG Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Sun Joung [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    For the permanent disposal of 100,000 drums of LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level radioactive Waste) for the first stage of operation (800,000 drums in the long run) in Korea, the rock-cavern repository is being constructed at Gyeongju city. During the lifetime and post-closure period of the repository, it is expected that bulk gases (e.g. hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, etc.) are mainly produced by various mechanisms such as the metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials, and radiolysis. Since gases generated have the potential threat to overpressurize the repository, which can promote the transport of radionuclide contained in groundwater and gas, it is necessary to simulate the features of gas generation from the repository using the appropriate computer code prior to the start of operation. This paper describes the preliminary evaluation of gas generation from the repository using the SMOGG code

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  11. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  14. Compliance of laser-assisted microvascular anastomosis: a comparative study with manual anastomosis (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Roland G.; Lhote, Francois-Marie; Dauzat, Michel; Juan, Jean-Marie; Oliva-Lauraire, Marie-Claire; Durrleman, Nicolas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Albat, Bernard; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Chaptal, Paul-Andre; Godlewski, Guilhem

    1999-01-01

    The compliance of microvascular anastomosis is an important predictive factor for long term patency of graft or vascular reconstruction. This experimental study compare the compliance of manual suture and laser assisted end to end microvascular anastomosis. In nine New-Zealand white rabbits we performed manual end-to-end suture anastomosis on the left femoral artery and laser assisted anastomosis on the right femoral artery, with a diode laser (wavelength 988 nm, power output 500 mW). Compliance was obtained by echotracking (CBI 8000 sonomicrometry system with 20 MHz implantable microprobe from Crystal-Biotech, USA) on the anastomosis site as well as upstream, and downstream from the anastomosis. Vessel compliance was lower on the manual suture side compared to the laser assisted anastomosis side, especially downstream from the anastomosis.

  15. Comparative evaluation of ultrasound scanner accuracy in distance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, F. P.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and compare two different automatic methods for accuracy evaluation in ultrasound phantom measurements on B-mode images: both of them give as a result the relative error e between measured distances, performed by 14 brand new ultrasound medical scanners, and nominal distances, among nylon wires embedded in a reference test object. The first method is based on a least squares estimation, while the second one applies the mean value of the same distance evaluated at different locations in ultrasound image (same distance method). Results for both of them are proposed and explained.

  16. Systematic comparative evaluation of methods for investigating the TCRβ repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors...... was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3...

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  18. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  19. Neuropsychology of domestic violence: a comparative preliminary study of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In neuropsychological studies of executive functioning in domestic violence offenders, the different investigations conducted have only studied differences within this group or in relation to control groups of non-offenders. To minimize the limitations in relation to comparison groups, the purpose of this study was to compare executive functioning in domestic violence offenders in relation to different groups of offenders (i.e. sexual, violent and non-violent) and a control group of non-offenders, with all groups matched on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Executive functioning was tested of all participants with the Trail Making Test (direct and derived scores). Compared with the control group, the domestic violence offenders and sex offenders exhibited the poorest performance on the Trail Making Test part B (time) and on the B-A derived index; whereas, the violent offenders group (i.e. convicted of assault, wounding, homicide etc.) showed a high number of errors in part B. These findings suggest that domestic violence offenders exhibit similar performance on the TMT as sex offenders, where both have poorer cognitive flexibility and executive control. Other violent offenders exhibited different patterns of difficulty on this test (e.g. more impulsivity responses). Executive functioning may be a central psychological process that could help explain the interrelations between domestic and sexual aggression, and could be a relevant construct for common treatment of domestic batterers and sex offenders.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  1. Novel modular 2-DOF microsurgical forceps for transoral laser microsurgeries: Ergonomic design and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.

  2. Systematic comparative evaluation of methods for investigating the TCRβ repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing;

    2016-01-01

    advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors...... was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3...... variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation....

  3. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of tin plating for extracoronal restorations: evaluation of marginal quality and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, M F; Rosenstiel, S F

    1998-01-01

    The influence of tin plating on marginal seating and retention of complete cast crowns was evaluated. Thirty-six standardized gold-alloy complete crowns were made on extracted human molar teeth prepared with a modified milling machine using conventional laboratory techniques. The crowns were randomly assigned to two groups according to the treatment of the fitting surface (air abraded with 50-micron aluminum oxide for 10 seconds, or tin plated with a microtin system for 3 seconds), and luted with adhesive resin cement (Panavia-EX, J. Morita). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the variables for the cast alloy. Retention was measured with an instron testing machine after thermocycling (1,500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 1 minute dwell times). Marginal adaptation was measured with a Nikon microscope before and after cementation. Results were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and Student's t test. Retention was significantly different (P tin-plated crowns. Differences for marginal seating were not statistically significant. Tin plating after air abrasion was found to be a predictable and simple technique to roughen the casting surface, increase the surface area for bonding, and significantly improve the retention of cast crowns in vivo.

  5. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  6. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Crady, C.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews preliminary results of the program to evaluate Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) packaging materials for pharmaceutical stability. The need for improved packaging is due to possible changes in chemical and/or physical properties of the drugs, which cause reported reduced potency and/or altered bioavailability and decreased efficacy.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  10. Comparing intensities and modalities within the sensory attenuation paradigm: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Dalila; Battaglini, Alvise; Pia, Lorenzo; Falvo, Giusy; Palombella, Mattia; Salatino, Adriana

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that the intensity of a self-generated somatosensory stimulus is perceived to be attenuated in respect to an identical stimulus generated by others. At present, it is not clear whether such a phenomenon, known as somatosensory attenuation, is based not only on feedforward motor signals but also on re-afferences towards the body. To answer this question, in the present pilot investigation on twelve healthy subjects, three types of stimulations (sensory non-nociceptive electrical - ES, nociceptive electrical - NES, and vibrotactile - VTS) and intensities (1 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 2 mA, 2 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 3 mA, 3 = sensory threshold ∗ 2.5 + 4 mA for ES and NES; 1 = sensory threshold ∗ 2 Hz, 2 = sensory threshold ∗ 3 Hz, 3 = sensory threshold ∗ 4 Hz for VTS) have been directly compared in a somatosensory attenuation paradigm. The results show that the attenuation effect emerged only with electrical stimuli and that it increased with higher intensities. These pilot findings suggest that, depending on the type and the intensity of stimulation, re-afferences can have a role in somatosensory attenuation. Additionally, it is possible to speculate the effect is present only with electrical stimuli because those stimuli are prospectively judged as potentially dangerous. This, in turn, would optimize planning successful reactions to incoming threatening stimuli.

  11. Comparative evaluation of patellar height methods in the Brazilian population☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Christian; Zaluski, Alexandre; e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Cavanellas, Naasson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The methods most used for patellar height measurement were compared with the plateau–patella angle method. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which lateral-view radiographs of the knee were evaluated using the three methods already established in the literature: Insall–Salvati (IS), Blackburne–Peel (BP) and Caton–Deschamps (CD). These were compared with the plateau–patella angle method. One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected patients were included in the sample. Results The data were initially evaluated using the chi-square test. This analysis was deemed to be positive with p < 0.0001. We compared the traditional methods with the plateau–patella angle measurement, using Fisher's exact test. In comparing the IS index with the plateau–patella angle, we did not find any statistically significant differences in relation to the proportion of altered cases between the two groups. The traditional methods were compared with the plateau–patella angle with regard to the proportions of cases of high and low patella, by means of Fisher's exact test. This analysis showed that the plateau–patella angle identified fewer cases of high patella than did the IS, BP and CD methods, but more cases of low patella. In comparing pairs, we found that the IS and CD indices were capable of identifying more cases of high patella than was the plateau–patella angle. In relation to the cases of low patella, the plateau–patella angle was capable of identifying more cases than were the other three methods. Conclusions The plateau–patella angle found more patients with low patella than did the classical methods and showed results that diverged from those of the other indices studied. PMID:26962492

  12. Comparative evaluation of patellar height methods in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Behrendt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The methods most used for patellar height measurement were compared with the plateau-patella angle method. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which lateral-view radiographs of the knee were evaluated using the three methods already established in the literature: Insall-Salvati (IS, Blackburne-Peel (BP and Caton-Deschamps (CD. These were compared with the plateau-patella angle method. One hundred and ninety-six randomly selected patients were included in the sample. RESULTS: The data were initially evaluated using the chi-square test. This analysis was deemed to be positive with p < 0.0001. We compared the traditional methods with the plateau-patella angle measurement, using Fisher's exact test. In comparing the IS index with the plateau-patella angle, we did not find any statistically significant differences in relation to the proportion of altered cases between the two groups. The traditional methods were compared with the plateau-patella angle with regard to the proportions of cases of high and low patella, by means of Fisher's exact test. This analysis showed that the plateau-patella angle identified fewer cases of high patella than did the IS, BP and CD methods, but more cases of low patella. In comparing pairs, we found that the IS and CD indices were capable of identifying more cases of high patella than was the plateau-patella angle. In relation to the cases of low patella, the plateau-patella angle was capable of identifying more cases than were the other three methods. CONCLUSIONS: The plateau-patella angle found more patients with low patella than did the classical methods and showed results that diverged from those of the other indices studied.

  13. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Susan C; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A

    2008-06-01

    The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme, including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. RESULTS / OUTCOMES: NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favourable response to the programme.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the use of a CDMA-based emergency telemedicine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaemin; Chun, Honggu; Shin, Il Hyung; Shin, Sang Do; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the use of a code division multiple access (CDMA)-based emergency telemedicine system to be used by emergency rescuers providing first-aid treatment for patients. The prototype system included five instrumentation modules for measuring non-invasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG), blood glucose concentration and body temperature. The patient data were transferred to a doctor's PC through CDMA and TCP/IP networks using an embedded personal digital assistant (PDA) phone. Performance tests in the laboratory showed that the system provided reliable values with error ranges within +/-1% for heart rate, +/-5 mmHg for NIBP, +/-2% for SpO(2) and +/-1% for glucose. The feasibility of the prototype system was then evaluated with 15 real emergency patients on Jeju Island over a two-month period. Measured data were transmitted from a moving ambulance to the emergency medical centre without significant CDMA connection loss or transmission errors. The average transfer time was 8 min. Four emergency doctors and 11 rescuers completed a questionnaire. There were favourable reviews from the users.

  15. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  16. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54.{sup 45} US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0.{sup 38} US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10.{sup 28} US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80.{sup 75} US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60.{sup 2}1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49.{sup 55} US D/M Wh; variable cost 10.{sup 66} US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  18. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  20. Novel Benzothiazole, Benzimidazole and Benzoxazole Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents: Synthesis and Preliminary in Vitro Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  1. Novel benzothiazole, benzimidazole and benzoxazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents: synthesis and preliminary in vitro biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Pu; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Liang; Sun, Chang-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2012-01-17

    In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  2. ISOS: A job evaluation system to implement comparable worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fair pay structure is an essential element of the personnel policy of a firm. If the pay structure is perceived as arbitrary by the members of the staff, it becomes a cause of disturbance of the labor relations. Particularly, a pay structure is unfair if it discriminates against women. Job evaluation is a traditional tool used by companies to assist in the process of determining pay structures that can be also useful to detect and combat wage discrimination, since allow determining whether two jobs are of comparable worth or not. Although there are many kinds of systems, authors agree when defining point factor methods as the most appropriate and fair job evaluation systems. However, even being well defined from a technical point of view, most existing systems give discriminatory results regarding to gender. ISOS, a new job evaluation system which is described in this paper, has been designed, with the aim to define a neutral system with regard to gender, based on present jobs characteristics, existing job evaluation systems and job description questionnaires, international experts’ knowledge and a wide body of literature on gender discrimination and its relation with job evaluation. Using ISOS can contribute to detect, combat and eliminate part of the existing wage discrimination in general and, in particular, against women. ISOS includes all aspects of the work so no characteristics are omitted. The system can be applied in any company and to evaluate any job, and offers flexibility to be adapted to the specific characteristics of an organization. ISOS can also be used to detect and combat wage discrimination. Furthermore, characteristics of present jobs, such as cross-training or flexible working time, are also included so the system can be considered innovative in a very traditional field of industrial engineering.

  3. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Ruifang; Du, Yuanping; Hong, Xueyu; Cao, Hongzhi; Su, Zheng; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Nie, Chao; Xu, Xun; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs) among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR) and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively). No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%), and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR). Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation.

  4. Systematic Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Investigating the TCRβ Repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has recently been applied to profile the high diversity of antibodyome/B cell receptors (BCRs and T cell receptors (TCRs among immune cells. To date, Multiplex PCR (MPCR and 5'RACE are predominately used to enrich rearranged BCRs and TCRs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages; however, a systematic evaluation and direct comparison of them would benefit researchers in the selection of the most suitable method. In this study, we used both pooled control plasmids and spiked-in cells to benchmark the MPCR bias. RNA from three healthy donors was subsequently processed with the two methods to perform a comparative evaluation of the TCR β chain sequences. Both approaches demonstrated high reproducibility (R2 = 0.9958 and 0.9878, respectively. No differences in gene usage were identified for most V/J genes (>60%, and an average of 52.03% of the CDR3 amino acid sequences overlapped. MPCR exhibited a certain degree of bias, in which the usage of several genes deviated from 5'RACE, and some V-J pairings were lost. In contrast, there was a smaller rate of effective data from 5'RACE (11.25% less compared with MPCR. Nevertheless, the methodological variability was smaller compared with the biological variability. Through direct comparison, these findings provide novel insights into the two experimental methods, which will prove to be valuable in immune repertoire research and its interpretation.

  5. Comparing three methods for evaluating impact wrench vibration emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Thomas W; Marcotte, Pierre; Warren, Cristopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2009-08-01

    To provide a means for comparing impact wrenches and similar tools, the international standard ISO 8662-7 prescribes a method for measuring the vibrations at the handles of tools during their operations against a cotton-phenolic braking device. To improve the standard, alternative loading mechanisms have been proposed; one device comprises aluminum blocks with friction brake linings, while another features plate-mounted bolts to provide the tool load. The objective of this study was to evaluate these three loading methods so that tool evaluators can select appropriate loading devices in order to obtain results that can be applied to their specific workplace operations. Six experienced tool operators used five tool models to evaluate the loading mechanisms. The results of this study indicate that different loads can yield different tool comparison results. However, any of the three devices appears to be adequate for initial tool screenings. On the other hand, vibration emissions measured in the laboratory are unlikely to be fully representative of those in the workplace. Therefore, for final tool selections and for reliably assessing workplace vibration exposures, vibration measurements should be collected under actual working conditions. Evaluators need to use appropriate numbers of tools and tool operators in their assessments; recommendations are provided.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of a microtransesophageal probe in neonates and young infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Pavithran

    2014-01-01

    On preliminary evaluation, the microTEE probe provided good quality images in very small infants who were not amenable for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation so far. The probe could be used safely in small infants without complications. It appears to be a promising imaging modality in the perioperative assessment of young infants undergoing cardiac surgery, in whom intraoperative epicardial echocardiography is currently the only tool.

  7. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano, R. Lo, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of PISA, L.go L. Lazzarino 2, via Diotisalvi, no. 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a 'beyond design basis' event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of Three Pediatric Dentifrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ashna; Indushekar, KR; Saraf, Bhavna G; Sheoran, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dentifrices are available in different formulations and more commonly a single dentifrice is used by whole family; be it an adult or child. However, concerns over high fluoride in pediatric formulations coupled with inability of the children to spit have led to recommendations to minimize fluoride ingestion during toothbrushing by using a small amount of toothpaste by children and incorporating minimal quantity of fluoride in the toothpastes. Literature is scarce on the remineralization potential of popularly known Indian pediatric dentifrices; hence, pediatric dentifrices containing lesser concentration of fluoride have been marketed relatively recently for the benefit of children without posing a threat of chronic fluoride toxicity at the same time. Aim and objectives The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the remineralization potential of three commercially available Indian pediatric dentifrices with different compositions on artificially induced carious lesions in vitro through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and methods The present in vitro study was conducted on 45 sound extracted primary molar surfaces divided into three groups (15 each). Artificial demineralization was carried out, followed by remineralization using dentifrice slurry as per the group allocation. All the samples were studied for remineralization using SEM and the results statistically compared. Results All three dentifrices tested showed remineralization; although insignificantly different from each other but significantly higher compared to the demineralizing surface. Conclusion One can use pediatric dentifrices for preventing dental caries and decelerating lesion progression with an added advantage of lower fluoride toxicity risk. How to cite this article Kapoor A, Indushekar KR, Saraf BG, Sheoran N, Sardana D. Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of Three Pediatric Dentifrices. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):186-191. PMID

  10. You never compare alone: How social consensus and comparative context affect self-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowski Adam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three studies address the role of social consensus on evaluative standards in different comparative contexts. Previous research has documented that self-categorisation at the individual or group level changes social comparison effects in terms of assimilation and contrast. With regard to self-ratings of physical attractiveness, the present studies show that people who focus on group membership can benefit from including outstanding others in their reference group, whereas people who focus on their individual attributes run the risk of self-devaluation. It is argued that high consensus strengthens the association between evaluative standards and group membership and renders the inclusion of outstanding others more likely. Study 3 shows that the need to protect self-esteem moderates the influence of perceived consensus. Stressing the individual self led participants who received negative feedback to exclude outstanding others when consensus was low. Stressing the social self, however, led participants to include outstanding others when consensus was high.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the learning outcome achieved by a nursing research seminar course for doctoral students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Educational evaluation is a priority policy of the Ministry of Education and student learning outcome is an important criterion used in educational evaluation work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning outcome of a newly developed course for doctoral students entitled, Nursing Research Seminar. The course was one semester in length and required students to attend 2 hours of class per week. Student learning outcome was evaluated based on the level of understanding students had of course objectives. The six objectives of this course were: evaluating and integrating research papers; enhancing critical thinking skills; gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest; enhancing ability to construct research proposals; guiding student dissertation work; and refining critical research skills. Data were collected from the responses provided by 25 students on a 5-point Likert-type evaluation form based on course objectives filled out during the last class of the semester. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were adopted. Results showed: (1) The average post-course score (24.76 +/- 2.89) was significantly higher than the pre-course score (18.40 +/- 5.52); (2) Students realized significant improvements in all six objectives at the end of the course; (3) There were statistically significant differences in improvement scores in all six objectives for students in different years of their doctoral program; (4) The lower the year in the program, the higher the improvement scores for each course objective; (5) The two objectives of the six that saw the most significant improvements were "gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest", and "enhancing critical thinking skills". Because of the small sample size, conclusions drawn from this study should be treated as tentative. Findings provide preliminary information supporting the importance and necessity of offering the Nursing Research

  12. Soil metaproteomics - Comparative evaluation of protein extraction protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiblinger, Katharina M; Wilhartitz, Inés C; Schneider, Thomas; Roschitzki, Bernd; Schmid, Emanuel; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Metaproteomics and its potential applications are very promising to study microbial activity in environmental samples and to obtain a deeper understanding of microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of soil samples the exhaustive extraction of proteins is a major challenge. We compared soil protein extraction protocols in terms of their protein extraction efficiency for two different soil types. Four different protein extraction procedures were applied based on (a) SDS extraction without phenol, (b) NaOH and subsequent phenol extraction, (c) SDS-phenol extraction and (d) SDS-phenol extraction with prior washing steps. To assess the suitability of these methods for the functional analysis of the soil metaproteome, they were applied to a potting soil high in organic matter and a forest soil. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) and the number of unique spectra as well as the number of assigned proteins for each of the respective protocols was compared. In both soil types, extraction with SDS-phenol (c) resulted in "high" numbers of proteins. Moreover, a spiking experiment was conducted to evaluate protein recovery. To this end sterilized forest soil was amended with proteins from pure cultures of Pectobacterium carotovorum and Aspergillus nidulans. The protein recovery in the spiking experiment was almost 50%. Our study demonstrates that a critical evaluation of the extraction protocol is crucial for the quality of the metaproteomics data, especially in highly complex samples like natural soils.

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage in Class V Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Gopal Sooraparaju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare and evaluate the microleakage in class V lesions restored with composite resin with and without liner and injectable nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methodology. 60 class V cavities were prepared in 30 freshly extracted teeth. After etching and application of bonding agents these cavities were divided into three groups: Group A (n=20—restored with composite resin, Group B (n=20—flowable composite resin liner + composite resin, and Group C (n=20—restored with injectable composite resin. After curing all the specimens were subjected to thermocycling and cyclic loading. Specimens were stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin and evaluated for dye penetration. Results. Results are subjected to Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, none of the three materials were free from microleakage. All the three materials showed more microleakage at gingival margins compared to occlusal margins. Among all the groups G-ænial Flo showed the least microleakage at the gingival wall.

  14. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  15. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom(®) (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(®) (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom(®) implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  16. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pailhé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1 [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2. The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001. In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  17. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  18. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of a new fibre-optic cerebral oximetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J P; Langford, R M; Kyriacou, P A; Jones, D P

    2008-12-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a variety of patient monitoring applications. A particular unmet need is in the central nervous system, and this project aims to devise a means for measuring blood oxygen saturation in the brain tissue of patients recovering from neurosurgery or head injury. Coupling light sources and a photodetector to optical fibres results in a probe small enough to pass through a cranial bolt of the type already in use for intra-cranial pressure monitoring. The development and evaluation of a two-wavelength fibre-optic reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system are described. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be obtained from the finger using a fibre-optic probe. Experiments were conducted to find the inter-fibre spacings that yield signals most suitable for calculating oxygen saturation. Reliable signals could be obtained for inter-fibre spacings between 2 mm and 5 mm, the latter being the size of the maximum aperture in the cranial bolt. A preliminary measurement from human brain tissue is also presented.

  20. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  1. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Om P

    2013-01-01

    Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external) with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain), tenderness, Stambha (rigidity), difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi). PMID:23439799

  2. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain, tenderness, Stambha (rigidity, difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  5. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  8. Development of transmissometer system for evaluating molecular contamination effects and the preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobunari; Katoh, Masahiro; Okano, Nobuaki

    2005-01-01

    The presence of propagated molecular gas is one of the most probable causes of on-orbit degradation. The performance of optical sensors would be affected seriously if the strong absorption bands of the contaminants exist in the region of our interest and phase transition of adsorption gas on optical surfaces would induce not only absorption but also scatter. Although there are amount of trials to predict spectral degradation with model calculations, experimental approaches are also necessary to clarify degradation processes occurred in orbit and to improve the on-board calibration reliability. We built up the measurement system in order to evaluate transmittance degradation with various kinds of gases under different temperature and vacuum conditions. In our system, an optical glass, the site of adsorption, is set inside a cryostat and then a certain amount of molecular gas is injected. The amount of injected gas adsorption onto the optical surface is controlled by adjusting the sample surface temperature. Our systems have the capability to control vacuum within the range from 10-3Pa to 102Pa and temperature from 150K to 423K. As for the measurement of transmittance change, we adopted commercially available spectrophotometer and FTIR. The optical spectrophotometer covers the wavelength range from 300nm to 2.5um and the FTIR covers from 2um to 25um. We would present the details of our system and discuss about measurement accuracy and preliminary results of our measurements.

  9. Occupant evaluation of commercial office lighting: Volume 2, Preliminary data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marans, R.W.; Brown, M.A. (ed.)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a post-occupancy evaluation of office lighting environments. It explores the relationship between quantitative measures of lighting in occupied environments and qualitative measures related to occupant satisfaction. The report analyzes several types of data from more than 1000 occupied work stations: subjective data on attitudes and ratings of selected lighting and other characteristics, photometric and other direct environmental data, including illuminances, luminances, and contrast conditions, indirect environmental measures obtained from the architectural drawings and the work station photographs, and descriptive characteristics of the occupants. The work stations were sampled from thirteen office buildings located in various cities in the United States. Many tentative findings emerged from the analysis, including the following: (1) within the range of values examined here, there is a tendency for lighting satisfaction to decrease as lighting power density increases; (2) occupants who described their work station spaces as bright also tended to be satisfied with their work station lighting; (3) occupants who were most bothered by bright lights and glare were most likely to express dissatisfaction with the lighting at their work stations; (4) there is no relationship between work-related activities of employees and indicators of lighting quality. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn and before guidance regarding lighting standards and other policy issues can be derived. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN

  11. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing.

  12. Design, synthesis and preliminary evaluation of dopamine-amino acid conjugates as potential D1 dopaminergic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutone, Marco; Chinnici, Aurora; Almerico, Anna Maria; Perricone, Ugo; Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana

    2016-11-29

    The dopamine-amino acid conjugate DA-Phen was firstly designed to obtain a useful prodrug for the therapy of Parkinson's disease, but experimental evidence shows that it effectively interacts with D1 dopamine receptors (D1DRs), leading to an enhancement in cognitive flexibility and to the development of adaptive strategies in aversive mazes, together with a decrease in despair-like behavior. In this paper, homology modelling, molecular dynamics, and site mapping of D1 receptor were carried out with the aim of further performing docking studies on other dopamine conjugates compared with D1 agonists, in the attempt to identify new compounds with potential dopaminergic activity. Two new conjugates (DA-Trp 2C, and DA-Leu 3C) have been identified as the most promising candidates, and consequently synthesized. Preliminary evaluation in terms of distribution coefficient (D(pH7.4)), stability in rat brain homogenate, and in human plasma confirmed that DA-Trp (2C), and DA-Leu (3C) could be considered as very valuable candidates for further in vivo studies as new dopaminergic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of AERMOD using site specific stack and ambient sampling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to develop a robust particulate matter (PM) dispersion modeling dataset that could be used for evaluating current and future PM dispersion models. This paper compares total PM data collected by the industry-supported study at one gin ...

  14. Optimization and comparative evaluation of nucleic acids extraction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern molecular applications have grown the need of biobanks, which contain DNA and RNA of high purety, quality, and quantity. Nucleic acid extraction methods have widely variate and evolve in time, from methods using toxic reagents to enzymatic protocols, and furthermore to DNA or RNA-binding polymers, separating membranes or highly eulogized commercially kits. In order to establish a constant, reproducible and ergonomic system in generating biobanks, we compared different available methods for the extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA, from peripheram blood or solid tumoral tissues. We evaluated the cost/effectiveness and time consumption of each method, tracking RNA/DNA quantity, quality and integrity. We imagined a “E-ratio” value to define these parameters, and a “NA- estimation” to integrate “E-ratio” with quality and integrity data.

  15. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  16. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  17. Grid-connected ICES preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    A group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical education facilities, known as the HEAL Complex, was chosen as the site (in New Orleans) for the demonstration of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). The contract work included a preliminary energy supply/demand assessment of the Demonstration Community, a preliminary feasibility analysis and conceptual design of a candidate Demonstration System, preliminary assessment of institutional factors, preparation of a detailed work management plan for subsequent phases of the demonstration program, firming-up of commitments from participating parties, and reporting thereon. This Phase I study has indicated that a central ICES plant producing steam, chilled water, and by-product electricity to serve the HEAL Complex is technically and economically feasible to the extent that Phase II, Detailed Feasibility and Preliminary Design, should be implemented. (MCW)

  18. An Evaluation of the Rheumatology Coverage of Index Medicus. A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Peter

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary investigation which revealed the omission of four full length articles on rheumatology from Index Medicus'' is reported upon. Further investigations are in progress and will be reported at a later date. (Author/SJ)

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Different Herbal Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage in the world being appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in caffeine, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of five different herbal infusion samples in oder to compare the amount of these bioactive compounds from traditional Romanian medicinal plants and Chinese tea plants. Green tea, black tea, linden (lime tea, mint, and St. John's wort were chosen as materials for the preparation of infusion and laboratory analyses. The caffeine was extracted with dichloromethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoid content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2-(Al(NO33-NaOH based on spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging  activity on DPPH radical. The largest content in antioxidant compounds was found in green, but also in the mint infusion sample, while black tea has registered the highest caffeine content. Following the results obtained it can be stated that all the analysed samples contain remarkable amounts of biologically active compounds essential for the human body healt.

  20. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  1. New lipophilic tyrosyl esters. Comparative antioxidant evaluation with hydroxytyrosyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Raquel; Trujillo, Mariana; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Madrona, Andrés; Cert, Arturo; Espartero, José Luis

    2008-11-26

    New lipophilic esters of tyrosol, a naturally occurring phenol with interesting biological properties, have been synthesized in good yields by a chemoselective procedure, using lipase from Candida antarctica or p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalysts. Their antioxidant activities have been evaluated by the Rancimat test in lipophilic food matrices, as well as by FRAP and ABTS assays in methanolic solutions, and compared with those of previously synthesized hydroxytyrosyl esters. Free tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, butylhydroxytoluene, and alpha-tocopherol were used as standards. All methods used for the antioxidant activity evaluation emphasized the high influence of the ortho-diphenolic structure on the antioxidant capacity, tyrosol and its derivatives being less active than hydroxytyrosol and its analogues and even less than BHT and alpha-tocopherol. In addition, the Rancimat test revealed a lower activity for ester derivatives than for their respective reference compounds (HTy or Ty), in agreement with the polar paradox. On the other hand, FRAP and ABTS methods reported an opposite behavior between the synthetic esters and their respective references. Thus, hydroxytyrosyl esters were more active than HTy, whereas tyrosyl esters were less active than Ty. The length and nature of the acyl side chain did not seem to play an important role in the antioxidant activity of either the hydroxytyrosyl or tyrosyl ester series, since no significant differences were observed among them.

  2. Health scorecard of spacecraft platforms: Track record of on-orbit anomalies and failures and preliminary comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Marcie A.; Saleh, Joseph H.; Haga, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    Choosing the "right" satellite platform for a given market and mission requirements is a major investment decision for a satellite operator. With a variety of platforms available on the market from different manufacturers, and multiple offerings from the same manufacturer, the down-selection process can be quite involved. In addition, because data for on-obit failures and anomalies per platform is unavailable, incomplete, or fragmented, it is difficult to compare options and make an informed choice with respect to the critical attribute of field reliability of different platforms. In this work, we first survey a large number of geosynchronous satellite platforms by the major satellite manufacturers, and we provide a brief overview of their technical characteristics, timeline of introduction, and number of units launched. We then analyze an extensive database of satellite failures and anomalies, and develop for each platform a "health scorecard" that includes all the minor and major anomalies, and complete failures—that is failure events of different severities—observed on-orbit for each platform. We identify the subsystems that drive these failure events and how much each subsystem contributes to these events for each platform. In addition, we provide the percentage of units in each platform which have experienced failure events, and, after calculating the total number of years logged on-orbit by each platform, we compute its corresponding average failure and anomaly rate. We conclude this work with a preliminary comparative analysis of the health scorecards of different platforms. The concept of a "health scorecard" here introduced provides a useful snapshot of the failure and anomaly track record of a spacecraft platform on orbit. As such, it constitutes a useful and transparent benchmark that can be used by satellite operators to inform their acquisition choices ("inform" not "base" as other considerations are factored in when comparing different spacecraft

  3. Comparative evaluation and its implications for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Healy, Susan D

    2005-12-01

    Experiments on decision making by humans show that the choices that we make can be very labile. The magnitude of our preferences, and even our rank ordering of options, can vary according to the number and type of alternatives available for comparison. This apparent irrationality has been argued to result from our use of decision heuristics that have evolved to enable us to choose quickly and efficiently between options differing in multiple attributes. Here, we argue that, because there is also selective pressure for animals to make mating decisions quickly, and because potential mates also differ in multiple attributes, similar decision heuristics might have evolved for mate choice. Following this reasoning, the attractiveness of a given mate will depend on the others with whom he or she is being compared, rather than being an absolute function of his or her underlying quality. We describe some of the ramifications of such comparative evaluation, and argue that it could offer new insights into some of the biggest outstanding problems in mate choice and sexual selection.

  4. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women and indigo dye (fabric whitener are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+, fair (+, and poor (- and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  5. Comparative evaluation of oculometric variables in graves' ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Amante Miot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate oculometric parameters of Graves' ophthalmopathy in comparison to healthy eyes using digital photography and digital image analysis. INTRODUCTION: Graves' ophthalmopathy is the main cause of eye proptosis. Because these protrusions cause clinically perceived distortions in orbital architecture, digital photographs can be used to detect and quantify these changes. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study comprising 12 healthy volunteers and 15 Graves' ophthalmopathy patients with the purpose of evaluating the use of simple, non-invasive digital photography to estimate oculometric parameters of Graves' ophthalmopathy and compare them with the parameters of unaffected eyes. Facial photographs of cases and controls were taken in a standardized manner. Oculometric parameters were compared between the groups and then correlated to proptometer measures. RESULTS: All estimated oculometric variables showed significant differences between the groups, in particular with regard to mediopupilar aperture, lateral height, distance from the iris edge to the lateral boundary of the palpebral fissure, and distance from the higher point of the iris to the lateral limit of the palpebral fissure. The product of medial aperture and horizontal palpebral fissure also revealed greater discrepancy between the groups. Proptometer measures showed significant linear correlation between the distance from the iris edge to the lateral boundary of the palpebral fissure and between the distance from the higher point of the iris to the lateral limit of palpebral fissure (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative analysis of oculometric parameters in Graves' ophthalmopathy suggests that eye proptosis is related to an asymmetric increase in lateral oculometric measures. Standardized digital photographs can be used in clinical practice to objectively estimate oculometric parameters of Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

  6. Evaluating and comparing algorithms for respiratory motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, F.; Dürichen, R.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2013-06-01

    In robotic radiosurgery, it is necessary to compensate for systematic latencies arising from target tracking and mechanical constraints. This compensation is usually achieved by means of an algorithm which computes the future target position. In most scientific works on respiratory motion prediction, only one or two algorithms are evaluated on a limited amount of very short motion traces. The purpose of this work is to gain more insight into the real world capabilities of respiratory motion prediction methods by evaluating many algorithms on an unprecedented amount of data. We have evaluated six algorithms, the normalized least mean squares (nLMS), recursive least squares (RLS), multi-step linear methods (MULIN), wavelet-based multiscale autoregression (wLMS), extended Kalman filtering, and ε-support vector regression (SVRpred) methods, on an extensive database of 304 respiratory motion traces. The traces were collected during treatment with the CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and feature an average length of 71 min. Evaluation was done using a graphical prediction toolkit, which is available to the general public, as is the data we used. The experiments show that the nLMS algorithm—which is one of the algorithms currently used in the CyberKnife—is outperformed by all other methods. This is especially true in the case of the wLMS, the SVRpred, and the MULIN algorithms, which perform much better. The nLMS algorithm produces a relative root mean square (RMS) error of 75% or less (i.e., a reduction in error of 25% or more when compared to not doing prediction) in only 38% of the test cases, whereas the MULIN and SVRpred methods reach this level in more than 77%, the wLMS algorithm in more than 84% of the test cases. Our work shows that the wLMS algorithm is the most accurate algorithm and does not require parameter tuning, making it an ideal candidate for clinical implementation. Additionally, we have seen that the structure of a patient

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D. Q.; Schnase, J. L.; Clune, T. L.; Kim, E. J.; Freeman, S. M.; Thompson, J. H.; Hunter, K. A.; Theriot, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    Data intensive analytic workflows bridge between the largely unstructured mass of stored scientific data and the highly structured, tailored, reduced, and refined products used by scientists in their research. In general, the initial steps of an analysis, those operations that first interact with a data repository, tend to be the most general, while data manipulations closer to the client tend to be the most specialized to the individual, to the domain, or to the science question under study. The amount of data being operated on also tends to be larger on the repository-side of the workflow, smaller toward the client-side end products. We are using MapReduce to exploit this natural stratification, optimize efficiencies along the workflow chain, and provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of MapReduce as a means of enabling server-side, distributed climate data analysis. MapReduce is a model for distributed storage and computation that seeks to improve efficiencies of the near-archive operations that initiate workflows. Simply put, MapReduce stores chunked data on disks with associated processors in such a way that operations on the chunked data can occur in parallel and return meaningfully aggregated results. While MapReduce has proven effective for large repositories of textual data, its use in data intensive science applications has been limited, because many scientific data sets are inherently complex, have high dimensionality, and use binary formats. We are using Apache's open-source Hadoop software implementation of MapReduce on top of the Hadoop Filesystem in our evaluation. Our analyses focus on soil moisture, precipitation, and atmospheric water-vapor, important classes of observation- and simulation-derived data products. The specific data sets being used in the evaluation include MERRA monthly precipitation and soil moisture products; the MODIS Atmospheres, 8-day global water-vapor product; and the SMOS 3-day global soil moisture

  8. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  11. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  12. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden

  13. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah James Ode

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of bark, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay were carried out using chemicals and agar well diffusion method respectively. The results of phytochemicals analysis revealed differences in the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins and volatile oil in all the extracts. Tannins were present in the extract of leaves while terpenes were present in the extract of bark and leaves. Phlobatannins and flavonoids were absent in all the extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed that M. oleifera extracts exhibited broad spectrum activity against four to six bacteria isolates as indicated by the zone of inhibition ranging from 10 to 36mm with variation in the percentage sensitivity of < 100%, = 100% and >100% depending on the plant part and solvent used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 100mg/ml to 450mg/ml and 250mg/ml to 500mg/ml respectively against the isolates used. Standard antibiotic disc (Ofloxacin- 5μg inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria isolates except P. mirabilis. The results of this research work showed that M. oleifera has great potential as antibacterial compounds against Gram

  14. Diagnostic value of ECG-gated multidetector computed tomography in the early phase of suspected acute myocarditis. A preliminary comparative study with cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dambrin, Gregoire; Caussin, Christophe; Lancelin, Bernard; Paul, Jean F. [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laissy, Jean P.; Serfaty, Jean M. [AP-HP, Hospital Bichat, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced echocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the setting of suspected acute myocarditis compared with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study group consisted of 12 consecutive patients admitted for suspected acute myocarditis less than 10 days after onset of symptoms. All patients had clinical, electrocardiographic signs, and laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis. All patients but one (severe claustrophobia) underwent cardiac MRI using T1-weighted delayed-enhancement images after injection of gadolinium. ECG-gated MDCT was performed in all patients and included a first-pass contrast-enhanced acquisition and a delayed acquisition. MRI revealed abnormal focal or multifocal myocardial enhancement and confirmed the diagnosis in 11 patients. The first-pass MDCT acquisition showed homogenous left-ventricle contrast enhancement and absence of coronary stenosis in all patients. Delayed MDCT acquisition, performed 5 min later without reinjection of contrast medium revealed multiple areas of myocardial hyperenhancement in a focal or a multifocal pattern (six and six patients, respectively). Extent and location of hyperenhancement at MDCT correlated well with that observed at MR examination for all 11 patients evaluated by both techniques (r=0.9167, p=0.0004). These preliminary results show that ECG-gated MDCT could be a useful alternative noninvasive diagnostic test in the early phase of acute myocarditis. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS Norms for Evaluating the Nutrient Status of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is an important tool for increasing fruit yield and fruit quality. There are still no studies on the use of DRIS for nutritional diagnosis of the apple tree for China conditions. The objectives of this study were to establish norms for apple, to compare mean yield, leaf nutrient contents and variance of nutrient ratios of low- and high-yielding subpopulations. The study covered the apple producing areas of the Wei-bei Loess Plateau in the northwest of China, in 164 orchards selected for their high productivity and employment of excellent management techniques. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were determined in leaf samples. The data were divided into high-yielding (>45 t/ha and low-yielding (<45 t/ha subpopulations and norms were computed using standard DRIS procedures and a preliminary DRIS norms for apple growing in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau are selected. These norms were developed with data from only one region, so data from future surveys and field trials may subsequently be used to enlarge the database allowing the refinement of model parameters. The results elucidate that the DRIS model for apple, developed in this study, is a diagnostic tool that may be used to predict if insufficiencies or imbalances in N, P, K Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn supplies are occurring in apple production area in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau, China and indeed elsewhere in the other apple production areas with similar c1imatic and soil conditions.

  16. Comparative evaluation of healing after gingivectomy with electrocautery and laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study To evaluate whether laser has got any advantage over electrocautery in performing gingivectomy procedure. Method This was randomized split mouth prospective study where 17 patients having symmetrical gingival hyperplasia were treated with electrocautery and laser on each side. Intra- and postoperative parameters assessed were duration of surgery, bleeding, tissue sticking, postoperative pain and healing. The results were statistically analyzed and compared. Result There were 7 Females and 10 Males with a mean age of 28.2 ± 11.6 years. The mean time taken on the laser and electrocautery was 16 (±8.05) and 16.7 min (±9.86) respectively and the difference was not significant. On laser side, there was no bleeding in 3 (17.6%) and self limiting in 14 patients (82.4%) whereas electrocautery side, there was no bleeding in 2 (11.8%) and self limiting in 15 patients (88.2%). Both electrocautery and laser were comparable regarding ease of use during gingivectomy procedure. Charring was observed on both sides although there was more charring on the laser side. Fibrinous slough was present on both sides at 24 h. Difference in healing was not significant at various time intervals. There were no significant difference in postoperative pain experienced by the patients among the laser and cautery group at different time intervals. Conclusion Both techniques with proper adhesion to safeguards, can be used to remove gingival overgrowth with equal efficiency and wound healing capacity. There is no advantage of diode laser over electrocautery in performing gingivectomy. PMID:26258017

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Automatic Rock Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Castano, R.

    2006-12-01

    Enabling rock detection allows rovers to make the most of each command cycle by performing autonomous site characterization, and prioritization of the most important data for downlink. On Earth these algorithms assist data analysis by automating laborious image annotation tasks. We compare the performance of several detection algorithms on a representative set of Mars Exploration Rover data. Tested algorithms include strategies based on pixel intensity (Castano et al., 2004), filter cascades (Viola et al., 2002), shading models (Gulick et al., 2001) and stereo range data (Gor et al., 2001). The test dataset consists of 13 navigation images and 104 panoramic camera images under various terrain and lighting conditions. Together these images contain over 50,000 manually-labeled rocks. We assess detectors' performance on autonomous geology tasks: identifying targets for spectroscopy, estimating the fractional area of terrain covered by rocks, and identifying the contour outlines of rocks above 4cm in length. While detection performance varied considerably across different detection strategies, images, and tasks, some general trends are apparent. All rock detection algorithms underestimated fractional coverage area to varying degrees. Accurate identification of contour outlines was especially difficult; most detectors exhibit low recall and various biases in rock shape and size. However, all detectors performed significantly better than random on the target selection task, paralleling recent successes in autonomous spectrometer targeting. Comparative evaluation on field-typical datasets will remain important as rock detection technologies continue to mature. References: Castano et al, Intensity-based Rock Detection for Acquiring Onboard Rover Science, LPSC 2004. Gor et al, Autonomous rock detection for Mars terrain, AIAA Space 2001. Gulick et al, Autonomous image analysis during the 1999 Marsokhod rover field test, JGR 2001. Viola et al, Robust Real-Time Object

  18. Evaluation of the Role of Probiotics in Endodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Aarti; Kokate, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i.e. E. faecalis and C. albicans, and (b) to evaluate the potential use of probiotic therapy as an additive in endodontic treatment procedures. Materials and Methods: Two commercial probiotics were selected and evaluated based upon the numbers and concentration of organisms. Pathogenic test organisms were C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Phase 1 of the study was conducted by agar cup method test to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the selected probiotics against E. faecalis and C. albicans by measuring zones of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Microorganisms from probiotic samples were isolated following manufacturer's instructions. Pathogenic organisms were set to a 0.1 McFarland standard challenge. Circular wells of 8 mm diameter were punched in each of the poured plates. Appropriately diluted test samples were added to the above-punched wells. The volume of the solution added to each well was 100 μl. The plates were incubated in an upright position at 37°C for 24 hours under aerobic conditions. Post incubation, ZOI was measured (mm). Phase 2 was conducted by mixing 9 ml of 30% poloxamer 407 and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth in a test tube with 500 μl of either E. faecalis or C. albicans set at an optical density (OD) of 0.252, together with 500 μl of test probiotic strain, set at a respective OD. Samples were then incubated at 37°C for

  19. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of different wheelchair seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative biomechanical analysis of four antidecubitus wheelchair cushions. Thirty wheelchair users were considered divided into three groups: paraplegic subjects (with no cutaneous sensation), neurologic subjects (with intact cutaneous sensation), and elderly subjects. The biomechanical evaluation was performed using a piezoresistive sensor matrix system to quantify parameters referred to pressure distribution, seating surface and posture. Dedicated software was developed for the automatic elaboration of the raw data and the computation of the parameters of interest. Differences among cushion types and subject groups were analyzed. An analysis of time-transient behaviors was also performed. Results showed that no significant differences in pressure peak reduction were found among the four cushions. Moreover, no time-transient behavior was shown by any cushions. However, both the location of pressure peaks and posture were dependent on cushion types. Comparison of the three subject groups showed that elderly subjects had the highest mean pressure and the lowest contact surface, while paraplegics presented the highest pressure peaks. This procedure appears indicated for individualizing the prescription of a wheelchair cushion and even for customizing a cushion to induce a specific posture.

  20. Translation Evaluation: A Comparative Study of an Oblique Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    / Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is of an absolute necessity in today’s world. Robinson (1997 states that the study of translation is an integral part of intercultural relations and of conveying scientific and technological knowledge. He further mentions that “translators need to be able to process linguistic materials quickly and efficiently; but they also need to be able to recognize problem areas and to slow down to solve them in complex analytical ways” (p. 2. This study is an attempt to explore and evaluate an oblique translation of a text from English into Persian to find the most frequent translation strategy. To reach the goal of the study, the researchers selected one hundred and ten sentences of an original English text which had been translated freely at random and compared them with their Persian counterparts. The findings of the study indicated that Persian translator used equivalent strategy with the highest percentage (45% in the translated corpus. After that, modulation, and transposition had the highest percentages respectively.

  1. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  2. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  3. Hyperacuity test to evaluate vision through dense cataracts: research preliminary to a clinical study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.; Giraldez, Maria J.; Huang, Doahua; Hirose, Hiroshi; Knowles, Richard A.; Namperumalsamy, P.; LaBree, Lauri; Azen, Stanley P.

    1995-03-01

    Using high luminance point-of-light stimuli, Vernier judgments can be made in the presence of markedly degraded retinal imagery. Without coaching, observers perform center-of-gravity assessments of relative locations of degraded point images. We seek to defined, presurgery, individuals who will derive the most benefit from advanced cataract removal (a form of triage), and to determine which of two cataractous eyes has the better postsurgical visual prognosis. There are incredible and growing backlogs of patients with severe cataracts (and other dense media opacities) in the developing world, and generally, limited resources are available for provision of health care. Postcataract surgical failure rates for good visual function are often high, and only one eye is operated on in over 95% of indigent patients treated. Prior to initiating advanced studies in the developing world, at Berkeley we conducted preliminary research on Vernier acuity test techniques on normal adult subjects. We sought to determine the number of repeat trials necessary; to compare a two-point and a three-point Vernier display; to determine the shape of the measured response function at large gap separations between test points (required when testing advanced cataract patients); to assess the effect(s) of a broad range of uncorrected refractive errors on outcomes; and to consider means to minimize refraction-based errors. From these and prior data and analyses, we defined a protocol for use in the developing world. Using a newly designed and rugged precision instrument, these tests were repeated on an advanced cataract population at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Although we had much prior experience in India, the initial protocol required major revision on site. Necessary changes in test methods and analytical approaches were made, and next stages in this program were planned. And a new and simple gap `visual acuity' (gap `VA') test was added to the protocol, which greatly facilitated

  4. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  5. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  6. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  7. Comparative evaluation of various cytomorphological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of breast carcinoma can be reliably made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Grading usually done in histological samples for the selection of therapy but not in cytology. Various cytological grading systems have been proposed; however, none of them is presently considered the gold standard to predict the prognosis. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate various 3-tier cytological grading systems and to determine the best possible system corresponds to the histological grading proposed by Elston and Ellis based on the method by Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR method. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 94 cases of breast carcinoma FNACs were graded using six cytological grading systems and compared with SBR method. Concordance, association, and correlation studies were done to select best possible cytological grading system. The interobserver reproducibility among the six grading systems was also assessed. Results: Robinson method showed best correlation (r = 0.801; P = 0.0001 and t = 0.783; P = 0.0001, maximum percent agreement (83/94 cases; 88.3%, and a substantial kappa value of agreement (k = 0.737 with the Nottingham modification of SBR grading system followed by Mouriguand method. Taniguchi system showed better interobserver agreement (87.2%; k= 0.738. Conclusions: This study showed that all six cytological grading systems correlated positively with SBR method. However, Robinson's grading system demonstrated the best concordance, correlation, and substantial Kappa value of the agreement with the histological grading by SBR method in comparison to other 3-tier cytological grading systems. Hence, in conclusion, this grading should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports as it correlates well with histological grade. Despite various cytological grading systems, Robinson's method is simple, more objective, and reproducible, hence being preferable for routine

  8. Phytochemical constituents and preliminary toxicity evaluation of leaves from Rourea induta Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kalegari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most active plants are toxic at high doses and it is therefore important to investigate the preliminary toxicity of plant extracts. The Rourea induta species is a potential drug with no phytochemical or biological studies registered in the literature. Thus, a phytochemical study and a toxicity analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae, was run. A long chain hydrocarbon, n-tetracosane, and four flavonoids were identified: quercetin, and three glycosylated derivates, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-β-galactoside. This is the first time these have been isolated in this species. The structures were elucidated by 13C NMR, ¹H NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy. The toxicity evaluation of extracts was performed by the brine shrimp method and determination of hemolytic activity. The samples demonstrated no toxic potential by the analyzed methods.A maioria das plantas ativas é tóxica em doses elevadas, portanto, é importante a investigação da toxicidade preliminar dos extratos das plantas. A espécie Rourea induta é uma droga potencial que não apresenta estudo fitoquímico ou biológico descrito na literatura. Assim, um estudo fitoquímico e análises toxicológicas foram realizados com o extrato etanólico obtido das folhas de Rourea induta Planch., Connaraceae. Foram obtidos um hidrocarboneto de cadeia longa, n-tetracosano, e quatro flavonóides, quercetina e três derivados glicosilados, quercetina-3-O-α-arabinofuranosideo, quercetina-3-O-β-xilosideo e quercetina-3-O-β-galactosideo. Esta é a primeira vez que estes compostos são isolados nesta espécie. As estruturas foram elucidadas por espectroscopia de RMN-13C, RMN-¹H, ultravioleta e infravermelho. A avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi analisada pelo método da Artemia salina e atividade hemolítica. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentou um potencial tóxico pelos m

  9. Biogeographic perspective of speciation among desert tortoises in the genus Gopherus: A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor Edwards; Mercy Vaughn; Cristina Melendez Torres; Alice E. Karl; Philip C. Rosen; Kristin H. Berry; Robert W. Murph

    2013-01-01

    The enduring processes of time, climate, and adaptation have sculpted the distribution of organisms we observe in the Sonoran Desert. One such organism is Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai. We apply a genomic approach to identify the evolutionary processes driving diversity in this species and present preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses. The Sonoran...

  10. Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2009-05-01

    A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

  11. An evaluation of Comparative Genome Sequencing (CGS by comparing two previously-sequenced bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Christopher D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of new technology, it has recently become practical to resequence the genome of a bacterium after experimental manipulation. It is critical though to know the accuracy of the technique used, and to establish confidence that all of the mutations were detected. Results In order to evaluate the accuracy of genome resequencing using the microarray-based Comparative Genome Sequencing service provided by Nimblegen Systems Inc., we resequenced the E. coli strain W3110 Kohara using MG1655 as a reference, both of which have been completely sequenced using traditional sequencing methods. CGS detected 7 of 8 small sequence differences, one large deletion, and 9 of 12 IS element insertions present in W3110, but did not detect a large chromosomal inversion. In addition, we confirmed that CGS also detected 2 SNPs, one deletion and 7 IS element insertions that are not present in the genome sequence, which we attribute to changes that occurred after the creation of the W3110 lambda clone library. The false positive rate for SNPs was one per 244 Kb of genome sequence. Conclusion CGS is an effective way to detect multiple mutations present in one bacterium relative to another, and while highly cost-effective, is prone to certain errors. Mutations occurring in repeated sequences or in sequences with a high degree of secondary structure may go undetected. It is also critical to follow up on regions of interest in which SNPs were not called because they often indicate deletions or IS element insertions.

  12. Comparative evaluation of maintenance performance using subsurvival functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, J.L.; Cooke, R.; Nyman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Subsurvival functions are applied to operational data for the control rod drive systems of Nordic nuclear reactors to evaluate maintenance performance. Competing failure modes are preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintenance indicators are defined and evaluated for 8 plants. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  13. The Evaluation of Vocational Training: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of vocational training evaluation in the United States, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states, and the European Union identified certain advantages to the U.S. model of microeconometric impact evaluation, including better policy and expenditure of public money. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  14. BACTERIAL CELLULOSE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of polyethylene (PE composites were evaluated as a function of the addition of bacterial cellulose (BC. It was found that BC could improve the mechanical properties of the composites with or without the combination of traditional wood fiber. The improvements were affected by post-treatment. It was confirmed that BC had a significant influence on impact strength. The pellicle form of BC was able to achieve superior impact strength compared to the fluffy form of BC, but had similar effects on the tensile strength in comparison to the composites with fluffy BC.

  15. SIFT - A preliminary evaluation. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerant computer for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Butler, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a performance evaluation of the SIFT computer system conducted in the NASA AIRLAB facility. The essential system functions are described and compared to both earlier design proposals and subsequent design improvements. The functions supporting fault tolerance are found to consume significant computing resources. With SIFT's specimen task load, scheduled at a 30-Hz rate, the executive tasks such as reconfiguration, clock synchronization and interactive consistency, require 55 percent of the available task slots. Other system overhead (e.g., voting and scheduling) use an average of 50 percent of each remaining task slot.

  16. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a new clinical algorithm to interpret blood cultures growing coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, David; Lécuyer, Hervé; Geeraerts, Thomas; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Bille, Emmanuelle; Mercier, Frédéric J; Benhamou, Dan; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

    2013-07-01

    Evaluating the clinical significance of blood cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is of critical importance since these microorganisms represent both the first contaminants of blood cultures and one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection (BSI). This prospective 2-centre study aimed to compare a previously reported algorithm to a clinical algorithm based on our experience. We identified 84 patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures. Twenty-seven (32%) were considered to have BSI according to our study algorithm. Thirty-seven (44%) patients were considered to have CoNS BSI according to the previously reported algorithm. The 2 algorithms isolated patients with similar rates of recurrences and hospital mortality. Our algorithm seemed to result in less diagnoses of CoNS BSI without harmful consequences compared to the previously reported algorithm. The impact on patient outcome and the inappropriate use of antibiotics deserves further investigation.

  18. Caudal analgesia for herniotomy: Comparative evaluation of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Abstract. Objective: There is ... evaluation of two dose schemes of bupivacaine ..... twelfth thoracic nerve as the highest dermatomal sensory.

  19. Comparative evaluation of scanned stripping techniques: SSCP vs. SSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic features of scanned deposition potential curves constructed from stripping chronopotentiometry (SSCP) and various modes of stripping voltammetry (SSV) are critically evaluated. The strengths and weaknesses of each method for identification of metal ion speciation features and susc

  20. Preliminary evaluation of cryogenic two-phase flow imaging using electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huangjun; Yu, Liu; Zhou, Rui; Qiu, Limin; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    The potential application of the 2-D eight-electrode electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) to the inversion imaging of the liquid nitrogen-vaporous nitrogen (LN2-VN2) flow in the tube is theoretically evaluated. The phase distribution of the computational domain is obtained using the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique with variable iterative step size. The detailed mathematical derivations for the calculations are presented. The calculated phase distribution for the two detached LN2 column case shows the comparable results with the water-air case, regardless of the much reduced dielectric permittivity of LN2 compared with water. The inversion images of total eight different LN2-VN2 flow patterns are presented and quantitatively evaluated by calculating the relative void fraction error and the correlation coefficient. The results demonstrate that the developed reconstruction technique for ECT has the capacity to reconstruct the phase distribution of the complex LN2-VN2 flow, while the accuracy of the inversion images is significantly influenced by the size of the discrete phase. The influence of the measurement noise on the image quality is also considered in the calculations.

  1. Evaluating an experimental dentifrice containing chloramine-T: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapelli, Camila; Landi, Flávio; Ribas, José Paulo; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an experimental dentifrice (CH) containing an antimicrobial agent (1% chloramine-T). A clinical, fully randomised, double-blind comparative study was designed for 30 selected patients aged 15 to 50 years, with no periodontal disease, decay or other oral diseases, good general health and the presence of dental plaque and sulcus bleeding. Baseline Turesky modified plaque index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were scored for all patients. Volunteers randomly received the experimental dentifrice (CH) or a commercial-brand dentifrice containing triclosan (TR). Both dentifrices were provided in identical, number-labelled tubes, and the subjects were instructed to use the supplied dentifrice only for their usual oral hygiene, three times a day for a duration of 7 days. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI and SBI were assessed again. The data obtained were subjected to the Kruskal– Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI scores diminished significantly for both evaluated dentifrices. The SBI values decreased significantly for both experimental and commercial-brand dentifrices. Both dentifrices reduced PI and SBI. By comparing the experimental and gold-standard dentifrice, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the PI and SBI scores after their use, suggesting that they exerted a similar effect on the oral health indexes.

  2. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Michał; Garnuszek, Piotr

    2010-02-01

    Application of cross-linking agents such as SATA and 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) for radiochemical synthesis of new radioactive Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes with carnosine was investigated. The mixed-ligand Pt(II)([(125)I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex has been synthesized in a multi-step reaction. First, carnosine was modified by the attachment of SATA. After chromatographic purification, the conjugate was unprotected to form a reactive sulfhydryl functional group, and then the modified carnosine was substituted to PtCl(2)[(125)I]Hist complex. The Pt(II)(IT-[(125)I]Carnosine) and Pt(IV)(IT-[(131)I]Carnosine) complexes were synthesized in a three-step reaction. First, carnosine was labeled with iodine radionuclide ((125)I or (131)I), followed by conjugation with 2-IT. The modified IT-[*I]Carnosine was complexed with tetrachloroplatinate or hexachloroplatinate. Comparative biodistribution studies were performed in normal Wistar rats and in Lewis rats with implanted (s.c.) rat pancreatic tumor cells (AR42J). The HPLC analysis showed a relatively fast formation of the new mixed-ligand Pt([(125)I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex (yield ca. 50% after 20h). Reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with [(125)I]Carnosine modified by 2-IT proceeded rapidly and with a high yield (>95% after 2h). The synthesis of the Pt(IV)IT-[*I]Carnosine complex was the slower reaction in comparison to the analogous synthesis of the Pt(II) complex (yield ca. 70% after 12h), thus a purification step was necessary. The biodistribution study proved the in vivo stability of the newly synthesized complexes (a low accumulation in thyroid gland and in GIT) and showed that the conjugation of the modified carnosine changes significantly biodistribution scheme of the Pt complexes comparing to the reference Pt(II)[*I]Hist and Pt(IV)([*I]Hist)(2) complexes. The mixed-ligand complex was rapidly excreted in urine and revealed the highest accumulation in kidneys (>5%ID/g). A very high concentration in blood and in liver was observed for the

  3. Preliminary experience with dynamic MR projection angiography in the evaluation of cervicocranial steno-occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, S.G.; Haselhorst, R.; Bilecen, D.; Radue, E.W. [Section of Neuroradiology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Lyrer, P.A. [Dept. of Neurology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Seifritz, E. [Psychiatric University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Bongartz, G. [Inst. for Diagnostic Radiology, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Scheffler, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    The application of a contrast-enhanced, two-dimensional MR technique, which provides dynamic projection angiograms at a subsecond temporal frame rate for depiction of the cervical and intracranial arteries, was evaluated in three healthy volunteers and seven patients with various cervicocranial steno-occlusive diseases. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) served as standard of reference for findings in the patients. Magnetic resonance projection angiography (MRPA) was performed on a standard 1.5-T clinical MR imaging system at intravenous injection of a single dose of contrast agent (0.1 mmol/kg GdDTPA-BMA). Sixty consecutive images of the cerebral circulation were acquired at a temporal frame rate of 900 ms per image in the coronal plane. The collateral flow and the perfusion of the compromised vessel territory were readily assessed by MPRA in patients with occlusion of the internal cerebral artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA). The leptomeningeal collateralisation of these patients was displayed in a dynamic fashion. Furthermore, quantitative perfusion measurement provided a difference between both MCA territories in the time to peak ({delta}DTTP) of the contrast bolus of 1.12 {+-} 0.28 s in five patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the ICA (healthy volunteers 0.19 {+-} 0.05 s). However, important pathological findings, such as the evaluation of carotid artery stenoses and the intracranial collateral flow pattern in patients with severe carotid stenoses, were not sufficiently assessable as compared with DSA. We conclude that the possibility of obtaining simultaneously information about morphology and perfusion dynamics of the cervicocranial vessels is unique in MPRA as compared with other MR techniques. However, in the applied form, the technique is not a reliable tool for the complete evaluation of the cervicocranial vessels in patients with steno-occlusive disease. (orig.)

  4. Fetal movements and placental lactogen levels for fetal-placental evaluation. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Cruz, A C; Gelman, S R; Buhi, W C

    1977-01-01

    Fetal movements were measured by 37 pregnant women during a 10-minute period while they were lying on their left side at various times during the day with the highest rates in the evening. Preliminary assessments of fetal movement and serum hPL levels in pregnant women suggest that the two tests might complement each other in providing more information about the status of the placenta and fetus.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a gel tube agglutination major cross-match method in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarnovo, Dania; Burton, Shelley A; Horney, Barbara S; MacKenzie, Allan L; Vanderstichel, Raphaël

    2016-09-01

    A major cross-match gel tube test is available for use in dogs yet has not been clinically evaluated. This study compared cross-match results obtained using the gel tube and the standard tube methods for canine samples. Study 1 included 107 canine sample donor-recipient pairings cross-match tested with the RapidVet-H method gel tube test and compared results with the standard tube method. Additionally, 120 pairings using pooled sera containing anti-canine erythrocyte antibody at various concentrations were tested with leftover blood from a hospital population to assess sensitivity and specificity of the gel tube method in comparison with the standard method. The gel tube method had a good relative specificity of 96.1% in detecting lack of agglutination (compatibility) compared to the standard tube method. Agreement between the 2 methods was moderate. Nine of 107 pairings showed agglutination/incompatibility on either test, too few to allow reliable calculation of relative sensitivity. Fifty percent of the gel tube method results were difficult to interpret due to sample spreading in the reaction and/or negative control tubes. The RapidVet-H method agreed with the standard cross-match method on compatible samples, but detected incompatibility in some sample pairs that were compatible with the standard method. Evaluation using larger numbers of incompatible pairings is needed to assess diagnostic utility. The gel tube method results were difficult to categorize due to sample spreading. Weak agglutination reactions or other factors such as centrifuge model may be responsible. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  7. Development and preliminary evaluation of culturally specific web-based intervention for parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcome variables of parents' perception and behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This web-based intervention could be delivered across diverse settings, such as schools and community mental health centers, to increase parents' knowledge of adolescent's mental health and allow for early detection of mental health problems. Mental health nurses working in schools may spend a significant amount of time addressing students' mental health issues; thus, this web-based intervention could be a useful resource to share with parents and children. In this way, the mental health nurses could facilitate parental engagement in the intervention and then help them to continue to apply and practice the knowledge and skills obtained through the program. Introduction There is a need for accessible, culturally specific web-based interventions to address parent-child relationships and adolescents' mental health. Aims This study developed and conducted a preliminary evaluation of a 4-week web-based intervention for parents of adolescents aged 11 to 16 years in Korea. Methods We used a two-group, repeated

  8. Comparing apples and oranges: the dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuis, J.; Biesbroek, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have compared climate change adaptation policies within and between different countries. In this paper we show that these comparative studies suffer from what is known as the ‘‘dependent variable problem’ – the indistinctness of the phenomenon that is being measured,

  9. Comparing apples and oranges: the dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuis, J.; Biesbroek, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have compared climate change adaptation policies within and between different countries. In this paper we show that these comparative studies suffer from what is known as the ‘‘dependent variable problem’ – the indistinctness of the phenomenon that is being measured,

  10. Nurse evaluation of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Hoek, Hans W.; Kas, Martien J.H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) manifest elevated levels of physical activity or hyperactivity. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate activity levels, mostly questionnaires but also expensive and invasive methods such as actometry or other measurements of energy expenditur

  11. Students' Use of Evaluative Constructivism: Comparative Degrees of Intentional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lindsey Norma

    2014-01-01

    "Evaluative constructivism" is used to describe how students derived learning intentions and made choices about what they would do during a unit of work in a final-year high school biology class, as they conducted an inquiry into the social and ethical issues associated with cancer. The context of the study, theoretical background and…

  12. Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for evaluation of gastric mucosal blood flow: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, Nicolas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mathieu, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Neviere, Remi; Wattel, Francis; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    Microcirculatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract appear to be a major compound of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to sepsis or septic shock. A better analysis of mucosal hypoperfusion in critically ill patients with sepsis may be helpful for the comprehension of this high mortality-associated syndrome. Fluorescence endoscopy has been recognized as a non-invasive method for both spatial and temporal evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion. We performed this imaging technique during routine gastric endoscopy in patients with sepsis criteria. The study included gastric observation and appearance time of gastric fluorescence after an intravenous 10% sodium - fluorescein bolus. Qualitative analysis of high fluorescence areas was compared with mucosal blood flow measurements by laser - Doppler flowmetry. We concluded that the fluorescence endoscopic imaging in critically ill patients with sepsis may reveal spacial and temporal differences in the mucosal microcirculation distribution.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Candidate Multi-Epitope-Vaccine Against the Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Jian; DONG Xiaonan; CHEN Yinghua

    2008-01-01

    A multi-epitope-vaccine MEVABC consisting of two linear neutralizing determinants (BC1: aa693-716; A6: aa844-865) located on antigenic unit B/C and unit A of glycoprotein E2 was prepared to evaluate whether a combination strategy is effective in the design of peptide vaccines.After immunization,pig sera collected every one to two weeks were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.C-strain- induced anti-sera and hyper-immune sera cannot recognize overlapping peptides that cover the E2 N-terminus,while MEVABC is able to elicit high levels of peptide-specific antibody response.When compared with previously studied peptide vaccines PV-BC1 and PV-A6,the same dose of either component in the MEVABC increases the BC1- or A6-specific antibodies (to 1/3-1/2 of the levels of the separate vaccines).However,the synergy between the antibodies may make MEVABC much more potent.Moreover,anti-C-strain immunity pre-existing in pigs does not disturb the sequent MEVABC vaccination.Thus,MEVABC can be ad- ministrated to pigs which already possess anti-classical swine fever virus immunity.MEVABC is a promising candidate marker vaccine.

  14. Balance impairment in people with multiple sclerosis: preliminary evidence for the Balance Evaluation Systems Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Kasser, Susan L

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to identify balance impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by evaluating differences in BESTest performance between people with and without MS. We also assessed the BESTest's validity by correlation with objective measures of postural performance as well as with disease severity and fall status. Thirteen subjects with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS: 0-4.5) and 13 matched subjects without MS were evaluated on the BESTest, asked about fall history, and assessed by force plates and motion capture as they performed laboratory tasks of step initiation, forward leaning to the limits of stability, and postural responses to rotations of the support surface. Compared to subjects without MS, subjects with MS exhibited lower total BESTest scores (mean (95%) score for subjects with MS=91 (83-99); subjects without MS=105 (104-107)) as well as section scores pertaining to mechanical constraints, limits of stability, anticipatory postural adjustments, and gait. BESTest scores significantly correlated with objective laboratory measures of step velocity during step initiation (Pearson r(2)=0.48, P<0.01) as well as center-of-pressure displacements during both the leaning (Pearson r(2)=0.55, P<0.005) and postural-response tasks (Pearson r(2)=0.76, P<0.0001). BESTest total scores were 92% accurate to identify fallers and non-fallers, and BESTest scores significantly correlated with EDSS scores (Spearman's rho=0.85, P<0.0005). Thus, the BESTest provides a valid clinical assessment of balance impairments in people with MS.

  15. Comparative evaluation of aerial lime mortars for architectural conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Paulina; Henriques, Fernando M.A.; Rato, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) 338-346 International bibliography on conservation usually refers that mortars made with lime putty with long extinction periods behave better than others made with the current dry hydrated limes. In order to evaluate this assess, an experimental study of lime mortars was carried out, using dry hydrated lime and two lime putties. It becomes clear that the use of lime putties with long extinction periods in mortars allow better performances, pa...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  17. Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Existing Risk Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article lies on the specific features of the existing software packages for risk management differentiating three categories. Representative for these categories we consider the Crystal Ball, Haufe Risikomanager and MIS - Risk Management solutions, outlining the strenghts and weaknesses in a comparative analysis.

  18. Comparative evaluation of pin-in-fiberglass cast and Kirschner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... fiberglass cast with Kirschner-Ehmer type I external skeletal fixative in the management of ... increase in vital parameters were observed, but were not significant (P>0.05) when compared with pre- .... temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate were ... extensive exercise, or minor difference from the.

  19. 3D–2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2015-03-07

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely 'LevelCheck') to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of the surgical product

  20. 3D-2D registration in mobile radiographs: algorithm development and preliminary clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Yoshito; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Vogt, Sebastian; Aygun, Nafi; Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-03-01

    An image-based 3D-2D registration method is presented using radiographs acquired in the uncalibrated, unconstrained geometry of mobile radiography. The approach extends a previous method for six degree-of-freedom (DOF) registration in C-arm fluoroscopy (namely ‘LevelCheck’) to solve the 9-DOF estimate of geometry in which the position of the source and detector are unconstrained. The method was implemented using a gradient correlation similarity metric and stochastic derivative-free optimization on a GPU. Development and evaluation were conducted in three steps. First, simulation studies were performed that involved a CT scan of an anthropomorphic body phantom and 1000 randomly generated digitally reconstructed radiographs in posterior-anterior and lateral views. A median projection distance error (PDE) of 0.007 mm was achieved with 9-DOF registration compared to 0.767 mm for 6-DOF. Second, cadaver studies were conducted using mobile radiographs acquired in three anatomical regions (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) and three levels of source-detector distance (~800, ~1000 and ~1200 mm). The 9-DOF method achieved a median PDE of 0.49 mm (compared to 2.53 mm for the 6-DOF method) and demonstrated robustness in the unconstrained imaging geometry. Finally, a retrospective clinical study was conducted with intraoperative radiographs of the spine exhibiting real anatomical deformation and image content mismatch (e.g. interventional devices in the radiograph that were not in the CT), demonstrating a PDE = 1.1 mm for the 9-DOF approach. Average computation time was 48.5 s, involving 687 701 function evaluations on average, compared to 18.2 s for the 6-DOF method. Despite the greater computational load, the 9-DOF method may offer a valuable tool for target localization (e.g. decision support in level counting) as well as safety and quality assurance checks at the conclusion of a procedure (e.g. overlay of planning data on the radiograph for verification of

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the pivot-shift phenomenon with use of kinetic analysis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Baydal-Bertomeu, José-María; Castelli, Andrea; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Marín-Roca, Susana; Garrido-Jaén, José-David

    2011-07-06

    Currently, a suitable and reliable noninvasive method to evaluate rotational stability in vivo in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees, particularly during sports movements, does not exist. We speculated that if there is a rotational instability, the patient would avoid reaching a high pivoting moment during pivoting activities as a defense mechanism, and that the ground reaction moment, as registered by dynamometric platforms, would be reduced. On the basis of this hypothesis, we developed a study using kinetic analysis to evaluate rotational stability under dynamic loading. Thirty recreationally active athletes, including fifteen healthy subjects and fifteen with an anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee, were recruited for this study. Patients performed jumping with pivoting with internal tibial rotation and external tibial rotation on the dynamometric platform with both the healthy and the injured limb. The quantitative results were graphically plotted, and the following parameters were evaluated: loading moment, pivoting moment, torque amplitude, loading slope, pivoting slope, percentage of pivoting with load, loading impulse, pivoting impulse, and maximum body rotation angle. There were no significant differences between the dominant and nondominant knees in the control group during the jumping with pivoting and external tibial rotation test with regard to the pivoting moment (p = 0.805), pivoting slope (p = 0.716), pivoting impulse 2 (p = 0.858), and pivoting impulse 3 (p = 0.873). In patients with a chronic tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, there was a significant decrease of the pivoting moment (p = 0.02), pivoting slope (p = 0.005), pivoting impulse 2 (p = 0.006), and pivoting impulse 3 (p = 0.035) during the jumping with pivoting and external tibial rotation test in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee compared with the healthy, contralateral knee. Kinetic analysis with use of a dynamic platform can objectively detect alterations

  2. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, M., E-mail: echoplanare@gmail.com [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B. [Department of Otorhinolaryngoiatry, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K{sup trans} values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in

  3. Parametric Portfolio Selection: Evaluating and Comparing to Markowitz Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we exploit the parametric portfolio optimization in the Brazilian market. Our data consists of monthly returns of 306 Brazilian stocks in the period between 2001 and 2013. We tested the model both in and out of sample and compared the results with the value and equal weighted portfolios and with a Markowitz based portfolio. We performed statistical inference in the parametric optimization using bootstrap techniques in order to build the parameters empirical distributions. Our results showed that the parametric optimization is a very efficient technique out of sample. It consistently showed superior results when compared with the VW, EW and Markowitz portfolios even when transaction costs were included. Finally, we consider the parametric approach to be very flexible to the inclusion of constraints in weights, transaction costs and listing and delisting of stocks.

  4. Comparative evaluation of photovoltaic MPP trackers: A simulated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnam Jyoti Saharia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative assessment of three popular maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms used in photovoltaic power generation. A 120 Wp PV module is taken as reference for the study that is connected to a suitable resistive load by a boost converter. Two profiles of variation of solar insolation at fixed temperature and varying temperature at fixed solar insolation are taken to test the tracking efficiency of three MPPT algorithms based on the perturb and observe (P&O, Fuzzy logic, and Neural Network techniques. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation software is used for assessment, and the results indicate that the fuzzy logic-based tracker presents better tracking effectiveness to variations in both solar insolation and temperature profiles when compared to P&O technique and Neural Network-based technique.

  5. Soil metaproteomics – Comparative evaluation of protein extraction protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Wilhartitz, Inés C.; Schneider, Thomas; Roschitzki, Bernd; Schmid, Emanuel; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Metaproteomics and its potential applications are very promising to study microbial activity in environmental samples and to obtain a deeper understanding of microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of soil samples the exhaustive extraction of proteins is a major challenge. We compared soil protein extraction protocols in terms of their protein extraction efficiency for two different soil types. Four different protein extraction procedures were applied based on (a) SDS extractio...

  6. Trividha Snehapaka of Panchagavya Ghrita: A critical comparative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Athavale, Arun V.; Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Backgorund: The three stages of Snehapaka formulations namely Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka have been characteristically advocated for different routes of administration-Nasya, Pana/Basti and Abhyanga, respectively. Guidelines or established method for post-formulation characterization for the same is hardly available. Objective: The present communication is the comparative study of Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka of Panchagavya ghrita (PGG). Materials and Methods: Laboratory prepared samples...

  7. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  9. Droplet Nucleation: Physically-Based Parameterizations and Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Ghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in simulations of climate and climate change is the influence of aerosols on the optical properties of clouds. The root of this influence is the droplet nucleation process, which involves the spontaneous growth of aerosol into cloud droplets at cloud edges, during the early stages of cloud formation, and in some cases within the interior of mature clouds. Numerical models of droplet nucleation represent much of the complexity of the process, but at a computational cost that limits their application to simulations of hours or days. Physically-based parameterizations of droplet nucleation are designed to quickly estimate the number nucleated as a function of the primary controlling parameters: the aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity and cooling rate. Here we compare and contrast the key assumptions used in developing each of the most popular parameterizations and compare their performances under a variety of conditions. We find that the more complex parameterizations perform well under a wider variety of nucleation conditions, but all parameterizations perform well under the most common conditions. We then discuss the various applications of the parameterizations to cloud-resolving, regional and global models to study aerosol effects on clouds at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We compare estimates of anthropogenic aerosol indirect effects using two different parameterizations applied to the same global climate model, and find that the estimates of indirect effects differ by only 10%. We conclude with a summary of the outstanding challenges remaining for further development and application.

  10. Commercial Telmisartan Tablets: A Comparative Evaluation with Innovator Brand Micardis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. The solubility of Telmisartan in aqueous solutions is strongly pH-dependent. Five commercial tablets of telmisartan (40 and 80 mg) were compared with the reference formulation Micardis (Innovator brand of telmisartan molecule).Experimental: Dissolution tests were performed by employing USP type apparatus-II (Paddle type) at 75rpm using pH 1.2, 4.5 and 7.5 buffers as the dissolution media. The...

  11. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  12. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine in epidural anaesthesia: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to find a better adjuvant in regional anaesthesia are underway since long. Aims and objectives are to compare the efficacy and clinical profile of two α-2 adrenergic agonists, dexmedetomidine and clonidine, in epidural anaesthesia with special emphasis on their sedative properties and an ability to provide smooth intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. A prospective randomized study was carried out which included 50 adult female patients between the ages of 44 and 65 years of (American Society of Anaesthesiologists ASAI/II grade who underwent vaginal hysterectomies. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine (RD and ropivacaine + clonidine (RC, comprising of 25 patients each. Group RD was administered 17 ml of 0.75% epidural ropivacaine and 1.5 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine, while group RC received admixture of 17 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine and 2 μg/kg of clonidine. Onset of analgesia, sensory and motor block levels, sedation, duration of analgesia and side effects were observed. The data obtained was subjected to statistical computation with analysis of variance and chi-square test using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 10.0 for windows and value of P 0.05. Dexmedetomidine is a better neuraxial adjuvant compared to clonidine for providing early onset of sensory analgesia, adequate sedation and a prolonged post-operative analgesia.

  13. Comparative evaluation of remote maintenance schemes for fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu, E-mail: uto.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. • The banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme. • The key engineering issues are in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: Maintenance schemes are one of the critical issues in DEMO design, significantly affecting the configuration of in-vessel components, the size of toroidal field (TF) coil, the arrangement of poloidal field (PF) coils, reactor building, hot cell and so forth. Therefore, the maintenance schemes should satisfy many design requirements and criteria to assure reliable and safe plant operation and to attain reasonable plant availability. The plant availability depends on reliability of remote maintenance scheme, inspection of pipe connection and plasma operation. In this paper, various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. From the view points of the reliability of inspection on hot cell, TF coil size, stored energy of PF coil and portability of segment, the banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme, and it has key engineering issues such as in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability.

  14. Application of Computed Tomography Virtual Noncontrast Spectral Imaging in Evaluation of Hepatic Metastases: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Tian; Ai-Lian Liu; Jing-Hong Liu; Mei-Yu Sun; He-Qing Wang; Yi-Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate hepatic metastases using computed tomography (CT) virtual noncontrast (VNC) spectral imaging in a retrospective analysis.Methods:Forty hepatic metastases patients underwent CT scans including the conventional true noncontrast (TNC) and the tri-phasic contrast-enhanced dual energy spectral scans in the hepatic arterial,portal venous,and equilibrium phases.The tri-phasic spectral CT images were used to obtain three groups of VNC images including in the arterial (VNCa),venous (VNCv),and equilibrium (VNCe) phase by the material decomposition process using water and iodine as a base material pair.The image quality and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of metastasis of the four groups were compared with ANOVA analysis.The metastasis detection rates with the four nonenhanced image groups were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test.Results:There were no significant differences in image quality among TNC,VNCa and VNCv images (P > 0.05).The quality of VNCe images was significantly worse than that of other three groups (P < 0.05).The mean CNR of metastasis in the TNC and VNCs images was 1.86,2.42,1.92,and 1.94,respectively; the mean CNR of metastasis in VNCa images was significantly higher than that in other three groups (P < 0.05),while no statistically significant difference was observed among VNCv,VNCe and TNC images (P > 0.05).The metastasis detection rate of the four nonenhanced groups with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The quality of VNCa and VNCv images is identical to that of TNC images,and the metastasis detection rate in VNC images is similar to that in TNC images.VNC images obtained from arterial phase show metastases more clearly.Thus,VNCa imaging may be a surrogate to TNC imaging in hepatic metastasis diagnosis.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-09-11

    Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01

  16. Preliminary evaluation of an in vivo fluorometer to quantify algal periphyton biomass and community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Theodore D.; Graham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The bbe-Moldaenke BenthoTorch (BT) is an in vivo fluorometer designed to quantify algal biomass and community composition in benthic environments. The BT quantifies total algal biomass via chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration and may differentiate among cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms based on pigment fluorescence. To evaluate how BT measurements of periphytic algal biomass (as Chl-a) compared with an ethanol extraction laboratory analysis, we collected BT- and laboratory-measured Chl-a data from 6 stream sites in the Indian Creek basin, Johnson County, Kansas, during August and September 2012. BT-measured Chl-a concentrations were positively related to laboratory-measured concentrations (R2 = 0.47); sites with abundant filamentous algae had weaker relations (R2 = 0.27). Additionally, on a single sample date, we used the BT to determine periphyton biomass and community composition upstream and downstream from 2 wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) that discharge into Indian Creek. We found that algal biomass increased immediately downstream from the WWTF discharge then slowly decreased as distance from the WWTF increased. Changes in periphyton community structure also occurred; however, there were discrepancies between BT- and laboratory-measured community composition data. Most notably, cyanobacteria were present at all sites based on BT measurements but were present at only one site based on laboratory-analyzed samples. Overall, we found that the BT compared reasonably well with laboratory methods for relative patterns in Chl-a but not as well with absolute Chl-aconcentrations. Future studies need to test the BT over a wider range of Chl-aconcentrations, in colored waters, and across various periphyton assemblages.

  17. Shear wave elastography versus real-time elastography on evaluation thyroid nodules: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bao-Xian, E-mail: xian_1121@163.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Xie, Xiao-Yan, E-mail: xxy1992@21cn.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liang, Jin-Yu, E-mail: fishgrace1124@gmail.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zheng, Yan-Ling, E-mail: zhyanl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Huang, Guang-Liang, E-mail: venice0016@163.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zhou, Lu-Yao, E-mail: 5454kill@163.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wang, Zhu, E-mail: 160395191@qq.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhong Shan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); and others

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To comparatively evaluate shear wave elastography (SWE) and real-time elastography (RTE) in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Methods: 49 patients with 64 focal thyroid nodules were enrolled and underwent SWE and RTE before surgery. SWE elasticity indices (mean, minimum and maximum value of 2-mm region of interest) of nodules were measured. For RTE, elastograms were assessed by Rago criteria and nodules with scores of 4 or 5 were classified as suspicious for malignancy. Surgery histopathologic results were adopted as diagnostic standard. Results: Of the 64 nodules, 19 were papillary thyroid carcinomas and 45 were benign. SWE indices were significantly higher in malignant than benign nodules (P < 0.05). Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of SWE parameters were 0.840, 0.831 and 0.788, which were not significantly different from that of RTE showed as 0.880 (P = 0.148–0.482). When the most accurate cut-off, 38.3 kPa for mean value was applied to predict malignancy, the diagnostic specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of SWE and RTE were 68.4% versus 79.0%, 86.7% versus 84.4%, 81.3% versus 78.1%, 68.4% versus 64.7% and 86.7% versus 83.3%, respectively (P = 0.683–1.000). Conclusion: SWE as a promising tool can be performed in differentiating thyroid nodules with comparable results to RTE.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE LIPID-LOWERING EFFECT OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niteesh Shanbag

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyslipidaemia is a widely established risk factor for coronary artery disease. As Asians differ in pattern of various lipid abnormalities than non-Asians, this study was undertaken to compare efficacy of commonly administrated drugs, atorvastatin and fenofibrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of hypertriglyceridaemia divided into two groups, A and B. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean and t value were calculated following 12 weeks of therapy of atorvastatin 10 mg in group A and micronized fenofibrate in group B. RESULTS Our study showed that fenofibrate is more efficacious in reducing the levels of triglycerides and rising level of HDL cholesterol, while atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSION Micronized fenofibrate has more efficiency in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL. Atorvastatin is more efficacious in reducing LDL levels.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  20. New family of generalized metrics for comparative imaging system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M.; Singh, V.; Loughran, B.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    A family of imaging task-specific metrics designated Relative Object Detectability (ROD) metrics was developed to enable objective, quantitative comparisons of different x-ray systems. Previously, ROD was defined as the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier Transform of the object function, weighted by the detector DQE for one detector, divided by the comparable integral for another detector. When effects of scatter and focal spot unsharpness are included, the generalized metric, GDQE, is substituted for the DQE, resulting in the G-ROD metric. The G-ROD was calculated for two different detectors with two focal spot sizes using various-sized simulated objects to quantify the improved performance of new high-resolution CMOS detector systems. When a measured image is used as the object, a Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) value can be generated. A neuro-vascular stent (Wingspan) was imaged with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and a standard flat panel detector (FPD) for comparison using the GM-ROD calculation. As the lower integration bound increased from 0 toward the detector Nyquist frequency, increasingly superior performance of the MAF was evidenced. Another new metric, the R-ROD, enables comparing detectors to a reference detector of given imaging ability. R-RODs for the MAF, a new CMOS detector and an FPD will be presented. The ROD family of metrics can provide quantitative more understandable comparisons for different systems where the detector, focal spot, scatter, object, techniques or dose are varied and can be used to optimize system selection for given imaging tasks.

  1. Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Patients with Vitamin D De ciency: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tuna Öztürk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D de ciency is very common in general population and has potentially harmful effect on musculoskeletal system. We aimed to show the effect of vitamin D de ciency on the muscle performance by using isokinetic test. Meterial and Methods: This study includes 12 women with vitamin D de ciency for patient group and 12 healthy women for control group. We compared knee muscles performance of these two groups by using isokinetic test. Results: The mean age was 40.71 (26-57 years in patients and 41.43 (28-58 years in healthy group. There was no statistical difference between two groups at knee  exion and extension pick-torque values in 60°/s velocity and fatigue index in 180°/s velocity (respectively, p1=0.86, p2=0.12, p3=0.42. Conclusion: Vitamin D de ciency has no effect on muscle performance. Further invastigations that evaluating larger populations are needed. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 17-9

  2. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of manassantin A, a potential neuroleptic agent from Saururus cernuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Puri, V N; Diwan, P K; Alvarez, F M

    1987-09-01

    Manassantin A (MNS-A), a novel dineolignan isolated from Saururus cernuus was evaluated for its central depressant effects. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of MNS-A to mice at nontoxic doses caused a decrease in spontaneous motor activity and inhibition of amphetamine-induced stereotypy, with an ED50 of 0.21 +/- 0.02 mg/kg for its antiamphetamine activity. Doses of MNS-A up to the LD50 did not produce catalepsy and ptosis as were observed with haloperidol used as a reference drug. The compound caused a dose-dependent hypothermia, while haloperidol was not very effective in this test. Potentiation of pentobarbital-sleeping time was observed to be of comparable degree with both drugs. In spite of the higher toxicity (acute LD50 5.4 +/- 0.2 mg/kg, IP) than that shown by haloperidol, the somewhat selective neuroleptic profile of MNS-A makes it an interesting candidate for more detailed studies.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  5. Production and preliminary evaluation of Trypanosoma evansi HSP70 for antibody detection in Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, Ashok; Bera, Bidhan C; Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, Rajender; Tatu, Utpal; Yadav, Suresh Chandra

    2015-12-01

    The present immuno-diagnostic method using soluble antigens from whole cell lysate antigen for trypanosomosis have certain inherent problems like lack of standardized and reproducible antigens, as well as ethical issues due to in vivo production, that could be alleviated by in vitro production. In the present study we have identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from T. evansi proteome. The nucleotide sequence of T. evansi HSP70 was 2116 bp, which encodes 690 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of T. evansi HSP70 showed that T. evansi occurred within Trypanosoma clade and is most closely related to T. brucei brucei and T. brucei gambiense, whereas T. congolense HSP70 laid in separate clade. The two partial HSP70 sequences (HSP-1 from N-terminal region and HSP-2 from C-terminal region) were expressed and evaluated as diagnostic antigens using experimentally infected equine serum samples. Both recombinant proteins detected antibody in immunoblot using serum samples from experimental infected donkeys with T. evansi. Recombinant HSP-2 showed comparable antibody response to Whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen in immunoblot and ELISA. The initial results indicated that HSP70 has potential to detect the T. evansi infection and needs further validation on large set of equine serum samples.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma around knee joint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of diversified procedures of limb salvage surgery (LSS, providing a reference of rational surgical criterion of LSS. METHODS: Fifty eight patients with stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma around knee joint area between 1992 and 2002 were studied retrospectively. Among them, 43 patients were treated by LSS followed by reconstruction. Reconstruction approaches included re-implantation of irradiation-devitalized tumor bone (n = 12, autoclaving-devitalized tumor bone (n = 8, prosthetic replacement (n = 11, allograft transplantation (n = 8 and vascularized fibula autograft implantation (n = 4. Amputations were performed in 15 patients. Patients were followed up for 6-16 years. RESULTS: There were no significant difference between LSS and amputation groups regarding disease free survival and local recurrence rates. The actuarial 5-year continuous disease free survival and local recurrence rate were 30.0% and 25.0% in patients of devitalized LSS group, whereas those were 56.5% and 8.7% in patients of non-devitalized reconstruction group. The complication rate was significantly higher in LSS group compared to amputation group (P = 0.003. CONCLUSION: LSS with non-devitalized procedures is the optimal treatment for osteosarcoma around knee joint area. Prosthesis implantation is the preferred option for bone reconstruction following LSS. Prevention and treatment of post-operative complications should be paid more attention to get good long-term outcomes of surgery.

  7. Student and House Officer Evaluation: The POMR Approach Compared with Other Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Raymond L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Medical students' and interns' thoroughness in keeping problem-oriented medical records (POMR) was evaluated and compared with standard forms of evaluations. POMR evaluations not surprisingly did not correlate well with standard evaluations, but the study suggests that thoroughness in charting is a minor variable in overall evaluation. (LBH)

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the tactile feedback system based on artificial skin and electrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, M; Seminara, L; Pinna, L; Dosen, S; Farina, D; Valle, M

    2015-08-01

    This research is motivated by the need of integrating cutaneous sensing into a prosthetic device, enabling a bidirectional communication between the amputee and the prosthetic limb. An electronic skin based on piezoelectric polymer sensors transduces mechanical contact into electrical response which is conveyed to the human subject by electrotactile stimulation. Rectangular electrode arrays are placed on each patient's forearm and experiments are conducted on five different subjects to determine how well the orientation, position and direction of single lines are recognized. Overall, subjects discriminate the different touch modalities with acceptable success rates. In particular, the direction is identified at best and longitudinal lines on the patient's skin are recognized with the highest success rates. These preliminary results assess the feasibility of the artificial skin - electrostimulation system for prosthetic applications.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  10. Structural study and preliminary biological evaluation on the collagen hydrogel crosslinked by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Xin; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    Under γ-irradiation, concentrated collagen solutions yielded collagen hydrogels and liquid products. The molecular structure of collagen hydrogels and the source of the liquid products were studied. Furthermore, preliminary biological properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that crosslinking occurred to form collagen hydrogel and the crosslinking density increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose, and the collagen hydrogels showed enhanced mechanical properties. Meanwhile, collagen underwent radiation degradation and water was squeezed out from hydrogel by contraction of hydrogel, yielding liquid products. Collagen hydrogels induced by γ-irradiation maintained the backbone structure of collagen, and tyrosine partially involved in crosslinking. The irradiated collagen hydrogels have higher denatured temperature, can promote fibroblasts proliferation, and their degradation rate in vivo depended on the absorbed dose. The comprehensive results suggested that the collagen hydrogels prepared by radiation crosslinking preserved the triple helical conformation, possessed improved thermal stability and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, which is expected to favor its application as biomaterials.

  11. EVALUATION OF AN ACTIVE PERSONAL DOSIMETRY SYSTEM IN INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY AND NEURORADIOLOGY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, M; D'Ercole, L; Quaretti, P; Moramarco, L; Lafe, E; Zappoli Thyrion, F

    2016-12-01

    Active personal dosimeters (APD) supply real-time data on radiation dose rates and equivalent doses, enabling reduction of operator exposure to radiation in diagnostic and surgical procedures. Data from the use of the Raysafe i2 APD system in an angiography room are reported. Preliminary characterisation of the APD system was first carried out in terms of angular dependence and of Hp(10) response during the simulation of five typical surgical protocols. Reference measurements, simultaneously obtained from TLDs, were used to obtain a correction factor. APD data for patients and for primary and secondary operators were then recorded over 52 surgical procedures. The correlation between kerma air product (KAP) and reference point air kerma (Kar) and operator dose as a function of position with respect to the source of radiation is reported. The data indicate that the APD system could help operators to optimise behaviours and use of room protection to effectively minimise radiation dose.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Wear Rate of Different Riva Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Yaghoubi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: wear is one of the most important factors that cause loss of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear rate in light-cured glass ionomers SDI. Materials and Methods: 20 samples consisted of light-cured Ionomer Glass Riva and Riva HV and Fuji II and composit Z250 to 2mm and length and width 10mm in Copper generator were prepared (n = 5 and were put in a wear device. Samples in wear cycles, in the course of 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000, 120000 respectively cycles via cobalt chrome cylindrical abrasive was under wear. Digital scale with 0.1 mg precision was used for gravimetric. Data using One Way Anova and Post hoc Tukey test and Spss software was analyzed. Results: The weight loss was as follows: Glass Ionomer light cure Riva ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II ˂composite Z250. The other three groups were statistically significant weight loss between the composite Z250 and but the difference in weight loss between the groups and Glass Ionomer light cure Riva, Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV, Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II was found after 120,000 cycles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the wear of glass ionomers Capsule Riva is similar Fuji II LC but the wear of glass inomers is much more than composite Z250 which seems ready to take in areas not exposed to occlusal stress.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral. Ten (n=10 apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12±2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4±2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n=5. Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P<0.05 in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P<0.05 at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems.

  16. Commercial Telmisartan Tablets: A Comparative Evaluation with Innovator Brand Micardis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikkumar A. Patel,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. The solubility of Telmisartan in aqueous solutions is strongly pH-dependent. Five commercial tablets of telmisartan (40 and 80 mg were compared with the reference formulation Micardis (Innovator brand of telmisartan molecule.Experimental: Dissolution tests were performed by employing USP type apparatus-II (Paddle type at 75rpm using pH 1.2, 4.5 and 7.5 buffers as the dissolution media. The percentage cumulative release of Telmisartan was measured at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes espectively. The factor f2 of the FDA’s SUPAC Guide was applied tothe qualitative determination of ‘similarity’ between pairs of dissolution profiles of Micardis and those of each investigated formulation. Results:None of the commercial brands were similar to Micardis in dissolution profile at various pH points of testing. This was observed for both the strengths. Conclusion: Micardis tablets at both the strengths showed consistently higher release at pH 4.5 and 7.5 (i.e., pH conditions relevant to the intestine suggesting its pharmacokinetic activity could be perhaps superior to other marketed brands as it would release the drug consistently irrespective of pH.

  17. Serological evaluation of Mycobacterium ulcerans antigens identified by comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha J Pidot

    Full Text Available A specific and sensitive serodiagnostic test for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection would greatly assist the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer and would also facilitate seroepidemiological surveys. By comparative genomics, we identified 45 potential M. ulcerans specific proteins, of which we were able to express and purify 33 in E. coli. Sera from 30 confirmed Buruli ulcer patients, 24 healthy controls from the same endemic region and 30 healthy controls from a non-endemic region in Benin were screened for antibody responses to these specific proteins by ELISA. Serum IgG responses of Buruli ulcer patients were highly variable, however, seven proteins (MUP045, MUP057, MUL_0513, Hsp65, and the polyketide synthase domains ER, AT propionate, and KR A showed a significant difference between patient and non-endemic control antibody responses. However, when sera from the healthy control subjects living in the same Buruli ulcer endemic area as the patients were examined, none of the proteins were able to discriminate between these two groups. Nevertheless, six of the seven proteins showed an ability to distinguish people living in an endemic area from those in a non-endemic area with an average sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 88%, suggesting exposure to M. ulcerans. Further validation of these six proteins is now underway to assess their suitability for use in Buruli ulcer seroepidemiological studies. Such studies are urgently needed to assist efforts to uncover environmental reservoirs and understand transmission pathways of the M. ulcerans.

  18. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  19. Trividha Snehapaka of Panchagavya Ghrita: A critical comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil M Jirankalgikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund: The three stages of Snehapaka formulations namely Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka have been characteristically advocated for different routes of administration-Nasya, Pana/Basti and Abhyanga, respectively. Guidelines or established method for post-formulation characterization for the same is hardly available. Objective: The present communication is the comparative study of Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka of Panchagavya ghrita (PGG. Materials and Methods: Laboratory prepared samples of PGG following classical method were analyzed for different physicochemical, spectroscopic, chromatographic parameters, and antioxidant activity. Results: No significant difference was found among Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka in physicochemical parameters as well as chromatographic profiles. The ratio of absorbance at 240 and 294 nm showed steady increase from Mridu to Madhyama to Khara Paka in the ultraviolet (UV-visible spectra of unsaponifiable matter. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-2,2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH bioautography assay revealed presence of two antioxidant compounds in low concentration in all the samples. This was further supported by estimation of total reducing power and DPPH assay. No significant difference was found among the three samples. Conclusion: Comparison of various physicochemical parameters, chromatographic profiles, and in vitro antioxidant activity determination is of little help in establishing any significant difference among the samples. However, spectrophotometric analysis of unsaponifiable matter reveals some encouraging characteristic findings which will be useful in establishing difference among the three stages of processing of PGG as well as Snehapaka in general.

  20. A preliminary evaluation of an O2/CO2 based eddy covariance theory at Missouri AmeriFlux site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.; Gu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used at flux sites on every continent, across most ecosystem types and climates to monitor exchanges of momentum, mass and energy between land surface and atmosphere. In an attempt to develop a self-consistent theory for the EC technique, Gu et al. (2012) reformulated the fundamental equations for EC by introducing the concept of constraining gas that has no net ecosystem sink/source. Gu (2013) expanded the theory of Gu et al. (2012) to include paired gases whose ecosystem exchange ratios are stable over an averaging period (e.g. 30 min) and therefore can be used to constrain EC flux measurements of any gases. He proposed that O2 and CO2 are an ideal pair of gases as their biological processes are coupled and their ecosystem exchange ratio (also known as oxidative ratio) is close to 1. Advantages of this new O2/CO2 based EC theory include: 1) avoidance of covariance loss in calculating dry air density induced by spatial separation of measuring instruments and use of multiple indirectly derived variables, 2) the minimum number of assumptions adopted for the derivation of the equation, and 3) avoidance of errors related to linearization of ideal gas law. In this study, we conducted a preliminary evaluation for the basic principle of Gu (2013) EC theory. We crosschecked net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimations from different, independent methods by using CO2 and H2O as paired constraining gases. Using CO2 and H2O instead of CO2 and O2 as paired constraining gases is not ideal in the framework of Gu (2013); however, no fast response O2 analyzer is currently available. CO2 and H2O are both transported between the inside of plants and canopy air through stomata on leaves in the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration which are known to be closely coupled. However, this close coupling is contaminated by other ecosystem sinks/sources, e.g. respiration of plants and soil for CO2 and evaporation of intercepted and soil

  1. Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

  2. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  3. Preliminary evaluation of magnetic resonance fresh blood imaging for diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ke; XU Ke; SUN Wen-ge; CHEN Yu-shuai; QI Xi-xun; LI Ran-liang; JIN An-yu

    2007-01-01

    Background Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disease with portal hypertension caused by the blockage of the hepatic vein and/or the inferior vena cava (IVC). Angiography is the "golden standard" for diagnosis, but it is an invasive examination. To assess the diagnostic value of a fresh blood imaging (FBI) relative to BCS, we used a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with an FBI sequence for a preoperative evaluation of the BCS patients in this study. Methods Fifty patients who were suspected of having BCS after they had been checked by a B-ultrasound were studied. 2D and 3D FBI were performed on a 1.5T superconductive MR scanner. Original images were rebuilt using a maximal intensity projection (MIP) method on the console. Two doctors reviewed all images before they learned of the angiography results. We then compared the diagnoses obtained from the FBI and angiography results to evaluate the diagnostic value of the FBI.Results Forty-one patients were diagnosed as BCS and 9 as non-BCS based on an angiography. The FBI correctly diagnosed 38 patients, incorrectly diagnosed 1 patient, and missed diagnosis in 3 patients. Thus, the diagnostic sensitivity of the FBI is 93% (38/41), the specificity is 89% (8/9) and the accuracy is 92% (46/50). The FBI images of the 13 membranous stenoses of the IVC showed a sudden stenosis of the post-liver segment of the IVC. The Images of the 5 patients with a membranous obstruction of the IVC showed IVC thickening and an absence of blood signals in the post-hepatic segment of the IVC. The images of the 4 patients with the segmental thrombosis of the IVC showed abnormal and intermittent signals in the IVC. The images of the 6 patients with a simple hepatic vein obstruction showed obstructive hepatic veins. The images of the 6 patients with the stenosis of both the IVC and the hepatic veins showed the stenosis of the IVC, the thickening of the hepatic veins and the formation of a compensatory circulation within the liver. Lastly

  4. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  5. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Glutamine-Loaded Liposomes: Preliminary Investigation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Neutrophil Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Chaves; Souza, Bárbara Nayane Rosário Fernandes; Almeida, Fábio Fidélis; Lagranha, Cláudia Jacques; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Lira-Nogueira, Mariane Cajubá de Britto

    2016-04-01

    Glutamine has received attention due to its ability to ameliorate the immune system response. Once conventional liposomes are readily recognized and captured by immune system cells, the encapsulation of glutamine into those nanosystems could be an alternative to reduce glutamine dosage and target then to neutrophils. Our goals were to nanoencapsulate glutamine into conventional liposomes (Gln-L), develop an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for its quantification, and evaluate the viability of neutrophils treated with Gln-L. Liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration technique followed by sonication and characterized according to pH, mean size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%). We also aimed to study the effect of liposomal constituent concentrations on liposomal characteristics. The viability of neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry after intraperitoneal administration of free glutamine (Gln), Gln-L, unloaded-liposome (UL), and saline solution as control (C) in healthy Wistar rats. The selected liposomal formulation had a mean vesicle size of 114.65 ± 1.82 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.30 ± 0.00, a positive surface charge of 36.30 ± 1.38 mV, and an EE% of 39.49 ± 0.74%. The developed chromatographic method was efficient for the quantification of encapsulated glutamine, with a retention time at 3.8 min. A greater viability was observed in the group treated with glutamine encapsulated compared to the control group (17%), although neutrophils remain viable in all groups. Thus, glutamine encapsulated into liposomes was able to increase the number of viable neutrophils at low doses, thereby representing a promising strategy for the treatment of immunodeficiency conditions.

  7. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. This project is relevant to priority 1.4A identified in ICCI/RFP93-1. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and IBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density Gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and EBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality-based simulator for learning spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-12-27

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a simulation-based program on the initial performance of dural puncture by medical interns, and to refine the design of simulator-based teaching and competence assessment. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: 27 medical interns inexperienced in the technique of spinal anesthesia or dural puncture and within 12 months of graduating from medical school, were randomly assigned to a conventional or a simulator-based teaching course of spinal anesthesia: 13 were recruited to the Conventional Group (CG) and 14 to the Simulator Group (SG). MEASUREMENTS: A SenseGraphic Immersive workbench and a modified Phantom desktop with shutter glasses were used to create a teaching environment. Outcomes of teaching were assessed in two phases within three weeks of the teaching course: Phase I consisted of a written examination followed by assessment on the simulator. A global rating scale and a task-specific checklist were used. Phase II (for those participants for whom a suitable opportunity arose to perform spinal anesthesia under supervision within three wks of the teaching course) consisted of structured observation of clinical performance of the procedure in the operating room. Participants were assessed by independent, study-blinded experts. Student\\'s two-tailed impaired t-tests were used to compare the parametric outcomes (P < 0.05 was considered significant). MAIN RESULTS: All participants completed the written test successfully with no difference between groups. Ten participants from CG and 13 from SG completed the simulator-based testing performing similarly in terms of the global rating scale. Five participants in CG and 6 in SG proceeded to clinical testing. On the global rating scale, interns in SG scored higher than those in CG. They performed similarly according to the task-specific checklist. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, no difference was measured between those taught with

  11. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  12. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion...

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a self-report tool for Learned Helplessness and Mastery Orientation in Italian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learned helplessness (LH is defined as a passive behavior characterized by an inability to learn that may affect the academic success of students. Conversely, students who show good motivation skills, optimism and perseverance are more focused on tasks and ‘mastery oriented’ (derived from Mastery Orientation, MO. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measurement of LH and MO - the Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ - for the Italian scholastic context. We translated and adapted a student self-evaluation register, the Student behaviour checklist, and administered the questionnaire to Italian students in order to provide a preliminary factor structure. Exploratory factor analyses conducted support a two-factor model and acceptable internal reliability of the Italian LHQ.The results encourage the conduction of further analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the LHQ in depth.

  14. Extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Mentha piperita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Jia, Ai-Rong; Shi, Ya-Ping; Li, Rui-Hong; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  15. Design, synthesis and preliminary bio-evaluation of glucose-cholesterol derivatives as ligands for brain targeting liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lei; Wei Fan; Xian Kun Li; Shan Wang; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2011-01-01

    A series of glucose-cholesterol derivatives 8a-8e as ligands for brain targeting liposomes were synthesized. The preparation of compound 6 involved temporary protection of glucose with chlorotrimethylsilicane and hexamethyldisilazane followed by selectively hydrolyzed. The known cholesteryl tosylate 1 were coupled to ethylene glycols to afford alcohol 2a-2e. Substitution and deprotection of alcohol 2a-2e furnished the acids 4a-4e, which was condensed with compound 6 to get compounds 7a-7e, and then was deprotected in tetrahydrofuran with TEA to obtain the title compounds. As a model drug, tegafur was entrapped by liposomes coupled with 8b, and preliminary in vivo evaluation shown 8b could enhance the ability of liposomes delivering tegafur across the blood brain barrier.

  16. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality dental simulation system on drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Siming; Li, Teng; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fidelity of the iDental system and investigate its utility and performance on simulated drilling operations, user studies consisting of objective and subjective evaluations were performed. A voxel-based drilling simulation sub-system in the iDental system was employed for evaluation. Twenty participants were enrolled to take part in the experiments and were divided into two groups: novice and resident. A combined evaluation method including objective and subjective methods was employed. The objective evaluation included two dental drilling tasks: caries removal operation and pulp chamber opening operation. In the subjective method, participants were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the fidelity of the system after the operation task. Based on the structured global assessment scales in the questionnaire, the average subjective evaluation scores of the proposed metrics were greater than 4.5, demonstrating that the system operated above medium fidelity. Dentists expressed great interest and positive attitudes toward the potential of the iDental system. The objective evaluation data including time spent and the volume of removed healthy and carious tissue were obtained. Although no significant differences could be found between the two groups, the volume of removed caries and the depth of pulp chamber insertion manifested small standard deviations. Evaluation results illustrated that dentists were willing to use the virtual reality training system. Several future research topics were identified, including increasing the task difficulty, improving the system fidelity and introducing appropriate finger rest points.

  18. Accuracy of Intravascular Ultrasound Evaluation for the Assessment of Native Valve Measures in Patients Undergoing TAVI: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cillis, Emanuela; Dachille, Annamaria; Giardinelli, Francesco; Acquaviva, Tommaso; Bortone, Alessandro Santo

    2016-10-26

    score mortality 20.9±14.9%). Each patient scheduled for TAVI underwent coronary angiography and high resolution angio-CT in order to obtain a complete evaluation (diameters, perimeters, and areas at annulus level, -3mm level, +15mm level, height of coronary ostia, shape, and conformation of left ventricle outflow tract, conformation, and calcifications of aortic and ileo-femoral axis) to choose the most suitable prosthetic aortic valve for each patient. In all patients, during the procedure (before the prosthetic valve implantation), we executed a manual IVUS pullback (from left ventricle outflow tract to ascending aorta) by using a 7F IVUS probe (Volcano Corporation, San Diego, CA). On the recorded IVUS pullback, a second operator (who did not know the values obtained by CT measurements) identified the aortic annulus and, at this level, measured: minimum and maximum diameter; perimeter; derived perimeter, and area. The t-student test has been used to compare the averages of these IVUS values to the CT ones. A p valuevalve, no statistical differences were found when the averages of all considered parameters (obtained both with CT and IVUS) were compared. The following are the results obtained: minimum diameter (CT: 19,62mm±1,10 vs. IVUS: 19,55mm±1,40; p=0.41); maximum diameter (CT: 24,73mm±2,42 vs. IVUS: 25,9mm±1,80; p=0.08); perimeter (CT: 72,05mm±4,36 vs. IVUS: 73,32mm±6,09; p=0.164); derived perimeter (CT: 22,94mm±1,40 vs. IVUS: 23,32mm ± 1,95; p=0,198); and area (CT: 3,99cm2 ±0,97 vs. IVUS: 4,06 cm2 ± 0,47; p=0,073) (Figs. 1-3). These preliminary data suggest accurate IVUS measures when compared to CT in the evaluation of valve parameters considered (minimum and maximum diameters, area, perimeter, and derived perimeter at the annulus level). In order to confirm these findings and to give them statistical significance, it will be necessary to increase the sample size.

  19. Improving Phonological Awareness in Parents of Children at Risk of Literacy Difficulties: A Preliminary Evaluation of the Boost Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Boyes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPhonological awareness is an important skill underpinning the development of early literacy. Given the central role of parents in supporting the development of children’s early literacy skills, and that poor parental phonological awareness is associated with poorer child literacy outcomes, it is possible that improving parent phonological awareness may aid literacy development for at-risk children. This study is a preliminary evaluation of a program aiming to improve phonological awareness skills of parents in low socioeconomic status communities, and also provide these parents with strategies to support their child’s literacy development.MethodsAfter completing the program, participants were asked if it had helped them learn about how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, whether they planned on using the resources provided, and if they would be likely to attend a future workshop building on the Boost program. Phonological awareness measures (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme level, and measures of overall confidence in performance on the phonological awareness tasks, were administered both before and after attending the program.ResultsAlmost all parents indicated that the program helped with learning how to assist their child’s reading and spelling, that they would use the resources provided, and would likely attend a future workshop. Significant increases in pre- to post-program phonological awareness scores were obtained at the rhyme and phoneme level.ConclusionThe program and associated resources appear acceptable to parents in communities with high rates of literacy problems and improved parents’ phonological awareness skills. However, findings are preliminary and further evaluation using more rigorous methodologies and testing whether improvements in parents’ phonological awareness translate into better literacy outcomes for children is needed.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon in the Chehalis River, southwestern Washington, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Kock, Tobias J.; Zimmerman, Mara S.

    2017-01-30

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. A preliminary evaluation of the movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River was conducted using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors. A total of 12 spring Chinook salmon were captured, radio-tagged, and released in the main-stem Chehalis River between May and late June 2014. Tagged fish were monitored from freshwater entry through the spawning period using a combination of fixedsite monitoring locations and mobile tracking.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2014 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and August 2014 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean monthly discharge was 90–206 percent of the discharge in previous years. Overall, 92 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 102 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Seven tagged fish (58 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (5–8 d, 57 percent), or within about a month (34–35 d, 29 percent). One fish (14 percent) remained near the release location for 98 d before moving upstream. The final fates for the seven fish that moved upstream following release included six fish that were assigned a fate of

  1. Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Large climate-moderating envelopes for enclosed structures: a preliminary evaluation of energy conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.; Giles, G.E.; Park, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was made of the basic impacts of putting a large secondary enclosure around a number of functions and thereby creating a Large Climate Moderating Envelope (LCME). This study is a preliminary estimate of the energy conservation benefits of an LCME. A hypothetical LMCE design was chosen and a coupled fluid dynamic and energy transport analysis was performed to estimate the energy conservation potential of this design. The heat transfer models included insolation, outside air temperature and wind, thermal radiation exchange with the sky, and between the fabric and ground and thermal storage in the earth mass beneath the LCME. The energy transported within the fluid by the buoyancy driven circulation was modeled as an incompressible fluid utilizing the Boussinesq approximation. The climatic conditions were assumed to vary in smooth repeating daily cycles. The numerical simulation of climatic variation was continued until the results within the LCME achieved a repeating daily cycle. The results for selected seasonally characteristic days were utilized to estimate the annual energy consumption of structures within an LCME relative to similar structures exposed to the exterior environment. The relative annual energy savings for summer-dominated climates was estimated to be approx. 70%. The energy savings for a winter-dominated climate LCME were estimated to be somewhat smaller but the LCME concept could offer significant benefits for agricultural applications for this type of climate.

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  4. Biogeographic perspective of speciation among desert tortoises in the genus Gopherus: a preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Vaughn, Mercy; Meléndez Torres, Cristina; Karl, Alice E.; Rosen, Philip C.; Berry, Kristin H.; Murph, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The enduring processes of time, climate, and adaptation have sculpted the distribution of organisms we observe in the Sonoran Desert. One such organism is Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai. We apply a genomic approach to identify the evolutionary processes driving diversity in this species and present preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses. The Sonoran Desert form of the tortoise exhibits a continuum of genetic similarity spanning 850 km of Sonoran desertscrub extending from Empalme, Sonora, to Kingman, Arizona. However, at the ecotone between desertscrub and foothills thornscrub we identify a distinct, Sinaloan lineage and this occurrence suggests a more complex evolutionary history for G. morafkai. By using multiple loci from throughout the tortoise’s genome, we aim to determine if divergence between these lineages occurred in allopatry, and further to investigate for signatures of past or current genetic introgression. This international, collaborative project will assist state and federal agencies in developing management strategies that best preserve the evolutionary potential of Morafka’s desert tortoise. Ultimately, an understanding of the evolutionary history of desert tortoises will not only clarify the forces that have driven the divergence in this group, but also contribute to our knowledge of the biogeographic history of the Southwestern deserts and how diversity is maintained within them.

  5. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  6. Benthic foraminifera from two coastal lakes of southern Latium (Italy). Preliminary evaluation of environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Maria Gabriella; Succi, Maria Cristina; Bergamin, Luisa; Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Landini, Bruna

    2009-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera and sediment texture were studied on a total of 37 samples, collected from two brackish-water coastal basins: Fogliano Lake and Lungo Lake (central Italy). The research was performed as a preliminary low-cost survey to highlight the degree of the environmental stress and to recognize a possible anthropogenic disturbance. The sedimentological and foraminiferal data were processed by bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Three distinct assemblages, referable to different environments were recognized for the Fogliano Lake: inner, intermediate and outer lagoon. Only the outer lagoon assemblage was found in the Lungo Lake. The distribution of foraminifera in the Fogliano Lake suggests a natural environmental stress probably due to the ecological instability typical of marginal environments, while the absence of the inner and intermediate lagoon assemblages in the Lungo Lake suggests an environmental disturbance possibly related to human activities. An interdisciplinary survey including geochemical analyses is recommended in order to deduce the nature and degree of pollution in the Lungo Lake.

  7. Video-Assisted Anal Fistula Treatment (VAAFT) for Complex Anal Fistula: A Preliminary Evaluation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui-Hong; Liu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhen; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Li, A-Jian; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Liang; Lin, Mou-Bin

    2017-04-30

    BACKGROUND Although many attempts have been made to advance the treatment of complex anal fistula, it continues to be a difficult surgical problem. This study aimed to describe the novel technique of video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT) and our preliminary experiences using VAAFT with patients with complex anal fistula. MATERIAL AND METHODS From May 2015 to May 2016, 52 patients with complex anal fistula were treated with VAAFT at Yangpu Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, and the clinical data of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS VAAFT was performed successfully in all 52 patients. The median operation time was 55 minutes. Internal openings were identified in all cases. 50 cases were closed with sutures, and 2 were closed with staplers. Complications included perianal sepsis in 3 cases and bleeding in another 3 cases. Complete healing without recurrence was achieved in 44 patients (84.6%) after 9 months of follow-up. No fecal incontinence was observed. Furthermore, a significant improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score was observed from preoperative baseline (mean, 85.5) to 3-month follow-up (mean, 105.4; panal fistula with preservation of anal sphincter function.

  8. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  9. Comparing effects of tillage treatments performed with animal traction on soil physical properties and soil electrical resistivity: preliminary experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tomillo Aitor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m, consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T, a pair of cows (C and a pair of donkeys (D. Undisturbed soil samples (120 were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks. The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The increase was higher in the tractor sub-plot (15% than in those where animal traction was used (8%. Before operation Ks class was rapid and fast in all samples, and after operation this value was reduced to 33% in T, whereas it reached 83% in C. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT was useful as a tool to identify the alterations caused by tillage operations on soil physical status. These preliminary results confirm the potential of animal traction as an option for mountain agri‐environments, yet it requires much wider research to soundly ground its assets.

  10. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  11. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  12. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 作物控效肥效果初步评价%Preliminary Evaluation on Effect of Crops Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任仕伟; 罗微

    2012-01-01

    采用水浸泡法对5种包膜控效肥(不包括对照)试样的养分溶出率进行了比较测定,测得各种肥料的初期溶出率、微分溶出率分别为,自行研制控效CAF1:1.14、1.78;CAF4:1.59、1.84;CAF5:1.37、1.76;国外肥料FB:1.01、1.24;FZ:1.24、1.27,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率平均值为1.37,微分溶出率为1.79;国外肥料为1.13、1.25,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率与微分溶出率分别高于国外肥料,但都达到了国际标准(初期溶出率小于15%、微分溶出率在0.25%~2.5%之间)。同时用土壤淋溶法对自制的2种控效肥和1种进口肥进行了N溶出量的测定,结果表明:控效肥土壤淋溶出量与对照比较为显著,6d内CAF1、CAF5溶出N总量分别为对照的33.3%、36.1%,同时将两种方法所得出的结果进行了综合分析,对控效效果作出初步评价,为作物合理施肥提供参考。%Five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers (except for the CK),coated by organic polymer,were used in this study.The soluble properties of fertilizers were tested and compared in water.The preliminary solubility and differential solubility,are respectively:CAF1:1.14,1.78; CAF4:1.59,1.84; CAF5:1.37,1.76; FB:1.01,1.24; FZ:1.24,1.27.Among the five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers,CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 were prepared by ourselves,while FB and FZ were imported fertilizers.The average of preliminary solubility of CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 is 1.37,differential solubility is 1.79.However,the average of preliminary solubility is 1.25.Compared with the latter,the preliminary solubility of the former exceeds 0.26,and the differential solubility exceeds 0.54,but they all reach the international standards——-the preliminary solubility less than 15%,differential solubility is 0.25% to 2.5%.Meanwhile,we determinated the quantity of N release of CAF1,CAF5 and FB by soil dissolution rate method.The total quantity of N release in six days of CAF1 was

  14. Preliminary vulnerability evaluation by local tsunami and flood by Puerto Vallarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gómez, E.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Ortiz, M.; Escudero, C. R.; CA-UdG-276 Sisvoc

    2013-05-01

    Jalisco coast is susceptible to local tsunami due to the occurrence of large earthquakes. In 1932 occurred three by largest earthquakes. Evidence suggests that one of them caused by offshore subsidence of sediments deposited by Armeria River. For the tsunamis 1932 have not been studied the seismic source. On October 9, 1995, occurred a large earthquake (Mw= 8.0) producing a tsunami with run up height up ≤ 5 m. This event affected Tenacatita Bay and many small villages along the coast of Jalisco and Colima. Using seismic source parameters, we simulated 1995 tsunami and estimated the maximum wave height. We compared the our results with 20 field measures 20 taked during 1995 along the south cost of Jalisco State, from Chalacatepec to Barra de Navidad. Similar seismic source parameters used for tsunami 1995 simulation was used as reference for simulating a hypothetical seismic source front Puerto Vallarta. We assumed that the fracture occurs in the gap for the north cost of Jalisco. Ten sites were distributed to cover the Banderas Bay, as theoretical pressure sensors, were estimated the maximum wave height and time to arrived at cost. After we delimited zones hazard zones by floods on digital model terrain, a graphic scale 1:20,000. At the moment, we have already included information by hazard caused by hypothetical tsunami in Puerto Vallarta. The hazard zones by flood were the north of Puerto Vallarta, as Ameca, El Salado, El Pitillal and Camarones. The initial wave height could be ≤ 1 m, 15 minutes after earthquake, in Pitillal zone. We estimated for Puerto Vallarta the maximum flood area was in El Salado zone, ≤ 2 km, with the maximum wave height > 3 m to ≤ 4.8 m at 25 and 75 minutes. We estimated a previous vulnerability evaluation by local tsunami and flood; it was based on the spatial distribution of socio-economic data from INEGI. We estimated a low vulnerability in El Salado and height vulnerability for El Pitillal and Ameca.

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  16. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  17. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  19. Preliminary evaluations of the undesirable patient dose from a BNCT treatment at the ENEA-TAPIRO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Nava, E; Burn, K W

    2007-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental technique for the treatment of certain kinds of tumors. Research in BNCT is performed utilizing both thermal and epithermal neutron beams. Epithermal neutrons (0.4 eV-10 keV) penetrate more deeply into tissue and are thus used in non-superficial clinical applications such as the brain glioma. In the last few years, the fast reactor TAPIRO (ENEA-Casaccia Rome) has been employed as a neutron source for research into BNCT applications. Recently, an 'epithermal therapeutic column' has been designed and its construction has been completed. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was employed to optimize the design of the column and to evaluate the dose profiles and the therapeutic parameters in the cranium of the anthropomorphic phantom ADAM. In the same context, some preliminary evaluations of the undesirable doses to the patient were performed with MCNPX. A hermaphrodite phantom derived from ADAM and EVA was employed to evaluate the energy deposition in some organs during a standard BNCT treatment. The total dose consists of the contributions from the primary neutron beam, the neutron interactions with boron and the neutron induced photons generated in the epithermal column structures and in the patient's tissues. The paper summarizes the computational procedure and provides a general dosimetric framework of the patient radiological protection aspects related to a BNCT treatment scenario at the TAPIRO reactor.

  20. An economic evaluation of Columbia River anadromous fish programs: A preliminary study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper evaluates the economics of the Columbia River anadromous fish programs. The paper begins with a description of the Columbia River watershed and discusses...

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluations of polyurethane microstructures for transdermal drug delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borcan, Florin; Soica, Codruta M; Ganta, Srinivas; Amiji, Mansoor M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Munteanu, Melania F

    2012-01-01

    .... This study evaluates polyurethane as material for hollow microstructures preparation.Polyurethane microstructures were obtained by interfacial polyaddition combined with spontaneous emulsification and present slightly acid pH values...

  3. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  4. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (< 1000 mg/L Cl; 0.5-2.0 g/L TDS) of Na-HCO{sub 3} type present at shallow (<200 m) depths at Simpevarp, but at greater depths (0-900 m) at Laxemar. At both localities the groundwaters are marginally oxidising close to the surface, but otherwise reducing. Main reactions involve weathering, ion exchange (Ca, Mg), surface complexation, and dissolution of calcite. Redox reactions include precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides and some microbially mediated reactions (SRB). Meteoric recharge water is mainly present at Laxemar whilst at Simpevarp potential mixing of recharge meteoric water and a modern sea component is observed. Localised mixing of meteoric water with deeper saline groundwaters is indicated at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. TYPE B: This type comprises brackish groundwaters (1000-6000 mg/L Cl; 5-10 g/L TDS) present at

  5. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    design and construction included: cost, ease of performance, portability, use of local equipment, the planter’s capacity as well as the style of picking single seeds (In Fig.1, the original scheme of the device is presented. The planter consists of several parts operating harmoniously to yield the desired results. These parts include a chassis and conveyor belt mechanism, primary and secondary fertilizer tanks, squashing unit, seed metering device and vibrating reservoir of the seed (The main text of modeling the device with SolidWorks software is shown in Fig.2. This device is designed in such a way that the position of the nozzle, the suction pressure, the height of removing seeds and the vibration frequency of the seeding tray are adjustable. Evaluation of the device was carried out by single seeding of tomato seeds in trays with 105 cells (7 × 15. Suction pressure and nozzle size were calculated for tomato seeds. Scaling distances were considered equal, based on the 30.5-mm intervals of the cells. Single seed picking efficiency of seeds was calculated by the system, as the single percentage of seeding and the total percentage of seeded cells. Seed consumption efficiency is the ratio of the total seeded cells to the total number of existing seeds in the cells. Seeding efficiency also refers to single, dual, and multiple harvested seeds. Furthermore, the device capacity is defined as the number of seeded tray cells per hour. In order to design and build a precise robot planter, an experiment including the designed planter and planting speed of workers in 10 repetitions was designed and implemented to estimate the seeding time and compare with automated and manual planting methods. Seedling trays with four replications were cultivated by the designed robot and the number of cultivated seeds per tray at each stage were correctly counted. After that, the spent planting time by a worker was determined with four replications. Results and Discussion: The planting rate of

  6. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    design and construction included: cost, ease of performance, portability, use of local equipment, the planter’s capacity as well as the style of picking single seeds (In Fig.1, the original scheme of the device is presented. The planter consists of several parts operating harmoniously to yield the desired results. These parts include a chassis and conveyor belt mechanism, primary and secondary fertilizer tanks, squashing unit, seed metering device and vibrating reservoir of the seed (The main text of modeling the device with SolidWorks software is shown in Fig.2. This device is designed in such a way that the position of the nozzle, the suction pressure, the height of removing seeds and the vibration frequency of the seeding tray are adjustable. Evaluation of the device was carried out by single seeding of tomato seeds in trays with 105 cells (7 × 15. Suction pressure and nozzle size were calculated for tomato seeds. Scaling distances were considered equal, based on the 30.5-mm intervals of the cells. Single seed picking efficiency of seeds was calculated by the system, as the single percentage of seeding and the total percentage of seeded cells. Seed consumption efficiency is the ratio of the total seeded cells to the total number of existing seeds in the cells. Seeding efficiency also refers to single, dual, and multiple harvested seeds. Furthermore, the device capacity is defined as the number of seeded tray cells per hour. In order to design and build a precise robot planter, an experiment including the designed planter and planting speed of workers in 10 repetitions was designed and implemented to estimate the seeding time and compare with automated and manual planting methods. Seedling trays with four replications were cultivated by the designed robot and the number of cultivated seeds per tray at each stage were correctly counted. After that, the spent planting time by a worker was determined with four replications. Results and Discussion: The planting rate of

  7. Preliminary Experience Using Dynamic MRI at 3.0 Tesla for Evaluation of Soft Tissue Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Materials and Methods Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tu...

  8. Design and evaluation of a patient website to reduce crowding in emergency departments: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Jessica; Marcilly, Romaric; Leroy, Nicolas; Wawrzyniak, Clément; Martinot, Alain; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the information useful to support a patients' EDs' choice in order to design a patient Web-based system. For that purpose, a focus group and a formative user test have been performed. The results show that five types of information can be relevant. The spontaneous favored information is the "distance" to EDs. The "Wait time", that is sanctified in literature, is only used in a second time. A larger summative evaluation should be planned to evaluate and validate the befits of this kind of tool.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of several potential ram-jet fuels IV : hydrogen, a-methylnaphthalene, and carbon / Benson E. Gammon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Benson E

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary analytical evaluation of the air and fuel specific-impulse characteristics of hydrogen, a-methylnapthalene, and graphite carbon has been made. Adiabatic constant-pressure combustion flame temperatures for each fuel at several equivalence ratios were calculated for an initial air temperature of 560 degrees R and a pressure of 2 atmospheres.

  10. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  11. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung cancer and small lung metastasis: evaluation of an immobilization system for suppression of respiratory tumor movement and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayakawa Shiho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for lung tumors, reducing tumor movement is necessary. In this study, we evaluated changes in tumor movement and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 levels, and preliminary clinical results of SBRT using the BodyFIX immobilization system. Methods Between 2004 and 2006, 53 consecutive patients were treated for 55 lesions; 42 were stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 10 were metastatic lung cancers, and 3 were local recurrences of NSCLC. Tumor movement was measured with fluoroscopy under breath holding, free breathing on a couch, and free breathing in the BodyFIX system. SpO2 levels were measured with a finger pulseoximeter under each condition. The delivered dose was 44, 48 or 52 Gy, depending on tumor diameter, in 4 fractions over 10 or 11 days. Results By using the BodyFIX system, respiratory tumor movements were significantly reduced compared with the free-breathing condition in both craniocaudal and lateral directions, although the amplitude of reduction in the craniocaudal direction was 3 mm or more in only 27% of the patients. The average SpO2 did not decrease by using the system. At 3 years, the local control rate was 80% for all lesions. Overall survival was 76%, cause-specific survival was 92%, and local progression-free survival was 76% at 3 years in primary NSCLC patients. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. Conclusion Respiratory tumor movement was modestly suppressed by the BodyFIX system, while the SpO2 level did not decrease. It was considered a simple and effective method for SBRT of lung tumors. Preliminary results were encouraging.

  12. Osteogenic potential of icariin compared with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in vitro: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, T.; Huang, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, T.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Icariin, the primary active ingredient of Herba Epimedii which has been used for decades to treat bone related maladies in China, has the ability to support bone regeneration. In this study, we investigated icariin's potential to stimulate osteogenesis using an in vitro studies to compare icariin's

  13. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-09-09

    Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied geographic location (321/411, 78

  14. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. Objective This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. Methods For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. Results There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied

  15. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  17. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed...

  18. Nursing Student Performance, 1986-1993: Preliminary Findings. Program Evaluation PE93-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughan, Karl

    A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC), in Maryland, to evaluate nursing student performance from point of admission to the taking of the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). A sample of 853 students who enrolled in the nursing program entry course between fall 1986 and spring 1992 were surveyed to determine…

  19. Teacher Aides, Class Size and Academic Achievement: A Preliminary Evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Daytner, Katrina M.; Kelly, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.

    This large-scale evaluation of Indiana's Prime Time, a funding mechanism designed to reduce class size or pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) in grades K-3 examined the academic performance of nearly 11,000 randomly selected third graders on the state mandated standardized achievement test as a function of class size, PTR, and presence of an instructional…

  20. Synthesis and preliminary cytotoxic evaluation of substituted indoles as potential anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A variety of indole derivatives were designed, synthesized and preliminarily evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity in the A431 and H460 cell lines. All the compounds examined conferred unusual potency in a tumor cell cytotoxicity assay. The findings showed the indole derivatives would be a promising candidate for the development of new anticancer agents.

  1. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Instructional Effectiveness of Online Training Implemented at a Government Agency in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanakorn-Davila, Supawan; Bolliger, Doris U.

    2012-01-01

    Online training has become popular in the professional development of government employees in Thailand. One large government agency developed an online program to provide training to its employees across the country using two systems: an Internet and Intranet-based system. With the new program implemented, the evaluation of the instructional…

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  4. Preliminary evaluation of pollen quality, fertility relations and fruit set of selected sour cherry cultivars in polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szpadzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary experiments were carried out in spring 2006. The percentage of fruit set of 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral', 'Debreceni Bötermö', 'újfefértói Fürtos' and 'Karneol' was higher after open pollination compared with self-pollination. The cultivar Vowi had an inconsiderably higher percentage of fruit set after self-pollination compared with open pollination. The percentage of fruit set in 'Debreceni Bötermö' and 'újfehértói Fürtos' was about 25 % higher after pollination by 'Schattenmorelle IR-2' and 'Koral' compared with the percentage of fruit set after cross - pollination of both cultivars with each other. In general, they did not appear to be good pollinators with each other. The highest quality of pollen was observed for the following cultivars: 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral' and Vowi and the lowest result was obtained in 'újfehértói Fürtos'. The highest yield was given by the following cultivars: Vowi, Schattenmorelle IR-2 and Koral.

  5. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the toxicity of some synthetic furan derivatives in two cell lines and Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, María I; Monasterios, Melina; Avendaño, Milagros; Charris, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the preliminary toxicity evaluation of five new furan derivatives, 2-[2-acetylamino-2-[(benzothiazolyl-substituted)aminocarbonyl]vinyl]-5-nitro furane (compounds A, B, D and E) and 2-[2-phenylamino-2-[benzothiazolylaminocarbonyl]vinyl]furane (compound C). Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT (tetrazolium salt) method over BHK21 (Syrian baby hamster kidney) and Hep-2 (human larynx carcinoma) cells, which had previously been used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the 5-nitrofuran derivatives. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was determined using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay. Nitrofurantoin was used as reference compound. The results demonstrate that BHK21 cells are more sensitive than Hep-2 cells. This structurally related serial of compounds shows a differential toxicity, which is an indication that the toxicity naturally arising from the nitro group can be modulated by the substituents over the furan ring. Additionally, compound C, the only derivative with no nitro group, was least toxic to Hep-2, but exhibits toxicity to BHK21 cells and brine shrimp. The LC(50 )brine shrimp test (BST) bioassay results were as follows: A, 654.2 microg ml(-1); B, 50.0 microg ml(-1); C, 533.4 microg ml(-1); D, 172.1 microg ml(-1); E, 76.4 microg ml(-1), and NF, >1000 microg ml(-1).

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  8. Dilution of botulinum toxin A in lidocaine vs. in normal saline for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a double-blind, randomized, comparative preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, A T

    2012-03-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is an effective and safe treatment modality for primary axillary hyperhidrosis. However, some patients experience considerable pain during injections. Dilution of botulinum toxin A in lidocaine vs. in normal saline for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a double-blind, randomized, comparative preliminary study. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and pain tolerance of lidocaine-diluted BTX-A vs. saline-diluted BTX-A for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. Eight patients were injected with 50 U of BTX-A diluted in 0.5 mL of saline and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine into one axilla and 50 U of BTX-A diluted in 1.5 mL of saline into the other axilla in a randomized fashion. The pain associated with the injections were self-assessed by the subjects using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Lidocaine-diluted BTX-A and saline-diluted BTX-A were similarly effective regarding the reduction in sweat production, the onset of sweat cessation and the duration of hypo/anhidrosis. Nevertheless, the pain VAS score during the injections was significantly lower in the axilla treated with lidocaine-diluted BTX-A than the one treated with saline-diluted toxin. Preliminary study due to relatively small sample size. Botulinum toxin A diluted in lidocaine causes significantly less pain than BTX-A diluted in saline, whereas it is is equally effective and safe as the latter one in treating axillary hyperhidrosis. Therefore, we suggest that lidocaine-diluted BTX-A may be a better treatment option for the patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  10. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  11. Reactions to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami: a preliminary matching study comparing nurses and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-01

    The research of reactions to disasters is uncommon. Moreover, most studies target a specific population, whether civilians or professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the reactions of hospital personnel and civilians after exposure to a unique disaster that combines natural and nuclear disaster. A matching sample of nurses and civilians was compared using a brief questionnaire tapping into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, subjective health, perceived coping, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. The results revealed that the nurses had a lower level of PTSD symptoms and higher self-rated health, life satisfaction, and perceived coping in comparison with the civilians. These results are discussed in light of work characteristics that include exposure to traumatic events as part of their work and coping that is partially based on training.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks. Plutonium finishing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company`s Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  13. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings......-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement ,and Enjoyment, were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties...... despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other...

  14. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...... of the harvester should match the frequency of he ambient vibration. The first step to achieve this is to evaluate the uniformity of the fabricated harvesters and nderstand the effects of temperature on the harvesters during operation. Therefore, the uniformity of 40 energy harvesters from one wafer has been...... evaluated. Thereafter the performance of the energy harvesters operating at emperatures between -30°C to 100°C was measured....

  15. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  16. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  18. Learning in a Game-Based Virtual Environment: A Comparative Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Igor; Warmelink, Harald; Bekebrede, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    The authors define the requirements and a conceptual model for comparative evaluation research of simulation games and serious games (SGs) in a learning context. A first operationalisation of the model was used to comparatively evaluate a suite of 14 SGs on varying topics played between 2004 and 2009 in 13 institutes of higher education in the…

  19. Target Population Involvement in Urban Ciclovias: A Preliminary Evaluation of St. Louis Open Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, J. Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct ...

  20. What did audit achieve? Lessons from preliminary evaluation of a year's medical audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, J; McNicol, M C; Spiby, J; Davies, S C; Layton, A J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the experience of a year's audit of care of medical inpatients. DESIGN--Audit of physicians by monthly review of two randomly selected sets of patients' notes by 12 reviewers using a detailed questionnaire dedicated to standards of medical records and to clinical management. Data were entered into a database and summary statistics presented quarterly at audit meetings. Assessment by improvement in questionnaire scores and by interviewing physicians. SETTING--1 District ...

  1. High-Throughput Screening of Potential Skin Penetration-Enhancers Using Stratum Corneum Lipid Liposomes: Preliminary Evaluation for Different Concentrations of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a technique for high-throughput screening (HTS) of skin penetration-enhancers using stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs). A fluorescent marker, sodium fluorescein (FL), entrapped in SCLLs was prepared to provide a preliminary evaluation of the effect of different concentrations of ethanol on the disruption effect of SCLLs, which is an alternative for skin penetration-enhancing effects. In addition, SCLLs containing a fluorescent probe (DPH, TMA-DPH, or ANS) were also prepared and utilized to investigate SCLL fluidity. The results using SCLL-based techniques were compared with conventional skin permeation and skin impedance test using hairless rat skin. The obtained correlations were validated between FL leakage, SCLL fluidity with various probes, or skin impedance and increases in the skin permeation enhancement ratio (ER) of caffeine as a model penetrant. As a result, FL leakage and SCLL fluidity using ANS were considered to be good indices for the skin penetration-enhancing effect, suggesting that the action of ethanol on the SC lipid and penetration-enhancing is mainly on the polar head group of intercellular lipids. In addition, this screening method using SCLL could be utilized as an alternative HTS technique for conventional animal tests. Simultaneously, the method was found to be time-saving and sensitive compared with a direct assay using human and animal skins. PMID:28321359

  2. CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Silva, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Supplementary Propedeutics; Martins, Tatiana [Ecoar Medicina Diagnostica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Medical Practice

    2010-09-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

  3. Transperineal ultrasonography for evaluation of the perianal fistula and abscess in pediatric Crohn disease: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Wee Kyung; Cho, Young Ah; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeoun Joo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children' s Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Mo [Dept. of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children' s Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS) for the evaluation of perianal Crohn disease (PCD) in pediatric patients. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 64 TPUS examinations were performed in 43 patients (34 males and 9 females; mean age±standard deviation, 13.3±2.4 years; age range, 6 to 17 years) to evaluate PCD. The pain severity, location, and activity of perianal fistula, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia were retrospectively evaluated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the severity of the pain and the fistula activity, the presence of an abscess, and anal canal hyperemia. All examinations were successfully performed. Thirty-nine examinations (60.9%) were performed without any pain experienced by the patient, 19 examinations (29.7%) with mild pain, five examinations (7.8%) with moderate pain, and one examination (1.6%) with severe pain. The pain severity was correlated with the fistula activity (P<0.01). An anterior fistula location was more common than a posterior location. Active fistulas and abscesses were identified during 30 examinations (46.9%) and 12 examinations (18.8%), respectively. Anal canal hyperemia was identified in 31 examinations (48.4%). TPUS with a color Doppler study is useful for visualizing a perianal fistula or abscess and for assessing its inflammatory activity in pediatric Crohn patients.

  4. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model Version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AMAD will perform two annual CMAQ model simulations, one with the current publically available version of the CMAQ model (v5.0.2) and the other with the beta version of the new model (v5.1). The results of each model simulation will then be compared to observations and the pe...

  6. A Short-Term Evaluation of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education): Preliminary Indications of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    1987-01-01

    Assessed impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) on knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior of seventh graders who received DARE curriculum in sixth grade. Compared to controls, DARE students reported significantly lower use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Findings were especially strong for boys. (Author/NB)

  7. 网络信息挖掘系统评价初探%Preliminary Exploration of the Evaluation of Web Mining Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丰; 张燕

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes an evaluation scheme of Web mining system capabilities based on the investigation of several existing survey projects of data mining systems. The scheme covers 4 aspects, i. e. commercial capability, algorithm capability, application capability and Web mining process capability. The preliminary evaluation scheme is then used to investigate 19 systems, which are either commercial products or research prototypes. Finally, the results of the survey are described.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of total protein concentration and electrophoretic protein fractions in fresh and frozen serum from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Comazzi, Carlo; Belloli, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the health status of reptiles is based on physical examination and evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values. Evaluation of serum total protein (TP) concentration and protein fractions plays an important role in health assessment; however, little is known about references value for these analytes in wild viperoid snakes. In addition, studies evaluating the stability of proteins in frozen viperoid serum are lacking. The aims of this study were to establish preliminary reference values for concentrations of TP and protein fractions in serum from wild vipers and to evaluate the stability of serum proteins in frozen serum samples from viperoid snakes. Blood samples were collected from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). Using fresh serum, TP concentrations were determined using the biuret method and protein fractions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE); albumin/globulin ratios were calculated. Analyses were also performed on serum frozen at -20°C for 70 days and then thawed. Pre- and post-storage results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Five adult wild Horned Vipers were sampled and comprised 4 males and 1 female. The female snake had higher TP concentrations than the male snakes. The electrophoretic patterns demonstrated 6 protein fractions that were similar for all 5 snakes. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of the 6 protein fractions post-storage; the percentage of the alpha-1 fraction was increased in frozen/thawed serum. Total protein concentrations in serum from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes were in agreement with published reference intervals for healthy reptiles and viperoid snakes. Serum protein fractions were easy to identify using AGE electrophoresis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Milan Criteria and UCSF Criteria: A Preliminary Comparative Study of Liver Transplantation Outcomes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya S. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT for patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC necessitates highly selective criteria to maximize survival and to optimize allocation of a scarce resource. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of OLT for HCC in patients transplanted under Milan and UCSF criteria. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS database was queried for patients who had undergone OLT for HCC from 2002 to 2007, and 1,972 patients (Milan criteria, n=1,913; UCSF criteria, n=59 were identified. Patients were stratified by pretransplant criteria (Milan versus UCSF, and clinical and pathologic factors and overall survival were compared. There were no differences in age, gender, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and hepatitis B, or C status between the two groups. Overall survival was similar between the Milan and UCSF cohorts (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year survival rates: 88%, 81%, 76%, and 72% versus 91%, 80%, 68% and 51%, respectively, P=0.21. Although the number of patients within UCSF criteria was small, our results nevertheless suggest that patients with HCC may have equivalent survival when transplanted under Milan and UCSF criteria. Long-term followup may better determine whether UCSF criteria should be widely adopted.

  10. ULTRASONOGRAPHY V / S COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF PANCREATITIS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Maheswara Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combinati on of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests permit an accurate diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in most patients. Chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, forms a much more difficult entity to evaluate clinically or biochemically. The clinical and biochemical parameters form a key factor in the diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis. Cross - sectional imaging with ultrasound and CT has afforded rapid, accurate and noninvasive evaluation of the pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 50 cases of Acute and chronic pancreatitis of 16 to 67 years age of both male and females who were diagnosed on imaging studies (Ultrasound and/or CT or on a constellation of signs, symptoms and laboratory data indicative of pancreatitis during the period from Au gust 2011 to July 2013. RESULTS: A total of 50 cases were studied of which 40 had acute pancreatitis and 10 had chronic pancreatitis. In the 40 cases with acute pancreatitis, ultrasound alone was done in 16 cases, CT alone in 4 cases and both modalities we re employed in the remaining 20 patients. All the 10 cases with chronic pancreatitis had an ultrasound study but only one required a CT scan. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is an initial screening modality in a suspected case of pancreatitis and MDCT is the i nvestigation of choice for definitive diagnosis and estimation of severity of pancreatitis. The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combination of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests such as serum

  11. The Evaluation of Game-based E-learning for Medical Education: a Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2005-01-01

    Game-Based e-learning (GBeL) was a newly designed platform for education of students with higher education, especially for medical students. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the attraction of GBeL, the motivation toward GBeL and the learning effect. We found more than 80% of students thought that GBeL was attractive and more interesting than traditional class. However, the percentage of enhancing interest to learn and learning more complete and deep knowledge were less than 50%. PMID:16779319

  12. The evaluation of Game-Based e-learning for medical education: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2005-01-01

    Game-Based e-learning (GBeL) was newly designed platform for education of students with higher education, especially for medical students. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the attraction of GBeL, the motivation toward GBeL and the learning effect. We found more than 80% of students thought that GBeL was attractive and more interesting than traditional class. However, the percentage of enhancing interest to learn and learning more complete and deep knowledge were less than 50%.

  13. Review and Preliminary Evaluation of Lifting Horizontal-Axis Rotating-Wing Aeronautical Systems (HARWAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ship propulsion and cycloidal ship propulsion . Approximately 1200 references are listed. A series of cross-index tables is also included to provide a quick means for the reader to determine the content and availability of the references. An analysis of the various lift systems pertinent to the HARWAS field is made with a view to potential air vehicle applications. Over 20 original aeronautical applications are identified and evaluated in the light of recent advances in power plants, transmissions and lightweight structural techniques. This analysis

  14. [Evaluation of liver function between indoor and outdoor workers: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, F; Ricci, S; De Marco, F; Sacco, C; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Scala, B; Corsale, S; Massimi, R; Caciari, T; Anzelmo, V; Sancini, A; Casale, T; Tomei, G; Rosati, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to compare liver damage in "outdoor" environment technicians, a category occupationally exposed, and in "indoor" workers. We studied 142 male technicians of the environment exposed to urban pollution and 142 male "indoor" workers not exposed. We compared mean and standard deviation of the following liver parameters: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-traspeptidasi (γGT) and alkaline phosphatase (PHA), total bilirubin (TB) and direct (DB). We made the two groups comparable for age, length of service, BMI, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, and excluded the workers who presented confounding factors. We found statistically significant differences about the levels of γGT, PHA, GPT and albumin between the "outdoor" workers exposed and the "indoor" control group. In the outdoor group we observed statistically significant values, GPT (51.8 ± 30.6 I.U./l vs. 30 ± 22.3 I.U./l; p = 0.000), γ-GT (42.2 ± 29.4 I.U./l vs. 22.4 ± 20.7 I.U./l; p = 0.000) and PHA (75.7 ± 20.6 I.U./l vs. 59.1 ± 19.6 I.U./l; p= 0.000) compared to the unexposed group. No statistically significant difference emerged between the averages for the values of GOT (25.3 ± 20.7 I.U./l vs. 26 ± 17.7 I.U./l; p = 0.736) in two groups. It clearly emerges that the contaminants may alter the values of liver tests after prolonged exposure.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of trust and shared decision making among intensive care patients' family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth G; Wolfe, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate ICU family members' trust and shared decision making using modified versions of the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the Shared Decision Making-9 Survey. Using a descriptive approach, the perceptions of family members of ICU patients (n=69) of trust and shared decision making were measured using the Wake Forest Trust Survey and the 9-item Shared Decision Making (SDM-9) Questionnaire. Both surveys were modified slightly to apply to family members of ICU patients and to include perceptions of nurses as well as physicians. Overall, family members reported high levels of trust and inclusion in decision making. Family members who lived with the patient had higher levels of trust than those who did not. Family members who reported strong agreement among other family about treatment decisions had higher levels of trust and higher SDM-9 scores than those who reported less family agreement. The modified surveys may be useful in evaluating family members' trust and shared decision making in ICU settings. Future studies should include development of a comprehensive patient-centered care framework that focuses on its central goal of maintaining provider-patient/family partnerships as an avenue toward effective shared decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of the effects of Camellia sinensis on stroke induced rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objectives of current study are to test for Neuroprotective activity of Camellia sinensis in rat model of stroke and to evaluate the effect of Camellia Sinensis as anti-thrombolytic agent and in lowering the impact of disease with the behavioural changes before and after the induction of Stroke. Methods: Forty male albino rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for induction of stroke. Camellia sinensis extract was administered orally for 21 consecutive days prophylactically. Ischaemic rats administered the same volume of tap water were used as a control group. Functional outcome tests (Pasta, forelimb flexion, cylinder, staircase were performed. Rats were subjected to surgical procedures after 21 days’ treatment for analysis of stroke recovery. Results: Treatment with Camellia sinensis extract of 400 mg/kg PO significantly (P=0.000 enhanced neurological recovery in all tests performed. There was no significant difference of infarct volume among the experimental groups treated with Camellia sinensis extract 200 mg/kg PO. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study was vivid that Camellia sinensis extract is safe and effective mediator in clot dissolution and stroke reversal in rat model. It is the first agent found effective in no behavioural modification or adverse effects using its extract. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate, assess and appraise its desired characteristics and therapeutics in human subjects.

  17. Spectral CT evaluation of interstitial brachytherapy in pancreatic carcinoma xenografts: preliminary animal experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shudong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Wei; Song, Qi; Lin, Xiaozhu; Wang, Zhongmin; Chen, Kemin [Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yerong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-09-15

    We sought to evaluate the capability of spectral CT to detect the therapeutic response to {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy in a pancreatic carcinoma xenograft nude mouse model. Twenty mice bearing SWl990 human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were randomly separated into two groups: experimental (n = 10; 1.0 mCi) and control (n = 10; 0 mCi). After a two-week treatment, spectral CT was performed. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and iodine concentration (IC) in the lesions were measured and normalized to the muscle tissue, and nIC CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to measure microvessel density (MVD). The relationships between the nIC and MVD of the tumours were analysed. The nIC of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group during the multiphase examination. A significant difference in the MVD was observed between the two groups (P <0.001). The nIC values of the three-phase scans have a certain positive correlation with MVD (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001; r = 0.48, p = 0.002; r = 0.63, p = 0.0017 in the 10, 25, and 60 s phase, respectively). Spectral CT can be a useful non-invasive imaging modality in evaluating the therapeutic effect of {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy to a pancreatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Inclusion of Oregano Extract on Growth Performance in Fattening Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Alexandra Prieto García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Oregano as vegetal extract has been investigated scientifically and has proven to be an effective antibiotic; it does not generate resistant strains as it happens with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, and is also considered an alternative to improve productive performance in livestock farms. This is why the aim of study was to evaluate the use of oregano extract on the gain of final weight, conversion and feed efficiency in rabbits, for this purpose an experiment completely randomized with 12 New Zealand rabbits divided into 3 treatment was performed; T1, was determined as control, and the base feed was 100 g of rabbit feed; T2, to 100 g of rabbit feed was added 1 ml of oregano extract and T3, 100 g of rabbit feed plus 3 ml of oregano. The research lasted 60 days, 8 which were dietary adaptation. The obtained data were evaluated by ANOVA and the statistical differences between treatments by TUKEY test, with significance level of 0,05. The results showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 for the variables final weight gain and feed efficiency for T1 relative to T2 and T3; for feed conversion no statistical difference (p>0.05 between treatments. For this experiment it was concluded that the addition of oregano extract showed no improvement in productive parameters of broiler rabbits.

  19. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  20. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 2-arylhydroxyquinoline derivatives for tau imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Tetsuro; Furumoto, Shozo; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Harada, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Senile plaques, consisting of β-amyloid, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of tau protein, are representative pathological hallmarks of AD. It is believed that the accumulation of NFTs precedes the onset of clinical symptoms of AD and correlates with the progression of memory dysfunction. Thus, the use of noninvasive detection techniques including radiolabeled probes and positron emission tomography (PET) will facilitate early diagnosis or staging of AD. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated novel hydroxylated 2-arylquinoline derivatives as tau imaging PET probes. The binding affinities of compounds for tau were evaluated by fluorescent staining of the AD hippocampal section and a competitive binding assay using [(18) F]THK-523. THK-951 showed high binding affinity for tau pathology in an AD brain section and K18Δ280K fibrils (Ki  = 20.7 nM); thus, we radiosynthesized a (11) C-labeled THK-951 and further studied its potential as a tau PET probe. The [(11) C]THK-951 demonstrated excellent kinetics in a normal mouse brain (3.23% ID/g at 2 min postinjection and 0.15% ID/g at 30 min postinjection) and showed the labeling of NFTs in an AD brain section by autoradiography assay. These findings indicate the availability of [(11) C]THK-951 for in vivo PET imaging of tau pathology in AD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Target population involvement in urban ciclovias: a preliminary evaluation of St. Louis open streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kuhlberg, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct approach. The survey covered six domains: physical activity, travel to event, sense of community, marketing, economic impact, and demographics. Each event occurred within the city, along multiple streets. Domains were selected from Ciclovia Recreativa developed by Ciclovia Bogota, Pan American Health Organization, and CDC. Additional questions addressed city-specific goals and matched similar evaluations in other cities. Over 50 % of participants met CDC-defined weekly minute thresholds for physical activity. Participants, primarily (>80 %) middle class, college educated, and white, were not representative of the majority minority city population, which has high rates of poverty, and low percentage of college graduates. Cities must work with residents to increase low-income minority population participation in ciclovia-based physical activity.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Convective Heat Transfer in a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson J. Boise; Reid, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Vision for Space Exploration, the end of the next decade will bring man back to the surface of the moon. A crucial issue for the establishment of human presence on the moon will be the availability of compact power sources. This presence could require greater than 10's of kWt's in follow on years. Nuclear reactors are well suited to meet the needs for power generation on the lunar or Martian surface. Radiation shielding is a key component of any surface power reactor system. Several competing concepts exist for lightweight, safe, robust shielding systems such as a water shield, lithium hydride (LiH), and boron carbide. Water offers several potential advantages, including reduced cost, reduced technical risk, and reduced mass. Water has not typically been considered for space reactor applications because of the need for gravity to fix the location of any vapor that could form radiation streaming paths. The water shield concept relies on the predictions of passive circulation of the shield water by natural convection to adequately cool the shield. This prediction needs to be experimentally evaluated, especially for shields with complex geometries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed the experience and facilities necessary to do this evaluation in its Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF).

  3. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  4. [Development and evaluation of a serological protocol of fluorescence polarization for the preliminary study of Brucella spp antibodies in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villalobos, Alfredo; Urdaneta-Fernández, Margelys; Rubio-Fuenmayor, Elí; Molero-Saras, Gladys; Luzardo-Charris, Carlos; Corona-Mengual, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    In order to show the development and scope of a serological analysis method based on fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) from a drop of blood obtained by the capillary technique, a Brucella antibody assay was performed on a group of 321 high-risk workers. The results were compared with data from the analysis of blood serum by FPA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA-c). The number of concordance was 318 (99.06%), and discordant 3 (0.93%), which were negative in serum by fluorescence polarization (FPAs) and ELISA-c, but positive with capillary FPA (FPAc). The comparative results FPAc were: sensitivity 100%; specificity: 99.05%; positive predictive value 66.67%; negative predictive value 100.0%; false positive rate: 0.95%; false negative rate: 0%; accuracy: 98.0%; odds ratio: 203.00. The youden J for both FPA methods was 0.667. The identification was considered reliable and the correlation of both procedures, FPA and ELISA-c, was no statistically different (P > 0.05%), which allows to highly recommend the study implementation of human brucellosis with capillary blood as a preliminary method.

  5. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET in Web-based Classes: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Loveland

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Student evaluation of teaching (SET is important to faculty because SET ratings help faculty improve performance and are often used as the basis for evaluations of teaching effectiveness in administrative decisions (e.g., tenure. Researchers have conducted over 2,000 studies on SET during the past 70 years. However, despite the explosive growth in online education during the past decade, researchers have largely neglected the use of SET to evaluate teaching effectiveness in online courses. This exploratory study analyzed the actual SET data collected during a single semester at a large mid-western college that offers over 250 online/Web-based classes. The data included five dependent and eighteen independent measures of teaching effectiveness. The results indicate that average SET ratings in online classes are significantly lower than the average ratings in on-campus classes across all five dependent measures. This finding offers preliminary empirical support for anecdotal evidence cited by earlier authors in this field. Furthermore, regression analysis of the full model for each dependent variable indicated that the independent variables explained a significant portion of the variance in SET ratings. Examination of the standardized beta coefficients revealed that the strength and significance of the independent variables varied across the five dependent measures. Findings also indicate that organization of the course materials had a strong impact on all five measures of overall teaching effectiveness. Other variables including clarity of the instructor’s writing, timeliness in providing feedback, and interest in whether students learned were also significant factors in models that measured instructor effectiveness (as opposed to models that measured quality of course content. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this study for administrators, faculty, and researchers.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  7. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  8. An economic evaluation of implant treatment in edentulous patients-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Sendi, Pedram; Marinello, Carlo P

    2005-01-01

    Edentulous patients with denture problems benefit from implant treatment with overdenture prostheses. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a method of analyzing cost effectiveness in dentistry. As an example, overdenture treatment with two or four implants was compared to the conventional complete denture (CD). In a self-selected trial, 20 patients each were treated with implant-retained overdentures (two implants, IRET), implant-supported overdentures (four implants, ISUP), or CDs (control group) in the edentulous mandible. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the patient's perspective, with a time horizon of 6 months. Direct health-care costs were calculated in Swiss Francs (in 2000), and effects were defined as improvements in perceived chewing ability compared with the baseline value before treatment (measured on a VAS). Point estimates for mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were complemented with cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to account for uncertainties associated with costs and effects. Mean incremental costs were CHF 4,329 (IRET-CD), CHF 13,360 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 9,031 (ISUP-IRET); these cost differences were all statistically significant. The mean incremental effects at 6 months were 19% (IRET-CD), 23% (ISUP-CD), and 4% (ISUP-IRET). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were CHF 228 (IRET-CD), CHF 581 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 2,258 (IRET-ISUP) per percentage increase in chewing ability. From an economic point of view, IRETs were more attractive than ISUPs. The latter were associated with a statistically significant improvement in perceived chewing ability compared to CDs, but at substantially higher costs.

  9. Observed & Modeled Changes in the Onset of Spring: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis by Geographic Regions of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.

    2012-12-01

    Phenology, the study of seasonal life cycle events in plants and animals, is a well-recognized indicator of climate change impacts on people and nature. Models, experiments, and observational studies show changes in plant and animal phenology as a function of environmental change. Current research aims to improve our understanding of changes by enhancing existing models, analyzing observations, synthesizing previous research, and comparing outputs. Local to regional climatology is a critical driver of phenological variation of organisms across scales. Because plants respond to the cumulative effects of daily weather over an extended period, timing of life cycle events are effective integrators of climate data. One specific measure, leaf emergence, is particularly important because it often shows a strong response to temperature change, and is crucial for assessment of processes related to start and duration of the growing season. Schwartz et al. (2006) developed a suite of models (the "Spring Indices") linking plant development from historical data from leafing and flowering of cloned lilac and honeysuckle with basic climatic drivers to monitor changes related to the start of the spring growing season. These models can be generated at any location that has daily max-min temperature time series. The new version of these models is called the "Extended Spring Indices," or SI-x (Schwartz et al. in press). The SI-x model output (first leaf date and first bloom date) are produced similarly to the original models (SI-o), but do not incorporate accumulated chilling hours; rather energy accumulation starts for all stations on January 1. This change extends the locations SI model output can be generated into the sub-tropics, allowing full coverage of the conterminous USA. Both SI model versions are highly correlated, with mean bias and mean absolute differences around two days or less, and a similar bias and absolute errors when compared to cloned lilac data. To

  10. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  11. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Elias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  12. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage.

  13. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Paula Regina; Coelho, Gleicekelly Silva; Xavier, Viviane Flores; Sales Junior, Policarpo Ademar; Romanha, Alvaro José; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; Camilo, Nilton Soares; Hilário, Flaviane Francisco; Taylor, Jason Guy

    2016-10-10

    A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  14. [Generation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particle Vaccine and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Protective Efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Ruikun; Huang, Shaomei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jinliang; Zhu, Bibo; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-03-01

    The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.

  15. Development and preliminary evaluation of an Android based heart rate variability biofeedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, F; Berndtsson, A; Abtahi, S; Seoane, F; Lindecrantz, K

    2014-01-01

    The reduced Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is believed to be associated with several diseases such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In these cases, HRV biofeedback may be a potential intervention method to increase HRV which in turn is beneficial to these patients. In this work, a real-time Android biofeedback application based on a Bluetooth enabled ECG and thoracic electrical bioimpedance (respiration) measurement device has been developed. The system performance and usability have been evaluated in a brief study with eight healthy volunteers. The result demonstrates real-time performance of system and positive effects of biofeedback training session by increased HRV and reduced heart rate. Further development of the application and training protocol is ongoing to investigate duration of training session to find an optimum length and interval of biofeedback sessions to use in potential interventions.

  16. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation by four species of seagrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Mark S.; Cahalan, Jennifer A.

    1992-12-01

    Seagrasses are able to modify current flow and sediment composition, yet little information exists describing their effect on waves. Four species of seagrass, Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum and Zostera marina were evaluated for their ability to reduce wave energy under various combinations of shoot density and water depths over a 1 m test section in a wave tank. Percent wave energy reduction per meter of seagrass bed equaled 40% when the length of these seagrasses was similar to the water depth. Seagrasses are approximately equal to saltmarshes in reducing wave energy on a unit distance basis, but only when water depth is scaled to plant size. When seagrass beds occur as broad, shallow meadows, the influence of seagrasses on wave energy will be substantial.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of nanoscale biogenic magnetite-based ferromagnetic transduction mechanisms for mobile phone bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranfield, Charles; Wieser, Heinz Gregor; Al Madan, Jaffar; Dobson, Jon

    2003-03-01

    Ferromagnetic transduction models have been proposed as a potential mechanism for mobile phone bioeffects. These models are based on the coupling of RF and pulsed electromagnetic emissions to biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) present in the human brain via either ferromagnetic resonance or mechanical activation of cellular ion channels. We have tested these models experimentally for the first time using a bacterial analogue (Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum) which produces intracellular biogenic magnetite similar to that present in the human brain. Experimental evaluation revealed that exposure to mobile phone emissions resulted in a consistent and significantly higher proportion of cell death in exposed cultures versus sham exposure (p = 0.037). Though there appears to be a repeatable trend toward higher cell mortality in magnetite-producing bacteria exposed to mobile phone emissions, it is not yet clear that this would extrapolate to a deleterious health effect in humans.

  19. Evaluation of an additive efficacy in broiler litter microbial level control in field: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pennacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate in field the efficacy of an additive (SOP® C POULTRY, as an agent for the control of micro-organisms in broiler litter. The Total aerobic Microbial Count (TMC, Staphylococcus species (spp., Coliforms, and Salmonella spp. in broiler litter samples of both the Houses, 2 (H2 and 3 (H3, were determined, and also at the end of each cycle the mortality rate was recorded. The results showed significant reduction of all the microbial counts: P= 0.0078 (CMT, 0,0021 (Staphylococcus spp. and 0.0541 (Coliforms, and mortality (P= 0.00106 in treated litter samples H2 and the control H3.

  20. Preliminary development and evaluation of online tobacco and alcohol modules for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M; Heideman, Paul W; Ravenel, Michele C; Spangler, John G; Mauldin, Mary P; Hill, Elizabeth G; Onicescu, Georgiana

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are major risk factors for the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC). Detection and modification of these risks by dentists are keys in preventing OPC. While dentists are encouraged to screen patients for tobacco and alcohol use and educate them about the oral health risks they pose, dental students receive little formalized training in this area. This pilot project was designed to develop and evaluate two online training modules for dental students: one on tobacco and oral health risk factors, and one on methods of alcohol screening. Results indicated that online tobacco/alcohol education for dental students is feasible. The modules resulted in meaningful improvement in dental students' knowledge of tobacco and alcohol use as well as alcohol screening methods. The alcohol module resulted in statistically significant increases in intention to screen patients for alcohol use and in comfort level in performing alcohol screening.

  1. Preliminary measurement performance evaluation of a new white light interferometer for cylindrical surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, Armando Jr; Pont, Alex Dal [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Metrology and Automation Laboratory, Cx Postal 5053, CEP 88 040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design of a white light interferometer, suitable for measurement of cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical parts. A high precision 45 deg. conical mirror is used to direct collimated light radially, making it possible to measure in true cylindrical coordinates. The image of the measurand, distorted by the conical mirror, is projected in a high resolution digital camera. A mapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the cylindrical geometry from the distorted image. The rest of the interferometer is quite similar to a conventional white light interferometer: A flat reference mirror is scanned through the measurement range while an algorithm is searching for the maximum contrast position of the interference pattern. The performance evaluation of a configuration suitable for measurement of external cylindrical surfaces is also presented in this paper. A master cylinder was used as reference. Uncertainties of about 1.0 {mu}m were found at the present stage of development.

  2. Design and preliminary performance evaluation of airborne hyper-spectral imaging spectograph Air-OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeomi; Sano, Takuki; Watanabe, Masaharu; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2003-06-01

    Air-OPUS is a hyper spectral imaging spectrograph, with 0.34 nm spectral step, 190-455 nm spectral coverage, and 330 spatial channels covering 15 degrees field of view (FOV). It is designed as an airborne instrument for the demonstration of spaceborne-OPUS. After two-demonstration campaign using the Gulfstream-II aircraft, the performances of AIR-OPUS, such as spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ration (SNR) have been evaluated. It is concluded that the performances have agreed with designed value. This paper describes design, the performance, and the first results of Air-OPUS. Concept of next generation Air-OPUS, with wider FOV and visible/near-IR spectral coverage, will be also briefly presented.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of a MRI-compatible Modular Robotic System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2010-09-26

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions have been introduced in order to advance prostate cancer detection and treatment. To overcome problems of such robotic interventions, we have been developing a pneumatically actuated MRI-compatible modular robotic system for MRI-guided transperineal prostate intervention and its interventional procedure. For system evaluation, a series of experiments have been conducted and this paper reports a needle insertion experiment using prostate phantom and patient mockup trials. The needle insertion experiment resulted in noticeable consistent error in one direction, which we will investigate further. Nonetheless, patient mockup experiences suggest that the modular robotic system and its interventional procedure are well integrated and implemented in clinical environment.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the MLAA algorithm with the Philips Ingenuity PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Schramm, Georg; Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank [PET Center, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrae 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ho, Jörg van den [PET Center, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrae 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Uni-versität Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Combined PET/MR is a promising tool for simultaneous investigation of soft tissue morphology and function. However, contrary to CT, MR images do not provide information on photon attenuation in tissue. In the currently available systems issue is solved by synthesizing attenuation maps from MR images using segmentation algorithms. This approach has been shown to provide reason-able results in most cases. However, sporadically occurring segmentation errors can cause serious problems. Recently, algorithms for simultaneous estimation of attenuation and tracer distribution (MLAA) have been introduced. So far, validity of MLAA has mainly been demonstrated in simulated data. We have integrated the MLAA algorithm [2] into the THOR reconstruction []. An evaluation of MLAA was performed using both phantom and patient data acquired with the Ingenuity PET/MR.

  5. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  6. Preliminary experience using dynamic MRI at 3.0 tesla for evaluation of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Micheal; Jee, Won Hee; Jung, Joon Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tumors, was analyzed. Visual assessment of time-signal curves, subtraction images, maximal relative enhancement at the first (maximal peak enhancement [Emax]/1) and second (Emax/2) minutes, Emax, steepest slope calculated by using various time intervals (5, 30, 60 seconds), and the start of dynamic enhancement were analyzed. The 13 tumors were comprised of seven benign and six malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Washout on time-signal curves was seen on three (50%) malignant tumors and one (14%) benign one. The most discriminating DCE-MRI parameter was the steepest slope calculated, by using at 5-second intervals, followed by Emax/1 and Emax/2. All of the steepest slope values occurred within 2 minutes of the dynamic study. Start of dynamic enhancement did not show a significant difference, but no malignant tumor rendered a value greater than 14 seconds. The steepest slope and early relative enhancement have the potential for differentiating benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Short-length rather than long-length DCE-MRI protocol may be adequate for our purpose. The steepest slope parameters require a short temporal resolution, while maximal peak enhancement parameter may be more optimal for a longer temporal resolution.

  7. Evaluating rate, accuracy, and fluency of young children's diadochokinetic productions: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaruss, J Scott; Logan, Kenneth J

    2002-01-01

    Diadochokinetic (DDK) rates are commonly assessed in children with speech-language disorders, even though the implications of fast or slow DDK rates are not clear. This study explored the possibility that the accuracy and fluency of DDK productions may provide a meaningful supplement to traditional measures of DDK rate. Participants were 15 boys, age 3-7, with normal speech-language development, who were asked to produce "puh-tuh-kuh" or "pattycake" in a standard DDK task. Analyses revealed that normally developing children produce frequent articulation errors but few disfluencies during DDK tasks. Errors and disfluencies did not affect DDK rate, suggesting that the rate of DDKs may be a relatively insensitive measure of children's speaking abilities. Although an expected correlation was found between age and overall DDK rate, no correlations were found between age and the frequency of articulation errors or speech disfluencies. Findings suggest that measures of DDK accuracy and fluency may provide information about children's speech development that is independent of age and may be more closely related to oral motor development than rate. Overall, results underscore concerns with the interpretation of DDK rate and highlight ways that rate measures might be supplemented with measurement of accuracy and fluency in the evaluation of children's speaking abilities. The reader will learn about a technique that may facilitate the evaluation of young children's oral DDK abilities. The reader will learn about the frequency and type of errors children produce on DDKs and how this information can be used in the assessment of children's oral motor abilities.

  8. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  9. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a micro-based repeated measures testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Lane, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    A need exists for an automated performance test system to study the effects of various treatments which are of interest to the aerospace medical community, i.e., the effects of drugs and environmental stress. The ethics and pragmatics of such assessment demand that repeated measures in small groups of subjects be the customary research paradigm. Test stability, reliability-efficiency and factor structure take on extreme significance; in a program of study by the U.S. Navy, 80 percent of 150 tests failed to meet minimum metric requirements. The best is being programmed on a portable microprocessor and administered along with tests in their original formats in order to examine their metric properties in the computerized mode. Twenty subjects have been tested over four replications on a 6.0 minute computerized battery (six tests) and which compared with five paper and pencil marker tests. All tests achieved stability within the four test sessions, reliability-efficiencies were high (r greater than .707 for three minutes testing), and the computerized tests were largely comparable to the paper and pencil version from which they were derived. This computerized performance test system is portable, inexpensive and rugged.

  11. Evaluation of anterior mediastinal solid tumors by CT perfusion: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Selim; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Dikici, Atilla Süleyman; Erşen, Ezel; Yıldırım, Onur; Samancı, Cesur; Batur, Şebnem; Çebi Olgun, Deniz; Kantarcı, Fatih; Akman, Canan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of computed tomography (CT) perfusion in differentiation of thymoma from thymic hyperplasia, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer invading anterior mediastinum. In this study, 25 patients with an anterior mediastinal lesion underwent CT perfusion imaging from January 2015 to February 2016. Diagnoses included thymoma (n=7), thymic hyperplasia (n=8), lymphoma (n=4), thymic carcinoma (n=3), and invasive lung cancer (n=3). Lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer were grouped as malignant tumors for statistical analysis. Values for blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface were measured in CT perfusion. Blood flow and blood volume values were higher in thymoma in comparison to thymic hyperplasia; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma (mean, 11.4 mL/100 mL; range, 5.2-20.2 mL/100 mL) compared with lymphoma (mean, 5.3 mL/100 mL; range, 2.5-7.2 mL/100 mL) (P = 0.023). Blood flow and blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma compared with non-thymoma malignant tumors (P = 0.025). CT perfusion is helpful in differentiating thymoma from non-thymoma malignancies including lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and invasive lung cancer involving the anterior mediastinum.

  12. An Examination of Perceived Quality, Satisfaction, and Loyalty Relationship: Applicability of Comparative and Noncomparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates alternative measurement approaches to investigating the relationship amongst perceived quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty. The authors define and measure the constructs within a relative attitudinal framework and compare these results to a noncomparative or individual evaluation of brands. In addition, loyalty is measured by and defined as a behavioral and attitudinal loyalty. The object of this research is teh botol whilst the subjects are undergraduate students in Surabaya and Yogyakarta. The proposed model, with satisfaction as a mediator between quality and loyalty, is found to be an acceptable representation of data across three brands of teh botol and for both comparative and noncomparative evaluation. The use of relative attitude, however, indicates a much stronger relationship amongst perceived quality, satisfaction, and loyalty than the attitude towards a brand when they are performed in individual evaluation. With respect to predictive ability, this study’s findings suggest that comparative evaluation has higher degree of applicability than does noncomparative evaluation.

  13. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  14. "Preliminary Evaluation of Climate Change impact in the Codegua's River Irrigation Improvement Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, Franco; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of Climate Change in one of the projected dams for farming activities in Codegua's catchment, near to Santiago, Chile. This reservoir is one of the twenty that will be built by the Hydraulics Infrastructure Management Department of Chile in the next years. The design is based on the concept of "Irrigation Security", defined as the quotient between the number of years where is possible to deliver the crop demand and the total of years. It must be greater than 85% to approve the project. The evaluation of Climate Change is based in two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The forecast hydroclimatology is based in General Circulation Model MPI-ESM, from Max Planck Institute, Germany. The evaluation considers two future periods: a near future (2020-2055) and a further future (2065-2100). First, statistical downscaling of precipitation and temperature time series are made and then the yearly inflow to the dam is estimated by a simple rainfall-runoff relation, the future evapotranspiration is estimated by Penman-Monteith method and with an empirical mathematical relation, based in Blaney and Criddle method. For this reason, the analysis included additional scenarios to incorporate the uncertainty in the evapotranspiration estimation as well as on tributary volumes from the basin to the dam, for each Climate Change scenarios. Climate Change in the zone of study indicates that precipitations will be lower than the present and the temperature will increase. For example, the results predict that precipitation in the best scenario, for near future, will go down 15% and temperature will increase in 0.6 (°C). For the further future in the worst scenarios, model predicts that precipitation will go down around 30% and temperature will increase 2.5 (°C). This coupled effects modify in a great way the water supply and demand in the zone of study. With the new hydrology forecast for the future, the "Irrigation Security" is recalculated in

  15. Evaluation of stomatognathic problems in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (osteogenesis imperfecta - oi) - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoląg, Danuta; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Sułko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former. The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system. An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw. The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to

  16. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Immediate Loaded Dental Implants With Local Application of Melatonin: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, Mona Y; Salem, Ahmed S; Anees, Mohamed M; Tawfik, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants in situations where low bone density exist, such as the posterior maxillary region, became possible recently after the introduction of biomimetic agents. This 1-year preliminary clinical trial was carried out to clinically and radiographically evaluate immediate-loaded 1-piece implants with local application of melatonin in the osteotomy site as a biomimetic material. 14 patients with missing maxillary premolars were randomized to receive 14 implants of 1-piece type that were subjected to immediate loading after 2 weeks of initial placement. Group I included 7 implants with acid-etched surface while group II included 7 implants with acid-etched surface combined with local application of melatonin gel at the osteotomy site. Patients were recalled for follow up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. All implants were considered successful after 12 months of follow-up. Significant difference (P implant loading when considering the implant stability. At 1 and 3 months there were significant differences in the marginal bone level between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the local application of melatonin at the osteotomy site is associated with good stability and minimal bone resorption. However, more studies for longer follow-up periods are required to confirm the effect of melatonin hormone on osseointegration of dental implants.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the CellFinder literature curation pipeline for gene expression in kidney cells and anatomical parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mariana; Damaschun, Alexander; Mah, Nancy; Lekschas, Fritz; Seltmann, Stefanie; Stachelscheid, Harald; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Kurtz, Andreas; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical literature curation is the process of automatically and/or manually deriving knowledge from scientific publications and recording it into specialized databases for structured delivery to users. It is a slow, error-prone, complex, costly and, yet, highly important task. Previous experiences have proven that text mining can assist in its many phases, especially, in triage of relevant documents and extraction of named entities and biological events. Here, we present the curation pipeline of the CellFinder database, a repository of cell research, which includes data derived from literature curation and microarrays to identify cell types, cell lines, organs and so forth, and especially patterns in gene expression. The curation pipeline is based on freely available tools in all text mining steps, as well as the manual validation of extracted data. Preliminary results are presented for a data set of 2376 full texts from which >4500 gene expression events in cell or anatomical part have been extracted. Validation of half of this data resulted in a precision of ~50% of the extracted data, which indicates that we are on the right track with our pipeline for the proposed task. However, evaluation of the methods shows that there is still room for improvement in the named-entity recognition and that a larger and more robust corpus is needed to achieve a better performance for event extraction. Database URL: http://www.cellfinder.org/

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a 99mTc labeled hybrid nanoparticle bearing a cobalt ferrite core: in vivo biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimadas, Dimitrios; Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Bouziotis, Penelope; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Loudos, George

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become important tools for imaging a wide range of diseases, improving drug delivery and applying hyperthermic treatment. Iron oxide based nanoparticles have been widely examined, unlike cobalt ferrite based ones. Herein, monodisperse and stable CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been produced, coated and further stabilized using ethyl 12-(hydroxyamino)-12-oxododecanoate, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and bovine serum albumin. The final product, NBRh1, was fully characterized and has been directly radiolabeled with 99mTc using SnCl1 as the reducing agent in high yields. In vitro stability and hyperthermic properties of 99mTC-NBRh1 were encouraging for further application in low frequencies hyperthermia and biomagnetic applications. In vivo evaluation followed after injection in healthy mice. The planar and SPECT imaging data as well as the biodistribution results were in accordance, showing high liver and spleen uptake as expected starting almost immediately after administration. In conclusion the preliminary results for nanoparticles bearing a cobalt ferrite core justify further investigations towards potential hyperthermic applications, drug transportation and liver or spleen imaging.

  19. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  20. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.

  1. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  2. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  3. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboronok, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Yoshida, F; Uspenskii, S; Selyanin, M; Zelenetskii, A; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron-hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required.

  4. Interactive segmentation of plexiform neurofibroma tissue: method and preliminary performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Lior; Hoch, Lior; Ben Bashat, Dafna; Joskowicz, Leo; Pratt, Li-tal; Constantini, Shlomi; Ben Sira, Liat

    2012-08-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are a major manifestation of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), a common genetic disease involving the nervous system. Treatment decisions are mostly based on a gross assessment of changes in tumor using MRI. Accurate volumetric measurements are rarely performed in this kind of tumors mainly due to its great dispersion, size, and multiple locations. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for segmentation of PN from STIR MRI scans. The method starts with a user-based delineation of the tumor area in a single slice and automatically segments the PN lesions in the entire image based on the tumor connectivity. Experimental results on seven datasets, with lesion volumes in the range of 75-690 ml, yielded a mean absolute volume error of 10 % (after manual adjustment) as compared to manual segmentation by an expert radiologist. The mean computation and interaction time was 13 versus 63 min for manual annotation.

  5. Optical guidance for stereotactic brain tumor biopsy procedures: preliminary clinical evaluation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Richter, Johan; Milos, Peter; Hallbeck, Martin; Wârdell, Karin

    2017-02-01

    In the routine of stereotactic biopsy on suspected tumors located deep in the brain or patients with multiple lesions, tissue samples are harvested to determine the type of malignancy. Biopsies are taken from pre-calculated positions based on the preoperative radiologic images susceptible to brain shift. In such cases the biopsy procedure may need to be repeated leading to a longer operation time. To provide guidance for targeting diagnostic tumor tissue and to avoid vessel rupture on the insertion path of the tumor, an application specific fiber optic probe was developed. The setup incorporated spectroscopy for 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protopophyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in the tumor and laser Doppler for measuring microvascular blood flow which recorded backscattered light (TLI) at 780 nm and blood perfusion. The recorded signals were compared to the histopathologic diagnosis of the tissue samples (n=16) and to the preoperative radiologic images. All together 146 fluorescence and 276 laser Doppler signals were recorded along 5 trajectories in 4 patients. On all occasions strong PpIX fluorescence peaks were visible during real-time guidance. Comparing the gliotic tumor marginal zone with the tumor, the PpIX (51 vs. 528 a.u., [0-1790], p 0.05) and blood perfusion (8.3 vs. 17 a.u., [0-254], p > 0.05) were not significantly different. In conclusion, the optical guidance probe made real-time tumor detection and vessel tracking possible during the stereotactic biopsy procedures. Moreover, the fluorescence and blood perfusion in the tumor could be studied at controlled positions in the brain and the tumor.

  6. A Comparative Evaluation of Mixed Dentition Analysis on Reliability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Compared to Plaster Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowd, Snigdha; Shankar, T; Dash, Samarendra; Sahoo, Nivedita; Chatterjee, Suravi; Mohanty, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) obtained image over plaster model for the assessment of mixed dentition analysis. Thirty CBCT-derived images and thirty plaster models were derived from the dental archives, and Moyer's and Tanaka-Johnston analyses were performed. The data obtained were interpreted and analyzed statistically using SPSS 10.0/PC (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive and analytical analysis along with Student's t-test was performed to qualitatively evaluate the data and P plaster model; the mean for Moyer's analysis in the left and right lower arch for CBCT and plaster model was 21.2 mm, 21.1 mm and 22.5 mm, 22.5 mm, respectively. CBCT-derived images were less reliable as compared to data obtained directly from plaster model for mixed dentition analysis.

  7. A Performance Evaluation for IT/IS Implementation in Organisation: Preliminary New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Salleh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traditional IT/IS performance measures are based on productivity and process, which mainly focus on method of investment appraisal. There is a need to produce alternative holistic measurement models that enable soft and hard issues to be measured qualitatively. A New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE framework has been designed to measure the capability of organisations to'successfully implement IT systems' and it is applicable across industries.The idea is to provide managers with measurement tools to enable them to identify where improvements are required within their organisations and to indicate their readiness prior to IT investment. The NICE framework investigates four organisational key elements: IT, Environment, Process and People, and is composed of six progressive stages of maturity that a company can achieve its IT/IS capabilities. For each maturity stage, the NICE framework describes a set of critical success factors that must be in place for the company to achieve each stage.

  8. Temperature-sensitive mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: isolation and preliminary immunological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A M; Arroyo, P J; Oeschger, M P; Bellanti, J A

    1982-01-01

    The immunogenicity of two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunotype 1, isolated and characterized for the development of a safe, live vaccine strain, was evaluated in a mouse protection model. One mutant, A/10/25, had a limited "coasting" property (i.e., continued replication for two divisions) at the nonpermissive temperature (36 degrees C), whereas the other mutant, E/9/9, continued replication for five generations after transfer to 36 degrees C. Groups of 3- to 5-week-old ICR mice were immunized intraperitoneally with various doses of the two ts mutants; at various times thereafter, the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with lethal doses of the parental wild type. The more extensive coaster, E/9/9, induced 100% protection at immunizing doses lower than those required for A/10/25 to induce the same protection (1 x 10(8) to 2 x 10(8) and 6 x 10(8) colony-forming units, respectively). Both ts strains induced significant protection for up to 5 weeks after immunization. The results of these studies suggest that the use of P. aeruginosa ts mutants might provide a novel approach to the prevention of P. aeruginosa colonization of patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:6815088

  9. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  11. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. leaf and bark extracts as antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Duavy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (C. coriaceum has been traditionally used as wound healing and for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of the tree leaf and fruit bark extracts from C.coriaceum. The extracts exhibited a similar and significant DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and were effective in reducing and chelating iron. Indeed, the extracts diminished lipid peroxidation ferrous-induced and reactive species overproduction calcium-induced in liver homogenate. The extracts did not modify the levels of superoxide radical in liver mitochondria treated with antimicin A. The extract samples presented significant content of total phenols. Our findings showed that the extracts from species C. coriaceum were strong antioxidants in vitro and point that they might be useful as potent sources of natural bioactive compounds for further in vivo studies. Industrial Relevance. This study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro antioxidant action of leaf and bark fruit extracts from species C. Coriaceum. The extracts were able to scavenge free radicals, modulate iron redox state and inhibit lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction. In addition to the pharmacological activities already documented toward fruit known as Pequi, the results obtained here highlight leaves and fruit barks as important antioxidant agents and sources of phenolic compounds, characteristics that potentiate the relevance of species C. Coriaceum as functional/nutraceutical food. Keywords: Caryocar coriaceum Wittm; pequi; antioxidant activity; oxidative stress

  12. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  13. Design and preliminary evaluation of a portable device for the measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Jue; Yu, Gang; Niu, Feilong; He, Ping

    2006-12-01

    Portable bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) devices are of great value for monitoring the pathological status of biological tissues in clinical and home environments. The two traditional techniques for measuring complex bioimpedance, the bridge method and quadrature demodulation method, are either time-consuming or often associated with high cost, high power consumption, and large board space, and therefore are not ideally suitable for designing a portable device for BIS measurement. This paper describes a novel design of a portable BIS device based on the magnitude-ratio and phase-difference detection method and its implementation using the newest generation of analog electronic products which greatly decrease the complexity of both hardware and software. In order to improve the accuracy of the device, a three-reference calibration algorithm was applied. Experimental sweep-frequency measurements on RC circuits were carried out to preliminarily evaluate the performances of the device. The results obtained by the device were found to be in good agreement with the results measured by a commercial impedance analyzer HP4194, with an overall mean error of 0.014% in magnitude and 0.136 degrees in phase over a frequency range of 20 kHz to 1 MHz.

  14. A Preliminary Evaluation of Season-ahead Flood Prediction Conditioned on Large-scale Climate Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ward, Philip; Block, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Globally, flood disasters lead all natural hazards in terms of impacts on society, causing billions of dollars of damages each year. Typically, short-term forecasts emphasize immediate emergency actions, longer-range forecasts, on the order of months to seasons, however, can compliment short-term forecasts by focusing on disaster preparedness. In this study, the inter-annual variability of large-scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) is investigated to understand the prospects for skillful season-ahead flood prediction globally using PCR-GLOBWB modeled simulations. For example, global gridded correlations between discharge and Nino 3.4 are calculated, with notably strong correlations in the northwestern (-0.4~-0.6) and the southeastern (0.4~0.6) United States, and the Amazon river basin (-0.6~-0.8). Coupled interactions from multiple, simultaneous climate drivers are also evaluated. Skillful prediction has the potential to estimate season-ahead flood probabilities, flood extent, damages, and eventually integrate into early warning systems. This global approach is especially attractive for areas with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop early warning flood systems.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the rock-mass disturbance resulting from shaft, tunnel, or borehole excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Chabannes, C.R.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes, into or nearby the repository. An important consideration in penetration sealing is the disturbed zone, or zone of increased permeability, which may be created in the rock mass adjacent to the penetration as a result of excavation. Disturbed zone characteristics for shafts, tunnels, and boreholes are evaluated by analysis and by review of previous laboratory and field tests. Consideration is given also to test methods for characterizing the disturbed zone in situ, and to methods for treating the disturbed zone in seal construction. Laboratory tests indicate that the disturbed zone associated with small-diameter boreholes is probably insignificant. In contrast, the disturbed zone is potentially a significant pathway for flow through seals placed in shafts and tunnels. Because a major mechanism for disturbance is believed to be stress relief acting across fractures, much of the disturbance occurs regardless of the excavation method used. Various test methods are proposed for disturbed zone characterization in shafts and tunnels, with seismic refraction identified as a promising index test. A proposed method for treating the disturbed zone uses cutoffs constructed as a series of overlapping boreholes. Each hole is filled with concrete which is allowed to cure before the adjacent holes are drilled.

  16. Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Steigerwalt, R J; Di Renzo, A; Grossi, M G; Ricci, A; Stuard, S; Ledda, A; Dugall, M; Cornelli, U; Cacchio, M

    2008-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of showing the effects of Pycnogenol on controlling jet-lag symptoms. Oral Pycnogenol, 50 mg tablets 3 times/die, for 7 days starting 2 days prior to the flight was used. The study was divided into two separate parts. In study 1 the most common complaints of patients with jet-lag were evaluated with a rating scale consisting in of a scoring system. In study 2 a brain CT scan was performed after the flight in order to assess minimal brain edema (MBE) in association with typical signs and symptoms, observed in previous published flight studies. Study one included 38 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 30 controls. The symptomatic jet-lag related total score was significantly lower (indicating a lower level of jet-lag) in the Pycnogenol group. The average duration of any jet lag symptom following the flight was significantly reduced from 39.3 (SD=0.8) hours in controls to an average of 18.2 (SD=3.3) hours in the Pycnogenol group (PPycnogenol and 31 controls. The main observation was the brain CT scan performed within 28 hours after the end of the flight. The difference between the Pycnogenol and the control groups was statistically significant (PPycnogenol group. A number of spontaneously reported symptoms was also scored and there was a statistically significant difference (PPycnogenol and control groups. In conlusion, Pycnogenol was useful to control jet-lag and minimal brain edema.

  17. Design, synthesis, and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of new imidazolinones as L-DOPA prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Claudi, Francesco; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Cerasa, Laura S; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Ferrante, Claudio; Orlando, Giustino; Glennon, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    L-DOPA, the immediate biological precursor of dopamine, is still considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, therapy with L-DOPA is associated with a number of acute problems. With the aim to increase the bioavailability after oral administration, we designed a multi-protected L-DOPA prodrugs able to release the drug by both spontaneous chemical or enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis. The new compounds have been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated for their water solubility, log P, chemical stability, and enzymatic stability. The results indicate that the incorporation of the amino acidic moiety of L-DOPA into an imidazoline-4-one ring provides prodrugs sufficiently stable to potentially cross unchanged the acidic environment of the stomach, and to be absorbed from the intestine. They also might be able to release L-DOPA in human plasma after enzymatic hydrolysis. The ability of prodrugs 6a-b to increase basal levels of striatal DA, and influence brain neurochemistry associated with dopaminergic activity following oral administration, as well as the radical-scavenging activity against DPPH for compounds 6a-b and 15a are also reported.

  18. Cardiovascular-interventional-surgery virtual training platform and its preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaozheng; Xie, Le; Shen, Xianglong; Luo, Maisheng; Wu, Zhaoli; Gu, Lixu

    2014-10-13

    Cardiovascular interventional surgery (CIS) training has mainly been performed with fluoroscopic guidance on animals. However, this has potential drawbacks, including from the anatomical differences between animal models and the human body. The purpose of this research is to develop a virtual training platform for inexperienced trainees. The CIS virtual training platform is composed of a mechanical manipulation unit, a simulation platform and a user interface. A decoupled haptic device offers high-quality force feedback. An efficient physically based hybrid model was simulated. The CIS procedure was tested with three simulation studies. Translational and rotational tests were employed to preliminarily evaluate the platform. Tests showed that accuracies improved by 50% and 32.5%. Efficient collision detection and continuous collision response allowed real-time interactions. Furthermore, three simulation studies indicated that the platform had reasonable accuracy and robustness. The proposed simulation platform has the potential to be a good virtual training platform. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Londy, F. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chrisp, C.E. [Unit of Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doi, K. [Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 15 refs.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation on In-vessel Source Term based on 4S Methodology in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Won; Chang, Won-Pyo; Seong, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Sang June; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Lee, Jin Yoo; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This strategy requires nuclear plants to have features that prevent radionuclide release and multiple barriers to the escape from the plants of any radionuclides that are released despite preventive measures. Considerations of the ability to prevent and mitigate release of radionuclides arise at numerous places in the safety regulations of nuclear plants. The effectiveness of mitigative capabilities in nuclear plants is subject to quantitative analysis. The radionuclide input to these quantitative analyses of effectiveness is the Source Term (ST). All features of the composition, magnitude, timing, chemical form and physical form of accidental radionuclide release constitute the ST. Also, ST is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment. The many assumptions and equations evaluated in 4S are used. The in-vessel STs are calculated through several phases: The inventory of each radionuclide is calculated by ORIGEN-2 code using the peak burnup conditions. The nominal value of the radiological inventory is multiplied by a factor of 1.5 as an uncertainty margin to give the radiological inventory. ST in the release from the core to primary sodium is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology. Lastly, ST in the release from the primary sodium to cover gas space is calculated by using the assumption of 4S methodology.

  1. Coincidence FDG-PET in the evaluation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Adler, Brent H. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States); Olshefski, Randal S. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bone involvement in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is common. Both bone scintigraphy and plain films are used to identify osseous lesions, but lack specificity for disease activity and response to therapy. FDG-PET is a sensitive technique for identifying bone lesions when histiocytes are present. To describe the potential of coincidence FDG-PET (cFDG-PET) for identification of active bone lesions in LCH and to determine whether it can provide more specific information regarding lesional response to therapy than bone scintigraphy or radiography. The clinical data and imaging findings of three patients with osseous lesions of LCH were retrospectively reviewed. cFDG-PET identified all active LCH osseous lesions in these patients, differentiated active from healed lesions, and demonstrated normalization of uptake in a treated lesion earlier than bone scintigraphy and radiography. cFDG-PET appears to have greater specificity than bone scintigraphy and radiography for the identification of active osseous lesions in LCH. It also may predict response to treatment earlier than conventional techniques. Its use in the evaluation of LCH warrants further study. (orig.)

  2. The evaluation of local oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with pityriasis versicolor: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan

    2016-11-01

    Yeast of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses. The mechanisms by which the yeast cause these dermatoses, however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction between fungi and keratinocytes, especially the effects of fungi on the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species by human keratinocytes. This is the first study we aimed to evaluate the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in affected skin areas in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Sixty pityriasis versicolor patients and 60 healthy subjects as control group were enrolled. Scraping samples were obtained from the lesional skin areas in patients and from the normal skin areas in controls. The distribution of lesions of pityriasis versicolor was mild in all patients. We have isolated two Malassezia species: M. furfur being isolated in 75% of patients, followed by M. globosa (25%). The levels of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were significantly higher in patients than the controls (P pityriasis versicolor is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance. It might be secondary consequence of pityriasis versicolor infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user's intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user's muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of variable compliance joystick for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Harshal P; Spaeth, Donald M; Dicianno, Brad E; Brown, Karl; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb fatigue is a common problem that may restrict people with multiple sclerosis (MS) from using their electric powered wheelchair effectively and for a long period of time. The objective of this research is to evaluate whether participants with MS can drive better using a variable compliance joystick (VCJ) and customizable algorithms than with a conventional wheelchair joystick. Eleven participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The groups used either the VCJ in compliant or noncompliant isometric mode and a standard algorithm, personally fitted algorithm, or personally fitted algorithm with fatigue adaptation running in the background in order to complete virtual wheelchair driving tasks. Participants with MS showed better driving performance metrics while using the customized algorithms than while using the standard algorithm with the VCJ. Fatigue adaptation algorithms are especially beneficial in improving overall task performance while using the VCJ in isometric mode. The VCJ, along with the personally fitted algorithms and fatigue adaptation algorithms, has the potential to be an effective input interface for wheelchairs.

  6. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user’s intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user’s muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  12. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  13. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Claudete G., E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/Luis Solé y Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pires, Karen [Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM), Washington Luiz, 815, Centro, 90010-460 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Luis F.S., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m{sup 3} of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture.

  14. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Søren V; Baker, Felicity A; Ridder, Hanne Mette O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed on the proxy-rating version aiming to establish if it revealed meaningful constructs. ICCS was translated from English to Danish language, pilot tested and slightly modified for use as a self-rating scale with people with ABI. A relative/staff version of the scale was also constructed for testing. Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n = 37) were involved in testing the ICCS-staff/relative rating and ICCS-self-rating. The ICCS-Staff/Relative showed an overall Cronbach alpha of α = 0.774 and the ICCS-Self-rating α = 0.675. A factor extraction of the ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed six meaningful sub-groups that corresponded well with the original ICCS. There was a low but significant correlation between the ratings performed by the two staff members most familiar with the participants (r = 0.280, p = 0.04). The ICCS-Staff/Relative revealed a good overall internal consistency, whereas the ICCS-Self-rating revealed acceptable internal consistency. The factor analysis of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies.

  15. An Eddy-Permitting Oceanic General Circulation Model and Its Preliminary Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 张学洪; 李薇; 俞永强; 宇如聪

    2004-01-01

    An eddy-permitting, quasi-global oceanic general circulation model, LICOM (LASG/IAP (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics) Climate System Ocean Model), with a uniform grid of 0.5°× 0.5° is established.Forced by wind stresses from Hellerman and Rosenstain (1983), a 40-yr integration is conducted with sea surface temperature and salinity being restored to the Levitus 94 datasets. The evaluation of the annual mean climatology of the LICOM control run shows that the large-scale circulation can be well reproduced. A comparison between the LICOM control run and a parallel integration of L30T63, which has the same framework but a coarse resolution, is also made to confirm the impact of resolution on the model performance. On account of the reduction of horizontal viscosity with the enhancement of the horizontal resolution, LICOM improves the simulation with respect to not only the intensity of the large scale circulations, but also the magnitude and structureof the Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current. Taking advantage of the fine grid size, the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is better represented in LICOM than in L30T63. The transport of ITF in LICOM is more convergent in the upper layer. As a consequence, the Indian Ocean tends to get warmer in LICOM. The poleward heat transports for both the global and individual basins are also significantly improved in LICOM. A decomposed analysis indicates that the transport due to the barotropic gyre, which primarily stands for the barotropic effect of the western boundary currents, plays a crucial role in making the difference.

  16. CT-discography in the evaluation of the post-operative lumbar spine. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenier, N.; Greselle, J.F.; Richard, O.; Houang, B.; Pinol-Daubisse, H.; Caille, J.M.; Vital, J.M.; Senegas, J.

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with recurrent sciatica after lumbar-disk surgery were studied for recurrent herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) by CT alone and CT-discography (CTD). Twenty-six patients underwent surgical reexploration allowing correlation with CTD. CTD made a correct diagnosis of recurrent HNP in twenty-one patients showing an extravasation of the contrast medium from the disk space into the medullary canal. In two cases CTD was positive for recurrent HNP but surgery showed only fibrosis. The amount of contrast leak was very small in these two cases along the posterior common longitudinal ligament, and the junction with the disk was very narrow. Because of their clinical presentation three patients with negative studies were operated upon. One showed only fibrosis and the two others showed an associated disk fragment. Among the twenty-one true-positive cases, seven showed a combination of recurrent HNP and scarring. Contamination of CSF by the contrast medium through the dura was observed in two patients. Although a prospective comparative study between CTD and IV-contrast-enhanced CT is necessary, CTD appears to be a useful diagnostic procedure for recurrent HNP after surgery of the lumbar spine.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

  19. Evaluating Escherichia coli removal performance in stormwater biofilters: a preliminary modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G I; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2013-01-01

    Stormwater biofilters are not currently optimised for pathogen removal since the behaviour of these pollutants within the stormwater biofilters is poorly understood. Modelling is a common way of optimising these systems, which also provides a better understanding of the major processes that govern the pathogen removal. This paper provides an overview of a laboratory-scale study that investigated how different design and operational conditions impact pathogen removal in the stormwater biofilters. These data were then used to develop a modelling tool that can be used to optimise the design and operation of the stormwater biofilters. The model uses continuous simulations where adsorption and desorption were dominant during wet weather periods and first order die-off kinetics were significant in dry periods between the wet weather events. Relatively high Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies (>0.5) indicate that the calibrated model is in good agreement with observed data and the optimised model parameters were comparable with values reported in the literature. The model's sensitivity is highest towards the adsorption process parameter followed by the die-off and desorption rate parameters, which implies that adsorption is the governing process of the model. Vegetation is found to have an impact on the wet weather processes since the adsorption and desorption parameters vary significantly with the different plant configurations. The model is yet to be tested against field data and needs to be improved to represent the effect of some other biofilter design configurations, such as the inclusion of the submerged zone.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the DUSTRAN Modeling Suite for Modeling Atmospheric Chloride Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Philip; Tran, Tracy; Fritz, Bradley; Rutz, Frederick; Ross, Steven; Gorton, Alicia; Devanathan, Ram; Plante, Paul; Trainor, Kevin

    2016-05-03

    This study investigates the potential of DUSTRAN, a dust dispersion modeling system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to model the transport of sea salt aerosols (SSA). Results from DUSTRAN simulations run with historical meteorological data were compared against privately-measured chloride data at the near coastal Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and the Environmental Protection Agency-measured CASTNET data from Acadia National Park (NP). The comparisons have provided both encouragement as to the practical value of DUSTRAN’s CALPUFF model and suggestions for further software development opportunities. All modeled concentrations were within one order of magnitude of those measured and a few test cases showed excellent agreement between modeled and measured concentrations. However, there is a lack of consistency in discrepancy which may be due to inaccurate extrapolation of meteorological data, underlying model physics, and the source term. Future research will refine the software to better capture physical phenomena. Overall, results indicate that with parameter refinement, DUSTRAN has the potential to simulate atmospheric chloride transport from known sources to inland sites for the purpose of determining the corrosion susceptibility of various structures, systems, and components at the site.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

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    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  2. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

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    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  3. Building a transnational biosurveillance network using semantic web technologies: requirements, design, and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Emonet, Stéphane; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2012-05-29

    Antimicrobial resistance has reached globally alarming levels and is becoming a major public health threat. Lack of efficacious antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems was identified as one of the causes of increasing resistance, due to the lag time between new resistances and alerts to care providers. Several initiatives to track drug resistance evolution have been developed. However, no effective real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring system is available publicly. To design and implement an architecture that can provide real-time and source-independent antimicrobial resistance monitoring to support transnational resistance surveillance. In particular, we investigated the use of a Semantic Web-based model to foster integration and interoperability of interinstitutional and cross-border microbiology laboratory databases. Following the agile software development methodology, we derived the main requirements needed for effective antimicrobial resistance monitoring, from which we proposed a decentralized monitoring architecture based on the Semantic Web stack. The architecture uses an ontology-driven approach to promote the integration of a network of sentinel hospitals or laboratories. Local databases are wrapped into semantic data repositories that automatically expose local computing-formalized laboratory information in the Web. A central source mediator, based on local reasoning, coordinates the access to the semantic end points. On the user side, a user-friendly Web interface provides access and graphical visualization to the integrated views. We designed and implemented the online Antimicrobial Resistance Trend Monitoring System (ARTEMIS) in a pilot network of seven European health care institutions sharing 70+ million triples of information about drug resistance and consumption. Evaluation of the computing performance of the mediator demonstrated that, on average, query response time was a few seconds (mean 4.3, SD 0.1 × 10

  4. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Yilmaz Kor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 girls and 30 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 13 girls participated in the study. All patients followed in Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine and also control subjects had no hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and infection. Blood samples were collected during routine analysis, after overnight fasting. Serum melatonin levels were analyzed with ELISA. Results: There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, BMI distribution between diabetic group and control group. Mean diabetic duration was 2.89 ± 2.69 years. The variables were in the equation. Mean melatonin level in diabetic group was 6.75 ± 3.52 pg/ml and mean melatonin level in control group was 11.51 ± 4.74 pg/ml. Melatonin levels were significantly lower in diabetic group compared to controls (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Melatonin was associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly. Because of the varied roles of melatonin in human metabolic rhythms, these results suggest a role of melatonin in maintaining normal rhythmicity. Melatonin may play role in preventing process of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  5. MR-guided data framing for PET motion correction in simultaneous MR–PET: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullisch, M.G., E-mail: m.ullisch@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Scheins, J.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Celik, A.; Tellmann, L.; Stöcker, T.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    Head motion can significantly degrade image quality of static and dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the human brain. One method to regain acceptable image quality in the presence of motion is to include the correction for motion in the reconstruction process. When applying motion correction, the PET data can be segmented into discrete parts of similar head position, referred to as frames. This framing of the data can reduce the computational overhead necessary for motion correction during the reconstruction process by reducing the number of discrete head positions which have to be accounted for. Here a framing algorithm is presented which minimises residual motion in the framed data, while taking full advantage of the additional information provided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a simultaneous MR–PET acquisition. In the work presented here information on motion is derived from EPI sequences acquired simultaneously with the PET data. A comparison to images reconstructed with regular framing show a more clearly delineated cortex due to increased contrast between grey matter and white matter. This improvement in image quality is achieved as well as a reduction in the number of frames, thereby reducing the reconstruction time. Preliminary data indicates an efficient reduction of residual intra-frame motion compared to regular framing.

  6. Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in bipolar disorder: Preliminary evaluation of immediate effects on between-episode functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.M.G.; Alatiq, Y.; Crane, C.; Barnhofer, T.; Fennell, M.J.V.; Duggan, D.S.; Hepburn, S.; Goodwin, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is highly recurrent and rates of comorbidity are high. Studies have pointed to anxiety comorbidity as one factor associated with risk of suicide attempts and poor overall outcome. This study aimed to explore the feasibility and potential benefits of a new psychological treatment (Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy: MBCT) for people with bipolar disorder focusing on between-episode anxiety and depressive symptoms. Methods The study used data from a pilot randomized trial of MBCT for people with bipolar disorder in remission, focusing on between-episode anxiety and depressive symptoms. Immediate effects of MBCT versus waitlist on levels of anxiety and depression were compared between unipolar and bipolar participants. Results The results suggest that MBCT led to improved immediate outcomes in terms of anxiety which were specific to the bipolar group. Both bipolar and unipolar participants allocated to MBCT showed reductions in residual depressive symptoms relative to those allocated to the waitlist condition. Limitations Analyses were based on a small sample, limiting power. Additionally the study recruited participants with suicidal ideation or behaviour so the findings cannot immediately be generalized to individuals without these symptoms. Conclusions The study, although preliminary, suggests an immediate effect of MBCT on anxiety and depressive symptoms among bipolar participants with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and indicates that further research into the use of MBCT with bipolar patients may be warranted. PMID:17884176

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a fully automated quantitative framework for characterizing general breast tissue histology via color histogram and color texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Batiste, Rebecca C.; Kontos, Despina; Feldman, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Visual characterization of histologic specimens is known to suffer from intra- and inter-observer variability. To help address this, we developed an automated framework for characterizing digitized histology specimens based on a novel application of color histogram and color texture analysis. We perform a preliminary evaluation of this framework using a set of 73 trichrome-stained, digitized slides of normal breast tissue which were visually assessed by an expert pathologist in terms of the percentage of collagenous stroma, stromal collagen density, duct-lobular unit density and the presence of elastosis. For each slide, our algorithm automatically segments the tissue region based on the lightness channel in CIELAB colorspace. Within each tissue region, a color histogram feature vector is extracted using a common color palette for trichrome images generated with a previously described method. Then, using a whole-slide, lattice-based methodology, color texture maps are generated using a set of color co-occurrence matrix statistics: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. The extracted features sets are compared to the visually assessed tissue characteristics. Overall, the extracted texture features have high correlations to both the percentage of collagenous stroma (r=0.95, phistological processes in digitized histology specimens.

  8. Remediation Technology of Contaminated Areas with Organochlorines: A Preliminary Evaluation Seeking Potential Applications on the Site of Street Capua, Santo André - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silva Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the use of remediation technologies for areas contaminated with organochlorine based on a literature review and discussions with specialists. The remediation technologies analyzed were bioremediation, phytoremediation, nanotechnology, chemical oxidation, and thermal desorption. The purpose is to identify and compare “key problems” for each of these technologies envisaging the use of one or more of these them f or the remediation of the Capua Street site in Santo André, SP. Four databases were used in the preliminary literature review: Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science, and Science Direct. A survey questionnaire was designed to gather information on publications of scientific papers and patents, specific uses of these technologies by companies, and cases of application. Since the quality of the data and information obtained from this questionnaire application was not satisfactory, a new research approach for complementing them was undertaken. For this purpose, the Web of Science was selected as the most adequate data basis to carry out this second survey. However, it was realized that even for this database - that is reference for evaluating academic institutions, researchers and maturity of technologies – bias coming from the original data source can affect the survey results. Moreover, as the number of keywords used in the research consisted of generic terms for each technology, it can also be assumed that if some authors have used very specific terms, a small amount of work published by them would possibly have been misrepresented in the final result.

  9. Cosmos caudatus enhances fracture healing in ovariectomised rats: A preliminary biomechanical evaluation

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    Pamela Godspower Rufus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Osteoporotic fractures occur in osteoporotic states and affect patients’ quality of life. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja is a local plant known for its high calcium content and anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the fracture healing properties of C. caudatus water extract in ovariectomised rats by studying the biomechanical properties of tibia. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (i sham operated (ii ovariectomised control (iii ovariectomised + estrogen (100µg/kg/day and (iv ovariectomised + C. caudatus (500mg/kg. Following six weeks of sham operation or ovariectomy, the right tibia of the rats were fractured. Rats were then given their respective treatment for 8 weeks with body weight monitored weekly. Biomechanical analysis indicated that the maximum load, stress and Young’s modulus of the ovariectomised control group (36.2 ± 4.7N, 10.01 ± 1.41MPa, 29.2 ± 9.39MPa respectively were significantly lower compared to sham operated (150.32 ± 32. 6N, 36.75 ± 7.98MPa, 183 ± 53.2MPa respectively and the C. caudatus treated group (136.86 ± 16.95N, 33.45 ± 4.14MPa, 155.13± 58.58MPa respectively. Therefore, C. caudatus extract improved the biomechanical property of the healed bone and may be beneficial for fracture healing in the estrogen deficient state.Industrial Relevance. Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a debilitating disease affecting women worldwide. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT, commonly used for the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis has been associated with several side effects. Thus, in finding alternatives in the treatment of osteoporosis, C. caudatus is a plant of interest. Previous study showed that C. caudatus improved bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats by increasing double-labeled surface (dLS/BS, mineral appositional rate (MAR, osteoid volume (OV/BV and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess

  10. Impact of an educational program on the quality of life of patients with lymphedema: A preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Sophie; Satger, Bernadette; Pernod, Gilles; Richaud, Cécile; Villemur, Béatrice; Carpentier, Patrick H

    2017-09-01

    We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires. Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program. This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program (number of patients attending all three consultations). The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The assessment criteria were the evolution of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and EuroQol questionnaire scores between the first (C1) and thi