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Sample records for preliminary chemical characterization

  1. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  2. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  3. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of physical and chemical characterization of waste palm oil shell as cool material replaced in asphaltic concrete as fine aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, M. A. M.; Anting, N.; Shahidan, S.; Lee, Y. Y.; Din, M. F. Md; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, W. M. H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia is one of the biggest producer of palm oil product and currently as main source of economy for the country. During the production of crude palm oil, a large amount of waste material is generated, such as palm oil fibres, palm oil shells and empty fruit bunches. Palm oil shell aggregate (POSA) is identified as a material that shows good potential to be used as a fine aggregate replacement in asphaltic concrete. On other hand, the chemical compound that exist in the Palm Oil Shell (POS) have shown a good potential as reflective component in cool-material. The purpose of this study is to obtain the physical and chemical properties of palm oil shell. The result shows the apparent particle density of Palm Oil Shell is 1.6 mg/m3. The specific gravity of palm oil shell was obtained with the value 1.6 and the water absorption amount of palm oil shell recorded from this study was 25.1%. The X-Ray Fluorescence study shows that palm oil shell contains the highest amount of SiO2 (46.412 wt%) and the second highest amount of Fe2O3 (34.016 wt%), both is the main output of relectivity compound. As a conclusion, waste palm oil shell has a potential to be used as alternative material for fine aggregate replacement. Besides that, the amount of chemical element that consist in palm oil shell which high in SiO2 and Fe2O3, promising the benefit to mitigate urban heat island as a cooling material agent.

  5. A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary assessment of the chemical and microbial water quality of the Chunies River - Limpopo: short communication. ... For this purpose sampling was undertaken on 25 and 26 May 2002, and a range of chemical (macro-elements, micro-elements and heavy metals) and microbial variables (HPC, total coliforms and ...

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  7. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  8. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the characterisation of complex environmental materials such as atmospheric particulate matter, analytical specificity is required to account for the many dimensions of information present in the sample. These dimensions include size, morphology, elemental composition, inorganic and organic chemical speciation, all to be performed on either single particles or on the population (or bulk sample) basis. Various techniques were developed for such measurements, including a number of bulk analysis procedures, methodologies for microscopical analysis of individual particles, and a variety of procedures for organic/inorganic chemical speciation. (author)

  9. Preliminary Characterization of the Liquid Discharge of the Mexico Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rojas, A

    2001-01-01

    The generation and wrong handling of hospital waste constitutes a serious problem at national level. In this work, a preliminary characterization of the discharge it liquidates of the Mexico Hospital is carried out. For it, different pouring points were analyzed inside the institution; they are: Laundry, Central Kitchen, Clinical Laboratory, X-Rays, Laboratory of Biomass, Morgue, and the final discharge of the hospital. This with the purpose of knowing the handling of the liquid waste in the health center, the sanitary quality of these liquids and their influence in the raw waters of the Mexico Hospital in the receiving body. For this study, we first coordinated with the personnel of each department to know about the handling and type of liquid residuals that are discharged to the system of pipes. Later on the physical-chemical and biological tests were carried out with base in two compound samplings done the days October 26 and November 4 1998. Among the carried out tests we have: pH, DBO, DQO, SAAM, Fatty and Oils, Temperature, Nitrogen and Faecal Coniforms, depending on the characteristics of their origin point. At the end of the study, the obtained results were evaluated for each studied pouring point, and then the influence of these focuses on the quality of the raw waters of the hospital that discharge in a gulch located to the northwest side of the facilities was analyzed. The obtained results allow to preliminarily know the characterization of the liquid discharge of the Mexico Hospital and it was classified as a source of contamination. The Hospital requires of a biological treatment plant for those biodegradable poured liquids, and of a system of chemical treatment for that type of products used in the processes characteristic of each department. It is also required to take into account measures of reduction of contamination that diminish the quantity of waste from the source. (Author) [es

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and ...

  11. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste Dumpsite, Southern Nigeria. ... This study characterizes the leachates quality of an active dumpsite in Warri, Delta State and also analyses its contamination or pollution potential. Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) - a tool for ...

  12. Characterization and Prediction of Chemical Functions and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents). We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs) to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos). We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties). We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-b

  13. Towards consensus in comparative chemical characterization modeling for LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bachmann, Till; Huijbregts, Mark

    2006-01-01

    work within, for instance, the OECD, and guidance from a series of expert workshops held between 2002 and 2005, preliminary guidelines focusing on chemical fate, and human and ecotoxic effects were established. For further elaboration of the fate-, exposure- and effect-sides of the modeling, six models...... by the Task Force and the model providers. While the compared models and their differences are important tools to further advance LCA science, the consensus model is intended to provide a generally agreed and scientifically sound method to calculate consistent characterization factors for use in LCA practice...... and to be the basis of the “recommended practice” for calculation of characterization factors for chemicals under authority of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative....

  14. Preliminary spectroscopic characterization of PEGylated mucin, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frank

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... Drug delivery can be of importance for both new chemical entities as well as ... on account of their stability or their absorption from the. GIT thus leading to ... 1991). To reduce the impact of digestive enzymes and ensure the ...

  15. Preliminary characterization of residual biomass from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces are mainly used for different agro-food and beverages applications. The residual biomass generated contains various useful substances that were extracted and characterized. It contained 23% (w/w) soluble pectic material, a food additive, extracted with hot acidified water (80°C, pH = 1.5) and ...

  16. Preliminary spectroscopic characterization of PEGylated mucin, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The matrices were characterized with respect to compatibility using the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results of the qualitative tests performed on the snail mucin showed that carbohydrates, proteins and trace amounts of fats were present; the extracted mucin was light-brownish in colour, with a pleasant ...

  17. Chemical characterization of marajoara ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri Galbiati

    2009-01-01

    In this study the elemental concentration of Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 204 fragments of Marajoara archaeological ceramics, of which 156 were provided by the Archaeology and Ethnology Museum of Sao Paulo University (MAE) and 48 were provided by Dr. Denise Pahl Schaan, Marajo Museum curator. Also, 9 contemporary ceramics produced and marketed at Marajo Island were analyzed. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analyses were performed in 8 archaeological samples and 1 contemporary sample in order to identify the burning temperature of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed in 13 archaeological samples and 2 contemporary samples for the investigation of their mineralogical composition. Mahalanobis distance was used for the study of outlier while modified filter was used for the study of the temper added to the ceramic paste. Result interpretation was performed using cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. Procrustes analysis was used for variable selection and it showed that the Ce, Fe, Eu, Hf, K and Th variables are adequate for the characterization of the analyzed samples. The comparative study among the archaeological and contemporary ceramics showed the arrangement of two well-defined and close groups for the archaeological samples and a third, distant group for the contemporary ones. This result indicates that the archaeological and contemporary ceramics differ in their composition. EPR and XRD analysis were inconclusive for the differentiation of archaeological and contemporary ceramics. (author)

  18. Chemical and mineralogical characterization and ceramic suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of raw feldspathic materials from Dschang (Cameroon) was realized by means of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analyses, optical and scanning electron microscopies, and analytical techniques. It was found that these materials consist of albite (43 ± 3 wt.%), microcline ...

  19. Techniques for chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, K.V.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Sudersanan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys such as zircaloy, Zr-Nb, etc for minor and trace constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Al etc has been carried out. Zirconium, being a major constituent, has been determined by gravimetry as zirconium oxide while other constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe have been determined by spectrophotometric methods. Other metals of importance at trace level have been estimated by AAS or ICPAES. The judicious use of both conventional and modern instrumental methods of analysis helps in the characterization of zirconium and its alloys for various major and minor constituents. The role of matrix effect in the determination was also investigated and methods have been worked out based on a preliminary separation of zirconium by a hydroxide precipitation. (author)

  20. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  1. Chemical characterization of nuclear materials: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Amrit; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Khan, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to stringent chemical specifications like boron, cadmium, rare earths, hydrogen, oxygen to metal ratio, total gas, heavy metal content, chlorine and fluorine etc. Selection of technique is very important to evaluate the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses have to perform inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of advanced analytical techniques being developed and used in chemical characterization of nuclear materials specially fuels during their fabrication. Nuclear fuels comprise of fuels based on UO 2 , PUO 2 , ThO 2 and combination of (U+Pu)O 2 , (Th+U)O 2 , (Th+Pu)O 2 , (U+Pu)C, (U+Pu)N etc depending on the type of reactors chosen Viz. Pressurized Heavy water Reactor (PHWR), Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Fast Breeder Test Reactor and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Chemical characterization of these fuels is very important for performance of fuel in the reactor. It provides means to ascertain that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the chemical specifications for the fuel laid down by the designer. The batches of sintered/degassed pellets are subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. Chemical Quality Control of fuel is carried out at different stages of manufacture namely feed materials, sintering, vacuum degassing and fuel element welding. Advanced analytical technique based on titrimetry, spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, XRF and XRD have largely been used for this purpose. Since they have to be handled inside special enclosures, extreme care are being taken during handling. Instruments are being developed/modified for ease of handling and maintenance. The method should be fast to reduce

  2. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  3. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-101: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TX-101. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  4. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TY-102: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TY-102. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  5. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-113: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TX-113. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  6. Preliminary crystallographic characterization of an RNA helicase from Kunjin virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario; Brisbarre, Nadège; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Khromykh, Alexander; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal 440 amino acids of the NS3 protein from Kunjin virus (Flaviviridae) code for a helicase. The protein has been overexpressed and crystallized. Characterization of the isolated monoclinic crystal form and diffraction data (at 3.0 Å resolution) are presented, together with a preliminary molecular-replacement solution. Kunjin virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus and is an Australian variant of West Nile virus. The C-terminal domain of the Kunjin virus NS3 protein displays helicase activity. The protein is thought to separate daughter and template RNA strands, assisting the initiation of replication by unwinding RNA secondary structure in the 3′ nontranslated region. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the NS3 helicase domain are reported. It is shown that Kunjin virus helicase may adopt a dimeric assembly in absence of nucleic acids, oligomerization being a means to provide the helicases with multiple nucleic acid-binding capability, facilitating translocation along the RNA strands. Kunjin virus NS3 helicase domain is an attractive model for studying the molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication, while simultaneously providing a new basis for the rational development of anti-flaviviral compounds

  7. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  8. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol.12, 2007 Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Preliminary Studies on the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Screening of Alchornea Cordifolia. M. O. Edema* and O. P. Osarumwense ... leaves extract used by local medicine practitioners for the treatment of ... plant in Africa and is used in the traditional medicine ... presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins,.

  9. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

    1968-10-04

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper).

  10. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  11. Chemical and microstructural characterization of recycled zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Luis G.; Pereira, Luiz A.T.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Takiishi, Hidetoshi; Sato, Ivone M.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Orlando, Marcos T.D.

    2011-01-01

    PWR reactors employ as nuclear fuel UO 2 pellets with Zircaloy clad. Brazil is autonomous in the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to enrichment and nuclear fuel manufacture. However, the industrial production of nuclear zirconium alloys does not meet the demand, leading to importation of Zircaloy for fuel manufacturing. In the fabrication of fuel elements parts, machining chips of alloys are generated. As the Zircaloy chips cannot be discarded as ordinary metallic waste, the recycling of this material is strategic in economical and environmental aspects. In this work are described two methods that are being developed to recycle Zircaloy chips. The first method the Zircaloy machining chips are melted using an electric arc furnace to obtain small laboratory ingots. The second method uses powder metallurgy technique. By this later method, the Zircaloy chips are submitted to a hydriding process and the resulting material is milled in a high-energy ball mill. The powder is cold isostatically pressed and vacuum sintered. The elemental composition of the materials obtained using both methods is being determined using X-ray fluorescence techniques and compared to the specifications of nuclear grade Zircaloy and to the composition of the starting chips. The phase composition of the laboratory ingots was determined using X-ray diffraction. The ingots were vacuum annealed and the microstructures resulting from both processing methods before and after heat treatments were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness of the materials was evaluated. A methodology of chemical analysis using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, for composition certification, was established and tested. The results showed that recycled Zircaloy presented adequate microstructure for nuclear use. The good results of the powder metallurgy method suggest the possibility of producing small parts, like cladding cap-ends, using near net shape sintering. (author)

  12. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  13. Cloning, expression, and preliminary structural characterization of RTN-1C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazi, Barbara; Melino, Sonia; Sano, Federica Di; Cicero, Daniel O.; Piacentini, Mauro; Paci, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    Reticulons (RTNs) are endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins widely distributed in plants, yeast, and animals. They are characterized by unique N-terminal parts and a common 200 amino acid C-terminal domain containing two long hydrophobic sequences. Despite their implication in many cellular processes, their molecular structure and function are still largely unknown. In this study, the reticulon family member RTN-1C has been expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and its molecular structure has been analysed by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy in different detergents in order to obtain a good solubility and a relative stability. The isotopically enriched protein has been also produced to perform structural studies by NMR spectroscopy. The preliminary results obtained showed that RTN-1C protein possesses helical transmembrane segments when a membrane-like environment is produced by detergents. Moreover, fluorescence experiments indicated the exposure of tryptophan side chains as predicted by structure prediction programs. We also produced the isotopically labelled protein and the procedure adopted allowed us to plan future NMR studies to investigate the biochemical behaviour of reticulon-1C and of its peptides spanning out from the membrane

  14. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  15. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-103: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-103 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  16. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-111: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-111 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  17. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VI Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A L; Patterson, J H; Franzgrote, E J

    1968-06-07

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard soft-landing Surveyor VI has provided a chemical analysis of the surface of the moon in Sinus Medii. The preliminary results indicate that, within experimental errors, the composition is the same as that found by Surveyor V in Mare Tranquillitatis. This finding suggests that large portions of the lunar maria resemble basalt in composition.

  18. Chemical modification and characterization of quaternized polysulfones.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) using polysulfones is described. The modification process of polysulfones involves two steps: Firstly, by introducing chloromethyl groups followed by quaternization reaction...

  19. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components

  20. Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    bodies; groundwater and surface water (Slomwcznska ... may then enter the environment and pollute the surrounding water ... In order to avoid chemical and biological changes that have the ..... disposal of treated leachates to inland surface water .... India. 3(5): 147-153. Kumar, D., and Alappat, B. J. (2003b). A technique.

  1. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Human immunotoxicologic markers of chemical exposures: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, D; Laskin, D; Kipen, H

    1993-01-01

    The circulating cells of the immune system are sensitive to environmental contaminants, and effects are often manifested as changes in the cell surface differentiation antigens of affected populations of cells, particularly lymphocytes. In this investigation, we explore the likelihood that variation in the expression of the surface markers of immune cells can be used as an index of exposure to toxic chemicals. We recruited 38 healthy New Jersey men to study pesticides effects: 19 orchard farmers (high exposure); 13 berry farmers (low exposure); and 6 hardware store owners (no exposure). Immunophenotyping was performed assaying the following cell surface antigens: CD2, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD20, CD26, CD29, CD45R, CD56, and PMN. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. There were no significant differences among the groups with respect to routine medical histories, physical examinations, or routine laboratory parameters. No striking differences between groups were seen in univariate tests. Multivariate tests suggested some differences among groups and limited ability to correctly classify individuals based on immunophenotyping results. Immunophenotyping represents a fruitful area of research for improved exposure classification. Work is needed both on mechanistic understanding of the patterns observed and on the statistical interpretation of these patterns.

  3. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  4. Chemical characterization of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    India is fabricating nuclear fuels for various types of reactors, for example, (U-Pu) MOX fuel of varying Pu content for boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), prototype fast breeder reactors (PFBRs), (U-Pu) carbide fuel fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), and U-based fuels for research reactors. Nuclear fuel being the heart of the reactor, its chemical and physical characterisation is an important component of this design. Both the fuel materials and finished fuel products are to be characterised for this purpose. Quality control (both chemical and physical) provides a means to ensure that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the specifications for the fuel laid down by the fuel designer. Chemical specifications are worked out for the major and minor constituents which affect the fuel properties and hence its performance under conditions prevailing in an operating reactor. Each fuel batch has to be subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. A number of advanced process and quality control steps are required to ensure the quality of the fuels. Further more, in the case of Pu-based fuels, it is necessary to extract maximum quality data by employing different evaluation techniques which would result in minimum scrap/waste generation of valuable plutonium. The task of quality control during fabrication of nuclear fuels of various types is both challenging and difficult. The underlying philosophy is total quality control of the fuel by proper mix of process and quality control steps at various stages of fuel manufacture starting from the feed materials. It is also desirable to adapt more than one analytical technique to increase the confidence and reliability of the quality data generated. This is all the most required when certified reference materials are not available. In addition, the adaptation of non-destructive techniques in the chemical quality

  5. Chemical characterization of a marine conditioning film

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Garg, A.; Jain, A.; Bhosle, N

    Biology 2, 228-235. Hung, C.C., Guo, L., Santschi, P.H., Quiroz, N.A., Haye, J.M., 2003. Distribution of carbohydrate species in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Chemistry 18, 119-135. Little, B.J., Zsolnay, Z.A., 1985. Chemical fingerprinting of adsorbed...-110. Bhosle, N.B., Garg, A., Fernandes, L., Citon, P., 2005. Dynamics of amino acids in the conditioning film developed on glass panels immersed in surface seawaters of the Dona Paula Bay. Biofouling 21 (2), 99-107. Borch, N.H., Kirchmen, D.L., 1997...

  6. Overview of chemical characterization of FBTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, V.; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Prakash, Amrit; Khan, K.B.; Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Uranium Plutonium mixed carbide fuel is the driver fuel for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at IGCAR. The fuel is being fabricated at Radiometallurgy Division, BARC by conventional powder metallurgy route. During the fabrication of fuel, chemical quality control of process intermediates is very important to reach stringent specification of the final fuel product. Different steps are involved in the fabrication of uranium-plutonium carbide (MC) for FBTR. The main steps in the fabrication of MC fuel pellets are carbothermic reduction (CR) of mixture of uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and graphite powder to prepare MC clinkers, crushing and milling of MC clinkers and consolidation of MC powders into fuel pellets and sintering. As a part of process control, analysis of uranium (U), plutonium (Pu), carbon in oxide graphite mixture and U, Pu, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, MC, M 2 C 3 contents in mixed carbide powder (MC clinkers) are carried out at our laboratory. Analysis of U, Pu, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, MC and M 2 C 3 contents in mixed carbide sintered pellets are carried out as a part of quality control. This paper describes an overview of analytical instruments used during chemical quality control of mixed carbide fuel

  7. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history

  8. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  9. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changliang; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Zou, Ping; Li, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2017-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Glycine soja (CGPS), and a preliminary characterization of three polysaccharide fractions (CGPS, GPS-1, and GPS-2) and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Under the optimal conditions: ratio of liquid to solid 42.7mL/g, extraction power 293.7W, extraction temperature 68.9°C, and extraction time 34.7min, the experimental CGPS yield was 6.04mg/g. CGPS was further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions (GPS-1 and GPS-2), and their monosaccharides compositions were characterized by HPLC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) indicated the chemical structures of them. Moreover, they exhibited high antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, the present study suggested that UAE was a very effective method to extract polysaccharides from Glycine soja and the polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for medicine and function food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  11. Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, S.N.M.; Ubaidillah, E.A.E.; Abidin, M.F.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

  12. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Waste Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Characterization Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are to: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Characterization Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume. 142 refs., 38 figs., 39 tabs

  13. Tissue characterization using magnetic resonance elastography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, S.A.; Smith, J.A.; Lawrence, A.J.; Dresner, M.A.; Manduca, A.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Ehman, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The well-documented effectiveness of palpation as a diagnostic technique for detecting cancer and other diseases has provided motivation for developing imaging techniques for non-invasively evaluating the mechanical properties of tissue. A recently described approach for elasticity imaging, using propagating acoustic shear waves and phase-contrast MRI, has been called magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The purpose of this work was to conduct preliminary studies to define methods for using MRE as a tool for addressing the paucity of quantitative tissue mechanical property data in the literature. Fresh animal liver and kidney tissue specimens were evaluated with MRE at multiple shear wave frequencies. The influence of specimen temperature and orientation on measurements of stiffness was studied in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrated that all of the materials tested (liver, kidney, muscle and tissue-simulating gel) exhibit systematic dependence of shear stiffness on shear rate. These data are consistent with a viscoelastic model of tissue mechanical properties, allowing calculation of two independent tissue properties from multiple-frequency MRE data: shear modulus and shear viscosity. The shear stiffness of tissue can be substantially affected by specimen temperature. The results also demonstrated evidence of shear anisotropy in skeletal muscle but not liver tissue. The measured shear stiffness in skeletal muscle was found to depend on both the direction of propagation and polarization of the shear waves. (author)

  14. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  15. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, rail and highway routes which may be used for shipments of high-level nuclear waste to a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are characterized. This characterization facilitates three types of impact analysis: comparative study, limited worst-case assessment, and more sophisticated probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Data for relative and absolute impact measures are provided to support comparisons of routes based on selected characteristics. A worst-case scenario assessment is included to determine potentially critical and most likely places for accidents or incidents to occur. The assessment facilitated by the data in this study is limited because impact measures are restricted to the identification of potential areas or persons affected. No attempt is made to quantify the magnitude of these impacts. Most likely locations for accidents to occur are determined relative to other locations within the scope of this study. Independent factors and historical trends used to identify these likely locations are only proxies for accident probability

  16. Site characterization and validation. Stage 2 - Preliminary predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Black, J.H.; Gale, J.E.; Holmes, D.C.

    1989-05-01

    The Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project is designed to assess how well we can characterize a volume of rock prior to using it as a repository. The programme of work focuses on the validation of the techniques used in site characterization. The SCV project contains 5 stages of work arranged in two 'cycles' of data-gathering, prediction, and validation. The first stage of work has included drilling of 6 boreholes (N2, N3, N4, W1, W2 and V3) and measurements of geology, fracture characteristics, stess, single borehole geophysical logging, radar, seismics and hydrogeology. The rock at the SCV site is granite with small lithological variations. Based essentially on radar and seismic results 5 'fracture zones' have been identified, named GA, GB, GC, GH and GI. They all extend acroos the entire SCV site. They aer basically in in two groups (GA, GB, GC and GH, GI). The first group are aligned N40 degree E with a dip of 35 degree to the south. The second group are aligned approximately N10 degree W dipping 60 degree E. From the stochastic analysis of the joint data it was possible to identify three main fracture orientation clusters. The orientation of two of these clusters agree roughly with orientation of the main features. Cluster B has roughly the same orientation as GH and GI, while features GA, GB and GC have an orientation similar to the more loosely defined cluster C. The orientation of the third cluster (A) is northwest with a dip to northeast. It is found that 94% of all measured hydraulic transmissivity is accounted for by 4% of the tested rock, not all of this 'concentrated' transmissivity is with the major features defined by geophysics. When the hydraulic connections across the site are examied they show that there are several welldefined zones which permit rapid transmission of hydraulic signals. These are essentially from the northeast to the southwest. (66 figs., 21 tabs., 33 refs.)

  17. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  18. Chemical analyses of rocks, minerals, and detritus, Yucca Mountain--Preliminary report, special report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    This chemical analysis study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. This report is preliminary in the sense that more chemical analyses may be needed in the future and also in the sense that these chemical analyses should be considered as a small part of a much larger geological data base. The interpretations discussed herein may be modified as that larger data base is examined and established. All of the chemical analyses performed to date are shown in Table 1. There are three parts to this table: (1) trace element analyses on rocks (limestone and tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), (2) rare earth analyses on rocks (tuff) and minerals (calcite/opal), and (3) major element analyses + CO 2 on rocks (tuff) and detritus sand. In this report, for each of the three parts of the table, the data and its possible significance will be discussed first, then some overall conclusions will be made, and finally some recommendations for future work will be offered

  19. Synthesis and preliminary characterization of octakis (chloropropyldimethylsiloxy octasilsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaney Ribeiro do Carmo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Octakis (hydridodimethylsiloxy octasilsesquioxane was hydrosilated with allyl chloride using Spiers catalyst (H2PtCl6. This reaction was monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy. The synthesized product was characterized by 13C, 29Si NMR (MAS, SEM, FT-IR, Thermogravimetric techniques. The three propyl groups alpha, beta, gamma, (to the terminal silicon atom, associated of an allyl chloride, were clearly seen in the 13C NMR (alpha-CH2 at 31.8; beta-CH2 at 37.7; gamma-CH2 at 50.1 ppm. In addition, the 29Si NMR spectrum of the final product, exhibits three Q signals for Q type silicon attributed to Q² (-90.1 Q³ (-100.2 and Q4 (-111.3ppm. The presence of allyl chloride substitutes in octameric cube confers a relative porosity and thermal stability to the material.

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  1. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo Hyun; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  2. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Doo Hyun [NE Union Hill Road, Suite 200, WA 98052 (United States); Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  3. Preliminary characterization of the 100 area at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Biang, R.; Patel, P.

    1994-06-01

    This characterization report is based on the results of sampling and an initial environmental assessment of the 100 Area of Argonne National Laboratory. It addresses the current status, projected data requirements, and recommended actions for five study areas within the 100 Area: the Lime Sludge Pond, the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond, the Coal Yard, the East Area Burn Pit, and the Eastern Perimeter Area. Two of these areas are solid waste management units under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (the Lime Sludge Pond and the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond); however, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has determined that no further action is necessary for the Lime Sludge Pond. Operational records for some of the activities were not available, and one study area (the East Area Burn Pit) could not be precisely located. Recommendations for further investigation include sample collection to obtain the following information: (1) mineralogy of major minerals and clays within the soils and underlying aquifer, (2) pH of the soils, (3) total clay fraction of the soils, (4) cation exchange capacity of the soils and aquifer materials, and (5) exchangeable cations of the soils and aquifer material. Various other actions are recommended for the 100 Area, including an electromagnetic survey, sampling of several study areas to determine the extent of contamination and potential migration pathways, and sampling to determine the presence of any radionuclides. For some of the study areas, additional actions are contingent on the results of the initial recommendations.

  4. Preliminary characterization of the 100 area at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biang, C.; Biang, R.; Patel, P.

    1994-06-01

    This characterization report is based on the results of sampling and an initial environmental assessment of the 100 Area of Argonne National Laboratory. It addresses the current status, projected data requirements, and recommended actions for five study areas within the 100 Area: the Lime Sludge Pond, the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond, the Coal Yard, the East Area Burn Pit, and the Eastern Perimeter Area. Two of these areas are solid waste management units under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (the Lime Sludge Pond and the Building 108 Liquid Retention Pond); however, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has determined that no further action is necessary for the Lime Sludge Pond. Operational records for some of the activities were not available, and one study area (the East Area Burn Pit) could not be precisely located. Recommendations for further investigation include sample collection to obtain the following information: (1) mineralogy of major minerals and clays within the soils and underlying aquifer, (2) pH of the soils, (3) total clay fraction of the soils, (4) cation exchange capacity of the soils and aquifer materials, and (5) exchangeable cations of the soils and aquifer material. Various other actions are recommended for the 100 Area, including an electromagnetic survey, sampling of several study areas to determine the extent of contamination and potential migration pathways, and sampling to determine the presence of any radionuclides. For some of the study areas, additional actions are contingent on the results of the initial recommendations

  5. Radiolabeling, characterization and preliminary studies of 90Y-octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klementyeva, O.E.; Bruskin, A.B.; Larenkov, A.A.; Kodina, G.E.; Korsunsky, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Overexpression of the somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine tumors has become the molecular basis for the use of somatostatin analogues in diagnosis and therapy for these neoplasms. The high energy (maximum 2.2 MeV) and penetration range (R 95 5.7 mm) of β-particles from 90 Y are advantageous, with a direct killing of somatostatin receptor positive cells and a crossfire effect which hits nearby receptor-negative tumour cells [Ref. 1]. Aim: the investigation of the reaction conditions for the preparation of 90 Y-Octreotate and its in vitro characterization. Materials and methods: DOTA-Octreotate (Farm-Syntez Ltd.) and 88 YCl 3 (V/O Isotop) were used without purification. 88 Y-Octreotate was prepared in acetate buffer solution and its radiochemical purity was controlled by ITLC. In-vitro experiments were carried out with melanoma B16. Studies of internalization were performed as described in [Ref. 2]. Results: the maximal accumulation in the cells was observed after 90 min from the beginning of incubation and was about 3.9%. In our experiments, we found high level of internalization of the surface-bound 88 Y-Octreotate into B16 cells. Maximal internalization level was 80% after 60 min of incubation. Conclusion: the optimal conditions for effective labeling (> 95%) of DOTA-Octreotate were found. The results obtained using the gamma-emitting 88 Y, provide a basis for in vivo research 90 Y octreotate as radiotherapeutic agent. References: [Ref. 1] Bodei, L.; Pepe, G.; Paganelli, G.; Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogues. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2010; v. 14: 347-351. [Ref. 2] Garcia Garayoa E., Allemann-Tannahill L., et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of new radiolabeled neurotensin (8-13) analogs with high affinity for NT1 receptors. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2001; 28: 75-84. (authors)

  6. Preliminary molecular characterization of the human pathogen Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human angiostrongyliasis is an emerging food-borne public health problem, with the number of cases increasing worldwide, especially in mainland China. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of this severe disease. However, little is known about the genetics and basic biology of A. cantonensis. Results A cDNA library of A. cantonensis fourth-stage larvae was constructed, and ~1,200 clones were sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses revealed 378 cDNA clusters, 54.2% of which matched known genes at a cutoff expectation value of 10-20. Of these 378 unique cDNAs, 168 contained open reading frames encoding proteins containing an average of 238 amino acids. Characterization of the functions of these encoded proteins by Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in proteins with binding and catalytic activity. The observed pattern of enzymes involved in protein metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis may reflect the central nervous system habitat of this pathogen. Four proteins were tested for their immunogenicity using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and histopathological examinations. The specificity of each of the four proteins was superior to that of crude somatic and excretory/secretory antigens of larvae, although their sensitivity was relatively low. We further showed that mice immunized with recombinant cystatin, a product of one of the four cDNA candidate genes, were partially protected from A. cantonensis infection. Conclusion The data presented here substantially expand the available genetic information about the human pathogen A. cantonensis, and should be a significant resource for angiostrongyliasis researchers. As such, this work serves as a starting point for molecular approaches for diagnosing and controlling human angiostrongyliasis.

  7. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.

    2017-03-01

    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  8. Preliminary physico-chemical results obtained on water using new data acquisition systems for deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.M.; Peyrus, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Data acquisition systems recently developed in the context of research on deep storage facilities have provided with an initial set of interesting observations for the physico-chemical study of boreholes. It is possible to make correlations between the chemical compositions of water, pH and the nature of the substrate. The sampling done at Auriat with a Gerhardt-Owen probe shows the variability in the composition of water as a function of depth. The variation in calcium content, following that of pH, is particularly notable. Examination of pH measurements is of particular interest. A general gradient correlates exactly with the nature of the substrate. Whereas steel piping has a very alkaline pH, distinct pH values correspond to the two types of granite substrate. In this general gradient, series of disturbances can be seen which correspond perfectly to fracturation zones or large fractures. These most promising preliminary results lead to believe that in situ physico-chemical measurements should be continued and developed with a view to improved evaluation of the safety of deep storage facilities

  9. Characterization of heterocyclic rings through quantum chemical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark Z; Popelier, Paul L A

    2013-07-22

    Five-membered rings are found in a myriad of molecules important in a wide range of areas such as catalysis, nutrition, and drug and agrochemical design. Systematic insight into their largely unexplored chemical space benefits from first principle calculations presented here. This study comprehensively investigates a grand total of 764 different rings, all geometry optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level, from the perspective of Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT). For the first time, a 3D space of local topological properties was introduced, in order to characterize rings compactly. This space is called RCP space, after the so-called ring critical point. This space is analogous to BCP space, named after the bond critical point, which compactly and successfully characterizes a chemical bond. The relative positions of the rings in RCP space are determined by the nature of the ring scaffold, such as the heteroatoms within the ring or the number of π-bonds. The summed atomic QCT charges of the five ring atoms revealed five features (number and type of heteroatom, number of π-bonds, substituent and substitution site) that dictate a ring's net charge. Each feature independently contributes toward a ring's net charge. Each substituent has its own distinct and systematic effect on the ring's net charge, irrespective of the ring scaffold. Therefore, this work proves the possibility of designing a ring with specific properties by fine-tuning it through manipulation of these five features.

  10. Preliminary analyses on hydrogen diffusion through small break of thermo-chemical IS process hydrogen plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somolova, Marketa; Terada, Atsuhiko; Takegami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Jin

    2008-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a conceptual design study of nuclear hydrogen demonstration plant, that is, a thermal-chemical IS process hydrogen plant coupled with the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR-IS), which will be planed to produce a large amount of hydrogen up to 1000m 3 /h. As part of the conceptual design work of the HTTR-IS system, preliminary analyses on small break of a hydrogen pipeline in the IS process hydrogen plant was carried out as a first step of the safety analyses. This report presents analytical results of hydrogen diffusion behaviors predicted with a CFD code, in which a diffusion model focused on the turbulent Schmidt number was incorporated. By modifying diffusion model, especially a constant accompanying the turbulent Schmidt number in the diffusion term, analytical results was made agreed well with the experimental results. (author)

  11. Trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for liquid metal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Masaru; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1995-03-01

    In the design of the liquid metal blanket, MHD pressure drop is one of critical issues. Ceramic coating on the surface of structural material is considered as an electrical insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop. Ceramic coating such as Y 2 O 3 is a promising electrical insulator due to its high electrical resistivity and good compatibility with liquid lithium. This report describes the trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for a design study of the liquid metal system. From the results of trial fabrication and preliminary characterization, it is concluded that densified atmospheric plasma spray Y 2 O 3 coating with 410SS undercoating between 316SS substrate and Y 2 O 3 coating is suitable for Y 2 O 3 coating fabrication. (author)

  12. Chemical characterization of Phoma pomorum isolated from Danish maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Aveskamp, M.M.; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Strains of the genus Phoma are often isolated from various environmental samples including cereals and maize. In the present study we performed a chemical characterization of strains isolated from Danish samples derived from whole plant material collected at harvest. All strains were isolated using...... a recently developed isolation medium and identified morphologically as P. pomorum. This species is placed in the Phoma section Peyronellaea and strains of other members in this section were also included in the present study. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) grouped...... the Danish A pomorum strains with representative P. pomorum strains isolated from other sources. The metabolite production on dichloran Rose Bengal yeast extract sucrose agar (DRYES) was analyzed and the strains were clustered using an in-house Chemical Image Analysis (CIA) program. The resulting tree showed...

  13. Chemical characterization of fingerprints from adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohanon, A. [Knoxville Police Dept., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Observation that children`s fingerprints disappear from surfaces more quickly than adults`, initiated a study to characterize the chemical components in fingerprints. Samples were obtained from about 50 individuals ranging in age from 3 to 64 by extracting chemicals from the fingertips using rubbing alcohol. Using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a wide range of compounds were identified. Samples from children contained higher levels of relatively volatile free fatty acids, while those from adults had higher levels of less volatile long chain esters of fatty acids. These esters are thought to originate from sebaceous glands located on the face and levels of these compounds increase substantially after puberty. Also, other compounds were observed that could be used to develop improved methods for fingerprint detection at a crime scene. Further, observation of specific compounds raises the possibility of being able to identify personal traits (gender, habits, diseases, etc. ) via analysis of components in fingerprints and/or skin.

  14. Structural characterization of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.A.; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Y.; Larramendi, E.M.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Freire, F.L.; Prioli, R.; Avillez, R.R. de; Silveira, E.F. da; Calzadilla, O.; Melo, O. de; Pedrero, E.; Hernandez, E.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) grown using substrate colloidal coating chemical bath depositions were characterized by RBS, XPS, AFM and GIXRD techniques. The films were grown on glass substrates previously coated with PbS colloidal particles in a polyvinyl alcohol solution. The PbS films obtained with the inclusion of the polymer showed non-oxygen-containing organic contamination. All samples maintained the Pb:S 1:1 stoichiometry throughout the film. The amount of effective nucleation centers and the mean grain size have being controlled by the substrate colloidal coating. The analysis of the polycrystalline PbS films showed that a preferable (1 0 0) lattice plane orientation parallel to the substrate surface can be obtained using a substrate colloidal coating chemical bath deposition, and the orientation increases when a layer of colloid is initially dried on the substrate

  15. Microstructural and chemical characterization of cladding material zirconia scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadalbert, R.; Boulanger, L.; Lansiart, S.; Silvestre, G.; Juliet, P.

    1991-01-01

    Uniform corrosion of Zircaloy-4 in PWR conditions depends both on the microstructure of the material and on its precise chemical composition. For a good understanding of the influence of the different parameters which are involved in the oxidation mechanisms, a detailed characterization of the oxide scale and the underlying metal is needed. The results on the alloying elements distribution in the oxide and the metal obtained by electron probe Microanalysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry as well as the TEM observations on the oxide crystal structure and the metal oxide interface are reported

  16. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC FILMS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Emanuel STAVARACHE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to characterize the surface properties of (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA foils used in ophathalmological applications. Thus, the morphology, chemical composition and surface energy of these PMMA foils are analyzed, by specific measurements, at the interface with different test liquids of interest in ophthalmology, i.e. distilled H2 O, physiological serum and ophthalmic solution of ReNu Multiplus, used for contact lens cleaning, hydration and disinfection. Also, a solution of Nostamine, known as a drug used in eye irritation and conjunctival inflammation, was tested.

  17. Characterization of the Environmentally Induced Chemical Transformations of Uranium Tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellons, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    A key challenge with nuclear safeguards environmental sampling is identification of the materials post release due to subsequent chemical reactions with ambient water and oxygen. Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF4) is of interest as an intermediate in both the upstream and downstream portions of uranium feedstock and metal production processes used in nuclear fuel production; however minimal published research exists relating to UF4 hydrolysis. FY16 efforts were dedicated to in-situ Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of UF4 during exposure to various relative humidity conditions. This effort mapped several hydrolysis reaction pathways and identified both intermediate, and terminal progeny species.

  18. Preliminary characterization in the development of the nano composite low density polyethylene with attapulgite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do; Ito, Edson N.; Acchar, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)

  19. Analytical robustness of quantitative NIR chemical imaging for Islamic paper characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Hend; Gilchrist, John R.; Fearn, Thomas; Strlič, Matija

    2017-07-01

    Recently, spectral imaging techniques such as Multispectral (MSI) and Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) have gained importance in the field of heritage conservation. This paper explores the analytical robustness of quantitative chemical imaging for Islamic paper characterization by focusing on the effect of different measurement and processing parameters, i.e. acquisition conditions and calibration on the accuracy of the collected spectral data. This will provide a better understanding of the technique that can provide a measure of change in collections through imaging. For the quantitative model, special calibration target was devised using 105 samples from a well-characterized reference Islamic paper collection. Two material properties were of interest: starch sizing and cellulose degree of polymerization (DP). Multivariate data analysis methods were used to develop discrimination and regression models which were used as an evaluation methodology for the metrology of quantitative NIR chemical imaging. Spectral data were collected using a pushbroom HSI scanner (Gilden Photonics Ltd) in the 1000-2500 nm range with a spectral resolution of 6.3 nm using a mirror scanning setup and halogen illumination. Data were acquired at different measurement conditions and acquisition parameters. Preliminary results showed the potential of the evaluation methodology to show that measurement parameters such as the use of different lenses and different scanning backgrounds may not have a great influence on the quantitative results. Moreover, the evaluation methodology allowed for the selection of the best pre-treatment method to be applied to the data.

  20. Celtiberian ceramic productions from the Central Iberian range (Spain): Chemical and petrographic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igea, J.; Perez-Arantegup, J.; Lapuente, P.; Saiz, M. E.; Burillo, F.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an extended program on archaeometric research of the Celtiberian production centres situated along the Central Iberian Range, ceramic fragments of different vessel types from two selected Celtiberian workshops were analyzed: La Rodriga (Guadalajara, Spain) and Allueva II (Teruel, Spain), dated from the 3nd to the 2st centuries BC. The characterization was focused on the chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, and subjected to commonlyused multivariate statistical methods to distinguish between ceramic materials and to discriminate among different compositional groups in each production centre. The analysis was completed by performing petrographic characterization, textural observations, colour measurement and mineralogical analysis of the pieces by means of XRD. The compositional variations from major, minor and trace elements allowed to establish two subgroups in La Rodriga and one ceramic group in Allueva II. The chemical composition differences were confirmed by the petrographic characteristics and the mineralogical composition of the ceramic fabrics. These results enabled us to complete the preliminary archaeometric study in order to improve the knowledge on cultural and commercial influences in this important Celtiberian territory. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  3. Characterizing chemical systems with on-line computers and graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.; Rigdon, L.P.; Brand, H.R.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Incorporating computers and graphics on-line to chemical experiments and processes opens up new opportunities for the study and control of complex systems. Systems having many variables can be characterized even when the variable interactions are nonlinear, and the system cannot a priori be represented by numerical methods and models. That is, large sets of accurate data can be rapidly acquired, then modeling and graphic techniques can be used to obtain partial interpretation plus design of further experimentation. The experimenter can thus comparatively quickly iterate between experimentation and modeling to obtain a final solution. We have designed and characterized a versatile computer-controlled apparatus for chemical research, which incorporates on-line instrumentation and graphics. It can be used to determine the mechanism of enzyme-induced reactions or to optimize analytical methods. The apparatus can also be operated as a pilot plant to design control strategies. On-line graphics were used to display conventional plots used by biochemists and three-dimensional response-surface plots

  4. Characterization of electrochemically and chemically generated technetium diphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tc-Methylene diphosphonate, (MDP), the skeletal imaging ligand is most use in radiopharmacies, is the first metal-ligand complex prepared electrochemically in this work. A similar systematic evaluation of electrochemically reduced Tc-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) is presented. DMAD as well as MDP have been characterized by anion exchange HPLC following NaBH4 reduction. The goal is twofold. First, the effect of varying the applied potential on the resultant chromatographic distribution of complexes is investigated. Secondly, the combination(s) of applied potential and preparation pH which preferentially directs the formation of technetium diphosphonate complexes previously shown to be superior skeletal imaging agents is determined. EXAFS, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, is applied to the analysis of dilute solutions (10mM) of electrochemically and chemically reduced Tc-MDP complexes. Further characterizations of electrochemically and chemically generated complexes are performed using in-vitro and in-vivo physiological techniques of biodistribution and blood clearance studies on Sprague Dawley rats and beagle dogs respectively. Finally, in-vitro and in-vivo dilution studies were performed using water, human and dog urine, to determine the influence of the physiological environment on clinically prepared and injected radiopharmaceuticals

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  6. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  7. Technology Evaluation Workshop Report for Tank Waste Chemical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, S.J.

    1994-04-01

    A Tank Waste Chemical Characterization Technology Evaluation Workshop was held August 24--26, 1993. The workshop was intended to identify and evaluate technologies appropriate for the in situ and hot cell characterization of the chemical composition of Hanford waste tank materials. The participants were asked to identify technologies that show applicability to the needs and good prospects for deployment in the hot cell or tanks. They were also asked to identify the tasks required to pursue the development of specific technologies to deployment readiness. This report describes the findings of the workshop. Three focus areas were identified for detailed discussion: (1) elemental analysis, (2) molecular analysis, and (3) gas analysis. The technologies were restricted to those which do not require sample preparation. Attachment 1 contains the final workshop agenda and a complete list of attendees. An information package (Attachment 2) was provided to all participants in advance to provide information about the Hanford tank environment, needs, current characterization practices, potential deployment approaches, and the evaluation procedure. The participants also received a summary of potential technologies (Attachment 3). The workshop opened with a plenary session, describing the background and issues in more detail. Copies of these presentations are contained in Attachments 4, 5 and 6. This session was followed by breakout sessions in each of the three focus areas. The workshop closed with a plenary session where each focus group presented its findings. This report summarizes the findings of each of the focus groups. The evaluation criteria and information about specific technologies are tabulated at the end of each section in the report. The detailed notes from each focus group are contained in Attachments 7, 8 and 9

  8. EXAFS characterization of supported metal catalysts in chemically dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robota, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Characterization of catalysts focuses on the identification of an active site responsible for accelerating desirable chemical reactions. The identification, characterization, and selective modification of such sites is fundamental to the development of structure-function relationships. Unfortunately, this goal is far from realized in nearly all catalysts, and particularly in catalysts comprised of small supported metal particles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has had a dramatic effect on our understanding of supported metal particles in their resting state. However, the performance of a catalyst can not be assessed from such simple resting state measurements. Among the factors which influence catalyst performance are the exact catalyst composition, including the support and any modifiers; particle size; catalyst finishing and pretreatment conditions; pressure, composition, and temperature of the operating environment; time. Gaining an understanding of how the structure of a catalytic site can change with such an array of variables requires that we begin to develop measurement methods which are effective under chemically dynamic conditions. Ideally, it should be possible to obtain a full X-ray absorption spectrum of each element thought to have a causal relationship with observed catalyst properties. From these spectra, we can optimally extract only a relatively limited amount of information which we must then piece together with information derived from other characterization methods and intuition to arrive at a hypothetical structure of the operating catalyst. Information about crystallinity, homogeneity, and general disorder can be obtained from the Debye-Waller factor. Finally, through analogy with known compounds, the electronic structure of the active atoms can be inferred from near edge absorption features

  9. Study of the application of non-plastic clays from Pocos de Caldas - part 1: chemical-mineralogic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveri, C.D.; Mariano, N.A.; Faustino, L.M.; Aielo, G.F.; Pinto, L.P.A.; Maestrelli, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Pocos de Caldas is an important 'hidrotermomineral' center of Brazil, where can be found non-plastic clays deposits with no significant records about its characterization; this fact difficult the studies of industrial application. These nonplastic clays, not used, have been stored in sheds or open, which creates a high cost to the industry, and become an environmental liability. In the present work, the chemical-mineralogical study of six samples of non-plastic clays was realized, to expand the horizons of researches about such materials. This preliminary study showed that, overall, the samples are composed of refractory minerals such as kaolinite and gibbsite, with less significant amounts of other phases such as quartz, illite and vermiculite. The chemical analysis permitted the grouping of raw materials into two groups according to their refractories proprieties, guiding to the subsequent characterization. (author)

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the PAS domains of EAG and ELK potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaixo, Ricardo; Morais-Cabral, João Henrique

    2010-01-01

    The N-terminal PAS domains from the eukaryotic EAG potassium channels are thought to have a regulatory function. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of two of these domains are described. Per–Arnt–Sim (PAS) domains are ubiquitous in nature; they are ∼130-amino-acid protein domains that adopt a fairly conserved three-dimensional structure despite their low degree of sequence homology. These domains constitute the N-terminus or, less frequently, the C-terminus of a number of proteins, where they exert regulatory functions. PAS-containing proteins generally display two or more copies of this motif. In this work, the crystallization and preliminary analysis of the PAS domains of two eukaryotic potassium channels from the ether-à-go-go (EAG) family are reported

  11. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola; Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Linden, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  12. Characterization of tin dioxide film for chemical vapors sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafaiedh, I.; Helali, S.; Cherif, K.; Abdelghani, A.; Tournier, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, oxide semiconductor material used as transducer has been the central topic of many studies for gas sensor. In this paper we investigated the characteristic of a thick film of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) film for chemical vapor sensor. It has been prepared by screen-printing technology and deposited on alumina substrate provided with two gold electrodes. The morphology, the molecular composition and the electrical properties of this material have been characterized respectively by Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The electrical properties showed a resistive behaviour of this material less than 300 deg. C which is the operating temperature of the sensor. The developed sensor can identify the nature of the detected gas, oxidizing or reducing

  13. Towards consensus in chemical characterization modeling for LCA:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralf; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bachmann, Till

    2006-01-01

    representing a wide range of substance property combinations. All compared models showed correlation for human health endpoints for generic organics, with high variations on individual chemicals, typically with high Kow. For the other organics and inorganics, less agreement was observed. Influential processes...... and assumptions were identified and agreed upon to implement in all models for harmonization. These were, e.g., an urban box nested in a continental box with fixed surfaces and populations, consistent biotransfer and –concentration factors from experiments or one source/model, vegetation as an exposure pathway......A comprehensive LCIA characterization model comparison is being undertaken in the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, focusing on toxicity impacts and directly involving the developers of all models included. The main objective is to identify where differences come from, what indispensable model...

  14. A simple wet chemical synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingkai; Hou Dedong; Wang Guanghou

    2004-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH):HAP) nanorods have been synthesized successfully via wet chemical technique at low temperature in the presence of suitable surfactant. The as-made nanorods have a diameter of 50-80 nm and a length of 0.5-1.2 μm. The microstructures and composition are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The formation mechanism of HAP nanorod is discussed in detail. It has been found that nanorods are pure, there is no HAP carbonated HAP. The growth mechanism of HAP nanorods could be explained by a soft template

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of surfaces of nitrogen implanted steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncoffre, N.

    1986-01-01

    The studied steels are of industrial type (42CD4, 100C6, Z200C13). Very often, the low carbon steel XCO6 has been used as a reference material. The aim of the research is to understand and to explain the mechanisms of wear resistance to improvement. A good characterization of the implanted layer is thus necessary. It implies to establish the distribution profiles of the implanted ions to identify the chemical and structural state of the phases created during implantation as a function of various implantation parameters (dose, temperature). Temperature is the particularly parameter. Its influence is put in evidence both during implantation and during annealings under vacuum. Nitrogen distribution profiles are performed thanks to the non destructive 15 N(p,αγ) 12 C nuclear reaction. The chemical state of the Fe-N phases formed by implantation is determined using first Electron Conversion Moessbauer Spectroscopy and secondly, as a complement, using grazing angle X ray diffraction. The detected compounds are ε-nitrides, ε-carbonitrides, (N) - martensite and α-Fe 16 N 2 whose evolution is carefully followed versus temperature. The diffraction technique reveals a texture of the implanted layer. This preferentiel orientation is found to be temperature dependent but dose independent. The carbon presence at the surface is studied as a function of implantation conditions (vacuum, temperature, dose). Carbon profiling is obtained using α backscattering ( 12 C(α,α') reaction at 5,7 MeV). Thus is achieved a complete characterization of the implanted zone whose evolution as a function of implantation parameters (especially temperature) is correlated with tribological results [fr

  16. Chemical characterization of materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-11-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was procured for trace elemental determination in diverse samples. Since its installation a number of analytical measurements have been carried out on different sample matrices. These include chemical quality control measurements of nuclear fuel and other materials such as uranium metal. Uranium peroxide, ADU, ThO 2 , UO 2 ; isotopic composition of B, Li; chemical characterization of simulated ThO 2 + 2%UO 2 fuel; sodium zirconium phosphate and trace metallic elements in zirconium; Antarctica rock samples and wet phosphoric acid. Necessary separation methodologies required for effective removal of matrix were indigenously developed. In addition, a rigorous analytical protocol, which includes various calibration methodologies such as mass calibration, response calibration, detector cross calibration and linearity check over the entire dynamic range of 109 required for quantitative determination of elements at trace and ultra trace level,, has been standardized. This report summarizes efforts of RACD that have been put in this direction for the application of ICP-MS for analytical measurements. (author)

  17. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of iron concretions of some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical and physical analyses of concretionary materials were carried out, with the purpose of getting chemical and mineralogical characteristics of concretions found in some Brazilian soils in different ecosystems spectrophotometry was used for the chemical characterization, and x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy for the mineralogical characterization of the materials studied. (A.R.H.) [pt

  18. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (TiO2 in gum is nano-TiO2 , and it is unexpectedly easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Characterization of chemical interactions during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mahn

    2003-10-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has received much attention as an unique technique to provide a wafer level planarization in semiconductor manufacturing. However, despite the extensive use of CMP, it still remains one of the least understood areas in semiconductor processing. The lack of the fundamental understanding is a significant barrier to further advancements in CMP technology. One critical aspect of metal CMP is the formation of a thin surface layer on the metal surface. The formation and removal of this layer controls all the aspects of the CMP process, including removal rate, surface finish, etc. In this dissertation, we focus on the characterization of the formation and removal of the thin surface layer on the copper surface. The formation dynamics was investigated using static and dynamic electrochemical techniques, including potentiodynamic scans and chronoamperometry. The results were validated using XPS measurements. The mechanical properties of the surface layer were investigated using nanoindentation measurements. The electrochemical investigation showed that the thickness of the surface layer is controlled by the chemicals such as an oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide), a corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole), a complexing agent (citric acid), and their concentrations. The dynamic electrochemical measurements indicated that the initial layer formation kinetics is unaffected by the corrosion inhibitors. The passivation due to the corrosion inhibitor becomes important only on large time scales (>200 millisecond). The porosity and the density of the chemically modified surface layer can be affected by additives of other chemicals such as citric acid. An optimum density of the surface layer is required for high polishing rate while at the same time maintaining a high degree of surface finish. Nanoindentation measurements indicated that the mechanical properties of the surface layer are strongly dependent on the chemical additives in the slurry. The CMP

  20. Preliminary characterization of (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase crystals from Meaban and Yokose flaviviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario; Lamballeire, Xavier de; Brisbare, Nadege; Dalle, Karen; Lantez, Violaine; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Gould, Ernest; Forrester, Naomi; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-01-01

    Two methyltransferases from flaviviruses (Meaban and Yokose viruses) have been overexpressed and crystallized. Diffraction data and characterization of the two crystal forms are presented, together with a preliminary molecular-replacement solution for both enzymes. Viral methyltranferases (MTase) are involved in the third step of the mRNA-capping process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to the capped mRNA. MTases are classified into two groups: (guanine-N7)-methyltransferases (N7MTases), which add a methyl group onto the N7 atom of guanine, and (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferases (2′OMTases), which add a methyl group to a ribose hydroxyl. The MTases of two flaviviruses, Meaban and Yokose viruses, have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in complex with SAM. Characterization of the crystals together with details of preliminary X-ray diffraction data collection (at 2.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively) are reported here. The sequence homology relative to Dengue virus 2′OMTase and the structural conservation of specific residues in the putative active sites suggest that both enzymes belong to the 2′OMTase subgroup

  1. Preliminary characterization of (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferase crystals from Meaban and Yokose flaviviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Bollati, Michela; Milani, Mario [Department of Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology, CNR-INFM, University of Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lamballeire, Xavier de; Brisbare, Nadege [Unité des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille (France); Dalle, Karen; Lantez, Violaine; Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS ESIL, Case 932, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 9 (France); Gould, Ernest; Forrester, Naomi [CEH Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Bolognesi, Martino, E-mail: martino.bolognesi@unimi.it [Department of Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology, CNR-INFM, University of Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2006-08-01

    Two methyltransferases from flaviviruses (Meaban and Yokose viruses) have been overexpressed and crystallized. Diffraction data and characterization of the two crystal forms are presented, together with a preliminary molecular-replacement solution for both enzymes. Viral methyltranferases (MTase) are involved in the third step of the mRNA-capping process, transferring a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to the capped mRNA. MTases are classified into two groups: (guanine-N7)-methyltransferases (N7MTases), which add a methyl group onto the N7 atom of guanine, and (nucleoside-2′-O-)-methyltransferases (2′OMTases), which add a methyl group to a ribose hydroxyl. The MTases of two flaviviruses, Meaban and Yokose viruses, have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in complex with SAM. Characterization of the crystals together with details of preliminary X-ray diffraction data collection (at 2.8 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively) are reported here. The sequence homology relative to Dengue virus 2′OMTase and the structural conservation of specific residues in the putative active sites suggest that both enzymes belong to the 2′OMTase subgroup.

  2. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  3. On the Chemical Characterization of Organic Matter in Rain at Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Martinez, G.; Andraca-Ayala, G. L.; Hernández-Nagay, D. P.; Mendoza-Trejo, A.; Rivera-Arellano, J.; Rosado-Abon, A.; Roy, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of the aerosol plays a central role in atmospheric processes and has influence on the hydrological cycle. Clouds form through the nucleation of water vapor on certain atmospheric aerosol particles, called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Also, precipitating particles scavenge some other aerosol particles on their way to the surface. Atmospheric particles are a mixture of organic and inorganic materials, both soluble and insoluble in water. Aerosol chemical characterization indicates a larger variety of compounds in urban areas respect to other regions. Thus, chemical composition of rainwater may represent an important aspect for estimating atmospheric air pollution. It has been recognized that organic species present in aerosol particles are important in the formation of cloud droplets. Therefore, the information about the organic compounds in precipitation samples may be helpful to understand their effects on the formation of clouds and rain, as well as their sources. Organic acids are ubiquitous components of aerosols and have been identified in precipitation water. In this work, preliminary results of the content of soluble organic (neutral and acidic) matter in rainwater samples collected in Mexico City during 2015 will be presented. The organic compounds content was performed by using an ionic chromatographic methodology with gradient elution; so the total amount was evaluated as the sum of four fractions: neutral/basic, mono-, bi-, and poly-acid compounds. The outcomes suggest that most of the amount of organic substances soluble in water is contained by the neutral/basic and mono-acid fractions. Regarding the total amount of water soluble organic compounds, the rain samples collected in Mexico City are in agreement with some others reported for large urban areas.

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of synthetic calcined sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.; Mosley, W.C. Jr.; Tiffany, B.; Stone, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Calcined synthetic sludge was chemically characterized in support of engineering studies to design a processing plant to solidify highly radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant. An analytical technique is described which provides quantitative data by mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermogravimetric analysis without measurements of gas flow rates or mass spectrometer sensitivities. Scanning electron microprobe analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and several other common analytical methods were also used. Calcined sludge consists primarily of amorphous particles of hydrous oxides with iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium distributed fairly uniformly throughout the powder. Iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium exist in forms that are highly insoluble in water, but aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, and sodium exhibit relative water solubilities that increase in the given order from 60% to 94%. Evolved gas analysis in a helium atmosphere showed that calcined sludge is completely dehydrated by heating to 400 0 C, carbon dioxide is evolved between 100 to 700 0 C with maximum evolution at 500 0 C, and oxygen is evolved between 400 and 1000 0 C. Evolved gas analyses are also reported for uncalcined sludge. A spinel-type oxide similar to NiFe 2 O 4 was detected by x-ray diffraction analysis at very low-level in calcined sludge

  5. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  6. chemical and mineralogical characterization of lateritic iron ore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... The laterite iron ore deposit at Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria was studied chemically and mineralogically. The results of the chemical ... SAMPLE PREPARATION. The samples .... 2µm) and were subjected to X-ray diffraction using.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Etched Nanostructured Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2012-05-01

    Silicon is an essential element in today’s modern world. Nanostructured Si is a more recently studied variant, which has currently garnered much attention. When its spatial dimensions are confined below a certain limit, its optical properties change dramatically. It transforms from an indirect bandgap material that does not absorb or emit light efficiently into one which can emit visible light at room temperatures. Although much work has been conducted in understanding the properties of nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si surfaces, a clear understanding of the origin of photoluminescence has not yet been produced. Typical synthesis approaches used to produce nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si and nanocrystalline Si have involved complex preparations used at high temperatures, pressures, or currents. The purpose of this thesis is to develop an easier synthesis approach to produce nanostructured Si as well as arrive at a clearer understanding of the origin of photoluminescence in these systems. We used a simple chemical etching technique followed by sonication to produce nanostructured Si suspensions. The etching process involved producing pores on the surface of a Si substrate in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid and an oxidant. Nanocrystalline Si as well as nanoscale amorphous porous Si suspensions were successfully synthesized using this process. We probed into the phase, composition, and origin of photoluminescence in these materials, through the use of several characterization techniques. TEM and SEM were used to determine morphology and phase. FT-IR and XPS were employed to study chemical compositions, and steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy techniques were applied to resolve their photoluminescent properties. Our work has revealed that the type of oxidant utilized during etching had a significant impact on the final product. When using nitric acid as the oxidant, we formed nanocrystalline Si suspensions composed of

  8. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  9. Ultrafine Magnetite Nanopowder: Synthesis, Characterization, and Preliminary Use as Filler of Polymethylmethacrylate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Russo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis have been characterized in terms of morphological and structural features. Electron micrographs collected in both scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM modes and evaluations of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD patterns have indicated the achievement of a monodispersed crystallite structure with particles having an average size around 15–20 nm. Structural investigations by Micro-Raman spectroscopy highlighted the obtainment of magnetite nanocrystals with a partial surface oxidation to maghemite (γ-Fe3O4. Preliminary attention has been also paid to the use of these magnetite nanoparticles as filler for a commercial polymethylmethacrylate resin. Hybrid formulations containing up to 3 wt% of nanoparticles were prepared by melt blending and characterized by calorimetric and thermogravimetric tests. For sake of comparison, same formulations containing commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also reported. Calorimetric characterization indicates an increase of both glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the nanocomposite systems when loaded with the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles rather then loaded with the same amount of commercial Fe3O4. This first observation represents just one aspect of the promising potentiality offered by the novel magnetic nanoparticles when mixed with PMMA.

  10. PALEOARCHEAN MAFIC ROCKS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN SIBERIAN CRATON: PRELIMINARY GEOCHRONOLOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian craton consists of Archean blocks, which were welded up into the same large unit by ca 1.9 Ga [Gladkochub et al., 2006; Rojas-Agramonte et al., 2011]. The history of the constituent Archean blocks is mosaic because of limited number of outcrops, insufficient sampling coverage because of their location in remote regions and deep forest and difficulties with analytical studies of ancient rocks, which commonly underwent metamorphic modifications and secondary alterations. In this short note, we report data on discovery of unusual for Archean mafic rocks of ultimate fresh appearance. These rocks were discovered within southwestern Siberian craton in a region near a boundary between Kitoy granulites of the Sharyzhalgai highgrade metamorphic complex and Onot green-schist belt (Fig. 1. Here we present preliminary data on geochronology of these rocks and provide their geochemical characterization.

  11. Thermoluminescent dosemeters characterization for patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, William J.; Squair, Peterson L.; Gonzaga, Natalia B.; Nogueira, Maria S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the metrological characteristics of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters plays an important role in dosimetry of patients submitted to x-ray examinations for diagnostic purpose. Entrance surface doses can be measured with TL dosimeters to verify the compliance with the diagnostic reference levels. Organ doses can be estimated through TL measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom which it allows the radiation risk assessment. In this work, LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) rod and chip thermoluminescent dosimeters were characterized considering their use for patient dosimetry in computerized tomography and mammography. Preliminary results showed that TL dosimeters have a response reproducibility of 7.8% and 4.8% and homogeneity of 18.4% and 6.5% for rod and chip shapes, respectively. (author)

  12. A Comprehensive Approach for Pectin Chemical and Functional Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, António Felipe Gomes Teixeira

    In this work, a comprehensive approach for the chemical and functional analysis of pectin was used in order to relate the different extraction conditions used to the polymer structure and the final functional (mainly gelling) properties. A wide range of methods were utilized including chemical an...

  13. Crystal chemical characterization of mullite-type aluminum borate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K., E-mail: Kristin.Hoffmann@uni-bremen.de [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Hooper, T.J.N. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Zhao, H.; Kolb, U. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Jakob-Welder-WegJakob-Welder-Weg 11, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Murshed, M.M. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, M.; Lührs, H. [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nénert, G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kudějová, P.; Senyshyn, A. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Al-rich aluminum borates were prepared by different synthesis routes using various Al/B ratios, characterized by diffraction methods, spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis. The {sup 11}B NMR data show a small amount of BO{sub 4} species in all samples. The chemical analysis indicates a trend in the Al/B ratio instead of a fixed composition. Both methods indicate a solid solution Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9} where Al is substituted by B in the range of 1–3%. The structure of B-rich Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} (C2/m, a=1488 pm, b=553 pm, c=1502 pm, ß=90.6°), was re-investigated by electron diffraction methods, showing that structural details vary within a crystallite. In most of the domains the atoms are orderly distributed, showing no signal for the postulated channel oxygen atom O5. The absence of O5 is supported by density functional theory calculations. Other domains show a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10, indicated by diffuse scattering along the b direction. - Graphical abstract: Projections of three-dimensional electron diffraction space of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} along the main directions. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} was re-evaluated. • Structural details vary among different crystals and inside Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallites. • Diffuse scattering indicate a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10. • A solid solution series for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub x}O{sub 9} is indicated by PGAA and NMR spectroscopy. • The presence of BO{sub 4} groups is confirmed by {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectroscopy for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9}.

  14. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  15. Characterization of Fine Metal Particles Derived from Shredded WEEE Using a Hyperspectral Image System: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiani, Gabriele; Picone, Nicoletta; Pompilio, Loredana; Pepe, Monica; Colledani, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is the fastest-growing waste stream in Europe. The large amount of electric and electronic products introduced every year in the market makes WEEE disposal a relevant problem. On the other hand, the high abundance of key metals included in WEEE has increased the industrial interest in WEEE recycling. However, the high variability of materials used to produce electric and electronic equipment makes key metals’ recovery a complex task: the separation process requires flexible systems, which are not currently implemented in recycling plants. In this context, hyperspectral sensors and imaging systems represent a suitable technology to improve WEEE recycling rates and the quality of the output products. This work introduces the preliminary tests using a hyperspectral system, integrated in an automatic WEEE recycling pilot plant, for the characterization of mixtures of fine particles derived from WEEE shredding. Several combinations of classification algorithms and techniques for signal enhancement of reflectance spectra were implemented and compared. The methodology introduced in this study has shown characterization accuracies greater than 95%. PMID:28505070

  16. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb. Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  17. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Biofilm on Metal Surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.

    analytical instrumental techniques to assess the kinetics and chemical composition of the conditioning film developed on stainless steel panels deployed in seawater. These studies suggest that proteins are the first compounds to adsorb onto stainless steel...., 1990; Bott 1993; 159 stainless steel by the Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) (Poleunis et al., 2002, 2003). Further the nature of the substratum influences the chemical composition and quality of adsorbed organic matter...

  18. [Isolation and preliminary characterization of carotenoids from pink-pigmented methylotrophs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, A M; Shylin, S O; Rokytko, P V

    2006-01-01

    An effective method was developed for complete removal of pigments from the cells and solvent mixture for further separation of pigments using thin layer chromatography on silica gel. Carotenoid samples that have been obtained in this way are of good purity for further investigations. Carotenoid pigments of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria Methylobacterium have been characterized. These carotenoids are represented mainly by xanthophylls, particularly hydroxycarotenoids. Strains M. fujisawaense B-3365 and M. mesophilicum B-3352 also have nonpolar carotenes in a small amount. Physico-chemical properties of carotenoids have been studied.

  19. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  20. The use of microbial and chemical analyses to characterize the variations in fouling profile of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Manes, Carmem Lara De O

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the most common problems in desalinations plants reducing the efficiency of the water production process. The characterization of bacterial community composition from fouling layers as well as detailed analysis of surrounding chemical environment might reveal process specific bacterial groups/species that are involved in RO biofouling. In this study, advanced organics analytic methods (elemental analysis, FTIR, and ICP-OES) were combined with high-throughput 16S rRNA (pyro) sequencing to assess in parallel, the chemical properties and the active microbial community composition of SWRO membranes from a pilot desalination plant (MFT, Tarragona) in February 2011 and July 2011. Prefiltered ultrafiltration. waters fed SWRO membranes during third and fifth month of operation, respectively. SWRO samples were taken from three modules at different positions (first, fourth, and sixth) in order to investigate the spatial changes in fouling layers\\' chemical and microbiological composition. The overall assessment of chemical parameters revealed that fouling layers were mainly composed by bio and organic material (proteins and lipids). Ca and Fe were found to be the most abundant elements having an increasing concentration gradient according to the module position. Bacterial community composition of SWRO membranes is mostly represented by the Gammaproteobacteria class with interesting differences in genera/species spatial and temporal distribution. This preliminary result suggests that pretreatments and/or operational conditions might have selected different bacterial groups more adapted to colonize SWRO membranes. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila A Dissanayake

    Full Text Available The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g. Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55% contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE, tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG, cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%, monounsaturated (40.7% and polyunsaturated (17.4% fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time.

  2. Characterization and prediction of chemical functions and weight fractions in consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Isaacs

    Full Text Available Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents. We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos. We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties. We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-based chemical prioritization. Keywords: Chemical function, Exposure modeling, Chemical prioritization, Consumer products, Cosmetics, ExpoCast

  3. Systematic Proteomic Approach to Characterize the Impacts of Chemical Interactions on Protein and Cytotoxicity Responses to Metal Mixture Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical interactions have posed a big challenge in toxicity characterization and human health risk assessment of environmental mixtures. To characterize the impacts of chemical interactions on protein and cytotoxicity responses to environmental mixtures, we established a systems...

  4. Preliminary Study on Effect of Chemical Composition Alteration on Elastic Recovery and Stress Recovery of Nitrile Gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kai Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrile gloves are widely used in the medical and automobile field due to its superiority in hypo-allergic component and chemical resistance over natural latex gloves. However, poor elastic recovery of nitrile glove to compressive force also creates an aesthetic issue for customers with high levels of wrinkling after removing from glove box. This paper demonstrates the preliminary study on the varies chemical composition such as crosslinking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, the accelerator agent added during curing process, and the rubber filler Titanium Dioxide, on the elastic recovery and stress relaxation in nitrile gloves manufacturing. These chemical were studied at different concentration level comparing the high and low level versus the normal production range. Due to the inconsistency in the analysis technique on the surface imaging, the elastic recovery result was unable to be quantified and was not conclusive at this point. The cross linking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, and the accelerator agent, played a significant role in the mechanical strength of the gloves. Increment of these chemicals result in higher tensile strength, but a reduction in the elasticity of the materials in which causes a lesser elongation at break percentage for the gloves. Both cross-linkers demonstrate different behaviour where higher sulphur content, provide higher stress relaxation (SR% yet zinc oxide shows otherwise.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity studies of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seeds of Khaya senegalensis were extracted using petroleum ether and methanol with the aim of determining the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil and the cytotoxicity of the two extracts. The refractive index of the oil was found to be 1.458, while the relative density was 0.953. The iodine and saponification ...

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of a crude venom extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sea-anemones, in common with other members of the phylum cnidaria (coelenterate) possess numerous tentacles containing specialized stinging cells of cnidocysts. Our main objective is to elucidate the chemical character and biological properties of this Nigerian species of sea anemone Bunodosoma ...

  7. Characterization of chemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similar to the effects of charge carriers on optical properties, confinement of optical and acoustic phonons leads to interesting changes in the phonon spectra. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of CdS using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied ...

  8. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Chemically Modified Electrodes Used as Chemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Desimoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of chemically modified sensors and biosensors is commonly performed by cyclic voltammetry and electron microscopies, which allow verifying electrode mechanisms and surface morphologies. Among other techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS plays a unique role in giving access to qualitative, quantitative/semi-quantitative and speciation information concerning the sensor surface. Nevertheless, XPS remains rather underused in this field. The aim of this paper is to review selected articles which evidence the useful performances of XPS in characterizing the top surface layers of chemically modified sensors and biosensors. A concise introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy gives to the reader the essential background. The application of XPS for characterizing sensors suitable for food and environmental analysis is highlighted.

  9. Optimized Extraction, Preliminary Characterization, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wan-Chen; Gu, Xin-Li

    2017-04-13

    BACKGROUND This study performed optimized extraction, preliminary characterization, and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three parameters (extraction temperature, ratio of water to raw material, and extraction time) were optimized for yields of G. uralensis polysaccharides (GUP) using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The GUP was purified using DEAE cellulose 32-column chromatography. The main fraction obtained from G. uralensis Fisch was GUP-II, which was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose monosaccharide, was screened for antioxidant properties using DP Hand hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. In addition, immunological activity of GUP-II was determined by nitric oxide and lymphocyte proliferation assays. RESULTS Optimization revealed maximum GUP yields with an extraction temperature of 99°C, water: raw material ratio of 15: 1, and extraction duration of 2 h. GUP-II purified from G. uralensis Fisch had good in vitro DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities. Immunologically, GUP-II significantly stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and significantly enhanced LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Extraction of GUP from G. uralensis Fisch can be optimized with respect to temperature, extraction period, and ratio of water to material, using response surface methodology. The purified product (GUP-II) possesses excellent antioxidant and immunological activities.

  10. Maltose conjugation to PCL: Advanced structural characterization and preliminary biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Valeria; Guizzardi, Roberto; Russo, Laura; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Franchi, Stefano; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara; Cipolla, Laura

    2018-05-01

    The emerging trends in regenerative medicine rely among others on biomaterial-based therapies, with the use of biomaterials as a central delivery system for biochemical and physical cues to manipulate transplanted or ingrowth cells and to orchestrate tissue regeneration. Cell adhesion properties of a biomaterial strongly depend on its surface characteristics. Among others poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable material with low cytotoxicity that is widely adopted as synthetic polymer in several applications. However, it is hydrophobic, which limits its use in tissue engineering. In order to improve its hydrophilicity and cellular compatibility, PCL surface was grafted with maltose through a two-step procedure in which controlled aminolysis of PCL ester bonds by hexanediamine was followed by reductive amination with the carbohydrate reducing end. The modified PCL surface was then characterized in detail by x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge x-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. In addition, the biocompatibility of the proposed biomaterial was investigated in preliminary biological assays.

  11. Preliminary study on biosynthesis and characterization of bacteria cellulose films from coconut water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingsih, A. W.; Rosyida, V. T.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Prasetyo, D. J.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Apriyana, W.; Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Hernawan; Darsih, C.; Pratiwi, D.; Suwanto, A.; Ratih, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a unique type of bacterial cellulose. It contains more than 90% of water. A preliminary study had shown that bacterial cellulose films has remarkable mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum condition such as percentage of carbon source, time of cultivation, and pH to produce bacterial cellulose films from local coconut water, and its characterization on morphology, swelling ability and tensile strength of dried bacterial cellulose. A. xylinum was grown on coconut water culture medium with addition of 3%, 5%, and 7% of sugar, while the cultivation time was vary from 3 days, 5 days and 7 days. pH condition was conducted in pH 3, pH 5 and pH 7. Bacterial cellulose samples were dried using oven with temperature of 100°C until the moisture content reached 4-5%. This study showed that several parameters for optimum condition to produce bacterial cellulose films from local waste of coconut water had been obtained (5% of carbon source; pH 5; and 7 day of incubation period). The electron microscopy also showed that dried bacterial cellulose films had pores covered by fibrils on the surface. Therefore, the present work proposes the optimum formula and condition that can be used based on properties of end product needed.

  12. Preliminary assessment of RTR and visual characterization for selected waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The first transuranic (TRU) waste shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will be for the WIPP Experimental Program. The purpose of the Experimental Program is to determine the gas generation rates and potential for gas generation by the waste after it has been permanently stored at the WIPP. The first phase of these tests will be performed at WIPP with test bins that have been filled and sealed in accordance with the test plan for bin scale tests. A second phase of the testing, the Alcove Test, will involve drummed waste placed in sealed rooms within WIPP. A preliminary test was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to evaluate potential methods for use in the characterization of waste. The waste material types to be identified were as defined in the bin-scale test plan -- Cellulosics, Plastic, Rubber, Corroding Metal/Steel, Corroding Metal/Aluminum, Non-corroding Metal, Solid Inorganic, Inorganic Sludges, other organics and Cements. A total of 19 drums representing eleven different waste types (Rocky Flats Plant -- Identification Description Codes (IDC)) and seven different TRUCON Code materials were evaluated. They included Dry Combustibles, Wet Combustibles, Plastic, light Metal, Glass (Non-Raschig Ring). Raschig Rings, M g O crucibles, HEPA Filters, Insulation, Leaded Dry Box Gloves, and Graphite. These Identification Description Codes were chosen because of their abundance on plant, as well as the variability in drum loading techniques. The goal of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of RTR inspection and visual inspection as characterization methods for waste. In addition, gas analysis of the head space was conducted to provide an indication of the types of gas generated

  13. Hanford enhanced waste glass characterization. Influence of composition on chemical durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a review of the complete high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) data sets for the glasses recently fabricated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and characterized at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The review is from the perspective of relating the chemical durability performance to the compositions of these study glasses, since the characterization work at SRNL focused on chemical analysis and ASTM Product Consistency Test (PCT) performance.

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  15. Chemical characterization by INAA of Brazilian ceramics and cultural implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munita, C.S.; Paiva, R.P.; Momose, E.F.; Saiki, M.; Alves, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Archaeological ceramic fragments from Agua Limpa site, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient, cluster and principal components analysis were used to interpret the concentration data. Rare earth and alkaline elements were highly correlated. Six principal components explained 74.9% of the total variance and five clusters were found. The sample chemical composition showed that all samples have the same provenance. (author)

  16. [Chemical-nutritional characterization of the moss Spagnum magellanicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Biolley, Edith; Yáñez, Enrique; Peralta, Rosario

    2002-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to know the chemical characteristics of the moss Sphagnum magellanicum (S.M.) growing in the southern part of Chile, spreading approximately. in a geographic area of 500.000 Has. Very few antecedents are reported in the literature concerning the functional properties of this resource, with the exception of the water absorption and holding capacity. Many of the industrial or agricultural uses of this moss are strongly related with this characteristic. Looking for other alternatives of utilization, it has been planned its incorporation to staple foods as a source of dietary fiber. But first it is necessary to know its chemical characteristics Representative samples of this material were submitted to different chemical analysis such as proximal analysis, fractional fiber analysis and anti nutrient factors.. Results of those analysis show the high amount of dietary fiber founded in this resource (77%), higher than reported data for other traditional fiber sources such as lupin bran, rice hull, barley hull, oat bran, etc. Finally it is important emphasize the absence of antinutrient factor in this moss, that could make feasible its use for human nutrition.

  17. Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ( 228 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 238 U, 210 Pb, and 40 K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples

  18. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Eugenio Boscaro; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; Cofani dos Santos, S.N.S.; Sandra Mara Martins-Franchetti

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  19. Preliminary fabrication and characterization of electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V customized dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to fabricate customized root form dental implant using additive manufacturing technique for the replacement of missing teeth. The root form dental implant was designed using Geomagic™ and Magics™, the designed implant was directly manufactured by layering technique using ARCAM A2™ electron beam melting system by employing medical grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy powder. Furthermore, the fabricated implant was characterized in terms of certain clinically important parameters such as surface microstructure, surface topography, chemical purity and internal porosity. Results confirmed that, fabrication of customized dental implants using additive rapid manufacturing technology offers an attractive method to produce extremely pure form of customized titanium dental implants, the rough and porous surface texture obtained is expected to provide better initial implant stabilization and superior osseointegration.

  20. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Poly(hexamethylene biguanide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the characterization of commercially available Poly(hexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB, a polymer with biocidal activity and several interesting properties that make this material suitable as a building block for supramolecular chemistry and “smart” materials. We studied polymer structure in water solution by dynamic light scattering, surface tension and capacitance spectroscopy. It shows typical surfactant behavior due to amphiphilic structure and low molecular weight. Spectroscopic (UV/Vis, FT-NIR and thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis, TGA were performed to give additional insight into the material structure in solution and solid state. These results can be the foundation for more detailed investigations on usefulness of PHMB in new complex materials and devices.

  1. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  2. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk

  3. Mechanical, chemical and radiological characterization of the graphite of the UNGG reactors type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresard, I.; Bonal, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of UNGG reactors type dismantling procedures, the characterization of the graphite, used as moderator, has to be realized. This paper presents the mechanical, chemical and radiological characterizations, the properties measured and gives some results in the case of the Bugey 1 reactor. (A.L.B.)

  4. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  5. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  6. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  7. A Preliminary Toxicological Evaluation of Eight Chemicals Used as Wood Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Fungicides , 1959. NAS/NRC. 2. Abstract journal searched: Chemical Abstracts to December 1980. 3. Computer searches: The following data bases were...changed the qualitative composition of the microflora by replacing Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Chaetomium species with Streptomyces

  8. Characterization and heading of irradiated fuels and their chemical analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents results of leaching experiments under deionized water and under synthetic granite at room temperature in air using spent fuel (UO 2 and MOX LWR fuels) and the chemical analogues, natural UO 2 and SIMFUEL. The experimental conditions and procedure for irradiated and non-irradiated materials were kept similar as much as possible. Also dissolution behaviour studies of preoxidised LWR UO 2 and MOX spent fuel up to different on the oxidation degree. For both fuel types, UO 2 and MOX, the fission products considered showed a fractional release normalised to uranium higher than 1, due to either the larger inventory at preferential leaching zones, such as, grain boundaries or to the inherent higher solubility of some of these elements. In contrast to fission products, the fractional release of PU from the UO 2 fuel was not affected by the oxidation level. Finally a thermodynamic study of the experimental leaching results obtained in this work was performed. (Author)

  9. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  10. Chemical characterization of local and stratospheric plutonium in Ohio soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical nature of plutonium derived from stratospheric fallout and industrial sources was studied in three agricultural soils. The majority of the soil plutonium was associated with a reductant-soluble, hydrous oxide phase that, under most conditions of terrestrial ecosystems, remains essentially immobile. The proportion of plutonium associated with organic matter (0.1N NaOH-extractable) varied among soils, and increased with decreasing particle size in the same soil. In a soil containing 238 Pu from a local fabrication facility and 239 , 240 Pu from stratospheric fallout, isotopic ratios between the NaOH-extractable and residual phases were essentially constant, indicating that, in these soils, plutonium from both sources behaves similarly. The distribution of soil plutonium with particle size appears to be most directly related to the mass of the soil particle

  11. Chemical characterization of agricultural supplies applied to organic tomato cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The agricultural supplies used in the organic system to control pests and diseases as well as to fertilize soil are claimed to be beneficial to plants and innocuous to human health and to the environment. The chemical composition of six agricultural supplies commonly used in the organic tomato culture, was evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results were compared to the maximum limits established by the Environment Control Agency of the S?o Paulo State (CETESB) and the Guidelines for Organic Quality Standard of Instituto Biodinamico (IBD). Concentrations above reference values were found for Co, Cr and Zn in compost, Cr and Zn in cattle manure and Zn in rice bran. (author)

  12. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  14. Application of physical and chemical characterization techniques to metallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Watson, S. S.; Stutzman, P. E.; Ferraris, C. F.; Peltz, M. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have been carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to chemistry, including X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, were also employed. Results of these analyses will be used to shed light on the question: how does virgin powder change after being exposed to and recycled from one or more additive manufacturing build cycles? In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanofilms for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek

    Carbon nanofilms obtained by high temperature graphitization of diamond surface in inert atmospheres or vacuum are modified by treatment in plasma of different precursor gases. At temperatures above 1000 °C, a stable conductive film of thickness between 10 - 100 nm and specific resistivity 10-3-10-4 Ωm, depending upon the heating conditions and the growth atmosphere, is formed on diamond surface. A gray, thin film of high surface resistivity is obtained in high vacuum, while at low vacuum (below 10-4 mbar), a thick black film of low surface resistivity forms. It is observed that the exposure to plasma reduces the surface conductance of carbon nanofilms as result of a partial removal of carbon and the plasma-stimulated amorphization. The rate of the reduction of conductance and hence the etching ability of plasma depends on the type of precursor gas. Hydrogen reveals the strongest etching ability, followed by oxygen and argon, whereas SF6 is ineffective. The carbon nanofilms show significant sensitivity of their electrical conductance to temperature and exposure to the vapors of common organic compounds. The oxygen plasma treated films exhibit selective response to acetone and water vapors. The fast response and recovery of the conductance are the features of the carbon nanofilms. The plasma-treated carbon nanofilm on graphitized diamond surface is discussed as a promising sensing material for development of all-carbon chemical sensors, which may be suitable for biological and medical applications. An alternative approach of fabrication of temperature and chemical sensitive carbon nanofilms on insulating substrates is proposed. The films are obtained by direct deposition of sputtered carbon on highly polished quartz substrates followed by subsequent annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. It is observed that the as-deposited films are essentially amorphous, while the heating induces irreversible structural ordering and gradual conversion of amorphous carbon in

  16. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  17. Chemical characterization earthenware on the Alta California Frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronek, Russell K.; Ginn, Sarah; Blackman, M.; Bishop, Ronald L.; Garcia Herans, M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout what was Alta California archaeological have found in Spanish and Mexican Period missions, presides, pueblos, and ranchos fragments of hand-modeled and wheel-thrown, unglazed, low fired earthenware's. the extraordinary visual similarities between earthenware's found hundreds of miles apart has been explained by some as the most of the ceramics were produced and used locally. The research presented in this paper is based on the use of neutron activation analysis to compositionally characterize the paste of a sample of these earthenware's. Samples from the missions sites of Dolores, Santa Clara, San Jose, Santa Cruz, San Antonio and San Juan Capistrano and the presiders of san Francisco, Monterey, and San Diego have been analyzed

  18. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  19. Biochemical and chemical characterization of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P L; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W

    1990-04-01

    The biochemical and chemical characteristics were determined for 156 clinical isolates of pink-pigmented bacteria that are similar to but distinct from Methylobacterium extorquens (synonymous with Pseudomonas mesophilica). These isolates were gram-negative, nonfermentative, usually nonvacuolated, coccoid rods; all grew at 35 degrees C and were catalase and urease positive; the majority grew on MacConkey agar and were variable for oxidase production and motility. On the basis of oxidation of xylose and mannitol and hydrolysis of esculin, these 156 strains were subdivided into four groups that were designated "pink coccoid" groups I, II, III, and IV. Groups I, II, and III are similar to an unnamed taxon described by Gilardi and Faur in 1984; only strains of group IV hydrolyze esculin. The cellular fatty acid compositions of strains of groups I, II, and III were essentially identical and differed from strains of group IV by the absence of 3-OH-C14:0 and the presence of C19:0 delta and 2-OH-C19:0 delta. The fatty acid composition of group IV strains was most similar to that of M. extorquens but differed by the presence of small amounts of two C17:1 acids, 3-OH-C16:0, and 2-OH-C18:1.

  20. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, P.; Oliveira Falcao, A. de; Alves Macedo, J.; Silva, L.H.M. da; Rodrigues, A.M. da C.; Alves Macedo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6%) and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0%) and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated(39.3%) triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%). Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil) and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1) were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%). The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes. (Author)

  1. Chemical characterization of milk oligosaccharides of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Tadasu; Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Rino; Nakamura, Tadashi; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Previous structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides had been performed in only two macropod species, the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupial species, which could provide information on their evolution, the oligosaccharides of the koala milk carbohydrate fraction were characterized in this study. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were separated from the carbohydrate fraction of milk of the koala, a non-macropod marsupial, and characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the neutral saccharides were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-galactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3',3″-digalactosyllactose), Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-novopentaose I) and Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I), while those of the acidic saccharides were Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-SL), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Gal (sialyl 3'-galactosyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose b), Gal(β1-3)[Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose c), and Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-3){Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a). The neutral oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl lacto-N-novopentaose I, a novel hexasaccharide, had been found in milk of the tammar wallaby, a macropod marsupial, while the acidic oligosaccharides, other than fucosyl sialyl lacto-N-novopentaose a had been identified in milk carbohydrate of the red kangaroo. The presence of fucosyl oligosaccharides is a significant feature of koala milk, in which it differs from milk of the tammar wallaby and the red kangaroo.

  2. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  3. Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismiller, Michael

    Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were

  4. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  5. Novel primary amine diazeniumdiolates-Chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Melany P; Bradaric, Michael J; Pontikis, John; Cabai, Jonathan; Weyna, Theodore; Tednes, Patrick; Schretzman, Robert; Rickert, Karl; Cao, Zhao; Andrei, Daniela

    2018-05-02

    Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Diazeniumdiolates, also known as NONOates, are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release nitric oxide (NO . ) and/or their congeneric nitroxyl (HNO). The purpose of this work was to synthesize a series of primary amine-based diazeniumdiolates as HNO/NO donors and to determine their efficacy as anticancer and antifungal agents in vivo. The seven compounds (3a-3g) were successfully synthesized and characterized, one of which had been previously reported in the literature (3g). Two compounds showed anti-proliferative effects against ovarian (ES2 and SKOV3) and AML monocyte-derived cancer cells (THP-1) when tested with standard MTT assays. Compounds 3a and 3g demonstrated reduced ovarian cancer cell proliferation when treated at doses from 0.033 to 1.0 mg/mL at the 24 hr time point. These compounds also exhibited moderate and selective antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, one cause of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised patients, inhibiting the growth of the fungi at LD 50 at 10 mg/mL. A third compound (3e) did not exhibit similar activities, possibly due to the alkyl chain. Our results suggest that the primary amine diazeniumdiolates may offer a versatile platform for the development of HNO/NO donors for biomedical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mutagenicity and chemical characterization of two petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; MacGregor, J A; King, R W

    1984-08-01

    To investigate if the Salmonella/microsome assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples for their carcinogenic potential, two high boiling (700-1070 degrees F) petroleum distillates with known activity in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay were fully characterized with respect to their hydrocarbon composition and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) content and assayed for mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity assays were also carried out on the aromatic hydrocarbon aggregates separated from these oils by adsorption chromatography. The composition of the distillates differed substantially, and reflected the fact that they were derived from crude oils that were extremely divergent in hydrocarbon character. Both the distillate and aromatic samples consistently induced a very slight increase in revertant TA98 and TA100 colonies; however, an increase of 2-4-fold over background was observed when the S-9 concentration was increased 5-10 times that of the standard assay. The maximal response was less than that expected from the samples' known PNA content and observed potency in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, all samples inhibited the mutagenic activity of added benzo[a]pyrene. Discordance between the magnitude of the samples' mutagenic activity and their known PNA content may be related to direct or indirect inhibition of sample PNAs by other components of the complex petroleum fractions. Observed inhibitory effects support the use of elevated S-9 concentration in the in vitro assays assessing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials.

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  9. Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Weston Lewis

    This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA

  10. Preliminary Characterization of the Liquid Discharge of the Mexico Hospital; Caracterizacion Preliminar de la Descarga Liquida del Hospital Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Rojas, A

    2001-07-01

    The generation and wrong handling of hospital waste constitutes a serious problem at national level. In this work, a preliminary characterization of the discharge it liquidates of the Mexico Hospital is carried out. For it, different pouring points were analyzed inside the institution; they are: Laundry, Central Kitchen, Clinical Laboratory, X-Rays, Laboratory of Biomass, Morgue, and the final discharge of the hospital. This with the purpose of knowing the handling of the liquid waste in the health center, the sanitary quality of these liquids and their influence in the raw waters of the Mexico Hospital in the receiving body. For this study, we first coordinated with the personnel of each department to know about the handling and type of liquid residuals that are discharged to the system of pipes. Later on the physical-chemical and biological tests were carried out with base in two compound samplings done the days October 26 and November 4 1998. Among the carried out tests we have: pH, DBO, DQO, SAAM, Fatty and Oils, Temperature, Nitrogen and Faecal Coniforms, depending on the characteristics of their origin point. At the end of the study, the obtained results were evaluated for each studied pouring point, and then the influence of these focuses on the quality of the raw waters of the hospital that discharge in a gulch located to the northwest side of the facilities was analyzed. The obtained results allow to preliminarily know the characterization of the liquid discharge of the Mexico Hospital and it was classified as a source of contamination. The Hospital requires of a biological treatment plant for those biodegradable poured liquids, and of a system of chemical treatment for that type of products used in the processes characteristic of each department. It is also required to take into account measures of reduction of contamination that diminish the quantity of waste from the source. (Author) [Spanish] La generacion y mal manejo de desechos hospitalarios

  11. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO 3 /HCl in sealed Teflon(reg s ign) vessels and four in Na 2 O 2 using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase

  12. Amazonian Buriti oil: chemical characterization and antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti oil is an example of an Amazonian palm oil of economic importance. The local population uses this oil for the prevention and treatment of different diseases; however, there are few studies in the literature that evaluate its properties. In this study, detailed chemical and antioxidant properties of Buriti oil were determined. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (65.6% and the main triacylglycerol classes were tri-unsaturated (50.0% and di-unsaturated-mono-saturated (39.3% triacylglycerols. The positional distribution of the classes of fatty acids on the triacylglycerol backbone indicated a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid relationship similar in the three-triacylglycerol positions. All tocopherol isomers were present, with a total content of 2364.1 mg·kg−1. α-tocopherol constitutes 48% of the total tocopherol content, followed by γ- tocopherol (45%. Total phenolic (107.0 mg gallic acid equivalent·g−1 oil and β-carotene (781.6 mg·kg−1 were particularly high in this oil. The highest antioxidant activity against the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was obtained at an oil concentration of 50 mg·mL−1 (73.15%. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC was 95.3 μmol Trolox equivalent·g−1 oil. These results serve to present Buriti oil as an Amazonian resource for cosmetic, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.El aceite de Buriti es un ejemplo de aceite de palma amazónica de gran importancia económica. La población local utiliza este aceite para la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades; sin embargo, hay pocos estudios científicos que evalúen sus propiedades. En este estudio, se determinaron las propiedades antioxidantes del aceite de Buriti. El ácido graso predominante fue el oleico (65,6 % y las principales clases de triglicéridos fueron tri-insaturadas (50,0 % y Di-insaturados-mono-saturada (39,3 %. La distribución posicional de las

  13. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to characterize the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of the polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen (TPPPS. HPLC analysis showed that TPPPS was an acidic heteropolysaccharide with glucose and arabinose as the main component monosaccharides (79.6%, molar percentage. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis indicated that the spectra of TPPPS displayed infrared absorption peaks characteristic of polysaccharides. In in vitro assays TPPPS exhibited different degrees of dose-dependent antioxidant activities , and this was further verified by suppression of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the liver with three tested doses of TPPPS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw in rats. Pretreatment with TPPPS significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA against CCl4 injuries, and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Histopathological observation further confirmed that TPPPS could protect the liver tissues from CCl4-induced histological alternation. These results suggest that TPPPS has strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect may partly be related to its free radical scavenging effect, increasing antioxidant activity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  14. Transverse-flow quasi-cw HF chemical laser: design and preliminary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Mah, S.Q.; Conturie, Y.

    1974-01-01

    A small transverse-flow HF chemical laser has been constructed using a large volume microwave plasma generator for the production of F atoms. The F atoms react with hydrogen to form the lasing HF molecules. The active medium is about 5 cm long, and the maximum average laser power was found to be 560 mW for all lines. Three laser lines with wavelengths 2.61 μm, 2.64 μm, and 2.73 μm were observed. The time-varying laser transition profile closely resembles the density profile of the excited fluorine atoms in the plasma. Both profiles are greatly affected by changes in flow conditions

  15. Thermal stability of chemically denatured green fluorescent protein (GFP) A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Attila; Malnasi-Csizmadia, Andras; Somogyi, Bela; Lorinczy, Denes

    2004-02-09

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The protein consist of 238 amino acids and produces green fluorescent light ({lambda}{sub max}=508 nm), when irradiated with near ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser{sup 65}-Tyr{sup 66}-Gly{sup 67}-, which buried into {beta}-barrel. GFP is extremely compact and heat stable molecule. In this work, we present data for the effect of chemical denaturing agent on the thermal stability of GFP. When denaturing agent is applied, global thermal stability and the melting point of the molecule is decreases, that can be monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. The results indicate, that in 1-6 M range of GuHCl the melting temperature is decreasing continuously from 83 to 38 deg. C. Interesting finding, that the calculated calorimetric enthalpy decreases with GuHCl concentration up to 3 M (5.6-0.2 kJ mol{sup -1}), but at 4 M it jumps to 8.4 and at greater concentration it is falling down to 1.1 kJ mol{sup -1}. First phenomena, i.e. the decrease of melting point with increasing GuHCl concentration can be easily explained by the effect of the extended chemical denaturation, when less and less amount of heat required to diminish the remaining hydrogen bonds in {beta}-barrel. The surprising increase of calorimetric enthalpy at 4 M concentration of GuHCl could be the consequence of a dimerization or a formation of stable complex between GFP and denaturing agent as well as a precipitation at an extreme GuHCl concentration. We are planning further experiments to elucidate fluorescent consequence of these processes.

  16. High-resolution chemical composition of geothermal scalings from Hungary: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Ronny; Dietzel, Martin; Deák, József; Leis, Albrecht; Mindszenty, Andrea; Demeny, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal fluids originating from several hundreds to thousands meters depth mostly hold a high potential for secondary mineral precipitation (scaling) due to high total dissolved solid contents at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The precipitation of e.g. carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and silica has shown to cause severe problems in geothermal heat and electric power production, when clogging of drill-holes, downhole pumps, pipes and heat exchangers occurs (e.g. deep geothermal doublet systems). Ongoing scaling reduces the efficiency in energy extraction and might even question the abandonment of installations in worst cases. In an attempt to study scaling processes both temporally and spatially we collected mineral precipitates from selected sites in Hungary (Bükfürdo, Szechenyi, Szentes, Igal, Hajduszoboszlo). The samples of up to 8 cm thickness were recovered from different positions of the geothermal systems and precipitated from waters of various temperatures (40-120 °C) and variable overall chemical composition. Most of these scalings show fine lamination patterns representing mineral deposition from weeks up to 45 years at our study sites. Solid-fluid interaction over time captured in the samples are investigated applying high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser-ablation mass-spectrometry and electron microprobe, micromill-sampling for stable isotope analysis, and micro-XRD combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. A detailed investigation of the processes determining the formation and growth of precipitates can help to elucidate the short-term versus long-term geothermal performance with regard to anthropogenic and natural reservoir and production dynamics. Changes in fluid chemistry, temperature, pressure, pH, degassing rate (CO2) and flow rate are reflected by the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic composition of the precipitates. Consequently, this high-resolution approach is intended as a contribution to decipher the

  17. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...

  18. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of ZnO materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangzu; Tompa, Gary S.; Hoerman, Brent; Look, David C.; Claflin, Bruce B.; Rice, Catherine E.; Masaun, Puneet

    2006-04-01

    Zinc oxide is attracting growing interest for potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, photonics, and chemical and biochemical sensing, among other applications. We report herein our efforts in the growth and characterization of p- and n-type ZnO materials by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), focusing on recent nitrogen-doped films grown using diethyl zinc as the zinc precursor and nitric oxide (NO) as the dopant. Characterization results, including resistivity, Hall measurements, photoluminescence, and SIMS, are reported and discussed. Electrical behavior was observed to be dependent on illumination, atmosphere, and heat treatment, especially for p-type material.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of M-type barium hexferrite by ultrasonic inter-dispersion of chemical precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Junior, E.S.; Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T.

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with the study the synthesis and characterization of M-type barium hexaferrite powder by chemical precipitation type and ultrasonic interdispersion of precursor materials Fe(OH) 3 and Ba(OH) 2 ,separately and ultrasonic inter-dispersion, followed by drying and calcining. In order to guide the experimental work was carried out a preliminary thermodynamic analysis of the system Ba-Fe-H 2 O at 25 deg C. The study shows that the phase formation of M-type barium hexaferrite is obtained at a calcination at 1000 deg C, characterized by X-ray diffraction, the grain growth of the final product of synthesis depending on the calcination temperature is visible by SEM. The synthesis method developed in this research is an option to achieve the results that would be obtained if the co-precipitation of ferric and barium hydroxide was thermodynamically possible, where you can get crystallization of barium hexaferrite in a calcination at 1000 deg C. (author)

  20. Rehabilitation of radioactive objects of Kirovo-Chepetsky chemical plant preliminary program of works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, F.V.; Ivanov, O.P.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkov, V.G.; Volkovich, A.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the specialists of RRC Kurchatov Institute, jointly with MosNPO Radon, launched works on the radiation survey of radiation-contaminated objects and areas on the site of Kirovo-Chetetsky Chemical Plant (KCCP). This survey was launched with the object of subsequent development of the rehabilitation program and concept for buildings and storage sites left from shutdown uranium-processing facilities, as well as for sludge storage facilities and repositories of radioactive waste produced as a result of these facilities operation. Besides, radioactive contamination caused by the preceding operations involving radwaste and equipment contaminated at early stages of uranium hexafluoride (UHF) and tetrafluoride (UTF) processing technology mastering was detected in some spots at KCCP site. The radiation survey was performed in order to assess the amount of rehabilitation works, to identify the most critical objects and areas at KCCP site, and to develop the sequence of measures to be implemented in order to enhance the radiation safety of people living in the Kirov Region. (author)

  1. Characterization of the pharmacokinetics of gasoline using PBPK modeling with a complex mixtures chemical lumping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, James E; Andersen, Melvin E; Yang, Raymond S H

    2003-09-01

    Gasoline consists of a few toxicologically significant components and a large number of other hydrocarbons in a complex mixture. By using an integrated, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and lumping approach, we have developed a method for characterizing the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of gasoline in rats. The PBPK model tracks selected target components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene [BTEX], and n-hexane) and a lumped chemical group representing all nontarget components, with competitive metabolic inhibition between all target compounds and the lumped chemical. PK data was acquired by performing gas uptake PK studies with male F344 rats in a closed chamber. Chamber air samples were analyzed every 10-20 min by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and all nontarget chemicals were co-integrated. A four-compartment PBPK model with metabolic interactions was constructed using the BTEX, n-hexane, and lumped chemical data. Target chemical kinetic parameters were refined by studies with either the single chemical alone or with all five chemicals together. o-Xylene, at high concentrations, decreased alveolar ventilation, consistent with respiratory irritation. A six-chemical interaction model with the lumped chemical group was used to estimate lumped chemical partitioning and metabolic parameters for a winter blend of gasoline with methyl t-butyl ether and a summer blend without any oxygenate. Computer simulation results from this model matched well with experimental data from single chemical, five-chemical mixture, and the two blends of gasoline. The PBPK model analysis indicated that metabolism of individual components was inhibited up to 27% during the 6-h gas uptake experiments of gasoline exposures.

  2. Characterization of the Human Proteomic Response to Hydrocodone: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Bjork, S.J. Grant , Does traumatic brain injury increase risk for substance abuse?, J Neurotrauma (2009). [13] D.P. Graham, A.L. Cardon , An update on...Preliminary Study” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0126 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Lt Col Vikhyat Bebarta, MD 5d. PROJECT

  3. Preliminary Characterization of a Microbial Community of Rock Varnish from Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; LaDuc, M. T.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Newcombe, D. A.; Fusco, W.; Steucker, T.; Allenbach, L.; Ball, C.; Crawford, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Rock varnish (also referred to as desert varnish in the literature because it is particularly noticeable in desert environments) is a dark, thin (typically 50-500 m thick), layered veneer composed of clay minerals cemented together by oxides and hydroxides of manganese and iron. Some scientists suggest that varnish may provide a historical record of environmental processes such as global warming and long-term climate change. However, despite more than 30 years of study using modern microanalytical and microbial culturing techniques, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of rock varnish remain a mystery. Rock varnish is of interest to the Mars science community because a varnish-like sheen has been reported on the rocks at the Viking Lander sites. It therefore important for us to understand the formation mechanisms of terrestrial varnish abiotic, biotic, or a combination of the two -- as this understanding may give us clues concerning the chemical and physical processes occurring on the surface of Mars. It is strongly believed by some in the biogeochemistry community that microbes have a role in forming rock varnish, and iron- and manganese-oxidation by microbes isolated from varnish has been extensively investigated. Only two of these studies have investigated the microbial genetics of varnish. These studies examined the morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics of microbes that had previously been cultured from various rock varnishes and identified the cultivars using 16S rDNA sequencing techniques. However, it is well known that most of organisms existing in nature are refractory to cultivation, so many important organisms would have been missed. The currently described work investigates the genetics of rock varnish microbial community from a site in the Whipple Mtns., south of Death Valley, CA, near Parker, Arizona. We employed both cultural and molecular techniques to characterize the microorganisms found within the varnish and surrounding soil

  4. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motlatle, Abesach M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 18: DOI: 10.1007/s11051-016-3614-8 Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles Motlatle AM Kesevan Pillai S Scriba MR Ray SS ABSTRACT: Cu...

  5. Artworks characterization at THz frequencies: preliminary results via the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In the research field of art and archaeology, scientific observation and analysis are hugely demanded to gather as more information as possible on the materials and techniques used to create artworks as well as in previous restoration actions. In this frame, diagnostic tools exploiting electromagnetic waves deserve massive interest tanks to their ability to provide non-invasive and possibly contactless characterization of the investigated objects. Among the electromagnetic diagnostic technologies, those working at frequencies belonging to the 0.1-10 THz range are currently deserving an increased attention since THz waves are capable of penetrating into optically opaque materials (up to the preparation layers), without direct contact and by involving sufficiently low energy to be considered as perfectly non-invasive in practice [1,2]. Moreover, being THz non-ionizing radiations, a moderate exposure to them implies minor long term risks to the molecular stability of the historical artifact and humans. Finally, recent developments of THz technology have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. One of them is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega, acquired by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) in 2013. This system works in the range from 60GHz to 3THz with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz, it is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and, few months ago, has been potentiated by means of an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150mm x 150mm area. In the frame of the IREA research activities regarding cultural heritage, the FICO system is currently adopted to perform both spectroscopy and imaging, which are the two kind of analysis wherein THz technology can be profitably explored [3]. In particular, THz spectroscopy is used to distinguish different artists materials by exploiting their peculiar fingerprint in the absorption

  6. An Inverse Analysis Approach to the Characterization of Chemical Transport in Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P.; Stevenson, Shawn M.; Pearl, Thomas P.; Mantooth, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly characterize chemical transport and interactions that occur within a material (i.e., subsurface dynamics) is a vital component in understanding contaminant mass transport and the ability to decontaminate materials. If a material is contaminated, over time, the transport of highly toxic chemicals (such as chemical warfare agent species) out of the material can result in vapor exposure or transfer to the skin, which can result in percutaneous exposure to personnel who interact with the material. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents, the release of trace chemical quantities is of significant concern. Mapping subsurface concentration distribution and transport characteristics of absorbed agents enables exposure hazards to be assessed in untested conditions. Furthermore, these tools can be used to characterize subsurface reaction dynamics to ultimately design improved decontaminants or decontamination procedures. To achieve this goal, an inverse analysis mass transport modeling approach was developed that utilizes time-resolved mass spectroscopy measurements of vapor emission from contaminated paint coatings as the input parameter for calculation of subsurface concentration profiles. Details are provided on sample preparation, including contaminant and material handling, the application of mass spectrometry for the measurement of emitted contaminant vapor, and the implementation of inverse analysis using a physics-based diffusion model to determine transport properties of live chemical warfare agents including distilled mustard (HD) and the nerve agent VX. PMID:25226346

  7. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  8. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  9. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ 13 C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ 13 C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ 13 C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ 13 C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ 13 C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Chemical Suicides in the United States and Its Adverse Impact on Responders and Bystanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayana R. Anderson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A suicide trend that involves mixing household chemicals to produce hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen cyanide, commonly referred to as a detergent, hydrogen sulfide, or chemical suicide is a continuing problem in the United States (U.S.. Because there is not one database responsible for tracking chemical suicides, the actual number of incidents in the U.S. is unknown. To prevent morbidity and mortality associated with chemical suicides, it is important to characterize the incidents that have occurred in the U.S. Methods: The author analyzed data from 2011-2013 from state health departments participating in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP. NTSIP is a web-based chemical incident surveillance system that tracks the public health consequences (e.g., morbidity, mortality from acute chemical releases. Reporting sources for NTSIP incidents typically include first responders, hospitals, state environmental agencies, and media outlets. To find chemical suicide incidents in NTSIP’s database, the author queried open text fields in the comment, synopsis, and contributing factors variables for potential incidents. Results: Five of the nine states participating in NTSIP reported a total of 22 chemical suicide incidents or attempted suicides during 2011-2013. These states reported a total of 43 victims: 15 suicide victims who died, seven people who attempted suicide but survived, eight responders, and four employees working at a coroner’s office; the remainder were members of the general public. None of the injured responders reported receiving HazMat technician-level training, and none had documented appropriate personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Chemical suicides produce lethal gases that can pose a threat to responders and bystanders. Describing the characteristics of these incidents can help raise awareness among responders and the public about the dangers of

  11. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions

  12. Synthesis, characterization and decomposition studies of tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III): chemical spray deposition of polycrystalline CuInS2 on copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Khan, Osman; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2005-01-01

    Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S 2 CNBz 2 ) 3 , was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1-bar with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS 2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In 2 S 3 . Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S 2 CNBz 2 ) 3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce stoichiometric CuInS 2 films

  13. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Decomposition Studies of Tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato) Indium(III): Chemical Spray Deposition of Polycrystalline CuInS2 on Copper Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.; Lau, J. Eva; Harris, Jerry D.; Hoops, Michael D.; Duffy, Norman V.; Fanwick, Philip E.; Khan, Osman; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2005-01-01

    Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S ), commonly referred to as tris(N,Ndibenzyldithiocarbamato) indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 bar with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce stoichiometric CuInS2 films.

  15. Real-time chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jie; Sun, Yele; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xue; Li, Mei; Zhou, Zhen; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a major health threat accompanying the rapid economic development in China. For decades, filter-based offline chemical analyses have been the most widely adopted means to investigate PM and have provided much information for understanding this type of pollution in China. However, offline analyses have low time resolutions and the chemical information thus obtained fail to reflect the dynamic nature of the sources and the rapid processes leading to the severe PM pollution in China. In recent years, advances in real-time PM chemical characterization have created a new paradigm for PM studies in China. In this review, we summarize those advances, focusing on the most widely used mass spectrometric and ion chromatographic techniques. We describe the findings from those studies in terms of spatiotemporal variabilities, degree of neutralization and oxygenation, source apportionment, secondary formation, as well as collocated measurements of the chemical and physical (hygroscopic and optical) properties of PM. We also highlight the new insights gained from those findings and suggest future directions for further advancing our understanding of PM pollution in China via real-time chemical characterization.

  16. SEM, Scanning Auger and XPS characterization of chemically pretreated Ti surfaces intended for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarek, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: marcinp@ichf.edu.pl; Lewandowska, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Roguska, A. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Janik-Czachor, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-15

    Titanium is known as a biocompatible metal characterized by biological and corrosion immunity and good mechanical properties, including a high fracture toughness. In a variety of environments, this metal undergoes 'natural' oxidation which determine its resistance to corrosion. It can also be exposed to chemical treatments in acidic or alkaline solutions which 'enforces' chemical and morphological changes of Ti surface. Those methods, if well controlled, may increase the effective Ti surface area, making it more biocompatible. However, the morphological and chemical factors responsible for their interactions with biological cells are still not well known. The aim of this work was to compare surface chemical and morphological changes introduced by commonly used aqueous NaOH pretreatment with those occurring in a new 'piranha' acidic solution. Particular attention was paid to possible changes which may be decisive for the biocompatibility of the Ti-elements subjected to these surface modifications. Surface analytical techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with Ar{sup +} ion sputtering allowed us to investigate in detail the chemical composition of Ti oxide layers. SEM examinations provided morphological characterization of the surface of Ti samples. The results revealed large difference in morphology of Ti surfaces pretreated with different procedures whereas only minor difference in the chemistry of the surfaces were detected.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  18. Geotechnical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Low Lime Fly Ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of using low-lime fly ashes, the physical and chemical properties which have a direct bearing on their geotechnical and geoenvironmental behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, two types of low-lime fly ashes, originating from India, have been used. A brief account of various methods adopted in characterizing their physical, chemical, and geotechnical properties is presented. The relative importance of each of these properties in enhancing the bulk applicability of fly ashes has been brought out.

  19. Radiological and chemical characterization report for the planned Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant (QCSA) will be used in the support of the bulk waste removal of the Weldon Spring Quarry. Radiological and chemical characterization was performed on a 12 acre site where the QCSA will be constructed. The characterization revealed approximately .5 acres of radiologically contaminated land. No chemical contamination was found. 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Frictional sliding in layered rock model: Preliminary experiments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Buescher, B.J.; Anderson, D.; Epstein, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    An important aspect of determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a possible nuclear waste repository requires understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-masses. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints in the laboratory using the technique of phase shifting moire interferometry. The models were made from stacks of Lexan plates and contained a central hole to induce slip between the plates when the models were loaded in compression. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the approach and show a clear evolution of slip as function of load

  1. Characterization samples of Tigris river water treated with nano colloidal silver (physically, chemically, microbiologically)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumboos, H. I.; Beden, S. J.; Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ahmed, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many researches of using nano silver in purification of drinking water from bacteria and its effect on stan dared properties as drinking water were established. Two stages accomplished in these projects. First stage include preparation of colloidal silver with characterization process and prepare water samples through sedimentation, filtration process, PH and turbidity measure then treated with colloidal silver in volume ratio (0.1-Λ) ml/100ml. The second stage represent select the better results from stage one and take samples to determine the standard characterization values with chemical, physical and microbiological taste. Results will be compared with Iraq standard certification. (Author)

  2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLAPSING LOW-MASS PRESTELLAR DENSE CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincelin, U. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Commerçon, B. [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR 5574 du CNRS, Université Lyon I, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07 (France); Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S. [Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Herbst, E., E-mail: ugo.hincelin@gmail.com [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The first hydrostatic core, also called the first Larson core, is one of the first steps in low-mass star formation as predicted by theory. With recent and future high-performance telescopes, the details of these first phases are becoming accessible, and observations may confirm theory and even present new challenges for theoreticians. In this context, from a theoretical point of view, we study the chemical and physical evolution of the collapse of prestellar cores until the formation of the first Larson core, in order to better characterize this early phase in the star formation process. We couple a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model with full gas-grain chemistry, using different assumptions for the magnetic field strength and orientation. We extract the different components of each collapsing core (i.e., the central core, the outflow, the disk, the pseudodisk, and the envelope) to highlight their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Each component often presents a specific physical history, as well as a specific chemical evolution. From some species, the components can clearly be differentiated. The different core models can also be chemically differentiated. Our simulation suggests that some chemical species act as tracers of the different components of a collapsing prestellar dense core, and as tracers of the magnetic field characteristics of the core. From this result, we pinpoint promising key chemical species to be observed.

  3. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer in Chemical Reactions: A Mechanistic Tool for NMR Detection and Characterization of Transient Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, N; Seegerer, Andreas; Hioe, Johnny; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2018-02-07

    The low sensitivity of NMR and transient key intermediates below detection limit are the central problems studying reaction mechanisms by NMR. Sensitivity can be enhanced by hyperpolarization techniques such as dynamic nuclear polarization or the incorporation/interaction of special hyperpolarized molecules. However, all of these techniques require special equipment, are restricted to selective reactions, or undesirably influence the reaction pathways. Here, we apply the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) technique for the first time to NMR detect and characterize previously unobserved transient reaction intermediates in organocatalysis. The higher sensitivity of CEST and chemical equilibria present in the reaction pathway are exploited to access population and kinetics information on low populated intermediates. The potential of the method is demonstrated on the proline-catalyzed enamine formation for unprecedented in situ detection of a DPU stabilized zwitterionic iminium species, the elusive key intermediate between enamine and oxazolidinones. The quantitative analysis of CEST data at 250 K revealed the population ratio of [Z-iminium]/[exo-oxazolidinone] 0.02, relative free energy +8.1 kJ/mol (calculated +7.3 kJ/mol), and free energy barrier of +45.9 kJ/mol (ΔG ⧧ calc. (268 K) = +42.2 kJ/mol) for Z-iminium → exo-oxazolidinone. The findings underpin the iminium ion participation in enamine formation pathway corroborating our earlier theoretical prediction and help in better understanding. The reliability of CEST is validated using 1D EXSY-build-up techniques at low temperature (213 K). The CEST method thus serves as a new tool for mechanistic investigations in organocatalysis to access key information, such as chemical shifts, populations, and reaction kinetics of intermediates below the standard NMR detection limit.

  4. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  5. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L.; Armstrong, G.R.; Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ''risk categories'' are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies

  6. A color spectrographic phonocardiography (CSP applied to the detection and characterization of heart murmurs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Kamran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cardiac auscultation remains important to detect abnormal sounds and murmurs indicative of cardiac pathology, the application of electronic methods remains seldom used in everyday clinical practice. In this report we provide preliminary data showing how the phonocardiogram can be analyzed using color spectrographic techniques and discuss how such information may be of future value for noninvasive cardiac monitoring. Methods We digitally recorded the phonocardiogram using a high-speed USB interface and the program Gold Wave http://www.goldwave.com in 55 infants and adults with cardiac structural disease as well as from normal individuals and individuals with innocent murmurs. Color spectrographic analysis of the signal was performed using Spectrogram (Version 16 as a well as custom MATLAB code. Results Our preliminary data is presented as a series of seven cases. Conclusions We expect the application of spectrographic techniques to phonocardiography to grow substantially as ongoing research demonstrates its utility in various clinical settings. Our evaluation of a simple, low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system to assist in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs shows promise in helping distinguish innocent systolic murmurs from pathological murmurs in children and is expected to useful in other clinical settings as well.

  7. Agaricus bohusii from Serbia: chemical characterization, antioxidant potential and antifungal preserving properties in cream cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Filipa S.; Stojković, Dejan; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional and bioactive properties. They have been considered valuable health foods being a source of many different nutraceuticals, including antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds [1,2]. Agaricus bohusii Bon is an edible and prized mushroom especially common in Serbia and southern Europe. As far as we know, there are no studies about this species. In the present work, a detailed chemical characterization of A. bohusii was ...

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of the (Th, U)O2 mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M.M. dos; Avelar, M.M.; Palmieri, H.E.L.; Lameiras, F.S.; Ferreira, R.A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The NUCLEBRAS R and D Center (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN) has been performing, together with german institutions (Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH - KFA, Krafwerk Union A.G. - KWU and NUKEM GmbH), a program for utilization of thorium in pressurized water reactors. In this paper are presented the physical and chemical characterizations necessary to quality the (Th, U)O 2 fuel and the respective methods. (Author) [pt

  9. Characterization for rbs of layers de grown cdznse for chemical deposition (cbd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrero, E.; Larramendi, E.; Calzadilla, O.

    1999-01-01

    Depth and composition of CdZnSe thin films grown by Chemical Bath Deposition were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Depth and the relative cuantitity of Se, both decrease when annealed in air. The films have a non-stoichiometric Cd:Zn:Se composition constant from the substrate to the surface , with vacancies of Se. After annealing all the films come up to a similar composition: Cd( Zn 0.2 )Se

  10. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joselena M.; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C.; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica (“mandaguari”) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high con...

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers with Unique Chemical Functionalities and Entropically-Hindering Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    methanol as a function of chemistry , morphology and hydration levels. Accomplishments: This section is included in the "upload" section. Training...Copolymer Blend Membranes.” In Press, Polymer Engineering and Science, DOI: 10.1002 /pen.24508, 2017. 5. M. Pérez-Pérez and D. Suleiman. “Synthesis and...Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Amine Block Copolymers for Energy Efficient Applications". Chemical Engineering Symposium, University of

  13. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Chemical Characterization and Behavior of Respirable Fractions of Indoor Dusts Collected Near a Landfill Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheo B. Lamorena-Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the inorganic and organic phases in airborne particulate matter (PM collected near a landf ill facility. The establishments within the vicinity of the landfill considered in the study were a junk shop, a school, and a money changer shop. From the elemental analysis using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, lead and cadmium were discovered to be more abundant in the total suspended particulate (TSP fraction, whereas copper was more abundant in the smaller PM2.5. Manganese, arsenic, strontium, cadmium, and lead were more abundant in the PM10 fraction than in PM2.5. The results of the chemical characterization were compiled and evaluated in a geochemical modelling code (PHREEQC to determine the potential speciation of these chemical constituents. Solution complexes of As, Pb, Cd and phthalates, and metal species, such as H2AsO3- , Cd2OH3+, Pb(OH3-, were predicted to form by the PHREEQC simulation runs once the endmember components interact with water. The results contribute to the background information on the potential impacts from exposure to airborne PM at workplaces around landfill facilities. Moreover, the data gathered provide a baseline for the chemical characterization and behavior of chemical constituents of PM possibly present in this specific type of environment.

  15. Hydroxyapatite nanorods: soft-template synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Kim; Leoni, Matteo; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanorods are excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods resembling bone minerals were produced by using soft-template method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Composite hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films were prepared to evaluate the prepared hydroxyapatite nanorods in terms of cell affinity. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that aspect ratio and film surface roughness play a vital role in controlling adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line MG 63. The hydroxyapatite nanorods with aspect ratios in the range of 5.94-7 were found to possess distinctive properties, with the corresponding hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films promoting cellular confluence and a fast formation of collagen fibers as early as after 7 days of culture.

  16. Preliminary characterization of the Green Antioquian consumer: the case of the consumers from Valle de Aburra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcy Rocío Escobar Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This research paper aims at identifying the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra, in Antioquia, to identify the specific features and needs of this group as a market segment. At first, this article shows a conceptual framework about terms such as green market, green consumers and green products. Then, a research methodology is described based on a quantitative formulation of a piloting study, through which a measurement instrument having 14 questions divided into different variables product, price, distribution and communication collected key information to get to preliminary conclusions about consumers as its main object of study. Finally, a statistic descriptive analysis was made to get the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra and a proposal describing key elements to set the bases for future investigations about this topic.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Divya; Anand, Kanchan; Mathur, Deepika; Jagadish, Nirmala; Suri, Anil; Garg, Lalit C.

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Phosphoglucose isomerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucopyranose-6-phosphate to d-fructofuranose-6-phosphate. The present investigation reports the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which shares 46% sequence identity with that of its human host. The recombinant protein, which was prepared using an Escherichia coli expression system, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 109.0, b = 119.8, c = 138.9 Å

  18. ZTI: Preliminary characterization of an ignition class reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary cost-optimized conceptual design of an intermediate-step, ignition-class RFP device (ZTI) for the study of alpha-particle physics in a DT plasma is reported. The ZTI design reflects potentially significant cost savings relative to similar ignition-class tokamaks for device parameters that reside on the path to a viable commercial RFP reactor. Reductions in both device costs and number of steps to commercialization portend a significantly reduced development cost for fusion. The methodology and result and coupling realistic physics, engineering, and cost models through a multi-dimensional optimizer are reported for ZTI, which is a device that would follow the 2--4 MA ZTH on a approx-gt 1996--98 timescale. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the caspase-recruitment domain of human Nod1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srimathi, Thiagarajan; Robbins, Sheila L.; Dubas, Rachel L.; Seo, Jang-Hoon; Park, Young Chul

    2006-01-01

    The caspase-recruitment domain of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) is known to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation as an essential protein–protein interaction domain. The CARD of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CARD was crystallized at 277 K using the microseeding method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P3 1 or P3 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.1, c = 80.9 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there is one dimeric CARD molecule in the asymmetric unit

  20. Crystallization, characterization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of GK2848, a putative carbonic anhydrase of Geobacillus kaustophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragunathan, Preethi; Raghunath, Gokul; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, characterization and crystallization of GK2848, a carbonic anhydrase from G. kaustophilus, are described. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.70 Å. GK2848, a hypothetical protein from the thermophilic organism Geobacillus kaustophilus, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity-column and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.70 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2. GK2848 bears sequence homology to carbonic anhydrases of various bacterial species, indicating that it belongs to the carbonic anhydrase family of proteins. A subsequent carbonic anhydrase activity assay of GK2848 using the Wilbur–Anderson method confirmed its function as a carbonic anhydrase. A preliminary structure solution was obtained by molecular replacement using MOLREP. Mutation and biochemical characterization of the protein are in progress. The structure and functional analysis of GK2848 might provide valuable information on a novel class of carbonic anhydrases, as none of its homologous structures have been characterized

  1. Preliminary characterization of dose in personnel of interventional radiology; Caracterizacao preliminar da dose em profissionais de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolfim, Laura Larre; Anes, Mauricio; Bacelar, Alexandre; Lykawka, Rochelle [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to X-rays of Interventional Radiology professionals (IR) impacts in the high dose rate received by these individuals, and there are reports of biological effects of this professional activity. Therefore, it is fomented greater control over the doses received by these workers. This research intends to characterize the doses received by the professionals during IR procedures. We evaluated the doses of radiologists, anesthesiologists and nursing staff of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, through measures with dosimeters of the OSL type, distributed in up to six regions of the body of these professionals. Until now were accompanied 33 cholangiography procedures and 29 embolization procedures. As a preliminary result, it was possible to identify a wide variation between doses of the professionals of the same function in each procedure. In overview, the dose of the professionals presented in descending order as a radiologist 1> radiologist 2 > anesthetist > nursing. (author)

  2. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWDBP, a member of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herde, Petra; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-01-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWD-binding protein (MAWDBP) are described. MAWDBP is the only representative of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family in the human genome. Its expression is elevated in several disease processes, including insulin resistance, folate deficiency and hypotension, and it may also be involved in carcinogenesis. The exact molecular function of MAWDBP is unknown. Native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled MAWDBP were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at room temperature from precipitants containing 10 mM KF, 14%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.4. Crystals belong to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 187, c = 241 Å, indicative of three to five monomers per asymmetric unit. Crystals were cryoprotected with 15%(v/v) glycerol and data have been collected to 2.7 Å resolution

  3. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWDBP, a member of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herde, Petra; Blankenfeldt, Wulf, E-mail: wulf.blankenfeldt@mpi-dortmund.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of human MAWD-binding protein (MAWDBP) are described. MAWDBP is the only representative of the phenazine biosynthesis-like protein family in the human genome. Its expression is elevated in several disease processes, including insulin resistance, folate deficiency and hypotension, and it may also be involved in carcinogenesis. The exact molecular function of MAWDBP is unknown. Native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled MAWDBP were expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at room temperature from precipitants containing 10 mM KF, 14%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.4. Crystals belong to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 187, c = 241 Å, indicative of three to five monomers per asymmetric unit. Crystals were cryoprotected with 15%(v/v) glycerol and data have been collected to 2.7 Å resolution.

  4. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill: Innovative strategies towards characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardito, Cynthia P.; Parsons, Alva M.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Phelan, James M.; Mattson, Earl D.

    1992-01-01

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque for disposal of hazardous chemicals from the years 1962 to 1985. During routine sampling in the spring of 1990, low levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in groundwater samples from a water table aquifer approximately 146 meters below ground surface. Therefore, a RCRA Site Investigation (RSI) has been initiated and remediation of organic contaminants will be performed at the CWL prior to closure of this landfill. The RSI is focused on optimal characterization of the volatile organic contamination (VOC) and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination at this site. This will be possible through application of innovative strategies for characterization and promising new technologies which are discussed in this paper. The first part of this paper provides a discussion of conceptual models of VOC and DNAPL transport at the CWL and an overview of our investigative strategy. Each stage of the RSI has been developed to gather information which will reduce the uncertainty in the design of each subsequent phase of the investigation. Three stages are described; a source characterization stage, unsaturated zone characterization stage, and a saturated zone characterization stage. An important focus of the unsaturated zone characterization phase is to provide all data necessary to make decisions concerning the necessity of additional saturated zone characterization. The second part of this paper presents a brief discussion of some innovative approaches to characterization and remediation that are being applied at the CWL. Through the. SNL Environmental Restoration Program's desire to find new and improved methods for site characterization and remediation, several innovative technologies have been identified. These technologies include: the surface towed arrays developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in locating buried ordinance, core drilling using sonic

  6. Preliminary characterization of propellants based on p(GA/BAMO) and pAMMO binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Ugo; Polacco, Giovanni [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pisa (Italy); Keicher, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany); Massimi, Roberto [AVIO S.p.A., Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In previous papers, the synthesis and characterization of OH-terminated glycidyl azide-r-(3,3-bis(azidomethyl)oxetane) copolymers (GA/BAMO) and poly-3-azidomethyl-3-methyl oxetane (pAMMO) by azidation of their respective polymeric substrates were described. The main objective was the preparation of amorphous azido-polymers, as substitutes of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in new formulations of energetic propellants. Here, the subsequent characterization of both the binders is presented. First of all, several isocyanates were checked in order to optimize the curing reaction, and then two small-scale formulations of a propellant, based on aluminium and ammonium perchlorate, were prepared and characterized. Finally, the mechanical properties and burning rate were compared to those of a similar propellant based on HTPB as binder. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UO x and PuO x consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  8. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of various bentonite and smectite-rich clay materials Part A: Comparison and development of mineralogical characterization methods Part B: Mineralogical and chemical characterization of clay materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L.

    2010-06-01

    Mineralogy is an essential issue in understanding thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behavior of bentonite materials. Mineralogy affects, among others, chemical composition of pore water, susceptibility for erosion, and transport of radionuclides. Consequently, mineralogy affects the designs of the buffer and backfill components. The objective of this work was to implement and develop mineralogical and chemical methods for characterization of reference clays considered for use as buffer and backfill materials in nuclear waste disposal. In this work, different methods were tested, compared, developed, and best available techniques selected. An additional aim was to characterize reference materials that are used in various nuclear waste disposal supporting studies, e.g., the SKB's alternative buffer material (ABM) experiment. Materials studied included three Wyoming-bentonites, two bentonites from Milos, four bentonites from Kutch district, and two Friedland clays. Minerals were identified using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and polarizing microscopy. Mineralogical composition was estimated using Rietveld-analysis. Chemical methods were used to support and validate mineralogical interpretation. Total chemical composition was determined from decomposed samples using spectrometry (ICP-AES) and combustion (Leco-S, Leco-C). Ferric and ferrous iron species were distinguished titrimetrically and the amount of soluble sulphate was determined using ion chromatography. In addition, cation exchange capacity and original exchangeable cations were determined. Chemical composition of fine (<2 μ m) fractions and poorly crystalline Fe-, Al- and Si-phases determined by selective extractions were used in structural calculations of smectite. XRD is a basic method for all mineralogical characterization, but it is insensitive for detecting trace minerals and variations in the structural chemical composition of clay minerals. Polarizing

  9. Microstructural, chemical and textural characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Pérez-García, S.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Unidad Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto TiO{sub 2} covered borosilicate glass substrates. Deposition parameters were optimized and kept constant. Solely the effect of different nozzle velocities on the growth of ZnO nanorods was evaluated in order to develop a dense and uniform structure. The crystalline structure was characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction in grazing incidence and Bragg–Brentano configurations. In addition, two-dimensional grazing incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction was employed to determine the preferred growth direction of the nanorods. Morphology and growth characteristics analyzed by electron microscopy were correlated with diffraction outcomes. Chemical composition was established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO{sub 2} phases. Morphological changes noticed when the deposition velocity was lowered to the minimum, indicated the formation of relatively vertically oriented nanorods evenly distributed onto the TiO{sub 2} buffer film. By coupling two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and computational modeling with ANAELU it was proved that a successful texture determination was achieved and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Texture analysis led to the conclusion of a preferred growth direction in [001] having a distribution width Ω = 20° ± 2°. - Highlights: • Uniform and pure single-crystal ZnO nanorods were obtained by AACVD technique. • Longitudinal and transversal axis parallel to the [001] and [110] directions, respectively. • Texture was determined by 2D synchrotron diffraction and electron microscopy analysis. • Nanorods have its [001] direction distributed close to the normal of the substrate. • Angular spread about the preferred orientation is 20° ± 2°.

  10. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-110: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-110 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  11. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BX-102: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-BX-102 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  12. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-103: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Stout, R.E.; Winward, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-U-103 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  13. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BY-101: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-BY-101 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  14. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-SX-112: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.; Winward, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-SX-112 was performed, and a best-basis, inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  15. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-116: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-116 was performed, and a bost-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  16. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TY-101: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TY-101 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  17. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-SX-107: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.; Jones, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-SX-107 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  18. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BX-111: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-BX-111 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  19. A literature-based preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1990-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitudes of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management system. The study, which was completed prior to passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system envisioned by the DOE in the 1985 ''Mission Plant for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program.'' As such, there may be statements in this paper that are not consistent with current DOE positions. The scope of this paper includes the repository, the integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and the transportation system that supports the repository and the MRS facility. Based on the results of this analysis, it is concluded that the radiological risks in the waste management system are small relative to nonradiological risks and relative to the risks of exposure to natural background radiation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Census of the Local Universe (CLU) Hα Galaxy Survey: Characterization of Galaxy Catalogs from Preliminary Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Kasliwal, Mansi; Van Sistine, Anglea; Kaplan, David; iPTF

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I introduce the Census of the Local Universe (CLU) galaxy survey. The survey uses 4 wavelength-adjacent, narrowband filters to search for emission-line (Hα) sources across ~3π (26,470 deg2) of the sky and out to distance of 200 Mpc. I will present an analysis of galaxy candidates in 14 preliminary fields (out of 3626) to assess the limits of the survey and the potential for finding new galaxies in the local Universe. We anticipate finding tens-of-thousands of new galaxies in the full ~3π survey. In addition, I present some interesting galaxies found in these fields, which include: newly discovered blue compact dwarfs (e.g., blueberries), 1 new green pea, 1 new QSO, and a known planetary nebula. The majority of the CLU galaxies show properties similar to normal star-forming galaxies; however, the newly discovered blueberries tend to have high star formation rates for their given stellar mass.

  1. Preliminary structural characterization of human SOUL, a haem-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Filipe; Romão, Maria João; Macedo, Anjos L.; Aveiro, Susana S.; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Carvalho, Ana Luísa

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the overexpression, purification and crystallization of human SOUL protein (hSOUL). hSOUL is a 23 kDa haem-binding protein that was first identified as the PP23 protein isolated from human full-term placenta. Human SOUL (hSOUL) is a 23 kDa haem-binding protein that was first identified as the PP 23 protein isolated from human full-term placentas. Here, the overexpression, purification and crystallization of hSOUL are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P6 4 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145, c = 60 Å and one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.5 Å resolution at the ESRF. A preliminary model of the three-dimensional structure of hSOUL was obtained by molecular replacement using the structures of murine p22HBP, obtained by solution NMR, as search models

  2. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs

  3. Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex trademark-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples

  4. A soft wearable robot for the shoulder: Design, characterization, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran T; Phipps, Nathan S; Cappello, Leonardo; Paganoni, Sabrina; Walsh, Conor J

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a soft wearable robot for the shoulder which has the potential to assist individuals suffering from a range of neuromuscular conditions affecting the shoulder to perform activities of daily living. This wearable robot combines two types of soft textile pneumatic actuators which were custom developed for this particular application to support the upper arm through shoulder abduction and horizontal flexion/extension. The advantage of a textile-based approach is that the robot can be lightweight, low-profile, comfortable and non-restrictive to the wearer, and easy to don like an item of clothing. The actuator's ability to fold flat when not in use allows the robot to be almost invisible under clothing, potentially allowing the user to avoid any stigma associated with using assistive devices in public. To abduct the arm, a textilebased pneumatic actuator was developed to fit within the axilla to push the arm upwards, while a pair of smaller actuators pivot the abduction actuator to allow for horizontal extension and flexion. The individual textile actuators were experimentally evaluated before being integrated into a wearable garment. Human subject testing was performed to evaluate the ability of the robot to assist the arm by monitoring changes in biological muscle activity when comparing the robot powered on and off. Preliminary results show large reductions in muscular effort in targeted muscles, demonstrating the feasibility and promise of such a soft wearable robot for the shoulder.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Chemical Plugs Based on Selected Hanford Waste Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Gunderson, Katie M.; Baum, Steven R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of preparation and characterization of chemical plugs based on selected Hanford Site waste simulants. Included are the results of chemical plug bench testing conducted in support of the M1/M6 Flow Loop Chemical Plugging/Unplugging Test (TP-RPP-WTP-495 Rev A). These results support the proposed plug simulants for the chemical plugging/ unplugging tests. Based on the available simulant data, a set of simulants was identified that would likely result in chemical plugs. The three types of chemical plugs that were generated and tested in this task consisted of: 1. Aluminum hydroxide (NAH), 2. Sodium aluminosilicate (NAS), and 3. Sodium aluminum phosphate (NAP). While both solvents, namely 2 molar (2 M) nitric acid (HNO3) and 2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 60 C, used in these tests were effective in dissolving the chemical plugs, the 2 M nitric acid was significantly more effective in dissolving the NAH and NAS plugs. The caustic was only slightly more effecting at dissolving the NAP plug. In the bench-scale dissolution tests, hot (60 C) 2 M nitric acid was the most effective solvent in that it completely dissolved both NAH and NAS chemical plugs much faster (1.5 - 2 x) than 2 M sodium hydroxide. So unless there are operational benefits for the use of caustic verses nitric acid, 2 M nitric acid heated to 60 C should be the solvent of choice for dissolving these chemical plugs. Flow-loop testing was planned to identify a combination of parameters such as pressure, flush solution, composition, and temperature that would effectively dissolve and flush each type of chemical plug from preformed chemical plugs in 3-inch-diameter and 4-feet-long pipe sections. However, based on a review of the results of the bench-top tests and technical discussions, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Research and Technology (R and T), Engineering and Mechanical Systems (EMS), and Operations concluded that flow-loop testing of the chemically plugged pipe sections

  6. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Silica Spheres before and after Modification by Silanization for Trypsin Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, silica particles of a variety of sizes and shapes have been characterized and chemically modified for several applications, from chromatographic separation to dental supplies. The present study proposes the use of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS silanized silica particles to immobilize the proteolytic enzyme trypsin for the development of a bioreactor. The major advantage of the process is that it enables the polypeptides hydrolysis interruption simply by removing the silica particles from the reaction bottle. Silanized silica surfaces showed significant morphological changes at micro- and nanoscale level. Chemical characterization showed changes in elemental composition, chemical environment, and thermal degradation. Their application as supports for trypsin immobilization showed high immobilization efficiency at reduced immobilization times, combined with more acidic conditions. Indirect immobilization quantification by reversed-phase ultrafast high performance liquid chromatography proved to be a suitable approach due to its high linearity and sensitivity. Immobilized trypsin activities on nonmodified and silanized silica showed promising features (e.g., selective hydrolysis for applications in proteins/peptides primary structure elucidation for proteomics. Silanized silica system produced some preferential targeting peptides, probably due to the hydrophobicity of the nanoenvironment conditioned by silanization.

  7. Preliminary characterization of submicron secondary aerosol in the amazon forest - ATTO station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Saturno, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles are investigated in the Amazon in the context of the GoAmazon Project. The forest naturally emits a large number of gaseous compounds; they are called the volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They are emitted through processes that are not totally understood. Part of those gaseous compounds are converted into aerosol particles, which affect the biogeochemical cycles, the radiation balance, the mechanisms involving cloud formation and evolution, among few other important effects. In this study the aerosol life-cycle is investigated at the ATTO station, which is located about 150 km northeast of Manaus, with emphasis on the natural organic component and its impacts in the ecosystem. To achieve these objectives physical and chemical aerosol properties have been investigated, such as the chemical composition with aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), nanoparticle size distribution (using the SMPS - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer), optical properties with measurements of scattering and absorption (using nephelometers and aethalometers). Those instruments have been operating continuously since February 2014 together with trace gases (O3, CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx) analyzers and additional meteorological instruments. On average PM1 (the sum of black carbon, organic and inorganic ions) totalized 1.0±0.3 μg m-3, where the organic fraction was dominant (75%). During the beginning of the dry season (July/August) the organic aerosol presented a moderate oxygenated character with the oxygen to carbon ratio (O:C) of 0.7. In the wet season some episodes containing significant amount of chloride and backward wind trajectories suggest aerosol contribution from the Atlantic Ocean. A more comprehensive analysis will include an investigation of the different oxidized fractions of the organic aerosol and optical properties.

  8. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 2: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In an effort to support remedial investigations of abandoned septic tanks by US DOE, this report contains the results of chemical analyses of the contents of these abandoned tanks. Analytical data are presented for the following: volatile/TCLP volatile organics; semivolatile/TCLP semivolatile organics; PCB organics; total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total metals. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. The 20 sites investigated are located on the Nevada Test Site

  9. Characterization and photo-chemical applications of nano-ZnO prepared by wet chemical and thermal decomposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.A.; Bayoumy, W.A.A.; Khairy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-ZnO particles were synthesized by soft-wet precipitation and dry methods. • ZnO nanoparticle with different morphologies was obtained. • Nano ZnO samples showed a high photocatalytic activity. • ZnO nanoparticle showed strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature. • The samples showed high biological activity depending on their synthetic method. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline ZnO particles were synthesized using two different routes: soft-wet and dry methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the particles structures and morphologies, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for verifying the particles crystal structure. The thermal stabilities of the particles were examined through thermal gravimetric analysis technique and their surface areas were calculated using BET method. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities were evaluated using UV–vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) characterization. The results showed that all the prepared ZnO samples possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure with high purity. Different particle sizes and morphologies of spheres, rods and wires were obtained depending on the preparation method used. Particle sizes obtained by the dry method are smaller than that found by the wet chemical method. The effects of both particle size and morphology on each of surface as well as optical properties, photocatalytic activity, dye/ZnO solar cell efficiency and biological activity have been studied and discussed

  10. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and other recommendations are suggested. The ICPP recovered fissionable uranium from spent nuclear fuel rods and disposed of waste fluids by release to the regional aquifer and lithosphere. Environmental impacts were assessed by a monitoring well network. The conceptual model identifies multiple, highly variable, interacting, and transient components, including INEL facilities multiple operations and liquid waste handling, systems; the anisotropic, in homogeneous aquifer; the network of monitoring and production wells, and the intermittent flow of the Big Lost River. Pre anthropogenic natural conditions and early records of anthropogenic activities were sparsely or unreliably documented making reconstruction of natural conditions or early hydrologic impacts impossible or very broad characterizations

  11. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO 2 PuO 2-x , and Pu 4 O 7 phases, of about 1μm or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 μm to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of functionalized polypropylenic fibers for prosthetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Magnacca, Giuliana; D'Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Piacenza, Giacomo; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna

    2012-08-01

    Polypropylene (PP) fibers can be manufactured to form nets which can find application as prosthesis in hernioplasty. One of the most important problem to deal with when nets are applied in vivo consists in the reproduction of bacteria within the net fibers intersections. This occurs right after the application of the prosthesis, and causes infections, thus it is fundamental to remove bacteria in the very early stage of the nets application. This paper deals with the physico-chemical characterization of such nets, pre-treated by atmospheric pressure plasma dielectric barrier discharge apparatus (APP-DBD) and functionalized with an antibiotic drug such as chitosan. The physico-chemical characterization of sterilized nets, before and after the functionalization with chitosan, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, drop shape analysis (DSA), X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). The aim of the work is to individuate a good strategy to characterize this kind of materials, to understand the effects of polypropylene pre-treatment on functionalization efficiency, to follow the materials ageing in order to study the effects of the surface treatment for in vivo applications.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of functionalized polypropylenic fibers for prosthetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Magnacca, Giuliana; D’Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Piacenza, Giacomo; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) fibers can be manufactured to form nets which can find application as prosthesis in hernioplasty. One of the most important problem to deal with when nets are applied in vivo consists in the reproduction of bacteria within the net fibers intersections. This occurs right after the application of the prosthesis, and causes infections, thus it is fundamental to remove bacteria in the very early stage of the nets application. This paper deals with the physico-chemical characterization of such nets, pre-treated by atmospheric pressure plasma dielectric barrier discharge apparatus (APP-DBD) and functionalized with an antibiotic drug such as chitosan. The physico-chemical characterization of sterilized nets, before and after the functionalization with chitosan, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, drop shape analysis (DSA), X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). The aim of the work is to individuate a good strategy to characterize this kind of materials, to understand the effects of polypropylene pre-treatment on functionalization efficiency, to follow the materials ageing in order to study the effects of the surface treatment for in vivo applications.

  14. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-B-105: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the at sign various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for singlb-shell tank 241-B-105 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  15. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-SX-111: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.; Winward, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort,.an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-SX-111 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task

  16. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  17. Characterization of unifocal liver lesions with pulse inversion harmonic imaging after Levovist injection: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotto, M.; Dalla Palma, L.; Quaia, E.; Locatelli, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate capabilities of pulse inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) in characterization of unifocal liver lesions. We evaluated with PIHI (HDI5000, ATL, Bothell, Wash.) and spiral CT 46 consecutive patients with a single liver lesion identified by fundamental US [7 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 2 cholangiocarcinomas, 7 focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH), 17 hemangiomas and 13 metastases]. The PIHI was performed before and 30 s, 2 and 4 min after bolus administration of Levovist (2.5 g, 300 mg/ml). Scans were digitally stored and reviewed using a dedicated software. Hepatocellular carcinoma was hyperechoic on 30-s scan, and hypoechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 2-min scan. Cholangiocarcinoma had inhomogeneous persistent enhancement. Focal nodular hyperplasia was hyperechoic (n = 5) or isoechoic (n = 2) on 30-s scan, hyperechoic (n = 4), isoechoic (n = 2) or slightly hypoechoic (n = 1) on 2-min scan. Large hemangioma revealed peripheral enhancement on 30-s scan which extended centripetally on 2-min scan. Small hemangioma appeared isoechoic on 2-min scan in all but two cases in which they were hypoechoic on 2-min scans and hyperechoic on 4-min scan. Metastasis was hypoechoic on all scans, 70 % with rim enhancement. Similar changes in enhancement pattern have been observed at spiral CT. The 30-s and the 2-min scans revealed a conclusive importance in characterization of HCC, cholangiocarcinoma, and large hemangioma. The 2-min scan often furnished enough information for characterization of small hemangioma and metastasis. The 4-min scan allowed characterization of two hemangiomas which appeared hypoechoic on 2-min scans. In the other cases it did not provide further information. Diagnosis of FNH is usually reached with Colour Doppler US; PIHI should be used when colour Doppler is biased by artefacts or when colour Doppler findings are not characteristic. Our results seem to show that PIHI could be a valuable alternative diagnostic

  18. The use of neutron activation analysis for particle size fractionation and chemical characterization of trace elements in urban air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, E.; Bergamaschi, G.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of more than 25 trace elements have been determined in total air particulate matter and in the size segregated fractions from the urban area of Pavia (North Italy). The PM10 fraction was also collected and analyzed. A study of the solubility in water and in physiological solution of the trace elements contained in the PM10 was also carried out. The resulting solutions were further submitted to column chromatography using Chelex 100 to perform a preliminary chemical characterization. INAA was used as the main analytical technique. ET-AAS was used for all Pb and Cd measurements and, in some cases, for the analysis of V, Mn, Cu and Ni. (author)

  19. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  20. Chemical characterization of some soils from four counties that produce Flue-cured tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities or counties of Campoalegre and Garzón (State of Huila and Capitanejo and Enciso (State of Santander show different chemical soil characteristics when their origin is taken into account, based on their edaphogenetic environments. For the characterization of the soils from these counties, samples from 65 farms were arranged, based on the database of farmers associated with the Protabaco Company. With the soil samples taken, chemical and texture analyses were performed, codifying the results in order to analyze them, keeping in mind the ideal parameters for the tobacco crop. In the counties of Huila, the texture, pH and organic matter were found to have ideal levels, in contrast to the phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride levels which were unsuitable, but the calcium content showed levels between suitable and good. In Santander, the pH, organic matter, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur and chloride were at unsuitable levels, in contrast, the contrary occurred with the texture and potassium which were at normal levels. It is recommended, due to the difference among the chemical parameters, that a fertilization program be handled differently for the zones of Santander and Huila, bearing in mind that the chemical parameters were found to be more limited in Santander than in Huila

  1. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  2. Characterization of the chemical composition of Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze and Adenostemma platyphyllum Cass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzan, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Hartanto, R.; Pujiasmanto, B.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the chemical compounds of Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze (Al) and Adenostemma platyphyllum Cass (Ap) using Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and proximate analysis. Two species of Adenostemma samples (roots, stem and leaves) about 1 mg was pyrolyzed directly at the optimum temperature of 600°C. Py-GCMS was relatively fast, easy to use and without samples preparation and identification of the chemical compounds was carried out by comparison of the mass spectra obtained with those stored in Wiley 7th libraries. The data of proximate analysis were statistically analysed using Friedman test followed and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for data of Py-GCMS. The result of proximate analysis showed that A. lavenia (L.) Kuntze (Al) and A. platyphyllum Cass (Ap) contained 8.27% (Al) and 9.18% (Ap) of water, 11.52% (Al) and 17.84% (Ap) of protein, 5.67% (Al) and 6.33% (Ap) of fat, and 17.32% (Al) and 19.94 (Ap) of ash. Amines, aldehydes, fatty acids, terpenoids-steroids, alkaloids, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenolic, and oligopeptides as part of 125 chemical compounds of each species are identified by Py-GCMS analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis of pyrolysis products indicate not similitary of major chemical compounds of two Adenostemma species.

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  4. Room temperature synthesis and characterization of CdO nanowires by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawale, D.S.; More, A.M.; Latthe, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    A chemical synthesis process for the fabrication of CdO nanowires is described. In the present work, transparent and conductive CdO films were synthesized on the glass substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature. These films were annealed in air at 623 K and characterized for the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical and electrical resistivity. The XRD analysis showed that the as-deposited amorphous can be converted in to polycrystalline after annealing. Annealed CdO nanowires are 60-65 nm in diameter and length ranges typically from 2.5 to 3 μm. The optical properties revealed the presence of direct and indirect band gaps with energies 2.42 and 2.04 eV, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurement showed semiconducting behavior and thermoemf measurement showed n-type electrical conductivity

  5. Molecular characterization of kerogens by mild selective chemical degradation - ruthenium tetroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, R.J.; Standen, G.; Eglinton, G. (University of Bristol, Bristol (UK). Organic Geochemistry Unit)

    1991-06-01

    Molecular characterization of two kerogen isolates (Messel and Kimmeridge Clay), two kerogen-rich shales (green River and Maoming) and a coal, (Loy Yang) was undertaken using selective chemical degradation with ruthenium tetroxide (RuO{sub 4}). The RuO{sub 4} oxidation gave extracts which were soluble in dichloromethane and contained series of straight chain monocarboxylic acids, {alpha},{omega}-dicarboxylic acids, branched mono- and dicarboxylic acids, isoprenoid and cyclic acids. Straight chain carboxylic acids were predominant (65-87% of quantified chromatogram components for the range of sedimentary organic matter studied), reflecting the major content of polymethylene chains in these kerogens. This mild, oxidative technique serves to differentiate kerogens at a molecular level, thereby supplementing existing conventional chemical, pyrolytic, n.m.r. and other techniques. 39 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  7. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  8. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  9. Cathode characterization system: preliminary results with (Ba,Sr,Ca) O coated cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Barroso, J.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Spassovsky, I.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a cathode characterization system for studying the emission parameters of thermal electron emitters is reported. The system consists of vacuum chamber, power supplies and equipment for measuring and control. Measurements have been taken of the emission current as function of cathode temperature and anode voltage. Several (Ba, Sr) O coated cathodes were tested and the results have shown good agreement with Child's and Richardson's laws. The experimental work function is between 1.0 and 2.0 e V. All emission parameters measured are consistent with international literature data. (author)

  10. Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence

  11. Fluvial sediments characterization of Hornád river in its chosen parts (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Hanigovská

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of main river sedimentary characteristics is very important source of information for next study or potentialcommercial usage of fluvial sediments. In paper is shown characterization of sediment distribution in chosen part of the river Hornád.Three main facial types were studied and described – gravel, sand and clay. Model created in this study shows that Hornád is a riverwith predominant gravel transport. This model also shows a sufficient amount of gravel for commercial use in some parts of the river.

  12. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI). Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites) and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial abundance validated the

  13. Study and structural and chemical characterization of human dental smalt by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belio R, I.A.; Reyes G, J.

    1998-01-01

    The study of human dental smalt has been subject to investigation for this methods with electron microscopy, electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and image simulation programs have been used with the purpose to determine its chemical and structural characteristics of the organic and inorganic materials. This work has been held mainly for the characterization of hydroxyapatite (Ca) 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH 4 ) 2 , inorganic material which conforms the dental smalt in 97%, so observing its structural unity which is composed by the prisms and these by crystals and atoms. It was subsequently initiated the study of the organic material, with is precursor of itself. (Author)

  14. Chemical characterization of the gels produced by the diazotrophic bacteria Rhizobium tropici and Mesorhizobium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Nilson Kobori; Aranda-Selverio, Gabriel; Exposti, Diego Tadeu Degli; Silva, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Campanharo, Joao Carlos; Silveira, Joana Lea Meira

    2012-01-01

    The exopolysaccharides with characteristics of gel produced by Rhizobium tropici (EPSRT) and Mesorhizobium sp (EPSMR) are acidic heteropolysaccharide composed mainly of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 4:1 and 5:1 respectively, with traces of mannose (∼ 1%). Chemical analysis showed the presence of uronic acid, pyruvate and acetyl-substituents in the structures of both polymers. Experiments of gel permeation chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that EPSRT and EPSMR are homogeneous molecules with low grade of polydispersity. The EPS were characterized using spectroscopic techniques of FT-IR, 1 H and 13 C-NMR. (author)

  15. Chemical characterization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of two extracts from Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Gaiten, Yamilet Irene; Miranda Martinez, Migdalia; Bello Alarcon, Adonis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was the chemical characterization of two extracts from Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. To this end, maceration with N-hexane and ethyl acetate was used to obtain the respective extracts. The study of the hexane extract identified 17 components in which hydrocarbonate structures prevailed, mainly cyclooctacosane. In the ethyl acetate extract, 19 compounds were detected, being the terpenoids the predominant, although the most abundant was sterol g-sitosterol. For the first time, the identified compounds are reported for this species

  16. Characterization of Cr2O3 thin films obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, M.F.; Galego, E.; Serna, M.M.; Correa, O.V.; Ramanathan, L.V.; Franco, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work was the synthesis and characterization of Cr 2 O 3 thin films, obtained by chemical vapor deposition, using chromium acetylacetonate as chromium precursor. The growth of the films was carried out in a conventional horizontal MOCVD equipment, under pressures varying from 2 to 10 mbar, and temperature of 600 deg C. It was observed that the growth of the films only occurs when oxygen is present in the atmosphere. Under growth pressures of 2 and 5 mbar the growth takes place but under 10 mbar of pressure the precursor is dragged and the growth does not occur. The characterization of the films was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The films presented a columnar structure, and thickness varying from 40 to 250 nm. The influence of some process parameters is discussed. (author)

  17. Cement for oil well developed from ordinary cement: characterization physical, chemical and mineralogical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D.N.S.; Neves, G. de A.; Chaves, A.C.; Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Lima, M.S. de; Bezerra, U.T.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to characterize a new type of cement produced from the mixture of ordinary Portland cement, which can be used as an option in the cementing of oil wells. To enable this work we used the method of lineal programming for the new cement composition, then conducted tests to characterize through particle size analysis by laser diffraction, chemical analysis by EDX, TGA, X-ray diffraction, time grip, resistance to compression. The overall result showed that the new cement had made low-C3A, takes more time to the CPP, thermal stability up to 500 ° C, the kinetics of hydration and low levels of major components consistent with the specifications of ABNT. (author)

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133.

  19. A preliminary characterization of the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Ambos, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Isohyetal maps of precipitation and numerical models for simulating precipitation are needed to help characterize natural infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A geostatistical analysis of measured precipitation accumulated from storm periods. Precipitation was measured during a 3.8 year period from January 1990 to October, 1993 using a network of precipitation gages. A total of 34 winter-type storms and 12 summer-type storm, categorized using synoptic weather records, were analyzed using the 1st and 2nd statistical moments and sample variograms. Average standardized variograms indicated good spatial correlation for both storm types with only slight differences in the general spatial structure. Coefficients of variation and average relative variograms indicated that summer storms are characterized by greater variability as compared to winter storms. Models were fitted to the average summer and winter standarized variograms for each storm using the mean storm depth and the coefficient of variation as scaling parameters. Isohyetal maps of 4 representative storms were created using the standarized models. Results indicate that standarized models can be used to simulate the spatial distribution of precipitation depth, provided that the 1st and 2nd moments are known or can be estimated, and that identifiable deterministic trends can be included in the models. A single, fixed model representing the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain is not recommended

  20. A chemical approach to accurately characterize the coverage rate of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Min; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Genxi

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in many areas, and the nanoparticles usually have to be functionalized with some molecules before use. However, the information about the characterization of the functionalization of the nanoparticles is still limited or unclear, which has greatly restricted the better functionalization and application of AuNPs. Here, we propose a chemical way to accurately characterize the functionalization of AuNPs. Unlike the traditional physical methods, this method, which is based on the catalytic property of AuNPs, may give accurate coverage rate and some derivative information about the functionalization of the nanoparticles with different kinds of molecules. The performance of the characterization has been approved by adopting three independent molecules to functionalize AuNPs, including both covalent and non-covalent functionalization. Some interesting results are thereby obtained, and some are the first time to be revealed. The method may also be further developed as a useful tool for the characterization of a solid surface

  1. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A chemical approach to accurately characterize the coverage rate of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Min; Zhang, Huihui [Shanghai University, Laboratory of Biosensing Technology, School of Life Sciences (China); Wang, Haiyan [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry (China); Li, Genxi, E-mail: genxili@nju.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Laboratory of Biosensing Technology, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in many areas, and the nanoparticles usually have to be functionalized with some molecules before use. However, the information about the characterization of the functionalization of the nanoparticles is still limited or unclear, which has greatly restricted the better functionalization and application of AuNPs. Here, we propose a chemical way to accurately characterize the functionalization of AuNPs. Unlike the traditional physical methods, this method, which is based on the catalytic property of AuNPs, may give accurate coverage rate and some derivative information about the functionalization of the nanoparticles with different kinds of molecules. The performance of the characterization has been approved by adopting three independent molecules to functionalize AuNPs, including both covalent and non-covalent functionalization. Some interesting results are thereby obtained, and some are the first time to be revealed. The method may also be further developed as a useful tool for the characterization of a solid surface.

  3. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or levitated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap

  4. Preliminary investigations of the chemical speciation of plutonium in natural waters of the northeastern and southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, J. J.; Wahlgren, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Rowland, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary investigation indicated that the concentration of fallout /sup 240/Pu in lake water from the northeast differs from that in the southeast or from snowmelt and that the submicron size distribution and charge distributions appear different for the various water samples.

  5. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  6. Preliminary characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Cheng, W.C.; Bryant, C.; Chocas, C.S.; Reynolds, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The geochemical properties of a porous sand and several tracers (Ni, Br, and Li) have been characterized for use in a caisson experiment designed to validate sorption models used in models of inactive transport. The surfaces of the sand grains have been examined by a combination of techniques including potentiometric titration, acid leaching, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The surface studies indicate the presence of small amounts of carbonate, kaolinite and iron-oxyhydroxides. Adsorption of nickel, lithium and bromide by the sand was measured using batch techniques. Bromide was not sorbed by the sand. A linear (K d ) or an isotherm sorption model may adequately describe transport of Li; however, a model describing the changes of pH and the concentrations of other solution species as a function of time and position within the caisson and the concomitant effects on Ni sorption may be required for accurate predictions of nickel transport

  7. Preliminary Characterization of Organic Geochemistry in the Fly-Strickland River System, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, S. R.; Aalto, R.; Remington, S. M.; Richey, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    Strickland rivers, with Amazon. C/N ratios for fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) are higher in the Fly (13.0-24.1) than in the Strickland (9.5-14.4), suggesting a greater contribution of N-poor, terrestrial organics to the Fly River. FPOM δ 13C values in the Fly are more depleted (-31.1--30.3‰ ) than in the Strickland River (-29.6--28.4‰ ). We intend to estimate the total biogeochemical fluxes associated with these reported concentrations. Collectively, these preliminary data on carbon cycling in the Fly and Strickland rivers suggest that this fluvial dispersal system outgases a substantial volume of CO2 each year relative to its area, much like the Amazon River. However, in contrast to the Amazon, where the majority of the sediment from the Andes is trapped in sub-aerial, intra-cratonal basins, most fluviatile sediment is advected beyond the Fly River mouth. Therefore, due to the higher organic content of the fine suspended sediment in this river system, it seems probable that a relatively greater export and burial flux of organic carbon may occur within the delta and shelf deposits of the Gulf of Papua.

  8. Coastal California's Fog as a Unique Habitable Niche: Design for Autonomous Sampling and Preliminary Aerobiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Cynthia Ouandji; Arismendi, Dillon; Guarro, Marcello; Demachkie, Isabella; Crosbie, Ewan; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alex B.; Wang, Zhen; Sorooshian, Armin; hide

    2017-01-01

    , then with sterile DI water, between sampling regions. Collected volumes ranged from 100 L to 12 mL. All samples were diluted serially and plated on two different types of agar, nutrient-dense (PCA) and sparse (R-2A). Plates were incubated at room temperature and counted when colonies first appeared and again at 2 weeks.Preliminary results from seven flights are consistent with generally reported colony-forming unit (CFU) values for terrestrial fog water (e.g., [4]). The PCA assay ranged from 400 to 125,000 CFU/mL, R-2A from 700 to 130,000 CFU/mL. PCA and R-2A counts were not significantly different from each other at I^ plus or minus +/- 0.05, although observationally, the R2A plates had more pigmented colonies. CFU counts from the majority of flights were not different from each other in mean at the same level of significance, but about half differed in median, indicating differences in underlying distribution. These results validate the presence of viable microorganisms in coastal California fog at levels that should be easily detectable by our sampling system. The indicated distribution differences underscore the need for small-scale, long-term sampling surveys. Future planned work includes ion chromatography for limiting nutrients, ATP quantification, and qPCR for several microbial classes of interest.

  9. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of silicon manganese iron slag as railway ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ralph Werner Heringer; Barreto, Rairane Aparecida, E-mail: ralph@em.ufop.br, E-mail: rairanebarreto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto@unicerp.edu.br [Centro Universitário do Cerrado Patrocínio (UNICERP), Patrocínio, MG (Brazil); Sousa, Fabiano Carvalho, E-mail: fabiano.carvalho.sousa@vale.com [Vale, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In nature, metal ores such as iron, lead, aluminum and others are found in an impure state, sometimes oxidized and mixed with silicates of other metals. During casting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. The mass formed by these compounds is slag. Slag is the co-product of the smelting of ore to purify metals. It may be considered a mixture of metal oxides, but may also contain metal sulphites and metal atoms in their elemental form. After it is reprocessed to separate the metals contained, the co-products of this process can be used in cement, rail ballast, road paving and various other purposes. The objective of this research work is the presentation of the chemical and mineralogical characterization tests of the silicon-manganese iron slag with the purpose of reusing the coproduct as rail ballast. X-ray diffraction tests, quantitative chemical analyzes, scanning electron microscopy and free lime content were prepared for these characterizations. The results of these tests showed the technical feasibility of using slag as rail ballast. (author)

  11. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of silicon manganese iron slag as railway ballast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ralph Werner Heringer; Barreto, Rairane Aparecida; Fernandes, Gilberto; Sousa, Fabiano Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    In nature, metal ores such as iron, lead, aluminum and others are found in an impure state, sometimes oxidized and mixed with silicates of other metals. During casting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. The mass formed by these compounds is slag. Slag is the co-product of the smelting of ore to purify metals. It may be considered a mixture of metal oxides, but may also contain metal sulphites and metal atoms in their elemental form. After it is reprocessed to separate the metals contained, the co-products of this process can be used in cement, rail ballast, road paving and various other purposes. The objective of this research work is the presentation of the chemical and mineralogical characterization tests of the silicon-manganese iron slag with the purpose of reusing the coproduct as rail ballast. X-ray diffraction tests, quantitative chemical analyzes, scanning electron microscopy and free lime content were prepared for these characterizations. The results of these tests showed the technical feasibility of using slag as rail ballast. (author)

  12. X-ray methods for the chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1981-05-01

    The development and use of several x-ray methods for the chemical characterization of atmospherical aerosol particulate samples are described. These methods are based on the emission, absorption, and scattering of x-ray photons with emphasis on the optimization for the non-destructive analysis of dilute specimens. Techniques discussed include photon induced energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and high-rate x-ray powder diffractometry using a position-sensitive gas proportional counter. These x-ray analysis methods were applied to the measurement of the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosol particulate samples obtained with dichotomous samplers. The advantages of the various methods for use in such measurements are described and results are presented. In many cases, the complementary nature of the analytical information obtained from the various measurements is an important factor in the characterization of the sample. For example, the multiple elemental analyses obtained from x-ray fluorescence can be used as a cross check on the major compounds observed by powder diffraction

  13. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joselena M; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica ("mandaguari") in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high contents of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as high antioxidant activity. The constituents characterized were mainly flavonols, such as quercetin methyl ethers, and methoxychalcones. Such chemical profile is similar to the composition of a green propolis from the same area of RN, which is produced by Africanized Apis mellifera , using shoot apices of Mimosa tenuiflora , popularly known as "jurema-preta." This finding provides evidence that "mandaguari" geopropolis and honeybee propolis have the same botanical origin in RN. The sharing of a plant resin source by phylogenetically distant bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) suggests that bee genetic factors play little role in the choice of plants for resin collection and that the availability of potential botanical sources plays a decisive role.

  14. Characterization of sildenafil citrate tablets of different sources by near infrared chemical imaging and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Guilherme P; Lozano, Valeria A; Rocha, Werickson F C; Romão, Wanderson; Ortiz, Rafael S; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-11-01

    The chemical imaging technique by near infrared spectroscopy was applied for characterization of formulations in tablets of sildenafil citrate of six different sources. Five formulations were provided by Brazilian Federal Police and correspond to several trademarks of prohibited marketing and one was an authentic sample of Viagra. In a first step of the study, multivariate curve resolution was properly chosen for the estimation of the distribution map of concentration of the active ingredient in tablets of different sources, where the chemical composition of all excipients constituents was not truly known. In such cases, it is very difficult to establish an appropriate calibration technique, so that only the information of sildenafil is considered independently of the excipients. This determination was possible only by reaching the second-order advantage, where the analyte quantification can be performed in the presence of unknown interferences. In a second step, the normalized histograms of images from active ingredient were grouped according to their similarities by hierarchical cluster analysis. Finally it was possible to recognize the patterns of distribution maps of concentration of sildenafil citrate, distinguishing the true formulation of Viagra. This concept can be used to improve the knowledge of industrial products and processes, as well as, for characterization of counterfeit drugs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nutritional profiling of Eurasian woodcock meat: chemical composition and myoglobin characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Ragucci, Sara; Di Giuseppe, Antonella Ma; Russo, Rosita; Poerio, Elia; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2018-04-10

    Meat from birds is a rich source of proteins for the human diet. In this framework, Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.), a medium-small wading bird hunted as game in many Eurasian countries, is considered one of the best meats for culinary purposes. Since the nutritional composition of Eurasian woodcock meat has not yet been reported, we decided to determine the nutritional profile of S. rusticola meat. Macronutrient components (proteins, lipids and fatty acids) were determined, as well as free and total amino acids, and compared with those of the common pheasant. Eurasian woodcock meat contains high levels of proteins and essential amino acids. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids represent a great contribution to the total lipid amount. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) is the major essential fatty acid. Finally, we report the characterization of myoglobin (Mb) from Eurasian woodcock. The data revealed that meat from this bird could be a good source of quality raw proteins because of its amino acid composition, and it had a low lipid content. On the other hand, Mb characterization might be of benefit to the meat industry, by providing useful information for the determination of species-specific differences in meat from birds. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. E-waste: development of recycling process and chemical characterization of circuit printed - motherboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, O.L.F.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Martinelli, J.R.; Seo, E.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The electro-electronic industry has been regulated by the National Politic of Solid Residues Act (PNRS) and Bill no. 7.404, concerning the actions, procedures, and method to collect, recycle and promotion of environmentally acceptable final destination of residues. The present work contributes to develop recycling process of printed circuit used in microcomputers and in its chemical characterization. The experimental procedure consisted of grinding, classification, magnetic and electrostatic separation, and separation based on density difference, followed by chemical characterization of the metallic and non metallic materials in the motherboard. It was determined that the amounts of Ag, Al, Ba, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the residue are above the toxicity allowable levels, and they are in the samples of the decanted material. Among the samples of the floating material, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb (in less quantity), Si (in more quantity), and Sn, Ti and Zn were detected. Those materials can be useful in the preparation of red ceramics. (author)

  17. Nanostructured PLD-grown gadolinia doped ceria: Chemical and structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Heiroth, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The morphology as well as the spatially resolved elemental and chemical characterization of 10 mol% gadolinia doped ceria (CGO10) structures prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique are investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy accompanied with electron energy loss spec......, indicate apparent variation of the ceria valence state across and along the film. No element segregation to the grain boundaries is detected. These results are discussed in the context of solid oxide fuel cell applications.......The morphology as well as the spatially resolved elemental and chemical characterization of 10 mol% gadolinia doped ceria (CGO10) structures prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique are investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy accompanied with electron energy loss...... spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A dense, columnar and structurally inhomogeneous CGO10 film, i.e. exhibiting grain size refinement across the film thickness, is obtained in the deposition process. The cerium M4,5 edges, used to monitor the local electronic structure of the grains...

  18. Characterization of Fractures in the Chicxulub Peak Ring: Preliminary Results from IODP/ICDP Expedition 364

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, N.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.; Hall, B. J.; Jones, L.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    During Expedition 364, IODP/ICDP drilled the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater at Site M0077, recovering core from 505.7 to 1334.7 mbsf. The core has been imaged via X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) as a noninvasive method to create a 3-dimensional model of the core, providing information on the density and internal structure at a 0.3 mm resolution. Results from the expedition show that from 748 mbsf and deeper the peak ring is largely composed of uplifted and fractured granitic basement rocks originally sourced from approximately 8-10 km depth. Impact crater modeling suggests the peak ring was formed through dynamic collapse of a rebounding central peak within 10 minutes of impact, requiring the target rocks to temporarily behave as a viscous fluid. The newly recovered core provides a rare opportunity to investigate the cratering process, specifically how the granite was weakened, as well as the extent of the hydrothermal system created after the impact. Based on the CT data, we identify four classes of fractures based on their CT facies deforming the granitoids: pervasive fine fractures, discrete fine fractures, discrete filled fractures, and discrete open fractures. Pervasive fine fractures were most commonly found proximal to dikes and impact melt rock. Discrete filled fractures often displayed a cataclastic texture. We present density trends for the different facies and compare these to petrophysical properties (density, NGR, P-wave seismic velocity). Fractured areas have a lower density than the surrounding granite, as do most filled fractures. This reduction suggests that fluid migrating through the peak ring in the wake of the impact either deposited lower density minerals within the fractures and/or altered the original fracture fill. The extent and duration of fluid flow recorded in these fractures will assist in the characterization of the post-impact hydrothermal system. Future work includes combining information from CT images with thin sections

  19. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including three replicates at the central point, varying the NaOH aqueous solution concentration and fruit immersion time. The mass loss was evaluated through the analysis of variance and using bi and three dimensional graphs. The chemical characteristics of the external mesocarp pequi flour evaluated were: moisture content, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and some minerals. The best combination for an efficient removal of the fruit peel with the lowest mass loss was reached with 7.05 minutes of immersion in a 5.08 g.L-1 NaOH aqueous solution. This study indicated that the external mesocarp pequi flour is a food source rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, ashes, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and copper, but it is poor in lipids, zinc, and iron.

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  1. Advances in Chemical and Structural Characterization of Concretion with Implications for Modeling Marine Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald L.; DeAngelis, Robert J.; Medlin, Dana J.; Carr, James D.; Conlin, David L.

    2014-05-01

    The Weins number model and concretion equivalent corrosion rate methodology were developed as potential minimum-impact, cost-effective techniques to determine corrosion damage on submerged steel structures. To apply the full potential of these technologies, a detailed chemical and structural characterization of the concretion (hard biofouling) that transforms into iron bearing minerals is required. The fractions of existing compounds and the quantitative chemistries are difficult to determine from x-ray diffraction. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to present chemical compositions by means of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). EDS demonstrates the chemical data in mapping format or in point or selected area chemistries. Selected-area EDS data collection at precise locations is presented in terms of atomic percent. The mechanism of formation and distribution of the iron-bearing mineral species at specific locations will be presented. Based on water retention measurements, porosity in terms of void volume varies from 15 v/o to 30 v/o (vol.%). The void path displayed by scanning electron microscopy imaging illustrates the tortuous path by which oxygen migrates in the water phase within the concretion from seaside to metalside.

  2. MR imaging and MR spectroscopy for characterization of cardiomyopathies in adolescents - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.; Buchner, S.; Fuchs, J.; Machann, W.; Ritter, C.O.; Beissert, M.; Darge, K.; Hahn, D.; Koestler, H.; Wirbelauer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiomyopathy is a rare but life-threatening disease in children and adolescents. Recent studies reported morphological, functional or metabolic alterations of the heart. We discuss a combined MR imaging and 31 P MR spectroscopy (MRS) protocol allowing the analysis of interdependencies between these parameters. Since normal values of cardiac MR parameters in this age group are not available, we included studies of age-matched healthy adolescents. Materials and Methods: 2D-CINE was used to assess left ventricular (LV) parameters. Additional 3D-Chemical Shift Imaging (3D-CSI) and Spectral Localization with Optimal Pointspread Function (SLOOP) reconstruction allowed quantification of the cardiac energy metabolism. Patients (n = 4; all male; age 16.8 ± 2.9 years) were included on the basis of an echocardiographic diagnosis of possible cardiomyopathy. The same protocol was applied to healthy young volunteers (n = 4; 1 female, 3 male; age 15.5 ± 0.6 years). Results: The patients had a significantly higher LV mass index compared to the control group (147 ± 41 g/m2 versus 97 ± 16 g/m2; p = 0.04). The other LV parameters (including LV EF with 59 ± 22 % versus 67 ± 10 %) showed no significant differences. The phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio (PCr/ATP-ratio) of the patients was reduced to 1.71 ± 0.40 versus 2.44 ± 0.30 (p = 0.01), combined with a tendency towards decreased PCr concentrations of 9.1 ± 2.5 versus 7.9 ± 1.0 mmol/kg. Conclusion: The combination of 31 P MR spectroscopy and MR imaging allows quantitative determination of morphologic, functional and metabolic alterations in adolescents with suspected cardiomyopathy in one examination procedure. The reduction of energy metabolism combined with unaltered global function may indicate a primary role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies in adolescents. (orig.)

  3. Forensic analysis methodology for thermal and chemical characterization of homemade explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of homemade explosives (HME) is critical for determining the origin of explosive precursor materials. • A novel laser-heating technique was used to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of HME precursor materials. • Liquid-fuel saturation of the pores of a solid porous oxidizer affected the total specific heat release. • Material thermal signatures were dependent on sample mass and heating rate. • This laser-heating technique can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermochemical behavior of HMEs. - Abstract: Forensic identification of homemade explosives is critical for determining the origin of the explosive materials and precursors, and formulation procedures. Normally, the forensic examination of the pre- and post-blast physical evidence lacks specificity for homemade-explosive identification. The focus of this investigation was to use a novel measurement technique, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor, to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of homemade-explosive precursor materials. Specifically, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate were studied under a variety of operating conditions and protocols. Results indicated that liquid-fuel saturation of the internal pores of a solid particle oxidizer appear to be a limiting parameter for the total specific heat release during exothermic processes. Results also indicated that the thermal signatures of these materials are dependent on sample mass and heating rate, for which this dependency may not be detectable by other commercially available thermal analysis techniques. This study has demonstrated that the laser-driven thermal reactor can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermal and chemical behavior of trace amounts of homemade-explosive materials

  4. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Preliminary characterization of a single photon counting detection system for CT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Carpentieri, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Delogu, P.; Panetta, D.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of a single photon counting acquisition system based on the Medipix2 read-out chip for Computed Tomography (CT) applications in Small Animal Imaging. We used a micro-focus X-ray source with a W anode. The detection system is based on the Medipix2 read-out chip, bump-bonded to a 1 mm thick silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip geometry is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55 μmx55 μm each. This system in planar radiography shows a good detection efficiency (about 70%) at the anode voltage of 30 kV and a good spatial resolution (MTF=10% at 16.8 lp/mm). Starting from these planar performances we have characterized the system for the tomography applications with phantoms. We will present the results obtained as a function of magnification with two different background medium compositions. The effect of the reconstruction algorithm on image quality will be also discussed

  6. Preliminary Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian Stingless Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Souza Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.

  7. Preliminary characterization of mitochondrial genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Manuella Souza; Rodovalho, Vinícius de Rezende; Bonetti, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Guilherme Corrêa; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S) and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.

  8. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine......The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... in equidistant angles on a circle with a radius of about one rotor diameter. The data were analyzed in segments of 2.2 s which is the time for one rotor revolution. The spectra for the TE microphones on the suction side of the blade show a characteristic roll-off pattern around a frequency of 600-700 Hz...

  9. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L. FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA CAUIA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.

  10. Preliminary characterization of ceramics from the Lago Grande archaeological site in the central Amazon by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic characteristics of archaeological ceramics, such as the surface decoration and shape, are used as cultural and chronological indicators of ancient people. The combination of stylistic-typological studies with archaeometric analysis, as provenance studies, has been considered of great importance in Archaeology. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the pre-colonial Amazonian occupations. Inside this context, fifty ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande archaeological site were analyzed by INAA in order to characterize its elemental composition. The results were treated with multivariate statistics: Cluster, Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis. The results obtained by these three methods were compared in an effort to achieve some correlation with the archaeological context. It was stated the existence of two different groups of artifacts. They probably regard to the main ceramic phases found in the site excavation: Paredao and Manacapuru. Once confirmed by other archaeological analyses, these results could corroborate an exchange net among the former inhabitants of Lago Grande and other sites in the neighborhood. (author)

  11. Preparation and preliminary characterization of crystallizing fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John P.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp 101 using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp 101 lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and EDANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His 15, located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp 101-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His 15 have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of a Radiological Biomarker to Characterize the Longitudinal Evolution of Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Hernando, M.; Macias, P.; Abella, M.; Desco, M.; Sharpe, S.; Vaquero, J.J.; Muñoz-Barrutia, M.

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the world's second-deadliest disease, due to a single infectious agent. The population that has developed multidrug resistance is increasingly important boosting the interest to run assays of novel multi-antibiotic combinations. Drug assays of new chemotherapies for treating TB require following subjects to assess response at several time points. Radiological examination of the subjects is a promising technique for that task. In this context, the main objective of the present work is twofold: 1) To evaluate the performance of a tool, dedicated to the automatic segmentation of TB infected lungs in chest Computed Tomography (CT) scans; 2) To present a method to automatically compute an imaging biomarker capable to characterize the disease longitudinal evolution. The selected biomarker is based on the intensity differences between the healthy and sick lung parenchyma in chest CT scans. Our results demonstrated a good similarity between the automatically segmented lungs and those delineated using a semi-automatic tool that relays on manual corrections. Furthermore, regarding the automatic extraction of the imaging biomarker, results showed a good inter-method agreement and concordance with respect to those obtained using a visually defined set of thresholds. (Author)

  13. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  14. Integration of optical and chemical parameters to improve the particulate matter characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Romano, S.; Genga, A.; Paladini, F.

    2018-06-01

    Integrating nephelometer measurements have been combined with co-located in space and time PM10 and PM1 mass concentration measurements to highlight the benefits of integrating aerosol optical properties with the chemical speciation of PM1 and PM10 samples. Inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Ti, Cu, V, Mn, and Cr), and the elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively) have been monitored to characterize the chemical composition of PM1 and PM10 samples, respectively. The scattering coefficient (σp) at 450 nm, the scattering Ångström coefficient (Å) calculated at the 450-635 nm wavelength pair, and the scattering Ångström coefficient difference (ΔÅ) retrieved from nephelometer measurements have been used to characterize the optical properties of the particles at the surface. The frequency distribution of the Å daily means during the one-year monitoring campaign, performed at a southeastern Italian site, has allowed identifying three main Å variability ranges: Å ≤ 0.8, 0.8 1.2. We found that σp and ΔÅ mean values and the mean chemical composition of the PM1 and PM10 samples varied with the Å variability range. σp and ΔÅ reached the highest (149 Mm-1) and the smallest (0.16) mean value, respectively, on the days characterized by Å > 1.2. EC, SO42-, and NH4+ mean mass percentages also reached the highest mean value on the Å > 1.2 days, representing on average 8.4, 9.8, and 4.2%, respectively, of the sampled PM10 mass and 12.4, 10.6, and 7.7%, respectively, of the PM1 mass. Conversely, σp and ΔÅ mean values were equal to 85 Mm-1 and 0.55, respectively, on the days characterized by Å ≤ 0.8 and the EC, SO42-, and NH4+ mean mass percentages reached smaller values on the Å ≤ 0.8 days, representing 4.5, 6.0, and 1.9% of the PM10 mass and 9.4, 7.3, and 5.8% of the PM1 mass, respectively. Primary and secondary OC (POC and SOC, respectively) contributions also varied with the

  15. In situ chemical characterization of waste sludges using FTIR-based fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Jeppson, D.W.; Lockrem, L.L.; Blewett, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    The characterization of unknown mixed wastes is a mandatory step in today's climate of strict environmental regulations. Cleaning up the nuclear and chemical wastes that have accumulated for 50 years at the Hanford Site is the largest single cleanup task in the United States today. The wastes are stored temporarily in carbon steel single- and double-shell tanks that are buried in tank farms at the Site. In the 1950s, a process to scavenge radioactive cesium and other soluble radionuclides in the wastes was developed to create additional tank space for waste storage. This scavenging process involved treatment of the wastes with alkali cyanoferrates and nickel sulfate to precipitate 137 Cs in the presence of nitrate oxidant. Recent safety issues have focused on the stability of cyanoferrate-bearing wastes with large quantities of nitrates and nitrites. Nitrate has been partially converted to nitrite as a result of radiolysis during more than 35 years of storage. The major safety issue is the possibility of the presence of local hot spots enriched in 137 Cs and 90 Sr that under optimum conditions can self-heat causing dry out and a potential runaway reaction of the cyanoferrates with the nitrates/nitrites). For waste tank safety, accurate data of the concentration and distribution of cyanoferrates in the tanks are needed. Because of the extensive sampling required and the highly restricted activities allowed in the tank farms, simulated tank wastes are used to provide an initial basis for identifying and quantifying realistic concerns prior to waste remediation. Fiber optics provide a tool for the remote and in situ characterization of hazardous and toxic materials. This study is focused on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) fiber optic sensors for in situ chemical characterization of Hanford Site waste sludges

  16. Biochemical analysis and the preliminary crystallographic characterization of D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Zhu, Zhangliang; Wang, Jian-Wen; Li, Songtao; Guo, Qianqian; Xu, Panpan; Lu, Fuping; Qin, Hui-Min

    2017-11-09

    D-Tagatose 3-epimerase epimerizes D-fructose to yield D-psicose, which is a rare sugar that exists in small quantities in nature and is difficult to synthesize chemically. We aim to explore potential industrial biocatalysts for commercial-scale manufacture of this rare sugar. A D-tagatose 3-epimerase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RsDTE) has recently been identified as a D-tagatose 3-epimerase that can epimerize D-fructose to yield D-psicose with a high conversion rate. The purified RsDTE by Ni-affinity chromatography, ionic exchange chromatography and gel filtration forms a tetramer in solution. The maximal activity was in Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.5, and the optimal temperature was at 35 °C. The product, D-psicose, was confirmed using HPLC and NMR. Crystals of RsDTE were obtained using crystal kits and further refined under crystallization conditions such as 10% PEG 8000,0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, and 8% ethylene glycol at 20 °C using the sitting-drop vapor diffusion method. The RsDTE homology model showed that it possessed the characteristic TIM-barrel fold. Four residues, Glu156, Asp189, Gln215 and Glu250, forms a hydrogen bond network with the active Mn(II) for the hydride transfer reaction. These residues may constitute the catalytic tetrad of RsDTE. The residues around O1, O2 and O3 of the substrates were conserved. However, the binding-site residues are different at O4, O5 and O6. Arg118 formed the unique hydrogen bond with O4 of D-fructose which indicates RsDTE's preference of D-fructose more than any other family enzymes. RsDTE possesses a different metal-binding site. Arg118, forming unique hydrogen bond with O4 of D-fructose, regulates the substrate recognition. The research on D-tagatose 3-epimerase or D-psicose 3-epimerase enzymes attracts enormous commercial interest and would be widely used for rare sugar production in the future.

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a haemagglutinin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Divya N.; Suresh, C. G.; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2011-01-01

    A novel haemagglutinin from Jatropha curcas seeds is purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and the crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K. The plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is an important source of biofuel from the inedible oil present in its toxic seeds. The toxicity arises from the presence of curcin, a ribosome-inactivating protein showing haemagglutination activity. In this communication, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization are reported of a small protein isolated from J. curcas seeds with a molecular mass of ∼10 kDa that agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and also by the microbatch method in 72-well HLA plates, using PEG 8000 as the precipitant in both conditions. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K

  18. Preliminary characterization of wild lactic acid bacteria and their abilities to produce flavour compounds in ripened model cheese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; De Luca, S; Todaro, A; Restuccia, C; Lanza, C M; Spagna, G; Caggia, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to preliminary characterize wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated during artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheese-making for technological and flavour formation abilities in a model cheese system. Twelve LAB were studied for the ability to grow at 10 and 45 degrees C, to coagulate and acidify both reconstituted skim milk and ewe's milk. Moreover, the capacity of the strains to generate aroma compounds was evaluated in a model cheese system at 30- and 60-day ripening. Flavour compounds were screened by sensory analysis and throughout gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Most of the strains were able to grow both at 10 and 45 degrees C and exhibited high ability to acidify and coagulate ewes' milk. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wild strains produced more significant flavour attributes than commercial strains in the 60-day-old model cheese system. GC-MS data confirmed the results of sensory evaluations and showed the ability of wild lactobacilli to generate key volatile compounds. Particularly, three wild lactobacilli strains, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum species, generated both in 60- and 30-day-old model cheeses system, the 3-methyl butan(al)(ol) compound, which is associated with fruity taste. The present work preliminarily demonstrated that the technological and flavour formation abilities of the wild strains are strain-specific and that wild lactobacilli, which produced key flavour compounds during ripening, could be used as tailor-made starters. This study reports the technological characterization and flavour formation ability of wild LAB strains isolated from artisanal Pecorino cheese and highlights that the catabolic activities were highly strain dependent. Hence, wild lactobacilli could be selected as tailor-made starter cultures for the PS cheese manufacture.

  19. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  20. AS30D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Tumorigenicity and Preliminary Characterization by Imaging, Histopathology, and Immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M. [Mayo Clinic, Medical Scientist Training Program (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Knudsen, Bruce [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Anderson, Jill L. [Mayo Clinic, Division of Physiology and Bioengineering (United States); Butters, Kim A.; Grande, Joseph P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Roberts, Lewis R. [Mayo Clinic, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (United States); Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    This study was designed to determine the tumorigenicity of the AS30D HCC cell line following orthotopic injection into rat liver and preliminarily characterize the tumor model by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) as well as histopathology and immunohistochemistry.MaterialsAS30D cell line in vitro proliferation was assessed by using MTT assay. Female rats (N = 5) underwent injection of the AS30D cell line into one site in the liver. Rats subsequently underwent MR imaging at days 7 and 14 to assess tumor establishment and volume. One rat underwent US of the liver at day 7. Rats were euthanized at day 7 or 14 and livers were subjected to gross, histopathologic (H and E), and immunohistochemical (CD31) analysis to assess for tumor growth and neovascularization. AS30D cell line demonstrated an in vitro doubling time of 33.2 {+-} 5.3 h. MR imaging demonstrated hyperintense T2-weighted and hypointense T1-weighted lesions with tumor induction in five of five and three of three sites at days 7 and 14, respectively. The mean (SD) tumor volume was 126.1 {+-} 36.2 mm{sup 3} at day 7 (N = 5). US of the liver demonstrated a well-circumscribed, hypoechoic mass and comparison of tumor dimensions agreed well with MRI. Analysis of H and E- and CD31-stained sections demonstrated moderate-high grade epithelial tumors with minimal tumor necrosis and evidence of diffuse intratumoral and peritumoral neovascularization by day 7. AS30D HCC cell line is tumorigenic following orthotopic injection into rat liver and can be used to generate an early vascularizing, slower-growing rat HCC tumor model.

  1. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  2. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.P.; Rajapaksha, W.R.A.K.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  3. AS30D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Tumorigenicity and Preliminary Characterization by Imaging, Histopathology, and Immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Knudsen, Bruce; Anderson, Jill L.; Butters, Kim A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Woodrum, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the tumorigenicity of the AS30D HCC cell line following orthotopic injection into rat liver and preliminarily characterize the tumor model by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) as well as histopathology and immunohistochemistry.MaterialsAS30D cell line in vitro proliferation was assessed by using MTT assay. Female rats (N = 5) underwent injection of the AS30D cell line into one site in the liver. Rats subsequently underwent MR imaging at days 7 and 14 to assess tumor establishment and volume. One rat underwent US of the liver at day 7. Rats were euthanized at day 7 or 14 and livers were subjected to gross, histopathologic (H and E), and immunohistochemical (CD31) analysis to assess for tumor growth and neovascularization. AS30D cell line demonstrated an in vitro doubling time of 33.2 ± 5.3 h. MR imaging demonstrated hyperintense T2-weighted and hypointense T1-weighted lesions with tumor induction in five of five and three of three sites at days 7 and 14, respectively. The mean (SD) tumor volume was 126.1 ± 36.2 mm 3 at day 7 (N = 5). US of the liver demonstrated a well-circumscribed, hypoechoic mass and comparison of tumor dimensions agreed well with MRI. Analysis of H and E- and CD31-stained sections demonstrated moderate-high grade epithelial tumors with minimal tumor necrosis and evidence of diffuse intratumoral and peritumoral neovascularization by day 7. AS30D HCC cell line is tumorigenic following orthotopic injection into rat liver and can be used to generate an early vascularizing, slower-growing rat HCC tumor model.

  4. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of urban municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, B P; Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Sitharam, T G; Sivapullaiah, P V; Ramachandra, T V

    2017-01-01

    Unscientific management and ad-hoc approaches in municipal solid waste management have led to a generation of voluminous leachate in urban conglomerates. Quantification, quality assessment, following treatment and management of leachate has become a serious problem worldwide. In this context, the present study investigates the physico-chemical and biological characterization of landfill leachate and nearby water sources and attempts to identify relationships between the key parameters together with understanding the various processes for chemical transformations. The analysis shows an intermediate leachate age (5-10 years) with higher nutrient levels of 10,000-12,000 mg/l and ∼2000-3000 mg/l of carbon (COD) and nitrogen (TKN) respectively. Elemental analysis and underlying mechanisms reveal chemical precipitation and co-precipitation as the vital processes in leachate pond systems resulting in accumulation of trace metals. Based on the above criteria the samples were clustered into major groups that showed a clear distinction between leachate and water bodies. The microbial analysis showed bacterial communities correlating with specific factors relevant to redox environments indicating a gradient in nature and abundance of biotic diversity with a change in leachate environment. Finally, the quality and the contamination potential of the samples were evaluated with the help of leachate pollution index (LPI) and water quality index (WQI) analysis. The study helps in understanding the contamination potential of landfill leachate and establishes linkages between microbial communities and physico-chemical parameters for effective management of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical, physical and isotopic characterization of U3Si2, for nuclear forensics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Daniele Scarpim

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the first illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials was observed mainly in Europe. A decade marked by numerous cases of seizures of these materials. As a result, these events have become the subject of criminal forensic investigations and develop from there, nuclear forensics. In Brazil there are no illicit trafficking official records of nuclear material, however, is widely known the extraction and illegal transportation of radioactive geological materials, and the materials pieces attachment used as shielding for radioactive sources. One of the main tools used in nuclear forensics is the nuclear materials databases establishment. These documents must contain the most information as possible about the physical, chemical and nuclear material seized, allowing the identification of their origin, manufacturing process or age. Thus, it sets characteristic composition standards of each material, called 'chemical signatures' (chemical finger print). In this work nuclear forensic protocol was adopted as well as the three stages of assessment suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in identifying the origin of uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ). Assays were performed in order to make physical, chemical and isotopic characterization of the studied materials and compared the data with those obtained for other uranium compounds (Uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 ; uranium oxide, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 ; Yellow cake) by establishing a characteristic signature for each one. Through the assays the uranium compounds were classify by origin groups, as far as they are from different manufactured process and/ or origin. It was also possible to show the importance of a nuclear forensic database during an investigation of a nuclear forensic event. (author)

  6. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  7. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  8. Nanoscale fabrication and characterization of chemically modified silicon surfaces using conductive atomic force microscopy in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Christopher Reagan

    This dissertation examines the modification and characterization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in organic liquids. Conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) lithography is used to fabricate structures with sub-100 nm line width on H:Si(111) in n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanes. Nanopatterning is accomplished by applying a positive (n-alkanes and 1-alkenes) or a negative (1-alkanes) voltage pulse to the silicon substrate with the cAFM tip connected to ground. The chemical and kinetic behavior of the patterned features is characterized using AFM, lateral force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS), and chemical etching. Features patterned in hexadecane, 1-octadecene, and undecylenic acid methyl ester exhibited chemical and kinetic behavior consistent with AFM field induced oxidation. The oxide features are formed due to capillary condensation of a water meniscus at the AFM tip-sample junction. A space-charge limited growth model is proposed to explain the observed growth kinetics. Surface modifications produced in the presence of neat 1-dodecyne and 1-octadecyne exhibited a reduced lateral force compared to the background H:Si(111) substrate and were resistant to a hydrofluoric acid etch, characteristics which indicate that the patterned features are not due to field induced oxidation and which are consistent with the presence of the methyl-terminated 1-alkyne bound directly to the silicon surface through silicon-carbon bonds. In addition to the cAFM patterned surfaces, full monolayers of undecylenic acid methyl ester (SAM-1) and undec-10-enoic acid 2-bromoethyl ester (SAM-2) were grown on H:Si(111) substrates using ultraviolet light. The structure and chemistry of the monolayers were characterized using AFM, TOF SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing waves (XSW), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These combined analyses provide evidence that SAM-1 and SAM-2 form dense monolayers

  9. Detailed characterization and preliminary adsorption model for materials for an intermediate-scale reactive-transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment involving migration of fluid and tracers (Li, Br, Ni) through a 6-m-high x 3-m-dia caisson Wedron 510 sand, is being carried out for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sand's surface chemistry of the sand was studied and a preliminary surface-complexation model of Ni adsorption formulated for transport calculations. XPS and leaching suggest that surface of the quartz sand is partially covered by thin layers of Fe-oxyhydroxide and Ca-Mg carbonate and by flakes of kaolinite. Ni adsorption by the sand is strongly pH-dependent, showing no adsorption at pH 5 and near-total adsorption at pH 7. Location of adsorption edge is independent of ionic strength and dissolved Ni concentration; it is shifted to slightly lower pH with higher pCO2 and to slightly higher pH by competition with Li. Diminished adsorption at alkiline pH with higher pCO2 implies formation of dissolved Ni-carbonato complexes. Ni adsorption edges for goethite and quartz, two components of the sand were also measured. Ni adsorption on pure quartz is only moderately pH-dependent and differs in shape and location from that of the sand, whereas Ni adsorption by goethite is strongly pH-dependent. A triple-layer surface-complexation model developed for goethite provides a good fit to the Ni-adsorption curve of the sand. Based on this model, the apparent surface area of the Fe-oxyhydroxide coating is estimated to be 560 m 2 /g, compatible with its occurrence as amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxide. Potentiometric titrations on sand also differ from pure quartz and suggest that effective surface area of sand may be much greater than that measured by N 2 -BET gas adsorption. Attempts to model the adsorption of bulk sand in terms of properties of pure end member components suggest that much of the sand surface is inert. Although the exact Ni adsorption mechanisms remain ambiguous, this preliminary adsorption model provides an initial set of parameters that can be used in transport calculations

  10. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  11. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or leviated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap. Laser desorption has previously been demonstrated in ion trap devices by applying the sample to a probe which is inserted so as to place the sample at the surface of the ring electrode. Our technique requires the placement of a microparticle in the center of the trap. Our initial experiments have been performed on falling microparticles rather than levitated particles to eliminate voltage switching requirements when changing from particle to ion trapping modes

  12. Long-term Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in the Amazon Forest - ATTO Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Holanda, B. A.; Cirino, G. G.; Saturno, J.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The study of the chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Amazon forest represents a step forward to understand the strong coupling between the atmosphere and the forest. For this reason submicron aerosol particles were investigated in the Amazon forest, where biogenic and anthropogenic aerosol particles coexist at the different seasons (wet/dry). The measurements were performed at the ATTO station, which is located about 150 km northeast of Manaus. At ATTO station the Aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne) and the Multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP, Thermo 5012) have been operated continuously from March 2014 to July 2015. In this study, long-term measurements (near-real-time, ~30 minutes) of PM1 chemical composition were investigated for the first time in this environment.The wet season presented lower concentrations than the dry season (~5 times). In terms of chemical composition, both seasons were dominated by organics (75 and 63%) followed by sulfate (11 and 13%). Nitrate presented different ratio values between the mass-to-charges 30 to 46 (main nitrate fragments) suggesting the presence of nitrate as inorganic and organic nitrate during both seasons. The results indicated that about 75% of the nitrate signal was from organic nitrate during the dry season. In addition, several episodes with elevated amount of chloride, likely in the form of sea-salt from the Atlantic Ocean, were observed during the wet season. During those episodes, chloride comprised up to 7% of the PM1. During the dry season, chloride was also observed; however, with different volatility, which suggested that Chloride was present in different form and source. Moreover, the constant presence of sulfate and BC during the wet season might be related to biomass burning emissions from Africa. BC concentration was 2.5 times higher during the dry season. Further characterization of the organic fraction was accomplished with the positive matrix factorization (PMF), which

  13. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATEMÓIA FRUIT IN DIFFERENT MATURATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Vanúbia Queiroz de Medeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In sight of scarcity of references and information on the atemóia, this work considered to evaluate some chemical and physical analyses in intention to characterize two maturation stages. The used fruits in the experiment had been gotten in the Agropólo Mossoró-Assú, in the state of the Great River of the North. For this, the following analyses had been carried through: length and diameter of the fruit, total firmness of the pulp, soluble solids, pH, titulável total acidity and vitamin level C total. Differences between stadiums of maturation with degradation of the cellular components and the reserves of the fruits had been observed, thus reducing the firmness of the pulp and liberating simple sugars, respectively. It occurred increment in the acidity and consequence decrease in the value of pH. The vitamin C level didn't suffer significant alterations between such stages.

  14. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  15. Metal oxide nanostructures: preparation, characterization and functional applications as chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Dario; Bertuna, Angela; Comini, Elisabetta; Kaur, Navpreet; Poli, Nicola; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of different metal oxide (NiO, WO 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) nanostructures for chemical sensing are presented. p-Type (NiO) and n-type (WO 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO and Nb 2 O 5 ) metal oxide nanostructures were grown on alumina substrates using evaporation-condensation, thermal oxidation and hydrothermal techniques. Surface morphologies and crystal structures were investigated through scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide have been explored. Moreover, metal oxide nanowires have been integrated into an electronic nose and successfully applied to discriminate between drinking and contaminated water.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted chemical reduction synthesis and structural characterization of copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh-Nga, Nguyen T.; Tuan-Anh, Nguyen; Thanh-Quoc, Nguyen; Ha, Do Tuong

    2018-04-01

    Copper nanoparticles, due to their special properties, small dimensions and low-cost preparation, have many potential applications such as in optical, electronics, catalysis, sensors, antibacterial agents. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method with different conditions in order to investigate the optimum conditions which gave the smallest (particle diameter) dimensions. The synthesis step used copper (II) acetate salt as precursor, ascorbic acid as reducing agent, glycerin and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as protector and stabilizer. The assistance of ultrasonic was were considered as the significant factor affecting the size of the synthesized particles. The results showed that the copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the diameter as small as 20-40 nm and the conditions of ultrasonic waves were 48 kHz of frequency, 20 minutes of treated time and 65-70 °C of temperature. The synthesized copper nanoparticles were characterized by optical absorption spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization studies of activated carbon derived from Sterculia Quadrifida seed shell waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shanthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from the Sterculia Quadrifida shell by various activation process, viz., Acid process, Chloride process, Carbonate process and Sulphate process are successfully reported. It shows excellent improvement in the surface characteristics. Their physico-chemical characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, matter, soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourizing power, porosity and specific gravity have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as potential adsorbent for waste water treatment. The present study undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of a carbon adsorbent prepared from Sterculia Quadrifida seed shell waste for removal of dyes in aqueous solution.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  19. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinante, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Batista, Luciano do N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of chemically activated carbon derived from arecanut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jadhav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC was prepared from areca-nut shell (AS by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (PA. Activated carbon was prepared in three batches using phosphoric acid of 50 gm, 100 gm, and 300 gm with varying impregnation ratios by weight of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, 4:1 each. Characterization of the prepared activated carbon was done by methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, acid adsorption test (AAT, and elemental composition. Activation was carried out at 400 C. It was found that activated carbon derived from areca-nut shell shown improved results for methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, and acid adsorption test(AAT. Thermal analysis was carried out to know the weight loss and SEM was performed to know the morphology of AC.

  1. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  2. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  3. Electrical characterization of chemically modified YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.D.; Foote, M.C.; Vasquez, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Results on electrical characterization of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film surfaces treated with a Br/ethanol chemical etch are presented. Electrical measurements of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /Au/Nb device structures fabricated using polycrystalline, post-annealed YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films with Br-etched surfaces, show improvements of approximately one or two orders of magnitude in current densities and resistivities (resistance-area products) relative to unetched devices. The existence of supercurrents in these structures has been confirmed by observation of the ac Josephson effect, and by magnetic field and temperature studies of the critical currents. The Br-etch process has produced 10x10 μm 2 devices with critical current densities greater than 400 A/cm 2 and resistivities as low as 4x10 -7 Ω cm 2

  4. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of gold nanobipyramids prepared by a chemical reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Huynh, Trong Phat; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted much attention because they have potential for applications in smart sensing devices, such as medical diagnostic equippments. This is due to the fact that they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than other gold nanostructures. We describe a chemical reduction method for synthesizing NBPs using conventional heating with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylamonium bromide (CTAB) + AgNO_3 as capping agents. The product was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that gold nanoparticles were formed with bipyramid shape (tip-to-tip distance of 88.4 ± 9.4 nm and base length of 29.9 ± 3.2 nm) and face-centered-cubic crystalline structure. Optimum parameters for preparation of NBPs are also found. (paper)

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of gold nanobipyramids prepared by a chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Phat Huynh, Trong; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phuong Uyen Nguyen, Hoang; Lam, Quang Vinh; Dat Huynh, Thanh

    2015-12-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted much attention because they have potential for applications in smart sensing devices, such as medical diagnostic equippments. This is due to the fact that they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than other gold nanostructures. We describe a chemical reduction method for synthesizing NBPs using conventional heating with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylamonium bromide (CTAB) + AgNO3 as capping agents. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that gold nanoparticles were formed with bipyramid shape (tip-to-tip distance of 88.4 ± 9.4 nm and base length of 29.9 ± 3.2 nm) and face-centered-cubic crystalline structure. Optimum parameters for preparation of NBPs are also found.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of borosilicate glasses containing Hanford high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.; Palmer, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    Scouting studies are being performed to develop and evaluate silicate glass forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level wastes. Detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of these glasses is required to assess their suitability for long-term storage or disposal. Some key properties to be considered in selecting a glass waste form include leach resistance, resistance to radiation, microstructure (includes devitrification behavior or crystallinity), homogeneity, viscosity, electrical resistivity, mechanical ruggedness, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, density, softening point, annealing point, strain point, glass transformation temperature, and refractive index. Other properties that are important during processing of the glass include volatilization of glass and waste components, and corrosivity of the glass on melter components. Experimental procedures used to characterize silicate waste glass forms and typical properties of selected glass compositions containing simulated Hanford sludge and residual liquid wastes are presented. A discussion of the significance and use of each measured property is also presented

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Prepared via a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc sulfide (ZnS nanoparticles and nanocomposites powders were prepared by chemical precipitation method using zinc acetate and various sulfur sources. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infra-red. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size of ZnS nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of zinc sulfide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by X-ray diffraction results. The optical properties of particles were studied with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum.

  8. Alternative chemical-based synthesis routes and characterization of nano-scale particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocchi, E.A.; Motta, M.S.; Solorzano, I.G.; Jena, P.K.; Moura, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Different nano-scale particles have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates dehydratation and oxide, or co-formed oxides, reduction by hydrogen. Chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support the feasibility for obtaining single-phase oxides and co-formed two-phase oxides. In addition, the reduction reaction has been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic nanocomposites. Structural characterization has been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and, more extensively, transmission electron microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast mode (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM). Nano-scale size distribution of oxide particles is well demonstrated together with their defect-free structure in the lower range, around 20 nm, size. Structural features related to the synthesized nano-composites are also presented

  9. Physical and chemical characterization of titanium-alginate samples for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morani, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de; Dantas, F.M.L., E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leao, M.H.M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The sol-gel technique combined with powder metallurgy may be an alternative to produce titanium parts for bioengineering, with the advantage of eliminating the powder compaction step, which may introduce defects. The present work introduces a system consisted of titanium powder and sodium alginate suspension, which undergoes reticulation in contact with a calcium salt solution, obtaining titanium/calcium alginate hydrogel with granule morphology. The characterization of the raw materials and granules of calcium alginate and titanium/calcium alginate was performed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The granules topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/EDS. Titanium and sodium alginate chemical composition were adequate for use as raw materials, showing that the methodology used is suitable for processing titanium samples for further consolidation by sintering, in order to produce titanium parts. (author)

  10. Mineralogical and physico-chemical characterization of Mbodiene palygorskite for pharmaceutical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla Gueye, Rokhaya; Davy, Catherine A.; Cazaux, Frédéric; Ndiaye, Augustin; Diop, Mouhamadou Bassir; Skoczylas, Frédéric; Wele, Alassane

    2017-11-01

    This contribution provides a wide morphological, mineralogical, chemical and physical characterization of Mbodiene palygorskite (Senegal), to serve as a basis for the formulation of antidiarrheal and cosmetic products. Data are compared with other palygorskite deposits, either in Senegal or on other continents. Qualitative total rock XRD, semi-quantitative XRD of the clay fraction and quantitative X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) show the presence of 72%wt palygorskite (±2%wt), 13%wt montmorillonite (±2%wt), 8%wt dolomite (±2%wt), 5%wt quartz SiO2 (±2%wt) and 2%wt inter-stratified illite/smectite (±2%wt). Coupled SEM + EDX and TEM + EDX confirm the presence of fibrous palygorskite, with greater amounts of Mg than Al, and Fe substitution to Mg and Al, interspersed with dolomite cubes CaMg(CO3)2. The presence of carbonates in Mbodiene palygorskite may limit its use in the Pharmacopoeia, and make its purification necessary. A specific signature of Mbodiene palygorskite, relevant to the palygorskite family, is deduced from both FTIR and TGA analysis. In terms of physico-chemical characterization, Mbodiene palygorskite has usual values when compared to the literature (for its specific surface area, specific gravity, compressibility and Haussner indexes, CEC, loss on ignition, etc.). After grinding (down to a peak grain size of 500 nm), Mbodiene palygorskite is considered a normal clay, extremely highly plastic, with hard consistency owing to the values of its Atterberg plasticity and liquidity limits, with good flowability owing to its compressibility and Haussner indexes. Its physical characteristics are suitable for manufacturing pastes and colloidal suspensions.

  11. Chemical characterization of individual microparticles using an ion trap: real-time chemical analysis of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mo; Whitten, W.B.; Reilly, P.T.A.; Gieray, R.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes initial experiments to perform laser ablation mass spectrometry in real time on airborne microparticles. The microparticles are sampled directly from the air by a particle inlet system into the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer. An incoming particle is detected as it passes through two CW laser beams and a pulsed laser is triggered to intercept the particle for laser ablation/ionization in the mass spectrometer. The initial studies were made with an existing ion trap mass spectrometer with the particle sampling occurring at the center of the trap electrodes. Performance of the inlet system, particle detection, and preliminary results are described

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabri, Tin-Hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-09-21

    Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  14. Dosimetric characterization of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film irradiated with UV and beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is an excellent prospect for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissue-equivalence properties and being chemically inert. The use of diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price; although recently the capability of growing high quality polycrystalline has renewed the interest in using diamond films as detectors and dosimeters. In the present work we have characterized the dosimetric properties of diamond films synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition. The thermoluminescence (TL) of UV and beta exposed samples shows a glow curve composed of at least four peaks; one located around 587 K presents excellent TL properties suitable for dosimetric applications with ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The TL excitation spectrum exhibits maximum TL efficiency at 220 nm. The samples show regions of linear as well as supralinear behavior as a function or irradiation dose. The linear dose dependence was found for up to sixteen minutes of UV irradiation and 300 Gy for beta irradiated samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined and found in the range of 0.32 - 0.89 eV and 1.1x10^2 - 2x10^8s_-1, respectively. The observed TL performance is reasonable appropriate to justify further investigation of diamond films as radiation dosimeters.

  15. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Dogan, Meral; Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Rodorico; Dogan, A Umran; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2016-04-05

    Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si-O-Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Soracaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Trasferetti, B. Claudio [Present address: Superintendencia Regional da Policia Federal em Sao Paulo, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Rua Hugo d' Antola 95/10o Andar, Lapa de Baixo, 05038-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Davanzo, C.U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V{sub S}) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X{sub T}) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V{sub S} and X{sub T} are presented.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  18. Toward the antioxidant and chemical characterization of mycorrhizal mushrooms from northeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Heleno, Sandrina A; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional properties and pharmacological value as sources of important bioactive compounds. Mycorrhizal macrofungi associate with plant roots constituting a symbiotic relationship. This symbiosis could influence the production of secondary metabolites, including bioactive compounds. We focused on the evaluation of antioxidant potential and chemical composition of mycorrhizal mushrooms species from Northeast Portugal: Amanita caesarea, Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Chroogomphus fulmineus, Cortinarius anomalus, Cortinarius collinitus, Cortinarius violaceus, Lactarius quietus, Lactarius volemus, Russula sardonia, Suillus luteus, and Tricholoma ustale. A similar profile of metabolites was observed in the studied species with the order sugars > fat > ascorbic acid > phenolic compounds > tocopherols. Nevertheless, the samples revealed different compositions: prevalence of sugars in L. volemus, fat and ascorbic acid in A. muscaria, phenolic compounds in C. anomalus and tocopherols, and antioxidant activity in S. luteus. Chemical characterization of 12 mycorrhizal mushrooms was achieved. They are sources of nutraceuticals, such as sugars and fatty acids, and contain bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and phenolic acids. Edible species can be incorporated in diets as sources of antioxidants, while nonedible species can be explored as sources of bioactive metabolites. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Janaina G.M.S.; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes; Santos, Carlos Alberto dos; Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria; Cunha, Joao Batista Marimon da

    2006-01-01

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 , FeCr 2 O 4 , Ca 0.15 Fe 2.85 O 4 , MgO, Mn 3 O 4 , SiO 2 and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 , Ca 0.15 Fe 2.85 O 4 and FeCr 2 O 4 . Magnesium ferrite (MgFe 2 O 4 ), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis

  20. Online Chemical Characterization of Food-Cooking Organic Aerosols: Implications for Source Apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Bannan, Thomas; Le Breton, Michael; Mehra, Archit; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Coe, Hugh; Allan, James D

    2018-04-11

    Food-cooking organic aerosols (COA) are one of the primary sources of submicron particulate matter in urban environments. However, there are still many questions surrounding source apportionment related to instrumentation as well as semivolatile partitioning because COA evolve rapidly in the ambient air, making source apportionment more complex. Online measurements of emissions from cooking different types of food were performed in a laboratory to characterize particles and gases. Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements showed that the relative ionization efficiency for OA was higher (1.56-3.06) relative to a typical value of 1.4, concluding that AMS is over-estimating COA and suggesting that previous studies likely over-estimated COA concentrations. Food-cooking mass spectra were generated using AMS, and gas and particle food markers were identified with filter inlets for gases and aerosols-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) measurements to be used in future food cooking-source apportionment studies. However, there is a considerable variability in both gas and particle markers, and dilution plays an important role in the particle mass budget, showing the importance of using these markers with caution during receptor modeling. These findings can be used to better understand the chemical composition of COA, and they provides useful information to be used in future source-apportionment studies.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium hydroxide nano-nest by chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salunkhe, R.R.; Patil, U.M.; Gujar, T.P.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    A facile chemical route based on room temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) was developed to deposit the Cd(OH) 2 nano-nest. The growth mechanism follows two-stage crystallization with initial growth of nucleation centers, followed by subsequent anisotropic growth. The nano-nest morphological evolution of Cd(OH) 2 on different substrates has been carried out. These films have been characterized by the techniques; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical absorption, contact angle measurement and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that the as deposited film consists of cadmium hydroxide (Cd(OH) 2 ) phase. The nano-nest consisted of wires with nearly uniform in dimensions, with diameter around 30 nm and length of few microns. As-deposited Cd(OH) 2 film used in this study showed water contact angle of 66 o . The optical bandgap was found to be 3.2 eV, with n-type electrical conductivity as confirmed from thermo-emf measurements.

  2. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: analeonor.ventura.2016@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  3. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of bee venom collected in Northeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Filipa; Sampaio, Andreia; Falcão, Soraia; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Bee venom (BV) or apitoxin is a complex mixture of substances with reported biological activity. In the present work, five bee venom samples obtained from Apis mellifera iberiensis from the Northeast Portugal (two different apiaries) were chemically characterized and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. The LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) analysis of the samples showed that melittin was the most abundant compound, followed by phospholipase A2 and apamin. All the samples revealed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity but without a direct relation with any of the individual chemical components identified. The results highlight that there are specific concentrations (present in BV5) in which these compounds are more active. The BV samples showed similar cytotoxicity for all the tested tumour cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2), being MCF-7 and HeLa the most susceptible ones. Nevertheless, the studied samples seem to be suitable to treat breast, hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma because at the active concentrations, the samples were not toxic for non-tumour cells (PLP2). Regarding the non-small cell lung carcinoma, BV should be used under the toxic concentration for non-tumour cells. Overall, the present study corroborates the enormous bioactive potential of BV being the first report on samples from Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  5. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  6. Characterization of Olive Oil by Ultrasonic and Physico-chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Khechena, F. K.; Lecheb, F.; Boutkedjirt, T.

    Olive oil excels by its nutritional and medicinal benefits. It can be consumed without any treatment. However, its quality can be altered by inadequate storage conditions or if it is mixed with other kinds of oils. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of ultrasonic methods to characterize and control olive oil quality. By using of a transducer of 2.25 MHz nominal frequency, in pulse echo mode, ultrasonic parameters, such as propagation velocity and attenuation,have been measured for pure olive oil and for its mixtures with sunflower oil at different proportions. Mechanical properties, such as density and viscosity, have also been determined. The results of ultrasonic measurements are consistent with those obtained by physico-chemical methods, such as rancidity degree, acid index, UV specific extinction coefficient and viscosity. They show that the ultrasonic method allows to distinguish between mixtures at different proportions. The study allows concluding that ultrasound techniques can be considered as a useful complement to existing physico-chemical analysis techniques.

  7. Chemical characterization of diets consumed in the COSEAS restaurant, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Chioccola, Gabriella S.; Bortoli, Maritsa C.; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the results of chemical characterization of meals (lunch) offered by COSEAS/USP-SP restaurant, during 5 non consecutive days. These meals were collected in triplicate, in the same way they are offered to the users, being freeze-dried and prepared for chemical analysis. In the total, 15 samples were collected. The proximate composition was determined by using the standard methodologies according to AOAC (1995). The contents of some micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The methodology validation was performed by certified reference materials analyses: Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM 1566 b ), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). >From concentration results the daily intake of each micronutrient was calculated considering this meal as 40% of the total daily intake and the values were compared to the new dietary recommendations of micronutrients (Dietary Reference Intakes-DRIs, Institute of Medicine, USA), for the women in the life stage from 19 to 30 years. Comparing the average values found with the recommended values, it was verified that macronutrients and Fe, Se and Zn micronutrients reached the values set by new DRIs. For Ca and K the daily intake was inadequate and Na, exceeded the recommended value. (author)

  8. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  9. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Ganoderma Species from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodai, Mary; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Fernandes, Ângela; Kortei, Nii Korley; Dzomeku, Matilda; Teegarden, Matthew; Schwartz, Steven J; Barros, Lillian; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-25

    The chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of twelve wild strains of Ganoderma sp. from Ghana, nine (LS1-LS9) of which were found growing wild simultaneously on the same dying Delonix regia tree, were evaluated. Parameters evaluated included the nutritional value, composition in sugars, fatty acids, phenolic and other organic compounds and some vitamins and vitamin precursors. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by investigating reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition using five in vitro assays. Protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and energy contents ranged between 15.7-24.5 g/100 g·dw, 73.31-81.90 g/100 g, 0.48-1.40 g/100 g, 0.68-2.12 g/100 g ash and 396.1-402.02 kcal/100 g, respectively. Fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids were relatively abundant. Free sugars included rhamnose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose and trehalose. Total tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic compounds' content ranged between 741-3191 µg/100 g, 77-1003 mg/100 g and 7.6-489 µg/100 g, respectively. There were variations in the β-glucans, ergosterol and vitamin D₂ contents. The three major minerals in decreasing order were K > P > S. Ganoderma sp. strain AM1 showed the highest antioxidant activity. This study reveals, for the first time, chemical characteristics of Ganoderma spp. which grew simultaneously on the same tree.

  10. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Trasferetti, B. Claudio; Davanzo, C.U.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V S ) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X T ) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V S and X T are presented

  11. Chemical and toxicological characterization of commercial smokeless tobacco products available on the Canadian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, W S; Joza, P J; Trivedi, A H; Momin, R A; Wagstaff, W G; Lauterbach, J H

    2009-03-01

    Some health experts are recommending that smokers who refuse to quit or refuse to use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) such as nicotine-containing chewing gum switch to certain types of smokeless tobacco products (STP) such as Swedish snus. Other health experts disagree citing the uncertainty in the composition of commercially available STP, the lack of governmental regulations to ensure that STP advertised to meet certain standards (i.e., GothiaTek) do actually meet such standards, and the uncertainty that any STP can provide as safe as alternative to smoking as NRT. One reason for uncertainty is the dearth of detailed chemical and toxicological information on contemporary STP. Unlike the situation with cigarettes, there are few standardized methods for analytical and toxicological studies of STP. Consequently, the objective for this work was to characterize several types of STP available on the Canadian market using the modifications of the Official Health Canada chemical and toxicological methods developed for cigarettes. Moist snuff samples tested had TSNA and B[a]P levels somewhat above the GothiaTek standard while samples of Swedish snus, low-moisture snuff, and US-style chewing tobacco did not. Use of in vitro assays to assess STP toxicity was of limited utility in distinguishing product types.

  12. Chemical characterization and chemotaxonomy of Hypericum hirsutum L. 1753 from Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kladar Nebojša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hypericum includes over 500 widely distributed species. The main representative is St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. (1753, Hypericaceae, the only approved biological source of Hyperici herba by WHO and EMEA monographs. It is frequently used in the form of oil macerate for treatment of burns, scars, eczema and gas­trointestinal disorders, as well as in the form of water and alcoholic extracts as clinically proved antidepressant. Available data suggest that the amounts of secondary metabolites in the plant vary depending on ecological factors of the habitat, and consequently affect the quality of herbal drug. The reports show that other species of the genus have similar chemical profile as H. perforatum. But, there are also Hypericum species in which some of the secondary metabolites of interest occur in higher quantities than in H. perforatum. As previous data suggest, Hypericum hirsutum L. 1753, could be such example. Therefore, the aim of this study was to chemically characterize water-alcoholic extracts of H. hirsutum samples, collected at four localities in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia by liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD. The obtained results suggest a good match (in a term of a presence of investigated compounds of previously published results describing chemical profile of H. perforatum water-alcoholic extracts with examined H. hirsutum extracts. Also, chemotaxonomic analysis showed variations in quantity of secondary metabolites in the examined extracts. This opens the door to further investigation of H. hirsutum as a new source of bioactive secondary metabolites and additional markers in Hypericum chemotaxonomy.

  13. [Physical and chemical characterization of industrial nixtamalized corn flour for human consumption in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Turcios, J C; Reyes, L; Mérida, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was the characterization of industrial nixtamalized maize flour for human consumption and which are marketed in Central America for some selected physical and chemical properties which may contribute to food composition information and help nutrition and micronutrient fortification programs. A total of 12 brands purchased in triplicate were obtained from supermarkets in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. These samples were kept under refrigeration until analyzed. The physical parameters measured and results were the following: particle size with most samples having a high percentage of particles greater than 60 mesh, pH (5.4-7.5), water absorption index (WAI) (3.4-4.0 g gel/g sample), water soluble index (WSI) (4.8-7.8 g/100 g) and flour density (0.410-0.547 g/ml). The differences were statistically significant for all parameters measured, except for WAI. The chemical characteristics included, moisture, protein, fat, ash and dietetic fiber. Differences between flour samples were statistically significant except for fat content. Protein content was low, ranging between 6.7-8.1 g/100 g and total dietary fiber varied between 7.7-12.0 g/100 g. The samples were analyzed for phytic acid with a variation from 632 to 903 mg/100 g, with statistical significant differences. The samples were also analyzed for total and soluble (pH 7.5) iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, and magnesium. The difference in the iron and calcium content between flour samples were statistically significant. The physical and chemical variability found between flour samples of nixtamalized maize was relatively high and it is recommended to establish quality standards through raw material and process standardization for greater effectiveness of nutrition programs and activities on micronutrient fortification which may be pursued in the future.

  14. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Dogan, Meral; Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Rodorico; Dogan, A. Umran; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Differently carcinogenic zeolite fibers were investigated combining physico-chemical methods. • For the first time, zeolite fibers were studied by means of the EPR technique using different spin probes. • The structural properties and the adsorption capability are function of different types and distributions of adsorption sites. • The interacting ability of erionite is higher than that of other fibrous zeolites. • The surface interacting properties may be related with the carcinogenicity of the zeolite fibers. - Abstract: Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si–O–Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity.

  15. Chemical stability of insulin. 5. Isolation, characterization and identification of insulin transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hallund, O; Sørensen, E

    1992-01-01

    During storage of insulin formulated for therapy, minor amounts of various degradation and covalent di- and polymerization products are formed [1-3]. The main chemical transformation products were isolated from aged preparations and characterized chemically and biologically. The most prominent products formed in neutral medium were identified as a mixture of deamidation products hydrolyzed at residue B3, namely isoAsp B3 and Asp B3 derivatives. A hydrolysis product formed only in crystals of insulin zinc suspensions containing a surplus of zinc ions in the supernatant was identified as an A8-A9 cleavage product. The small amounts of covalent insulin dimers (CID) formed in all formulations were shown to be a heterogenous mixture of 5-6 different CIDs with a composition dependent on the pharmaceutical formulation. The chemical characteristics of the CIDs indicate that they are formed through a transamidation reaction mainly between the B-chain N-terminal and one of the four amide side-chains of the A chain. GlnA15, AsnA18 and, in particular, AsnA21 participate in the formation of such isopeptide links between two insulin molecules. The covalent insulin-protamine products (CIPP) formed during storage of NPH preparations presumably originate from a similar reaction between the protamine N-terminal with an amide in insulin. Covalent polymerization products, mainly formed during storage of amorphously suspended insulin at higher temperature, were shown to be due to disulfide interactions. Biological in vivo potencies relative to native insulin were less than 2% for the split-(A8-A9)-product and for the covalent disulfide exchange polymers, 4% for the CIPP, approximately 15% for the CIDs, whereas the B3 derivatives exhibited full potency. Rabbit immunization experiments revealed that none of the insulin transformation products had significantly increased immunogenicity in rabbits.

  16. Design and preliminary characterization of a miniature pulsed RF APGD torch with downstream injection of the source of reactive species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveille, V; Coulombe, S

    2005-01-01

    The design of a miniature low-power atmospheric pressure glow discharge torch (APGD-t) and the results of its preliminary electrical and spectroscopic characterization are presented. A capacitively-coupled pulsed RF (13.56 MHz) helium plasma jet is formed in a converging confinement tube and O 2 is injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through a capillary electrode. With 1 SLM He, the APGD-t produced a non-thermal plasma jet of 500 μm-diameter and ∼2.5 mm-long at power levels ranging from 1 to 5 W. At ∼1 W, the gas temperature and He excitation temperature near the nozzle exit were ∼50 0 C and slightly below 2000 K, respectively. The breakdown voltage in 1 SLM He is approximately 220 V pk-to-0 . Careful electric probe measurements and circuit analysis revealed the strong effect of the voltage probe on the total load impedance. The injection of 10 SCCM O 2 through the capillary electrode led to the transport of atomic O further downstream in the plasma jet and to a slight increase of the He excitation temperature without significant effects on the electrical properties and jet length. Alternatively, the addition of an equivalent amount of O 2 (1 v/v%) to the plasma-forming gas affected the electrical properties slightly, but led to a drastic contraction of the plasma jet. The atomic oxygen production and transport conditions provided by the APGD-t are promising for precise bio-applications such as the treatment of skin tissues and cells

  17. Chemical characterization of materials relevant to nuclear technology using neutron and proton based nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), utilizing neutron and proton based nuclear reactions and subsequent measurement of gamma rays, are capable of chemical characterization of various materials at major to trace concentration levels. The present article deals with the recent developments and applications of conventional and k0-based internal monostandard (i) neutron activation analysis (NAA) and (ii) prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods as well as (iii) in situ current normalized particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE). The materials that have been analyzed by NAA and PGNAA include (i) nuclear reactor structural materials like zircaloys, stainless steels, Ni alloys, high purity aluminium and graphite and (ii) uranium oxide, U-Th mixed oxides, uranium ores and minerals. Internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method with in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples and standard-less compositional characterization was carried out for zircaloys and stainless steels. PIGE methods using proton beams were standardized for quantification of low Z elements (Li to Ti) and applied for compositional analysis of borosilicate glass and lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) samples and quantification of total B and its isotopic composition of B ( 10 B/ 11 B) in boron based neutron absorbers like B 4 C. (author)

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels.

  19. Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Felix A.; Gazquez, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose; Bolivar, Juan Pedro; Garcia-Diaz, Irene; Lopez-Coto, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum residues into a sulfur polymer matrix. → Inertization of a waste material. → Radiological characterization of the as built new material (phosphogypsum plus sulfur polymer matrix). - Abstract: The aim of this work is to prepare a new type of phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer cements (PG-SPC) to be utilised in the manufacture of building materials. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization was performed in phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer concretes and modeling of exhalation rates has been also carried out. An optimized mixture of the materials was obtained, the solidified material with optimal mixture (sulfur/phosphogypsum = 1:0.9, phosphogypsum dosage = 10-40 wt.%) results in highest strength (54-62 MPa) and low total porosity (2.8-6.8%). The activity concentration index (I) in the PG-SPC is lower than the reference value in the most international regulations and; therefore, these cements can be used without radiological restrictions in the manufacture of building materials. Under normal conditions of ventilation, the contribution to the expected radon indoor concentration in a standard room is below the international recommendations, so the building materials studied in this work can be applied to houses built up under normal ventilation conditions. Additionally, and taking into account that the PG is enriched in several natural radionuclides as 226 Ra, the leaching experiments have demonstrated that environmental impact of the using of SPCs cements with PG is negligible.

  20. Physical-Chemical Characterization and Formulation Considerations for Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Mohapatra, Sarat; Munt, Daniel J; Chandratre, Shantanu; Dash, Alekha

    2016-06-01

    Pure glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) (lipid) and different batches of GMO commonly used for the preparation of GMO-chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), cryo-microscopy, and cryo-X-ray powder diffraction techniques. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles containing poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer in the absence and presence of polymers as crystallization inhibitors were prepared by ultrasonication. The effect of polymers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragits, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG)), surfactants (poloxamer), and oils (mineral oil and olive oil) on the crystallization of GMO was investigated. GMO showed an exothermic peak at around -10°C while cooling and another exothermic peak at around -12°C while heating. It was followed by two endothermic peaks between 15 and 30 C, indicative of GMO melting. The results are corroborated by cryo-microscopy and cryo-X-ray. Significant differences in exothermic and endothermic transition were observed between different grades of GMO and pure GMO. GMO-chitosan nanoparticles resulted in a significant increase in particle size after lyophilization. MDSC confirmed that nanoparticles showed similar exothermic crystallization behavior of lipid GMO. MDSC experiments showed that PVP inhibits GMO crystallization and addition of PVP showed no significant increase in particle size of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) during lyophilization. The research highlights the importance of extensive physical-chemical characterization for successful formulation of SLN.

  1. Chemical characterization of a variety of cold-pressed gourmet oils available on the Brazilian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Nicola; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Mangano, Valentina; Rotondo, Archimede; Di Stefano, Vita; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-07-01

    Different specialty extra virgin oils, produced by cold-pressing fruits/nuts (olive, pequi, palm, avocado, coconut, macadamia and Brazil nut) and seeds (grapeseed and canola), and retailed in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais, were chemically characterized. Specifically, for each type of oil, the fatty acid composition was elucidated by GC-FID, the contents of selected polyphenols and squalene were determined respectively by UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-PDA, whereas minerals were explored by means of ICP-MS. Olive oil was confirmed to have the highest MUFA content due to a valuable level of oleic acid, while oils from grapeseed, Brazil nut and canola were marked by nutritionally important PUFA levels. The highest SFA content found in coconut oil was mainly due to the high levels of lauric acid, known for its advantageous HDL-raising effects. As for polyphenols, gourmet oils from palm, coconut and canola showed higher levels of phenolic acids (e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, syringic, acids) than olive oil, which was though characterized by peculiar antioxidants, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Also, olive oil had the highest amount of squalene, followed by the oil from Brazil nut. Finally, all the investigated oils had very low levels (order of μg/kg) of pro-oxidant elements, such as Cu, Fe and Mn. Overall, these findings may fill the gaps still present in literature on certain compositional aspects of commercially available gourmet oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum into a sulfur polymer matrix: Physico-chemical and radiological characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Felix A., E-mail: flopez@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gazquez, Manuel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Francisco Jose [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bolivar, Juan Pedro [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Diaz, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Coto, Israel [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Microencapsulation of phosphogypsum residues into a sulfur polymer matrix. {yields} Inertization of a waste material. {yields} Radiological characterization of the as built new material (phosphogypsum plus sulfur polymer matrix). - Abstract: The aim of this work is to prepare a new type of phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer cements (PG-SPC) to be utilised in the manufacture of building materials. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization was performed in phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-sulfur polymer concretes and modeling of exhalation rates has been also carried out. An optimized mixture of the materials was obtained, the solidified material with optimal mixture (sulfur/phosphogypsum = 1:0.9, phosphogypsum dosage = 10-40 wt.%) results in highest strength (54-62 MPa) and low total porosity (2.8-6.8%). The activity concentration index (I) in the PG-SPC is lower than the reference value in the most international regulations and; therefore, these cements can be used without radiological restrictions in the manufacture of building materials. Under normal conditions of ventilation, the contribution to the expected radon indoor concentration in a standard room is below the international recommendations, so the building materials studied in this work can be applied to houses built up under normal ventilation conditions. Additionally, and taking into account that the PG is enriched in several natural radionuclides as {sup 226}Ra, the leaching experiments have demonstrated that environmental impact of the using of SPCs cements with PG is negligible.

  3. Development and validation of NIR-chemometric methods for chemical and pharmaceutical characterization of meloxicam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuta, Ioan; Iovanov, Rares; Bodoki, Ede; Vonica, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an important component of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) toolbox and is a key technology for enabling the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical tablets. The aim of this research work was to develop and validate NIR-chemometric methods not only for the determination of active pharmaceutical ingredients content but also pharmaceutical properties (crushing strength, disintegration time) of meloxicam tablets. The development of the method for active content assay was performed on samples corresponding to 80%, 90%, 100%, 110% and 120% of meloxicam content and the development of the methods for pharmaceutical characterization was performed on samples prepared at seven different compression forces (ranging from 7 to 45 kN) using NIR transmission spectra of intact tablets and PLS as a regression method. The results show that the developed methods have good trueness, precision and accuracy and are appropriate for direct active content assay in tablets (ranging from 12 to 18 mg/tablet) and also for predicting crushing strength and disintegration time of intact meloxicam tablets. The comparative data show that the proposed methods are in good agreement with the reference methods currently used for the characterization of meloxicam tablets (HPLC-UV methods for the assay and European Pharmacopeia methods for determining the crushing strength and disintegration time). The results show the possibility to predict both chemical properties (active content) and physical/pharmaceutical properties (crushing strength and disintegration time) directly, without any sample preparation, from the same NIR transmission spectrum of meloxicam tablets.

  4. Characterization and Prediction of Chemical Functions and Weight Fractions in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose fil...

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of urban winter-time aerosols by mobile measurements in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aurela, Minna; Enroth, Joonas; Carbone, Samara; Saarnio, Karri; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2017-06-01

    A two-week measurement campaign by a mobile laboratory van was performed in urban environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, in winter 2012, to obtain a comprehensive view on aerosol properties and sources. The abundances and physico-chemical properties of particles varied strongly in time and space, depending on the main sources of aerosols. Four major types of winter aerosol were recognized: 1) clean background aerosol with low particle number (Ntot) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations due to marine air flows from the Atlantic Ocean; 2) long-range transported (LRT) pollution aerosol due to air flows from eastern Europe where the particles were characterized by the high contribution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and inorganic species, particularly sulphate, but low BC contribution, and their size distribution possessed an additional accumulation mode; 3) fresh smoke plumes from residential wood combustion in suburban small houses, these particles were characterized by high biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations; and 4) fresh emissions from traffic while driving on busy streets in the city centre and on the highways during morning rush hours. This aerosol was characterized by high concentration of Ntot, LDSA, small particles in the nucleation mode, as well as high hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and BC concentrations. In general, secondary components (OOA, NO3, NH4, and SO4) dominated the PM1 chemical composition during the LRT episode accounting for 70-80% of the PM1 mass, whereas fresh primary emissions (BC, HOA and BBOA) dominated the local traffic and wood burning emissions. The major individual particle types observed with electron microscopy analysis (TEM/EDX) were mainly related to residential wood combustion (K/S/C-rich, soot, other C-rich particles), traffic (soot, Si/Al-rich, Fe-rich), heavy fuel oil combustion in heat plants or ships (S with V-Ni-Fe), LRT pollutants (S

  6. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora V. Romeo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L. fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg. Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22–24 °C and high relative humidity (RH. This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories.

  7. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  8. Preliminary site survey report for the Uniroyal Chemical Company, formerly the Diamond Magnesium Company, 720 Fairport-Nursery Road, Painesville, Ohio (DMP001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1990-03-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a preliminary radiological survey at the Uniroyal Chemical Company, formerly the Diamond Magnesium Company, 720 Fairport-Nursery Road, Painesville, Ohio (DMP001), in 1988. The purpose of the survey was to determine whether the property was contaminated with radioactive residues from the former Manhattan Engineer District (MED) project. The scope of this preliminary survey primarily covered the area west of the buildings around the railroad car spill containment basin. The survey included direct measurement of gamma radiation levels at the surface and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria for both 238 U and 226 Ra in soil. Based on the results of this radiological assessment, it is recommended that a follow-up, detailed radiological survey of both surface and subsurface environs be performed to more precisely define the extent of the contamination. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended

  10. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Holly M.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment

  11. A New Silver Complex with Ofloxacin – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Aura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Silver complexes of antibacterial quinolones have the potential advantage of combining the antibacterial activity of silver and fluoroquinolones. The objective of our study was the preparation and the preliminary physico-chemical characterization of a silver complex with ofloxacin.

  12. Characterization of the conformational equilibrium between the two major substates of RNase A using NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilloni, Carlo; Robustelli, Paul; De Simone, Alfonso; Cavalli, Andrea; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-03-07

    Following the recognition that NMR chemical shifts can be used for protein structure determination, rapid advances have recently been made in methods for extending this strategy for proteins and protein complexes of increasing size and complexity. A remaining major challenge is to develop approaches to exploit the information contained in the chemical shifts about conformational fluctuations in native states of proteins. In this work we show that it is possible to determine an ensemble of conformations representing the free energy surface of RNase A using chemical shifts as replica-averaged restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of this surface indicates that chemical shifts can be used to characterize the conformational equilibrium between the two major substates of this protein. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  14. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  15. Microsensors for In-situ Chemical, Physical and Radiological Characterization of Mixed Waste (73808)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    Portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for the characterization and monitoring of transuranic waste, mixed waste, ground water, contaminated soil, and process streams are needed within the DOE complex. A continuation of this basic research program is proposed to study the influence of control of the electrochemical potential of a metallic coating on a microcantilever as a means of developing specific and highly sensitive sensors. Basic research will be needed to understand the influence of variation of electrochemical potential on the bending of cantilevers in an electrolyte solution. Changes in the chemical potential of a metal-electrolyte interface, affected by changing the applied potential, leads to a change in the depletion or accumulation of substances at the interface. This change in the surface excess at the interface is reflected in a change in the interfacial tension, which is sensitively detected as cantilever deflection. Deposition of electroactive heavy metals as well as the adsorption of metal oxide species will be detectable as a cantilever bending. We plan to continue field-testing cantilever sensors at DOE sites as appropriate. Practical sensors for Hg and CrO4 -2 have been developed, and the former has been field tested. A sensor for large poorly hydrated anions (ClO4 -, ReO4 -, TcO4 -) based on a quarternary ammonium SAM coating is under development and will be field tested when appropriate. The advantage of cantilever sensors is that once the basic platform is developed, it can be the basis for a plethora of inexpensive, miniature sensors. This program will take advantage of advances in cantilever technology made by other programs as well

  16. Chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Janaina G.M.S. [Laboratorio de Siderurgia/LASID, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS/PPGEM Centro de Tecnologia, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500 CEP, 91501-970 Caixa postal 15021, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jana@ct.ufrgs.br; Brehm, Feliciane Andrade [Nucleo de Caracterizacao de Materiais/NucMat, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Moraes, Carlos Alberto Mendes [Nucleo de Caracterizacao de Materiais/NucMat, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Santos, Carlos Alberto dos [Nucleo de Educacao a Distancia, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, UERGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vilela, Antonio Cezar Faria [Laboratorio de Siderurgia/LASID, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS/PPGEM Centro de Tecnologia, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500 CEP, 91501-970 Caixa postal 15021, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cunha, Joao Batista Marimon da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Important elements to the industry such as, Fe and Zn are the main ones in EAFD. Due to their presence, it becomes very important to know how these elements are combined before studying new technologies for its processing. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural and morphological characterization of the EAFD. The investigation was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy via SEM (EDS), X-ray mapping analysis via SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. By XRD the following phases were detected: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, FeCr{sub 2}O {sub 4}, Ca{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 2.85}O{sub 4}, MgO, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and ZnO. On the other hand, the phases detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy were: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Ca{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 2.85}O{sub 4} and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}), observed in the XRD pattern as overlapped peaks, was not identified in the Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis.

  17. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  18. Characterization of some chemical components, in the soil of different agro- ecosystems of cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Noval-Artiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of some chemical components was characterized, in soils of an agro- ecosystem of a cattle farm with different reliefs, one located in the plains and another in a hilly area. The statistical descriptive variables were calculated for organic matter, pH, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn; by means of a t- Student test for independent samples, the variables were compared among the rainy and dry seasons. In the agro-ecosystem of the plains the 24.5, 75.4, 20.7, 41.5, 33.9 and 56.6 % of the samples were below the critical limit for organic matter, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. In the hilly region the concentrations of the organic matter and the mentioned chemical elements were deficient in a 25, 80, 42.5, 7.5 and 25 %, and 2.5 % in the samples of Fe. They were significant levels of Cu for the rainy season, while in the Mn was significant in the dry season for the agro-ecosystem of the plains, while in the hilly region there were small significant values in the Cu, Fe and Mn in the dry season, on the contrary of the P2O5 that showed small values during the rainy season. It concludes that independent in the agro-ecosystems that there were deficiencies in a percent of the soil samples, equally significant variation existed in the levels of the minerals in conjunction with the season.

  19. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Yen, Shi-Chern; Jeng, King-Tsai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface

  20. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yi-Sin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shi-Chern, E-mail: scyen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Jeng, King-Tsai [Research Division I, TIER, 7F, No. 16-8, Dehuei St., Taipei 10461, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface.

  1. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: Characterization of changes in chemical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO-4) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO-4 incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO-4 anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO-4 but was complexed with molecules greater than 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues

  2. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano

  3. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmora, Adilson C.; Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Teixeira, Elba C.; Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical

  4. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  5. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, part II: Chemical characterization and transformation of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Jia, Yuling; Denbleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Fraser, Matthew P.; Allen, David T.; Collins, Donald R.; Michel, Edward; Pudota, Jayanth; Sullivan, David; Zhu, Yifang

    Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO x concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO x concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO x closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution. Concentrations of most carbonyl species decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. However, concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein increased farther downwind of SH-71, suggesting chemical generation from the oxidation of primary vehicular emissions. The behavior of particle-bound organic species was complex and further investigation of the size-segregated chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) at increasing downwind distances from roadways is warranted. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and elemental carbon (EC

  6. Characterization of Cellulase Enzyme Inhibitors Formed During the Chemical Pretreatments of Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Kalavathy

    mimic pretreatment hydrolyzates. No group has yet attempted to elucidate the inhibitory action of compounds isolated from pretreatment hydrolyzates. Elucidating the inhibition of cellulases using actual biomass hydrolyzates would offer insights as to which inhibitors, formed during a pretreatment, are key in causing inhibition. Knowing the key inhibitor(s) would allow for the development of processing conditions that minimize their production or of their removal through hydrolyzate detoxification methods. This research has characterized various chemical compounds released during dilute acid and hot water pretreatment of rice straw and has evaluated their inhibitory effects on endo-cellulase, exo-cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes. The hot water pretreatment hydrolyzate, generated at 220°C and 52 min, was found to be particularly inhibitory to exo- and endo-cellulases, and was chosen for further evaluation. This hot water hydrolyzate was fractionated using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and grouped into furans, organic acids, phenolics, monomeric and oligomeric sugars. When these fractions were incubated with exo-cellulase, it was determined that fractions containing acetic acid and phenolics were highly inhibitory, resulting in 92% and 87% inhibition of initial hydrolysis rates, respectively. This study proposes a new approach for identifying key inhibitory compounds in biomass prehydrolyzates, eventually paving the way for developing strategies to the improve the enzymatic saccharification efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Ethnobotanical Survey, Preliminary Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Screening of Salvia argentea (L.) Used by Herbalists of the Saïda Province in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Hachem, Kadda; Kahloula, Khaled; Slimani, Miloud

    2017-12-05

    An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. The leaves are the most commonly used part, usually in the form of powder and exclusively administered orally. The preliminary results of the physicochemical characterization and the phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves of Salvia argentea attest to their safety and confer them a guarantee of phytotherapeutic quality.

  8. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  9. Preliminary results on the chemical characterisation of the cathode nickel--emissive layer interface in oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, S.N.; Barber, D.K.; Whiting, M.J.; Baker, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In cathode ray tube (CRT) thermionic oxide cathodes, the nickel-oxide interface properties are key to understanding the mechanisms of operation. At the elevated operational temperatures, free barium is formed at the interface by the reaction of reducing activators, from the nickel alloy, with barium oxide. The free barium diffuses to the outer surface of the oxide providing a low work function electron-emitting surface. However, during cathode life an interface layer grows between the nickel alloy and oxide, comprised of reaction products. The interfacial layer sets limits on the cathode performance and useful operational lifetime by inhibiting the barium reducing reaction. This paper discusses sample preparation procedures for exposure of the interface and the use of several surface and bulk analytical techniques to study interface layer formation. SEM, AES and SIMS data are presented, which provide preliminary insight into the mechanisms operating during the cathode's lifetime. There is evidence that the activator elements in the nickel alloy base, Al and Mg, are able to diffuse to the surface of the oxide during activation and ageing and that these elements are enriched at the interface after accelerated life

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques-Carvalho, Maria João; Morais-Cabral, João Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization conditions and preliminary crystal characterization of the cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel are reported. The members of the family of voltage-gated KCNH potassium channels play important roles in cardiac and neuronal repolarization, tumour proliferation and hormone secretion. These channels have a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain which is homologous to cyclic nucleotide-binding domains (CNB-homology domains), but it has been demonstrated that channel function is not affected by cyclic nucleotides and that the domain does not bind nucleotides in vitro. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a CNB-homology domain from a member of the KCNH family, the mouse EAG channel, is reported. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P3 1 21

  11. Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, S.; Buters, F.; Dohnalova, K.; Wosinski, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO2. Optical characterization

  12. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  13. Physical-chemical characterization of bovine bone ash for evaluating its potential agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pacca Luna Mattar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of bovine bone ash is a low cost and easy production process which can be adopted for making good use of animal residues, in locations without infrastructure, such as the family production units. This study aimed at describing the manufacturing process of bone ash and characterizing the physical and chemical parameters of the resulting material for organic fertilization. The experiment was performed with three replications, being evaluated the bovine bone ash manufacturing process yield, as well as its density, water retention capacity, pH of the resulting material after burning and contents of total calcium, calcium soluble in water, total phosphorus and phosphorus soluble in citric acid and in ammonium citrate. The process resulted in an average yield of 24.4% and the bovine bone ash presented 33.07% of total calcium, 15.6% of total phosphorus, 10.4% of phosphorus soluble in citric acid, pH of 9.94, density of 0.89 g cm-3 and water retention capacity of 73.3%. The bovine bone ash showed promising characteristics, with potential for being used as source of phosphorus and calcium in the organic fertilization process.

  14. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshalagae Motlatle, Abesach, E-mail: AMotlatle@csir.co.za; Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani, E-mail: skpillai@csir.co.za; Rudolf Scriba, Manfred, E-mail: MRscriba@csir.co.za; Sinha Ray, Suprakas, E-mail: Rsuprakas@csir.co.za [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    Cu nanoparticles were synthesized using low-temperature aqueous reduction method at pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 in presence of ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results demonstrated a strong dependence of synthesis pH on the size, shape, chemical composition and structure of Cu nanoparticles. While lower pH conditions of 3 and 5 produced Cu{sup 0}, higher pH levels (more than 7) led to the formation of Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. The reducing capacity of ascorbic acid, capping efficiency of PVP and the resulting particle sizes were strongly affected by solution pH. The results of in vitro disk diffusion tests showed excellent antimicrobial activity of Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles against a mixture of bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), indicating that the size as well as oxidation state of Cu contributes to the antibacterial efficacy. The results indicate that varying synthesis pH is a strategy to tailor the composition, structure and properties of Cu nanoparticles.

  15. Hydraulic Behavior and Chemical Characterization of Lapilli as Material for Natural Filtering of Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Falcón-Cardona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock effluents are a beneficial nutrient supply for crops, whereby their use is critical to ensure the sustainability of the farms global management. However, they can cause serious ecological problems if misused, polluting soils and groundwater. Combining “soft technology” and local materials is a low cost solution in terms of finance and energy. The REAGUA project (REuso AGUA, Water reuse in Spanish analyzes the possibility of using “picon” (lapilli as a material for the treatment of liquid manure from ruminants, for later use in subsurface drip irrigation system to produce forage and biofuels, in which the soil acts as a subsequent advanced treatment. A three-phase system, in which the effluent was poured with a vertical subsurface flow in an unsaturated medium, is designed. In order to determine the management conditions that optimize the filter, it was necessary to characterize the hydraulic behavior of lapilli and its ability to remove substances. Using three lapilli-filled columns, unsaturated flux, and a ruminant effluent, the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5 and ammonia, phosphorus and suspension solids (SS obtained was over 80%, 90%, and 95% respectively, assumable values for irrigation.

  16. Protocols for the analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. II - Enzymatic and chemical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobaly, Balazs; D'Atri, Valentina; Goyon, Alexandre; Colas, Olivier; Beck, Alain; Fekete, Szabolcs; Guillarme, Davy

    2017-08-15

    The analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and related proteins usually incorporates various sample preparation methodologies. Indeed, quantitative and qualitative information can be enhanced by simplifying the sample, thanks to the removal of sources of heterogeneity (e.g. N-glycans) and/or by decreasing the molecular size of the tested protein by enzymatic or chemical fragmentation. These approaches make the sample more suitable for chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis. Structural elucidation and quality control (QC) analysis of biopharmaceutics are usually performed at intact, subunit and peptide levels. In this paper, general sample preparation approaches used to attain peptide, subunit and glycan level analysis are overviewed. Protocols are described to perform tryptic proteolysis, IdeS and papain digestion, reduction as well as deglycosylation by PNGase F and EndoS2 enzymes. Both historical and modern sample preparation methods were compared and evaluated using rituximab and trastuzumab, two reference therapeutic mAb products approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). The described protocols may help analysts to develop sample preparation methods in the field of therapeutic protein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physico-chemical and radioactive characterization of TiO2 undissolved mud for its valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.; Lozano, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to find a potential valorization of a waste generated in the industrial process devoted to the production of TiO 2 pigments, and as an essential and basic step, this waste must firstly be physically and chemically characterized. Moreover, the content of radioactivity is taken in to account due to it comes from a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) industry. With this end, microscopic studies were performed by applying scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XRMA), while the mineralogical compositions were carried out by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The concentrations of its major elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while heavy metals and other trace elements were ascertained through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained for this waste have revealed several lines of research into potential applications. Firstly, with the refractory properties of mineral phases observed leading to a possible use in the ceramics industry or in thermal isolators. And secondly, attending to the characteristic particle-size spectra can be used as an additive in the manufacture of cement and finally, its high concentration of titanium may be used as a bactericide in brick production.

  18. Characterization of chemically deposited Ag/sub 2/S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, M.G.M.; Rahman, M.M; Shahjahan, M.; Hossain, M.S.; Muhibbullah, M.; Uddin, M.A.; Banu, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Silver Sulphide (Ag/sub 2/S) thin films were prepared by the chemical deposition method on glass substrates. Films of different thickness were deposited at room temperature. The films obtained were found to the uniform, pin-hole free and strongly adherent to the substrates. Films were characterized by X-$D, Hall effect, dc conductivity, thermoelectric power and optical measurements. X-RD revealed that as deposited films are amorphous with some microcrystalline structure. Hall effect measurement shows that the material deposited is n-type semiconductor with carrier concentration of the order of 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/. The dc dark conductivity shows two distinct conduction regions. The conductivity increases quite sharply above a transition temperature. Tt and below Tt the conductivity is weakly activated process with hopping via localized states. Above Tt the activation energy is quite high and the conduction may be due to impurity states to extended states. From the nature of variation of thermoelectric power with temperature it was found that in this material the position of Fermi level lie above the conduction band for thicker films and below the conduction band for relatively thinner films. The optical band gap of the films has been calculated from the transmittance spectra. The evaluated optical band gap E/sup opt/ was found to be about 1.1 eV and the value do not change much with film thickness. The refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants have also been evaluated from the transmission measurements. (author)

  19. Morphological, Chemical Surface, and Diffusive Transport Characterizations of a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Vázquez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl transport across the membrane nanopores is determined from salt diffusion measurements performed with a wide range of NaCl concentrations, which allows the estimation of characteristic electrochemical membrane parameters such as the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the concentration of fixed charges in the membrane, by using an appropriated model and the membrane geometrical parameters (porosity and pore length. These results indicate a reduction of ~70% in the value of the NaCl diffusion coefficient through the membrane pores with respect to solution. The transport number of ions in the membrane pores (Na+ and Cl−, respectively were determined from concentration potential measurements, and the effect of concentration-polarization at the membrane surfaces was also considered by comparing concentration potential values obtained with stirred solutions (550 rpm and without stirring. From both kinds of results, a value higher than 0.05 M NaCl for the feed solution seems to be necessary to neglect the contribution of electrical interactions in the diffusive transport.

  20. Chemical and photochemical degradation of chlorantraniliprole and characterization of its transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Dolenc, Darko; Trebše, Polonca

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the photodegradation of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in deionized water and in tap water amended with humic acids and nitrate. Photolysis was carried out under simulated solar or UV-A light. CAP (39 μM) photodegradation was slightly faster in tap water than in deionized water with half lives of 4.1 and 5.1 days, respectively. Photodegradation rate of CAP was hardly affected by humic acids (up to 100 mg L(-1)) and nitrate. Photodegradation pattern was different in slightly acidic (pH=6.1) deionized water compared to basic (pH=8.0) tap water. Four main degradation products have been isolated and characterized spectroscopically, and crystal structure was recorded for the first two photodegradation products. CAP also degraded in the dark controls, but only at basic pH (23% loss at pH 8.0 in tap water after 6 days), resulting in the formation of one single degradation product. Our study shows that the degradation of chlorantraniliprole in water is a combination of chemical and photochemical reactions, which are highly dependent on the pH of the solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae with Bioactive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Häggqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities.

  2. Chemical Characterization of “Alcaparras” Stoned Table Olives from Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Malheiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial stoned table olives named “alcaparras” from Trás-os-Montes (Portugal were chemically characterized. During three consecutive years (2004–2006 30 samples (10 per year were examined for their nutritional value (moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash, carbohydrates, and energy, with a detailed report of the fatty acids and tocopherols composition. Water was the major constituent (72.5 ± 5.5%, followed by fat (14.6 ± 5.1%. The average amount of protein and ash were 1.1% and 3.4%, respectively, reporting unusual ash values for table olives, related to the technological process. One hundred grams of fresh stoned table olives presented an average energetic value of 156 kcal, lower than most table olives. The lipids are rich in oleic acid (average of 77.7 ± 2.0%, followed by palmitic acid and linoleic acid. Samples showed an average of total tocopherols of 1.2 mg/100 g of fresh weight, being α-tocopherol the most abundant. Table olives are important sources of MUFA, as olive oil, recognized as a preventive factor in diseases in which free radicals are implicated, complemented by the amounts of vitamin E, with both antioxidant and vitamin action.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam chemically cross-linked ternary blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Sudha, P N

    2013-03-15

    Chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam (CS/Ny6/PUF) ternary blend was prepared and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Structural, thermal and morphological studies were performed for the prepared ternary blends. Characterizations of the ternary blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds took place between CS, Ny6 and PUF. TGA and DSC studies reveal that the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of pure CS film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend is rough and heterogeneous, further it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated Modeling and Experiments to Characterize Coupled Thermo-hydro-geomechanical-chemical processes in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H. S.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Kang, Q.; Makedonska, N.; Hyman, J.; Jimenez Martinez, J.; Frash, L.; Chen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing phenomena involve fluid-solid interactions embedded within coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Feedbacks between processes result in complex dynamics that must be unraveled if one is to predict and, in the case of unconventional resources, facilitate fracture propagation, fluid flow, and interfacial transport processes. The proposed work is part of a broader class of complex systems involving coupled fluid flow and fractures that are critical to subsurface energy issues, such as shale oil, geothermal, carbon sequestration, and nuclear waste disposal. We use unique LANL microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments integrated with state-of-the-art numerical simulation to reveal the fundamental dynamics of fracture-fluid interactions to characterize the key coupled processes that impact hydrocarbon production. We are also comparing CO2-based fracturing and aqueous fluids to enhance production, greatly reduce waste water, while simultaneously sequestering CO2. We will show pore, core and reservoir scale simulations/experiments that investigate the contolling mechanisms that control hydrocarbon production.

  5. Characterization of chemical vapour deposited diamond films: correlation between hydrogen incorporation and film morphology and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C J; Neves, A J; Carmo, M C

    2005-01-01

    In order to tailor diamond synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for different applications, many diamond films of different colours and variable quality were deposited by a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD reactor under different growth conditions. The morphology, quality and hydrogen incorporation of these films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. From this study, a general trend between hydrogen incorporation and film colour, morphology and quality was found. That is, as the films sorted by colour gradually become darker, ranging from white through grey to black, high magnification SEM images illustrate that the smoothness of the well defined crystalline facet gradually decreases and second nucleation starts to appear on it, indicating gradual degradation of the crystalline quality. Correspondingly, Raman spectra evidence that the diamond Raman peak at 1332 cm -1 becomes broader and the non-diamond carbon band around 1500 cm -1 starts to appear and becomes stronger, confirming increase of the non-diamond component and decrease of the phase purity of the film, while FTIR spectra show that the CH stretching band and the two CVD diamond specific peaks around 2830 cm -1 rise rapidly, and this indicates that the total amount of hydrogen incorporated into the film increases significantly

  6. Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage was isolated from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylonRoxb., a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. Various physico-chemical methods like particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography, rheometry, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1D(1H and 13C (NMR have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle analyses suggest that mucilage had particle size in nanometer. SEM analysis suggested that the mucilage had irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum observed was 78 °C and 74 °C by DSC and DTA respectively. The Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 8760, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a complete amorphous nature. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed specific contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm-1 (-OH, 1632 cm-1 (-COO-, 1414 cm-1 (-COO- and 1219 cm-1 (-CH3CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of sugars.

  7. Physical and chemical characterization of adsorbed protein onto gold electrode functionalized with Tunisian coral and nacre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Samir; Bouchemi, Meryem; Slimane, Noureddine; Azari, Zitouni

    2013-01-01

    Bone substitutes are more and more used in bone surgery because of their biologic safety, clinic efficiency and facility to synthesize. Bone substitutes with active osteogenic properties, associating biomaterials with organic macromolecule components of the extracellular matrix (protein, GAG) are recommended. Nevertheless, we should have a simple technique to control interactions between proteins and the material. Natural coral and nacre have been found to be impressive bone graft substitutes. In this work, we characterize nacre and coral powder using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein, adsorbed to these biomaterial surfaces. In order to understand the nacre/coral-protein interfacial compatibility, it is necessary to investigate the wettability. - Highlights: ► The structural and physico-chemical properties of material operated as a bone substitute. ► This study investigated the adsorption of BSA onto coral and nacre. ► X-ray diffraction analysis of coral and nacre. ► Simple technique to control interactions between proteins and the biomaterial.

  8. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital: Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; Van Wel, Luuk; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M

    2017-05-08

    For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ). The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two outdoor locations and source samples were collected from a helicopter and an emergency power supply. Volatile organic compounds (VOC), acrolein, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), respirable particulate matter (PM-4.0 and PM-2.5) and their respective benz(a)pyrene contents were determined over a period of two weeks. Time-weighted average concentrations of NO₂ (4.9-17.4 μg/m³) and formaldehyde (2.5-6.4 μg/m³) were similar on all indoor and outdoor locations. The median concentration VOC in indoor air was 119 μg/m³ (range: 33.1-2450 μg/m³) and was fivefold higher in laboratories (316 μg/m³) compared to offices (57.0 μg/m³). PM-4.0 and benzo(a)pyrene concentration were lower in buildings serviced by a >99.95% efficiency particle filter, compared to buildings using a standard 80-90% efficiency filter ( p engines to any of the IAQ parameters measured in this study. Chemical IAQ was primarily driven by known indoor sources and activities.

  9. Chemical bath deposition of Hg doped CdSe thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuse, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The deliberate addition of Hg in CdSe thin film have been carried out using a simple, modified, chemical bath deposition technique with the objective to study the effect of Hg doping on properties of CdSe thin films. Synthesis was initiated at 278 K temperature using complexed cadmium sulphate, mercuric nitrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous ammonical medium at pH 10. Films were characterized by XRD, SEM, optical absorption, electrical and thermoelectric techniques. The 'as deposited' films were uniform, well adherent, nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline in a single cubic phase (zinc blende). Crystallite size determined from XRD and SEM was found to increase slightly with addition of Hg. The optical band gap of CdSe remains constant upto 0.05 mol% Hg doping, while it decreases monotonically with further increase in mercury content. Dark dc electrical resistivity and conduction activation energy of CdSe were found to decrease initially upto 0.05 mol% of Hg, thereafter increased for higher values of Hg but remains less than those of CdSe. All the films showed n-type of conductivity. A CdSe film containing 0.05 mol% of Hg showed higher absorption coefficient, and conductivity

  10. The chemical properties and microbial community characterization of the thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Katukuri, Naveen Reddy; Dai, Meng; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment (TMP) was recently reported as an efficient pretreatment method of anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, the chemical properties and microbial community were characterized to reveal how TMP working. Compared with thermophilic treatment under anaerobic condition (TMP0), cellulase activity obviously improved under microaerobic condition (TMP1), which was 10.9-49.0% higher than that of TMP0. Reducing sugar, SCOD and VFAs concentrations of TMP1 were 2.6-8.9%, 1.8-4.8% and 13.8-24% higher than those of TMP0, respectively. TMP gave obvious rise to phylum Firmicutes, which associated with extracellular enzymes production. The proportion of class Bacilli (belongs to phylum Firmicutes and mainly acts during hydrolysis) in TMP1 was 124.89% higher than that of TMP0, which reflected the greater hydrolytic ability under microaerobic condition. The improved abundance of phylum Firmicutes (especially class Bacilli, order Bacillales) under microaerobic condition could be the fundamental reason for the improved AD performance of thermophilic microaerobic pretreated corn straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Copper nanoparticles mediated by chitosan: synthesis and characterization via chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad Sani; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-12-14

    Herein we report a synthesis of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) in chitosan (Cts) media via a chemical reaction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution in the presence of Cts as stabilizer and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O precursor. The synthesis proceeded with addition of NaOH as pH moderator, ascorbic acid as antioxidant and hydrazine( )as the reducing agent. The characterization of the prepared NPs was done using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed a 593 nm copper band. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images were also observed, and found to be in agreement with the UV-Vis result, confirming the formation of metallic Cu-NPs. The mean size of the Cu-NPs was estimated to be in the range of 35-75 nm using X-ray diffraction. XRD was also used in analysis of the crystal structure of the NPs. The interaction between the chitosan and the synthesized NPs was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which showed the capping of the NPs by Cts.

  12. Chemical and isotopic methods for characterization of pollutant sources in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The acid rain formation is related with industrial pollution. An isotopic and chemical study of the spatial and temporary distribution of the acidity in the rain gives information about the acidity source. The predominant species in the acid rain are nitrates and sulfates. For the rain monitoring is required the determination of the anion species such as HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 , NO 3 and p H. So it was analyzed the cations Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ to determine the quality analysis. All of them species can be determined with enough accuracy, except HCO 3 by modern equipment such as, liquid chromatograph, atomic absorption, etc. The HCO 3 concentration is determined by traditional methods like acid-base titration. This work presents the fundamental concepts of the titration method for samples with low alkalinity (carbonic species), for rain water. There is presented a general overview over the isotopic methods for the characterization of the origin of pollutant sources in the rain. (Author)

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Aruna; Latha, M; Velumani, S; Oza, Goldie; Reyes-Figueroa, P; Rohini, M; Becerril-Juarez, I G; Lee, Jae-Hyeong; Yi, Junsin

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium sulfide (Na2S) and water as a solvent by varying temperatures from 20-80 degrees C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD pattern revealed cubic crystal structure for all the synthesized CdS nanoparticles. Raman spectra showed first and second order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibrational modes of CdS. The size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15-80 nm by FE-SEM analysis, in all cases. The atomic percentage of cadmium and sulfur was confirmed to be 1:1 from EDS analysis. TEM micrograph depicts the spherical shape of the particles and the size is in the range of 15-85 nm while HR-TEM images of CdS nanoparticles exhibit well-resolved lattice fringes of the cubic structure of CdS. The optical properties of CdS were examined by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed variation in absorption band from 460-480 nm. The band gap was calculated from the absorption edge and found to be in the range of 3.2-3.5 eV which is greater than the bulk CdS.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method for potential application in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Parth; Patel, Chirag; Vyas, Meet

    2018-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a unique material having high adsorption capacity of heavy metals, high ion exchange capacity, high biological compatibility, low water solubility, high stability under reducing and oxidizing conditions, availability and low cost. As the starting reagents, analytical grade Ca(NO3)2.4H2O, (NH4)2HPO4 and NaOH were used. In order to study the factors that have an important influence on the chemical precipitation process a experimental platform has been designed for hydroxyapatite synthesis. The addition of Phosphorus pentaoxide to Calcium hydroxide was carried out slowly with simultaneous stirring. After addition, solution was aged for maturation. The precipitate was dried at 80°C overnight and further heat treated at 600°C for 2 hours. The dried and calcined particles were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and Thermo gravimetric analysis. The particle size and morphology were studied using transmission electron microscopy. TEM examination of the treated powders displayed particles of polygon morphology with dimensions 30-70 nm in length. The FT-IR spectra for sample confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite. Purity of the prepared Hydroxyapatite has been confirmed by XRD analysis.

  15. Functionalized polypyrrole film: synthesis, characterization, and potential applications in chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Li, Chang Ming

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a carboxyl-functionalized polypyrrole derivative, a poly(pyrrole-N-propanoic acid) (PPPA) film, by electrochemical polymerization, and the investigation of its basic properties via traditional characterization techniques such as confocal-Raman, FTIR, SEM, AFM, UV-vis, fluorescence microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The experimental data show that the as-prepared PPPA film exhibits a hydrophilic nanoporous structure, abundant -COOH functional groups in the polymer backbone, and high fluorescent emission under laser excitation. On the basis of these unique properties, further experiments were conducted to demonstrate three potential applications of the PPPA film in chemical and biological sensors: a permeable and permselective membrane, a membrane with specific recognition sites for biomolecule immobilization, and a fluorescent conjugated polymer for amplification of fluorescence quenching. Specifically, the permeability and permselectivity of ion species through the PPPA film are detected by means of rotating-disk-electrode voltammetry; the specific recognition sites on the film surface are confirmed with protein immobilization, and the amplification of fluorescence quenching is measured by the addition of a quenching agent with fluorescence microscopy. The results are in good agreement with our expectations.

  16. Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposited Tetraethyl Orthosilicate based SiO2 Films for Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansirani KOTCHARLAKOTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon has been the choice for photonics technology because of its cost, compatibility with mass production and availability. Silicon based photonic devices are very significant from commercial point of view and are much compatible with established technology. This paper deals with deposition and characterization of SiO2 films prepared by indigenously developed chemical vapor deposition system. Ellipsometry study of prepared films showed an increase in refractive index and film thickness with the increment in deposition temperature. The deposition temperature has a significant role for stoichiometric SiO2 films, FTIR measurement has shown the three characteristics peaks of Si-O-Si through three samples prepared at temperatures 700, 750 and 800 °C while Si-O-Si stretching peak positions were observed to be shifted to lower wavenumber in accordance to the temperature. FESEM analysis has confirmed the smooth surface without any crack or disorder while EDX analysis showed the corresponding peaks of compositional SiO2 films.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7245

  17. Isolation and chemical characterization of naphthoquinone metabolites of Aspergillus parvulus Smith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Although several benzoquinone and anthraquinone compounds have been isolated from Aspergillus species, only two naphthoquinone monomers have been reported thus far. Aspergillus parvulus Smith (ATCC number16911) was first investigated chemically in 1974, and five naphthalenones, along with one naphthoquinone, were isolated and characterized. Based on biosynthetic considerations, it was thought that A. parvulus might be capable of producing additional naphthoquinones under suitable conditions. It was decided to undertake a further investigation of A. parvulus. Thus, three novel naphthoquinones, compounds A, B, and C, were isolated from A. parvulus cultures grown in an acidic medium of glucose and phytone peptone. The structures of these compounds were deduced largely by the comparison of the effects of acetylation on the 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectra of the parent compounds and their four derivatives. An unusual mass fragmentation pattern which was previously thought to be unfavorable was discovered, and the other fragmentation patterns of the parent compounds, as well as their derivatives, were proposed. This investigation appears to be the third reported isolation of 2,5,7-tri-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives from nature and the first reported from A. parvulus

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of adsorbed protein onto gold electrode functionalized with Tunisian coral and nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Samir, E-mail: samir.hamza@insat.rnu.tn [Biomaterials and Biomechanics Laboratory, National Institute M.T. Kassab of Orthopedic, 2010 La Manouba, Tunis (Tunisia); National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, Centre Urbain Nord, Box 676, 1080 Tunis cedex (Tunisia); Bouchemi, Meryem, E-mail: bouchemimeryem@yahoo.fr [National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, Centre Urbain Nord, Box 676, 1080 Tunis cedex (Tunisia); Slimane, Noureddine, E-mail: labiomecanique@yahoo.fr [Biomaterials and Biomechanics Laboratory, National Institute M.T. Kassab of Orthopedic, 2010 La Manouba, Tunis (Tunisia); Azari, Zitouni, E-mail: azari@univ-metz.fr [Laboratory of Biomechanics, Polymer and Structures Mechanics, National School of Engineers of Metz, France, 1 route d' Ars Laquenexy, CS 65820 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France)

    2013-01-01

    Bone substitutes are more and more used in bone surgery because of their biologic safety, clinic efficiency and facility to synthesize. Bone substitutes with active osteogenic properties, associating biomaterials with organic macromolecule components of the extracellular matrix (protein, GAG) are recommended. Nevertheless, we should have a simple technique to control interactions between proteins and the material. Natural coral and nacre have been found to be impressive bone graft substitutes. In this work, we characterize nacre and coral powder using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein, adsorbed to these biomaterial surfaces. In order to understand the nacre/coral-protein interfacial compatibility, it is necessary to investigate the wettability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and physico-chemical properties of material operated as a bone substitute. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigated the adsorption of BSA onto coral and nacre. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray diffraction analysis of coral and nacre. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple technique to control interactions between proteins and the biomaterial.

  19. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Glamočlija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by ¹H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32% and geranial (50.94%. The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  20. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO 2 . Earlier studies have indicated that PuO 2 has the fluorite structure of CaF 2 and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO 2 . The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO 2 will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some

  1. In-silico identification and characterization of organic and inorganic chemical stress responding genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan; Bashir, Farrukh; Muzaffar, Shafia; Afzal, Saba; Behlil, Farida; Khan, Muzaffar

    2014-10-15

    To study the life processes of all eukaryotes, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a significant model organism. It is also one of the best models to study the responses of genes at transcriptional level. In a living organism, gene expression is changed by chemical stresses. The genes that give response to chemical stresses will provide good source for the strategies in engineering and formulating mechanisms which are chemical stress resistant in the eukaryotic organisms. The data available through microarray under the chemical stresses like lithium chloride, lactic acid, weak organic acids and tomatidine were studied by using computational tools. Out of 9335 yeast genes, 388 chemical stress responding genes were identified and characterized under different chemical stresses. Some of these are: Enolases 1 and 2, heat shock protein-82, Yeast Elongation Factor 3, Beta Glucanase Protein, Histone H2A1 and Histone H2A2 Proteins, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, ras GTPase activating protein, Establishes Silent Chromatin protein, Mei5 Protein, Nondisjunction Protein and Specific Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase. Characterization of these genes was also made on the basis of their molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  3. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  4. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  5. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  6. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  7. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  8. Physical and chemical analysis of glass beads and glassy slag from Iron Age sites in northeast Thailand : preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitowitz, S.J.; Reid, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial numbers of glass beads have been found at the Iron Age site of Noen U-Loke (ca. 850 BC to AD 500) in northeast Thailand. Typological classification of the beads, using standardised procedures, together with specialized analytical data show that while distinctly different bead-making techniques were used to produce the beads, the chemical composition of the glass was very similar. This information suggests the possibility of multiple craftsmen, at varied levels of expertise, using glass made at a single source or using raw materials found within a specific region. These findings allow for more detailed physical and chemical analysis of the beads, so as to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of different bead types. A fragment of glassy slag, excavated at Noen U-Loke, was analysed to distinguish whether it could be associated with a glass making process. However, the results were unable to confirm whether it was used to make glass suitable for beads. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Gas and particle phase chemical characterization of photochemical smog in Beijing and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Mattias; Le Breton, Michael; Guo, Song; Zhen Yu, Jian; Hallquist, Åsa. M.; Pathak, Ravi K.; Liu, Qianyun; Wang, Yuchen; Li, Jinjian; Chan, Chak K.; Wang, Yujue; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Yudong; Lu, Keding; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min

    2017-04-01

    Secondary chemistry transforming primary pollutants is of high relevance for Chinese photochemical smog. In particular, formation of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM), including Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA), are of major concern regarding impacts on health, climate and ecosystems. The atmospheric oxidation processes leading to SOA formation are complex and involves thousands of different compounds, both of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, for a thorough understanding both the gas and the particle phase need to be considered. As part of an intercollaborative project to assess the photochemical smog in China, two major field campaigns were arranged in 2016; in Changping, Bejing during springtime and at HKUST, Hong Kong during the autumn. Alongside with other advanced instrumentations, a Time of Flight Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ToF CIMS) utilising the Filiter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) was used to chemically characterize the gas and the particle phase. This specific instrument applies soft ionization limiting the fragmentation and one can usually identify molecular composition of hundreds of different parent molecules. In both Beijing and Hong Kong the iodide ionization scheme was utilised, making it possible to specifically detect oxygenated compounds such as carboxylic acids, organic nitrates and sulphates as well as some inorganic compounds e.g. N2O5, ClNO2, and HONO. For numerous compounds significant levels were detected in both the gas and particle phase enabling evaluation of partitioning and gas-to-particle transformation and its relationship to atmospheric conditions and estimated vapour pressures. Furthermore, the detection of molecular markers such as levoglucosan, C6H5NO3, C10H16NSO7, C5H8SO7, C5H8O4 can support source apportionment and atmospheric process description. In order to further investigate atmospheric ageing/processing a portable laminar flow reactor (Go:PAM) was for selected periods utilized to

  10. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of submicron aerosols measured in Senegal during the 2015 SHADOW campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellini, Laura-Hélèna; Chiapello, Isabelle; Tison, Emmanuel; Fourmentin, Marc; Féron, Anaïs; Diallo, Aboubacry; N'Diaye, Thierno; Goloub, Philippe; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Riffault, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    The present study offers the first chemical characterization of the submicron (PM1) fraction in western Africa at a high time resolution, thanks to collocated measurements of nonrefractory (NR) species with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), black carbon and iron concentrations derived from absorption coefficient measurements with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer, and total PM1 determined by a TEOM-FDMS (tapered element oscillating microbalance-filtered dynamic measurement system) for mass closure. The field campaign was carried out over 3 months (March to June 2015) as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project at a coastal site located in the outskirts of the city of Mbour, Senegal. With an averaged mass concentration of 5.4 µg m-3, levels of NR PM1 in Mbour were 3 to 10 times lower than those generally measured in urban and suburban polluted environments. Nonetheless the first half of the observation period was marked by intense but short pollution events (NR PM1 concentrations higher than 15 µg m-3), sea breeze phenomena and Saharan desert dust outbreaks (PM10 up to 900 µg m-3). During the second half of the campaign, the sampling site was mainly under the influence of marine air masses. The air masses on days under continental and sea breeze influences were dominated by organics (36-40 %), whereas sulfate particles were predominant (40 %) for days under oceanic influence. Overall, measurements showed that about three-quarters of the total PM1 were explained by NR PM1, BC (black carbon) and Fe (a proxy for dust) concentrations, leaving approximately one-quarter for other refractory species. A mean value of 4.6 % for the Fe / PM1 ratio was obtained. Source apportionment of the organic fraction, using positive matrix factorization (PMF), highlighted the impact of local combustion sources, such as traffic and residential activities, which contribute on average to 52 % of the total organic fraction. A new organic aerosol (OA) source

  11. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles via the chemical co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcharoen, K.; Sirivat, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles were prepared via the chemical co-precipitation method in the range of 10–40 nm. ► The electrical conductivity of the smallest particle size is 1.3 × 10 −3 S/cm which belongs to the semiconductor material group. ► The surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles can provide the suspension stability over 1 week. - Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized via the chemical co-precipitation method using ammonium hydroxide as the precipitating agent. The size of the magnetite nanoparticles was carefully controlled by varying the reaction temperature and through the surface modification. Herein, the hexanoic acid and oleic acid were introduced as the coating agents during the initial crystallization phase of the magnetite. Their structure and morphology were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, the electrical and magnetic properties were studied by using a conductivity meter and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. Both of the bare magnetite and the coated magnetite were of the cubic spinel structure and the spherical-shaped morphology. The reaction temperature and the surface modification critically affected the particle size, the electrical conductivity, and the magnetic properties of these particles. The particle size of the magnetite was increased through the surface modification and reaction temperature. In this study, the particle size of the magnetite nanoparticles was successfully controlled to be in the range of 10–40 nm, suitable for various biomedical applications. The electrical conductivity of the smallest particle size was 1.3 × 10 −3 S/cm, within the semi-conductive materials range, which was higher than that of the largest particle by about 5 times. All of the magnetite nanoparticles showed the superparamagnetic behavior with

  12. Microstructural characterization of chemical bath deposited and sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, E.; Buffière, M.; Harel, S.; Assmann, L.; Arzel, L.; Brohan, L.; Kessler, J.; Barreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims at investigating the microstructure of Zn(O,S) buffer layers relative to their deposition route, namely either chemical bath deposition (CBD) or RF co-sputtering process (PVD) under pure Ar. The core of the study consists of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the differently grown Zn(O,S) thin films on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorbers. It shows that the morphology of Zn(O,S) layer deposited on CIGSe using CBD process is made of a thin layer of well oriented ZnS sphalerite-(111) and/or ZnS wurtzite-(0002) planes parallel to CIGSe chalcopyrite-(112) planes at the interface with CIGSe followed by misoriented nanometer-sized ZnS crystallites in an amorphous phase. As far as (PVD)Zn(O,S) is concerned, the TEM analyses reveal two different microstructures depending on the S-content in the films: for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, the buffer layer is made of ZnO zincite and ZnS wurtzite crystallites grown nearly coherently to each other, with (0002) planes nearly parallel with CIGSe-(112) planes, while for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, it is made of ZnO zincite type crystals with O atoms substituted by S atoms, with (0002) planes perfectly aligned with CIGSe-(112) planes. Such microstructural differences can explain why photovoltaic performances are dependent on the Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition route. - Highlights: ► Zn(O,S) layers were grown by chemical bath (CBD) or physical vapor (PVD) deposition. ► For CBD, a 3 nm ZnS layer is followed by ZnS nano-crystallites in an amorphous phase. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, the layer has a Zn(O,S) zincite structure. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, ZnS wurtzite and ZnO zincite phases are mixed

  13. Chemical durability of glass and glass-ceramic materials, developed in laboratory scale, from industrial oil shale residue. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Fonseca, M.V. de; Souza Santos, P. de

    1990-01-01

    Industrial developments frequently drive to the natural resources extinction. The recycling era has come out a long time ago and it has been evident that great part of industrial work's problems are related to the pollution and the raw materials extinction. These problems should be solved, with advantages, through industrial residues recycling. This study deals with glass and glass-ceramics materials obtained from oil shale (Irati Formation-Sao Mateus do Sul-Parana State) industrialization residues. The reached results show that a controled devitrification of retorted oil shale glass improves its performance related to chemical attack. The crystallinity caracterization of the oil shales glass-ceramic was made through X-ray diffraction. (author) [pt

  14. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang, E-mail: xiangliwj@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Lin [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Yu, Xiaoming [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Feng, Yafei [Institute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Chengtao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Ke [The Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Su, Daniel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12 weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. - Highlights: • Ta film was coated on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition. • Tantalum coating allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. • Better new bone formation occurred inside the tantalum-coated scaffolds. • Clinical image data was integrated with EBM to fabricate customized scaffold.

  15. Tantalum coating on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition and preliminary biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Xiaoming; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Chengtao; Yang, Ke; Su, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Porous tantalum (Ta), produced via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of commercially pure Ta onto a vitreous carbon, is currently available for use in orthopedic applications. However, the relatively high manufacturing cost and the incapability to produce customized implant using medical image data have limited its application to gain widespread acceptance. In this study, Ta film was deposited on porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds using CVD technique. Digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the Ta coating evenly covered the entire scaffold structure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coating consisted of α and β phases of Ta. Goat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded and cultured on the Ti6Al4V scaffolds with and without coating. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay exhibited better cell adhesion and proliferation on Ta-coated scaffolds compared with uncoated scaffolds. The porous scaffolds were subsequently implanted in goats for 12 weeks. Histological analysis revealed similar bone formation around the periphery of the coated and uncoated implants, but bone ingrowth is better within the Ta-coated scaffolds. To demonstrate the ability of producing custom implant for clinical applications via this technology, we designed and fabricated a porous Ti6Al4V scaffold with segmental mandibular shape derived from patient computerized tomography data. - Highlights: • Ta film was coated on porous Ti6Al4V scaffold using chemical vapor deposition. • Tantalum coating allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. • Better new bone formation occurred inside the tantalum-coated scaffolds. • Clinical image data was integrated with EBM to fabricate customized scaffold

  16. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  17. Characterization by Moessbauer Spectroscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Peruvian Obsidians for Provenance Studies: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, A.; Montoya, J.; Delgado, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rossi, A. M.; Poupeau, G.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of geological sources of obsidians collected in archaeological sites provides important information about circulation routes and sociocultural relationships during prehistoric periods. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by MS and EPR on geological obsidians from Ayacucho and Arequipa, in Peru and on archaeological obsidian artifacts from Cerrillos, an early Paracas site of the upper Ica valley, south of Lima (Peru).

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisacchi, Davide [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy); Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Bordo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.bordo@istge.it [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3 1 21/P3 2 21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å

  20. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X.

    2016-01-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H_2O_2 (Cl), H_2SO_4 + H_2O_2 (S); sandblasted with Al_2O_3 (Sb), Al_2O_3 followed by HCl + H_2O_2 (SbCl), and Al_2O_3 followed by H_2SO_4 + H_2O_2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R_p) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I_c_o_r_r) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R_p values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I_c_o_r_r values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp-Ti. • Acid etching is a promising dental implants surface treatment.

  1. Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Membrane: Chemical and Microbiological Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad T.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of abundant water resources, world is suffering from the scarcity of usable water. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology using polymeric membranes has been recognized as a key solution to water scarcity problem. However, economic sustainability of this advanced technology is adversely impacted by the membrane fouling problem. Fouling of RO membranes is a highly studied phenomenon. However, literature is found to be lacking a detailed study on kinetic and dynamic aspects of SWRO membrane fouling. The factors that impact the fouling dynamics, i.e., pretreatment and water quality were also not adequately studied at full–scale of operation. Our experimental protocol was designed to systematically explore these fouling aspects with the objective to improve the understanding of SWRO membrane fouling mechanisms. An approach with multiple analytical techniques was developed for fouling characterization. In addition to the fouling layer characterization, feed water quality was also analysed to assess its fouling potential. Study of SWRO membrane fouling dynamics and kinetics revealed variations in relative abundance of chemical and microbial constituents of the fouling layer, over operating time. Aromatic substances, most likely humic–like substances, were observed at relatively high abundance in the initial fouling layer, followed by progressive increase in relative abundances of proteins and polysaccharides. Microbial population grown on all membranes was dominated by specific groups/species belonging to different classes of Proteobacteria phylum; however, similar to abiotic foulant, their relative abundance also changed with the biofilm age and with the position of membrane element in RO vessel. Our results demonstrated that source water quality can significantly impact the RO membrane fouling scenarios. Moreover, the major role of chlorination in the SWRO membrane fouling was highlighted. It was found that intermittent mode of chlorination

  2. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others

    2016-08-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  3. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity Testing of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product (Test Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) propellants, or fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), has been hypothesized as a contributory cause of an anomaly which occurred in the chamber pressure (PC) transducer tube on the Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) aft thruster 467 on flight STS-51. A small hole was found in the titanium-alloy PC tube at the first bend below the pressure transducer. It was surmised that the hole may have been caused by heat and pressure resulting from ignition of FORP. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to define the chemical characteristics of FORP, characterize its reactivity, and simulate the events in a controlled environment which may have lead to the Pc-tube failure. Samples of FORP were obtained from the gas-phase reaction of MMH with NTO under laboratory conditions, the pulsed firings of RCS thrusters with modified PC tubes using varied oxidizer or fuel lead times, and the nominal RCS thruster firings at WSTF and Kaiser-Marquardt. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to FTIR (TGA/FTIR), and mechanical impact testing were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical, thermal, and ignition properties of FORP. These studies showed that the composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depends on the fuel loxidizer ratio at the time of formation, composition of the post-formation atmosphere (reducing or oxidizing), and reaction or postreaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate (MMHN), ammonium nitrate (AN), methylammonium nitrate (MAN), and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. The thermal decomposition

  4. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Characterization of the Indoor Air Quality of a University Hospital: Penetration of Outdoor Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. J. Scheepers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For healthcare centers, local outdoor sources of air pollution represent a potential threat to indoor air quality (IAQ. The aim of this study was to study the impact of local outdoor sources of air pollution on the IAQ of a university hospital. IAQ was characterized at thirteen indoor and two outdoor locations and source samples were collected from a helicopter and an emergency power supply. Volatile organic compounds (VOC, acrolein, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, respirable particulate matter (PM-4.0 and PM-2.5 and their respective benz(apyrene contents were determined over a period of two weeks. Time-weighted average concentrations of NO2 (4.9–17.4 μg/m3 and formaldehyde (2.5–6.4 μg/m3 were similar on all indoor and outdoor locations. The median concentration VOC in indoor air was 119 μg/m3 (range: 33.1–2450 μg/m3 and was fivefold higher in laboratories (316 μg/m3 compared to offices (57.0 μg/m3. PM-4.0 and benzo(apyrene concentration were lower in buildings serviced by a >99.95% efficiency particle filter, compared to buildings using a standard 80–90% efficiency filter (p < 0.01. No indications were found that support a significant contribution of known local sources such as fuels or combustion engines to any of the IAQ parameters measured in this study. Chemical IAQ was primarily driven by known indoor sources and activities.

  7. Characterization of Whole Grain Pasta: Integrating Physical, Chemical, Molecular, and Instrumental Sensory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefano; Benedetti, Simona; Buratti, Susanna; Abbasi Parizad, Parisa; Masotti, Fabio; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina

    2017-11-01

    The consumption of whole-grain food-including pasta-has been increasing steadily. In the case of whole-grain pasta, given the many different producers, it seems important to have some objective parameters to define its overall quality. In this study, commercial whole-grain pasta samples representative of the Italian market have been characterized from both molecular and electronic-senses (electronic nose and electronic tongue) standpoint in order to provide a survey of the properties of different commercial samples. Only 1 pasta product showed very low levels of heat damage markers (furosine and pyrraline), suggesting that this sample underwent to low temperature dry treatment. In all samples, the furosine content was directly correlated to protein structural indices, since protein structure compactness increased with increasing levels of heat damage markers. Electronic senses were able to discriminate among pasta samples according to the intensity of heat treatment during the drying step. Pasta sample with low furosine content was discriminated by umami taste and by sensors responding to aliphatic and inorganic compounds. Data obtained with this multidisciplinary approach are meant to provide hints for identifying useful indices for pasta quality. As observed for semolina pasta, objective parameters based on heat-damage were best suited to define the overall quality of wholegrain pasta, almost independently of compositional differences among commercial samples. Drying treatments of different intensity also had an impact on instrumental sensory traits that may provide a reliable alternative to analytical determination of chemical markers of heat damage in all cases where there is a need for avoiding time-consuming procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Chemical characterization and source identification of airborne particular matter in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    A long term study on the behaviour and chemical characterization of airbone particulate matter (APM) in Santiago, Chile, has been undertaken. This study uses neutron activation analysis (NAA), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) Collection of APM in Santiago and a rural site was carried out using PM-10 Ghent Sample Collector. The analytical data was interptreted in two ways. On one hand, factor analysis applied to the data to detect elements with similar behaviour and probably of the same origin. On the other hand, the data obtained from the urban residential sites were compared to that of the rural station. Analytical quality control for NAA, XRF and AAS was based, mainly, in the exchange of samples among laboratories. For this purpose, a set of special samples were collected simultaneously To determine if the material on the membrane was distributed homogeneouly, a collimated x-ray beam was used to survey the distribution of the element Fe on the filter. A total of 18 elements were measured in the samples collected in the three mentioned stations. In addition, black carbon was measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The fine fraction mass correlates quite well with black carbon. Lead and Br also correlates well and Al, Fe and Si also show similar behaviour. These last elements, which are attributed a natural origin, soil, show no large difference between the urban and rural sites. The elements As, Cu and S correlates quite well which could indicate a common origin. This is particular interesting since there might be a possible contribution of copper smelters located rather far (100 Km) from Santiago to the airbone particulate matter of the city. Factor analysis was performed with the data and the results of this study confirms the correlations mentioned above and clearly distinguish four factors. These factors can be attibuted to car and buses emissions, soil, biomass burning and, possible

  9. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.M.; Lage, J.; Fernández, B.; Garcia, S.; Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM 10 levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM 10 were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM 10 . Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH 4 + , K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM 10 was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM 10 mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM 10 . • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM 10 mass

  10. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lomazzi, Eleonora [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Passoni, Alice [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Bagnati, Renzo [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lodi, Marco [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna [Department of Sciences and Technological Innovation (DiSIT), University of Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fanelli, Roberto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  11. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Materials: Development a New Combined X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Gerenyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    New mobile analytical device based on combination of X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer has been developed for prompt and quantitative characterization of chemical component from Al to U in nuclear waste or undeclared materials. The excitation source of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is an air-cooled X-ray tube with Ag transmission anode. For collection of secondary X-ray photons and data processing, a compact Amptek X-ray detector system is applied with silicon drift X-ray detector. The XRF system operates in confocal mode with focal volume around 1-4 mm 3 . Varying the geometrical position and orientation of the sample optional part of its surface can be analyzed. The Raman unit includes thermoelectrically cooled laser source having 500 mW power at wavelength 785 nm. In order to obtain spectral information from sample surface a reflection-type probe is connected by optical fibres to the Raman spectrometer. A mini focusing optics is set up to the sensor-fibre that provides the system to operate as confocal optical device in reflection mode. The XRF spectrometer with X-ray detector, Raman probe and X-ray tube are mechanically fixed and hermetically connected to an aluminium chamber, which can be optionally filled with helium. The chamber is mounted on a vertical stage that provides moving it to the sample surface. A new model and computer code have been developed for XRF quantitative analysis which describes the mathematical relationship between the concentration of sample elements and their characteristic X-ray intensities. For verification of the calculations standard reference alloy samples were measured. The results was in good agreement with certified concentrations in range of 0.001-100 w%. According to these numerical results this new method is successfully applicable for quick and non-destructive quantitative analysis of waste materials without using standard samples. (author)

  12. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and source apportionment in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, S.M., E-mail: smarta@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lage, J. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernández, B. [Global R& D, ArcelorMittal, Avilés (Spain); Garcia, S. [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 33, 2740-120 Porto Salvo (Portugal); Reis, M.A.; Chaves, P.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 139.7 km, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The objective of this work was to provide a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles collected in the vicinity of a steelmaking industry and to identify the sources that affect PM{sub 10} levels. A total of 94 PM samples were collected in two sampling campaigns that occurred in February and June/July of 2011. PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5–10} were analyzed for a total of 22 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM{sub 10} were measured by Ion Chromatography and Indophenol-Blue Spectrophotometry. Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model was used to identify sources of particulate matter and to determine their mass contribution to PM{sub 10}. Seven main groups of sources were identified: marine aerosol identified by Na and Cl (22%), steelmaking and sinter plant represented by As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn (11%), sinter plant stack identified by NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K and Pb (12%), an unidentified Br source (1.8%), secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace (19%), fugitive emissions from the handling of raw material, sinter plant and vehicles dust resuspension identified by Al, Ca, La, Si, Ti and V (14%) and sinter plant and blast furnace associated essentially with Fe and Mn (21%). - Highlights: • Emissions from steelworks are very complex. • The larger steelworks contribution to PM{sub 10} was from blast furnace and sinter plant. • Sinter plant stack emissions contributed for 12% of the PM{sub 10} mass. • Secondary aerosol from coke making and blast furnace contributed for 19% of the PM{sub 10}. • Fugitive dust emissions highly contribute to PM{sub 10} mass.

  13. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  14. Synthesis and characterization of β-phase iron silicide nano-particles by chemical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Gogurla, Narendar; Banerji, Pallab; Guha, Prasanta K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • β-FeSi 2 nano-particle was synthesized by reducing with Mg and by diluting with MgO. • XRD profile shows the iron di-silicide phase to be semiconducting β-FeSi 2 . • HRTEM and FESEM images indicate the β-FeSi 2 average particle size to be 60–70 nm. • Absorption, reflectance and PL spectroscopy show band gap to be direct 0.87 eV. • Nano-β-FeSi 2 is p-type with hole density of 4.38 × 10 18 cm −3 and mobility 8.9 cm 2 /V s. - Abstract: Nano-particles of β-FeSi 2 have been synthesized by chemical reduction of a glassy phase of [Fe 2 O 3 , 4SiO 2 ] by Mg-metal where MgO is used as diluent to prevent the agglomeration of nano crystallites into micro-particles and also act as a negative catalyst for the formation of other phases. The sample is characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, EDX, ultra-violet-visible-infrared and PL spectroscopy and electronic properties have been investigated by Hall measurement. XRD profile shows that the synthesized powder consists of purely β-FeSi 2 semiconducting phase. The average crystallite size of β-FeSi 2 is determined to be around 65.4 nm from XRD peaks as well as from FESEM also. The optical absorption and PL spectroscopy shows that synthesized β-FeSi 2 phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a value of 0.87 eV. Hall measurements show that β-FeSi 2 nano-particles is p-type with hole concentration of 4.38 × 10 18 cm −3 and average hole mobility of 8.9 cm 2 /V s at 300 K

  15. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  16. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  17. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of bioactive glass seeds with Holmium-166 for oncological implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Eduardo S.

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive glass seeds synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Ho:Ca composition with natural holmium incorporated were irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 at 100kW, in the central thimble where the thermal neutron flux is 2.8x10 12 n/cm 2 .s and the epithermal neutron flux is 2.6 X 10 11 n/cm 2 .s . After an 8 hour irradiation time, with an induced activity close to 110MBq/seed, a set of seeds was submitted to Gamma Spectrometry Analysis in a counting system with an HPGe detector, ORTEC electronic instrumentation and a Camberra Multichannel Analyser, to determine all radionuclides present on the sample as well as its individual activities. Special attention was paid on the discrimination of Si, 40 Ca, 44 Ca, C and Ho as the other expected elements like 48 Ca, 2 H and 18 O were present in traces or have very short half-lives. The second sample was submitted to Plasma spectrometry to determine the 166 Ho concentration in weight. The third sample was submitted to an X-ray spectrometry in a JEOL-JXA-8900RL equipment to determine its qualitative chemical composition, in order to evaluate impurities and nominal composition. It was determined that most of the activity, after decaying of short half-life elements, was due to 166 Ho present on the sample, with a well characterized β and gamma spectra. The homogeneity of the seeds was tested on the X-ray spectrometry, and verified that there is no discrepancy in composition from distinct seeds or in a same seed. The results are relevant on the investigation of the viability of producing 166 Ho radioactive seeds for oncological implants. (author)

  18. Physical-chemical characterization of pre-cooked mixed rice flour and barley bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The extrusion processing parameters, chemical composition and water content of the flour mixture may affect the structure of rice flour, leading to products with different rheological behavior and hygroscopicity. Therefore, this work aimed to study the rheological properties and water adsorption of mixed flours of broken rice and barley bagasse obtained by extrusion cooking. Samples were prepared from a mixture of grits/bagasse between 82/18 and 73/27 (w/w with water content between 18.04 and 26.96%, using a single screw extruder. The rheological properties of the extruded flour were determined by a rapid viscosity analyzer to evaluate the cooking profile of the pastes by observing the pasting temperature, maximum viscosity, breakdown and retrogradation. The adsorption process was performed by weighing the samples stored at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 45 °C with water activity between 0.112 and 0.973. The isotherms were fitted using the following mathematical models: Halsey, Oswin, Smith, GAB and Peleg. The extruded composite flours were characterized by their lack of initial viscosity. The pasting temperature (40-67 °C, maximum viscosity (690-1146 cP, breakdown viscosity (0-175 cP and retrogradation (613-1382 cP were lower than for raw rice flour. The Peleg equation fitted well to the water adsorption data and can be used to represent the sigmoidal type II shape of the water adsorption isotherms for the extruded mixed flours from rice grits and barley bagasse.

  19. Chemical Characterization and Mixing Sate of Ambient PM in Xi'an Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Particulate Matter influences visibility, human health (Anderson and Atkinson, 2007), and climate. The difference of mixing state of chemical species in PM affects the physical properties of PM such as hygroscopic growth (Hersey et al., 2011), Cloud Condensation Nuclei(Stocker et al., 2013) and light properties(Huang et al., 2013). Chongqing is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities in China. The whole Chongqing city is on the edge of Sichuan basin, surrounded by mountains, with the crossing of Yangtze River. As a part of Sichuan basin, Chongqing is currently suffering the heavy air pollution from both gaseous and particulate pollutants(Yang et al., 2011). The study of ambient PM chemical characterization is insufficient. Thus in this study, the study of PM using online aerosol mass spectrometer is reported. The Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was deployed in the Atmospheric Monitoring Supersite in the south of the city. During the thirty-day campaign, a total of approx. 1 million particle were collected with valid mass spectra. After the ART-2a clustering analysis, the whole dataset were catalogued into 8 groups: EC-traffic, ECOC-coal burning, ECOC-Biomass burning, Aged Biomass burning, OC-combustion, Ca-dust, Si-Dust, Al-Dust and B-dust groups. Among them, the major clusters are from Biomass Burning, Coal burning, traffic, and dust. The secondary species, such as sulfate and nitrate were found internally mixed with above 90% of total collected particles. The secondary organic species, marked by CH3COO and COOH, were observed mainly mixed with combustion and traffic emitted particles. The diurnal analysis of the mainly group suggests that all the primary emitted particles decrease in the afternoon excluded the influence of planetary boundary layer expansion. The aging process was significant in the afternoon due to high temperature and high relative humidity, as well as the strong solar radiation. This study is helpful for understanding the

  20. Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Hazem; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Rapid decontamination is vital to alleviate adverse health effects following dermal exposure to hazardous materials. There is an abundance of materials and products which can be utilised to remove hazardous materials from the skin. In this study, a total of 15 products were evaluated, 10 of which were commercial or military products and five were novel (molecular imprinted) polymers. The efficacies of these products were evaluated against a 10 µl droplet of (14)C-methyl salicylate applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static diffusion cells. The current UK military decontaminant (Fuller's earth) performed well, retaining 83% of the dose over 24 h and served as a benchmark to compare with the other test products. The five most effective test products were Fuller's earth (the current UK military decontaminant), Fast-Act® and three novel polymers [based on itaconic acid, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide)]. Five products (medical moist-free wipes, 5% FloraFree™ solution, normal baby wipes, baby wipes for sensitive skin and Diphotérine™) enhanced the dermal absorption of (14)C-methyl salicylate. Further work is required to establish the performance of the most effective products identified in this study against chemical warfare agents.

  1. Chemical and radiolytical characterization of perfluorocarbon fluids used as coolants for LHC experiments : radiolysis effects in perfluorohexane fluids.

    CERN Document Server

    Ilie, Soran; Teissandier, B; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorohexane fluids, used as coolants within High Energy Physics Detectors in the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC) at CERN, were irradiated using gammas 60Co and characterized using different analytical techniques. The aim of this work was the assessment of radiation induced effects as a function of the chemical nature of these fluids and their impurity content. Were evidenced the radioinduced polymers and acidity, as well as different chemical by-products. Purification tests and measurements were carried out on different irradiated fluid samples to assess the efficiency of such purification treatments in view of their re-use in the HEP detector cooling systems.

  2. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.