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Sample records for preliminary calculations show

  1. HEU benchmark calculations and LEU preliminary calculations for IRR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.; Shapira, M.; Bettan, M.; Nagler, A.; Gilat, J.

    2004-01-01

    We performed neutronics calculations for the Soreq Research Reactor, IRR-1. The calculations were done for the purpose of upgrading and benchmarking our codes and methods. The codes used were mainly WIMS-D/4 for cell calculations and the three dimensional diffusion code CITATION for full core calculations. The experimental flux was obtained by gold wire activation methods and compared with our calculated flux profile. The IRR-1 is loaded with highly enriched uranium fuel assemblies, of the plate type. In the framework of preparation for conversion to low enrichment fuel, additional calculations were done assuming the presence of LEU fresh fuel. In these preliminary calculations we investigated the effect on the criticality and flux distributions of the increase of U-238 loading, and the corresponding uranium density.(author)

  2. Preliminary isodose calculation for gynecological curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridier, A.; Dutreix, A.; Gerbaulet, A.; Chassagne, D.

    1981-01-01

    We present a preliminary method of calculating the dimensions of the reference isodose, based upon the geometrical distribution and length of the sources used, their linear activity and the length of treatment, that does not require use of a computer. Inversely, this method can be used to determine the factors necessary to produce a given shape of isodose, and also to predict the change in shape of the isodose that will be produced by altering the various factors. This method was derived from a systematic computer study of dose distribution in which each factor was varied independently of all others. The dimensions of the isodoses, calculated by this method, were found to be in agreement with those derived from computer calculation to within an error of about 2 mm. The method is only applicable for a limited range of positions of the vaginal sources. The influence of the positions of these sources along the line of the axis of uterine catheter and of their inclination to this line, are currently being studied. The results are presented as mathematical formulae relating each dimension of the isodose curves to the features of the application, but could equally well be expressed in tabular form that would be more convenient for everyday use. An example of the calculation used is given to facilitate understanding of the method [fr

  3. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  4. Preliminary topical report on comparison reactor disassembly calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1975-11-01

    Preliminary results of comparison disassembly calculations for a representative LMFBR model (2100-l voided core) and arbitrary accident conditions are described. The analytical methods employed were the computer programs: FX2-POOL, PAD, and VENUS-II. The calculated fission energy depositions are in good agreement, as are measures of the destructive potential of the excursions, kinetic energy, and work. However, in some cases the resulting fuel temperatures are substantially divergent. Differences in the fission energy deposition appear to be attributable to residual inconsistencies in specifying the comparison cases. In contrast, temperature discrepancies probably stem from basic differences in the energy partition models inherent in the codes. Although explanations of the discrepancies are being pursued, the preliminary results indicate that all three computational methods provide a consistent, global characterization of the contrived disassembly accident

  5. Preliminary physics calculations for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimullah.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations of sodium void, fuel, and clad worths, power distribution, and control rod worths have been carried out for an R-Z model of the CRBR, using diffusion theory and first-order perturbation theory for material worths. The power distribution and control rod worths have also been calculated in two-dimensional triangular mesh geometry. The present results are preliminary because of inaccuracy of the reactor model and the cross sections used, but the final results are not expected to be greatly different. (U.S.)

  6. Nuclear Characteristics of SPNDs and Preliminary Calculation of Hybrid Fixed Incore Detector with Monte Carlo Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Song, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Yoon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the basic nuclear characteristics of major emitter materials were surveyed. In addition, preliminary calculations of Cobalt-Vanadium fixed incore detector were performed using the Monte Carlo code. Calculational results were cross-checked by KARMA. KARMA is a two-dimensional multigroup transport theory code developed by the KAERI and approved by Korean regularity agency to be employed as a nuclear design tool for a Korean commercial pressurizer water reactor. The nuclear characteristics of the major emitter materials were surveyed, and preliminary calculations of the hybrid fixed incore detector were performed with the MCNP code. The eigenvalue and pin-by-pin fission power distributions were calculated and showed good agreement with the KARMA calculation results. As future work, gamma power distributions as well as several types of XS of the emitter, insulator, and collector regions for a Co-V ICI assembly will be evaluated and compared

  7. Preliminary Analysis For Wolsong Par Effects Using ISACC Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yong Mann; Kim, Dong Ha

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, hydrogen control effects using PARs only are analyzed for severe SBO station blackout (SBO) sequences beyond the design basis accidents in WS-1 which are of CANDU6 type reactor. As a computational tool, the latest version of ISAAC4.3 (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU), which is a fully integrated and lumped severe accident computer code, is used to simulate hydrogen generation and transport inside the reactor building (R/B) before its failure. For the performance of hydrogen removal, the depletion rate equation of K-PAR developed in Korea is applied. In a CANDU reactor, three areas are identified as sources of hydrogen under severe accidents: fuel-coolant interactions in intact channels, suspended fuel or debris interactions in-calandria tank and debris interactions in-calandria vault. The first two origins provide source for the late ('late' terminology is used because it takes more than one day before calandria tank failure) potential hydrogen combustion before calandria tank failure and all the three origins would provide source for the very late potential hydrogen combustion occurring at or after calaria tank failure. If the hydrogen mitigation system fails, the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) burning of highly flammable hydrogen may cause Wolsong R/B failure. So hydrogen induced failure possibility is evaluated, using preliminary ISAAC calculations, under several SBO conditions with and without PAR for both late and very late accident periods

  8. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borodiouk

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

  9. Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Borodiouk; Vasili Tatarin

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

  10. Preliminary core design calculations for the ACPR Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) Upgrade design studies is to define a core configuration that provides a significant increase in pulse fluence and fission energy deposition. The reactor modification should provide as flat an energy deposition profile for experiments as feasible. The fuels examined in this study were UO 2 -BeO (5-15 w/o UO 2 ), UC-ZrC-C (200-500 mg U/cc) and U-ZrH 1.5 . The basic core concept examined was a two region core, - a high heat capacity inner core region surrounded by an outer U-ZrH 1.5 region. Survey core calculations utilizing 1D transport calculations and cross sections libraries derived from the ORNL-AMPX code examined relative fuel loadings, fuel temperatures, reactivity requirements and pulse performance improvement. Reference designs for all candidate fuels were defined utilizing 2D transport and Monte Carlo calculations. The performance implications of alternative core designs were also examined for the UO 2 -BeO and UC-ZrC-C fuel candidates. (author)

  11. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  12. East Area Irradiation Test Facility: Preliminary FLUKA calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Calviani, M; Gatignon, L; Glaser, M; Moll, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) mitigation project, the testing of electronic equipment in a radiation field similar to the one occurring in the LHC tunnel and shielded areas to study its sensitivity to single even upsets (SEU) is one of the main topics. Adequate irradiation test facilities are therefore required, and one installation is under consideration in the framework of the PS East area renovation activity. FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to estimate the radiation field which could be obtained in a mixed field facility using the slowly extracted 24 GeV/c proton beam from the PS. The prompt ambient dose equivalent as well as the equivalent residual dose rate after operation was also studied and results of simulations are presented in this report.

  13. MR imaging of prostate. Preliminary experience with calculated imaging in 28 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Ghysels, M.; Delepaut, A.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Struyven, J.

    1988-01-01

    The majority of studies with MR imaging in prostate disease are based on a semiology obtained using images weighted in T1 and T2. A study was carried out to evaluate effects of images calculated in T1 and T2 obtained at 0.5T. This preliminary study concerns 28 prostate examinations with spin-echo acquisition and inversion-recuperation parameters, and provided images calculated in T1, weighted and calculated in T2. Images allowed detection and characterization of prostate lesions. However, although calculated images accentuate discrimination of the method, the weighted images conserve their place because of their improved spatial resolution [fr

  14. Preliminary integrated calculation of radionuclide cation and anion transport at Yucca Mountain using a geochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Campbell, K.; Eggert, K.G.; Travis, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary transport calculations for radionuclide movement at Yucca Mountain using preliminary data for mineral distributions, retardation parameter distributions, and hypothetical recharge scenarios. These calculations are not performance assessments, but are used to study the effectiveness of the geochemical barriers at the site at mechanistic level. The preliminary calculations presented have many shortcomings and should be viewed only as a demonstration of the modeling methodology. The simulations were run with TRACRN, a finite-difference porous flow and radionuclide transport code developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. Approximately 30,000 finite-difference nodes are used to represent the unsaturated and saturated zones underlying the repository in three dimensions. Sorption ratios for the radionuclides modeled are assumed to be functions of mineralogic assemblages of the underlying rock. These transport calculations present a representative radionuclide cation, 135 Cs and anion, 99 Tc. The effects on transport of many of the processes thought to be active at Yucca Mountain may be examined using this approach. The model provides a method for examining the integration of flow scenarios, transport, and retardation processes as currently understood for the site. It will also form the basis for estimates of the sensitivity of transport calculations to retardation processes. 11 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  15. Preliminary Analyses Showed Short-Term Mental Health Improvements after a Single-Day Manager Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael

    2018-01-10

    Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.

  16. Verification of EPA's " Preliminary remediation goals for radionuclides" (PRG) electronic calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagich, B. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-29

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested an external, independent verification study of their “Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides” (PRG) electronic calculator. The calculator provides information on establishing PRGs for radionuclides at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites with radioactive contamination (Verification Study Charge, Background). These risk-based PRGs set concentration limits using carcinogenic toxicity values under specific exposure conditions (PRG User’s Guide, Section 1). The purpose of this verification study is to ascertain that the computer codes has no inherit numerical problems with obtaining solutions as well as to ensure that the equations are programmed correctly.

  17. Recent improvements in the calculation of prompt fission neutron spectra: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; LaBauve, R.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider three topics in the refinement and improvement of our original calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra. These are an improved calculation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum N(E) from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, a complete calculation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum matrix N(E,E n ) from the neutron-induced fission of 235 U, at incident neutron energies ranging from 0 to 15 MeV, and an assessment of the scission neutron component of the prompt fission neutron spectrum. Preliminary results will be presented and compared with experimental measurements and an evaluation. A suggestion is made for new integral cross section measurements. (author). 45 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  18. PRELIMINARY STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF SOME FUMONISIN METABOLITES BY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Bors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is often contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides. This harmful fungus produces fumonisins as secondary metabolites. These fumonisins can appear both free and hidden form in planta. The hidden form is usually bound covalently to cereal starch. From the hidden fumonisins, during enzymatic degradation, glycosides are formed, and the fumonisin is further decomposed during a de-esterification step. In this short communication some preliminary DFT calculated structural results which could be useful in the future to help to understand the van der Waals force controlled molecular interactions between these kinds of mycotoxin molecules and enzymes are demonstrated.

  19. Preliminary Calculations of Shutdown Dose Rate for the CTS Diagnostics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Nonbøl, Erik; Lauritzen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    DTU and IST 2 are partners in the design of a collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics for ITER through a contract with F4E. The CTS diagnostic utilizes probing radiation of ~60 GHz emitted into the plasma and, using a mirror, collects the scattered radiation by an array of receivers. Having...... on supplying input which affect the system design. Examples include: - Heatloads on plasma facing mirrors and preliminary stress and thermal analysis - Port plug cooling requirements and it's dependence on system design (in particular blanket cut-out) - Shutdown dose-rate calculations (relative analysis...

  20. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo Hyun; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  1. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Doo Hyun [NE Union Hill Road, Suite 200, WA 98052 (United States); Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  2. Preliminary regulatory audit calculation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, S. W.; Kim, B. S.; Kim, J. K. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study is to perform a preliminary evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA by applying KINS Realistic Evaluation Methodology (REM). The following results were obtained: (1) From the evaluation for Shinkori Units 3 and 4 LBLOCA, the peak cladding temperature was evaluated to meet the regulatory requirement and the feasibility of the KINS-REM was identified. (2) The input decks that were developed in the previous studies, were reviewed and the evaluation model of the fluidic device was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (3) The treating method for the uncertainty of the gap conductance was developed and applied for the audit calculation. (4) The pre- and post-processing programs were developed for this study. (5) For the more detailed assessments, the information for the gap conductance, etc. should be improved and the effects of coolant bypass during blowdown, steam binding and so on were not sufficiently evaluated. KINS-REM should be advanced to evaluate these effects properly. The KINS methodology that was used in this study, can be further applied for independent regulatory audit calculations related to the licensing application on LOCA best estimate calculation.

  3. Ontario electricity industry restructuring : preliminary asset valuation and calculation of stranded debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for restructuring Ontario's electricity industry was restated. Financial elements of the Government's White Paper on the electrical industry included the following: (1) establishing a level playing field on taxes and regulation, (2) restructuring Ontario Hydro into new companies with clear business mandates, and (3) taking action to put the new companies on solid financial ground. To achieve these objectives requires valuation of the new companies as a key part in the restructuring process. This Ministry of Finance document contains preliminary estimates of the total debt and liabilities of Ontario Hydro ($ 39.1 billion), the value of the new generation and service companies ($ 15.8 billion), and the stranded debt ($ 23.3 billion, less the value of dedicated revenue streams of $ 15.4 billion, equal to the residual stranded debt of $ 7.9 billion). The method by which the stranded debt was calculated is also described. It is stressed that the overriding principles governing the financial restructuring plan are to achieve restructuring without increasing electricity rates, to retain maximum value in the electricity sector until stranded debt is retired, and to recover stranded debt from the electricity sector and not from taxpayers. Ministry advisors indicate that these preliminary valuations would allow the new companies to operate as commercial companies in a competitive market and receive investment grade credit ratings. 44 figs

  4. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  5. Preliminary Calculation for Plasma Chamber Design of Pulsed Electron Source Based on Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdi Usada

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the characteristics of pulsed electron sources with anode-cathode distance of 5 cm, electrode diameter of 10 cm, driven by capacitor energy of 25 J. The preliminary results showed that if the system is operated with diode resistance is 1.6 Ω, plasma resistance is 0.14 Ω, and β is 0.94, the achieved of plasma voltage is 640 V, its current is 4.395 kA with its pulse width of 0.8 μsecond. According to breakdown voltage based on Paschen empirical formula, with this achieved voltage, this system could be operated for operation pressure of 1 torr. (author)

  6. Verification of EPA's ''Preliminary Remediation Goals for radionuclides'' (PRG) electronic calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested an external, independent verification study of their updated “Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides” (PRG) electronic calculator. The calculator provides PRGs for radionuclides that are used as a screening tool at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites. These risk-based PRGs establish concentration limits under specific exposure scenarios. The purpose of this verification study is to determine that the calculator has no inherit numerical problems with obtaining solutions as well as to ensure that the equations are programmed correctly. There are 167 equations used in the calculator. To verify the calculator, all equations for each of seven receptor types (resident, construction worker, outdoor and indoor worker, recreator, farmer, and composite worker) were hand calculated using the default parameters. The same four radionuclides (Am-241, Co-60, H-3, and Pu-238) were used for each calculation for consistency throughout.

  7. Poster - 08: Preliminary Investigation into Collapsed-Cone based Dose Calculations for COMS Eye Plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of model-based dose calculations using a collapsed-cone algorithm for COMS eye plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. Methods: The Nucletron SelectSeed 130.002 I-125 seed and the 12 mm COMS eye plaque were incorporated into a research version of the Oncentra® Brachy v4.5 treatment planning system which uses the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) algorithm. Comparisons of TG-43 and high-accuracy ACE doses were performed for a single seed in a 30×30×30 cm 3 water box, as well as with one seed in the central slot of the 12 mm COMS eye plaque. The doses along the plaque central axis (CAX) were used to calculate the carrier correction factor, T(r), and were compared to tabulated and MCNP6 simulated doses for both the SelectSeed and IsoAid IAI-125A seeds. Results: The ACE calculated dose for the single seed in water was on average within 0.62 ± 2.2% of the TG-43 dose, with the largest differences occurring near the end-welds. The ratio of ACE to TG-43 calculated doses along the CAX (T(r)) of the 12 mm COMS plaque for the SelectSeed was on average within 3.0% of previously tabulated data, and within 2.9% of the MCNP6 simulated values. The IsoAid and SelectSeed T(r) values agreed within 0.3%. Conclusions: Initial comparisons show good agreement between ACE and MC doses for a single seed in a 12 mm COMS eye plaque; more complicated scenarios are being investigated to determine the accuracy of this calculation method.

  8. Poster - 08: Preliminary Investigation into Collapsed-Cone based Dose Calculations for COMS Eye Plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, and University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of model-based dose calculations using a collapsed-cone algorithm for COMS eye plaques loaded with I-125 seeds. Methods: The Nucletron SelectSeed 130.002 I-125 seed and the 12 mm COMS eye plaque were incorporated into a research version of the Oncentra® Brachy v4.5 treatment planning system which uses the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) algorithm. Comparisons of TG-43 and high-accuracy ACE doses were performed for a single seed in a 30×30×30 cm{sup 3} water box, as well as with one seed in the central slot of the 12 mm COMS eye plaque. The doses along the plaque central axis (CAX) were used to calculate the carrier correction factor, T(r), and were compared to tabulated and MCNP6 simulated doses for both the SelectSeed and IsoAid IAI-125A seeds. Results: The ACE calculated dose for the single seed in water was on average within 0.62 ± 2.2% of the TG-43 dose, with the largest differences occurring near the end-welds. The ratio of ACE to TG-43 calculated doses along the CAX (T(r)) of the 12 mm COMS plaque for the SelectSeed was on average within 3.0% of previously tabulated data, and within 2.9% of the MCNP6 simulated values. The IsoAid and SelectSeed T(r) values agreed within 0.3%. Conclusions: Initial comparisons show good agreement between ACE and MC doses for a single seed in a 12 mm COMS eye plaque; more complicated scenarios are being investigated to determine the accuracy of this calculation method.

  9. Preliminary decay heat calculations for the fuel loaded irradiation loop device of the RMB multipurpose Brazilian reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campolina, Daniel; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da; Andrade, Edison P., E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclp@cdtn.br, E-mail: epa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SETRE/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The structuring project of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is responsible for meeting the capacity to develop and test materials and nuclear fuel for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. An irradiation test device (Loop) capable of performing fuel test for power reactor rods is being conceived for RMB reflector. In this work preliminary neutronic calculations have been carried out in order to determine parameters to the cooling system of the Loop basic design. The heat released as a result of radioactive decay of fuel samples was calculated using ORIGEN-ARP and it resulted less than 200 W after 1 hour of irradiation interruption. (author)

  10. Preliminary shielding calculation for the system of CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toreti, Dalila; Xavier, Clarice; Moura, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The CyberKnife robotic system uses a manipulator with six grade of freedom for positioning a 6 MV Linac accelerator for treatment of lesions. This paper presents calculations for a standard room, with 200 cm of thickness walls primary, build for a CyberKnife system, and calculations for a room originally designed for a Linac conventional (with gantry), with secondary barriers of 107 cm thickness. After the realization of shielding for both rooms, the results shown that walls of standard room with 200 cm thickness are adequate for the secondary shield, and for a room with a conventional Linac, from all six evaluated points, two would require additional shielding of nine cm and four cm of concrete with 2.4 g/cubic cm. This shows that the CyberKnife system can be installed in a originally designed room for a conventional Linac with neither restrict nor any shielding, since no incidence of beams on the secondary barriers is existent

  11. Preliminary reactor physics calculations for Exxon LWR fuel testing in the power burst facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, W.O.; Nigg, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The PFB reactor is being considered as an irradiation facility to test LWR fuel rods for Exxon Nuclear Company. Requested test conditions are 18 kW/ft axial peak steady state power in 2.5% initial enrichment, 20,000 MWd/Tu exposed rods. Multigroup transport theory calculations (S/sub n/ and Monte Carlo) showed that this was unattainable in the standard PBF test loop. Thus, a flux multiplier was developed in the form of a Zr-2-clad 0.15-inch thick cylindrical shell of 35% enriched, 88% T.D. UO 2 replacing the flow divider, surrounding the rod within the in-pile tube in PFB. With this flux multiplier installed and assuming an average water density of 0.86 g/cm 3 within the test loop, a Figure of Merit (FOM) for a single-rod test assembly of 0.86 kW/ft-MW +- 5% (at 95% confidence level) was calculated. This FOM is the axial peak linear test rod power per megawatt of reactor power. A reactor power of about 21 megawatts will therefore be required to supply the requested linear test rod axial peak heating rate of 18 kW/ft

  12. Is College Affordable? Are Loans Manageable? What Do Colleges' Net Price Calculators Show? Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A review of net price calculators--a financial aid tool mandated by the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008--reveals that students from low-, moderate-, and middle-income families face record-level net prices at 4-year public colleges today. These net prices will translate into levels of average total loan burden far in excess of…

  13. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Lopez-Alonso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1 on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI. We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, paired associative stimulation (PAS25, and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28 were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online, 1 day after training (consolidation, and 1 week after training (retention. We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning.

  14. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Liew, Sook-Lei; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Sandrini, Marco; Abe, Mitsunari; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI). We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS25), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28) were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online), 1 day after training (consolidation), and 1 week after training (retention). We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning. PMID:29740271

  15. Preliminary Calculations of Bypass Flow Distribution in a Multi-Block Air Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Tak, Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    The development of a methodology for the bypass flow assessment in a prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) core has been conducted at KAERI. A preliminary estimation of variation of local bypass flow gap size between graphite blocks in the NHDD core were carried out. With the predicted gap sizes, their influence on the bypass flow distribution and the core hot spot was assessed. Due to the complexity of gap distributions, a system thermo-fluid analysis code is suggested as a tool for the core thermo-fluid analysis, the model and correlations of which should be validated. In order to generate data for validating the bypass flow analysis model, an experimental facility for a multi-block air test was constructed at Seoul National University (SNU). This study is focused on the preliminary evaluation of flow distribution in the test section to understand how the flow is distributed and to help the selection of experimental case. A commercial CFD code, ANSYS CFX is used for the analyses

  16. Calculation of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents using the integral diffusion method -- Preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. The uptake of hydrogen is limited to the equilibrium solubility calculated by applying Sievert's law. The uptake of hydrogen is an exothermic reaction that accelerates the heatup of a fuel rod. An embrittlement criteria is described that accounts for hydrogen and oxygen concentration and the extent of oxidation. A design is described for implementing the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. A test matrix is described for assessing the impact of the proposed models on the calculated behavior of fuel rods in severe accident conditions. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled; ''Preliminary Design Report for Modeling of Hydrogen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents.''

  17. Development of an X-ray installation for the study of secondary electrons: preliminary measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baguena, A.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A.; Baguena, A.; Garcia, G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the calculations and preliminary measures made for the installation of a X-ray generator tube. This device is going to be used for the secondary electron production from photonic primary radiation of up to 125 keV. With this experimental system, we will study the energetic and space distribution of produced secondary electrons by obtaining its spectrum of energies and its angular distribution. This method of measurement is going to be applied in different targets of radiological, environmental and biological interest. Calculations in the present article include: theoretical yield of X-rays production of the designed equipment, necessary shielding for the radiological safety of the installation staff, and an estimated dose due to their use. Characteristics of the installation and the equipment are described with this purpose. (author)

  18. Development of an X-ray installation for the study of secondary electrons: preliminary measurements and calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baguena, A.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Dpto. Fisica de los Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Baguena, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We describe the calculations and preliminary measures made for the installation of a X-ray generator tube. This device is going to be used for the secondary electron production from photonic primary radiation of up to 125 keV. With this experimental system, we will study the energetic and space distribution of produced secondary electrons by obtaining its spectrum of energies and its angular distribution. This method of measurement is going to be applied in different targets of radiological, environmental and biological interest. Calculations in the present article include: theoretical yield of X-rays production of the designed equipment, necessary shielding for the radiological safety of the installation staff, and an estimated dose due to their use. Characteristics of the installation and the equipment are described with this purpose. (author)

  19. Preliminary calculations on the cooling rate of the Renca batholit, Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez de Luchi, M.G.; Ostera, H.A.; Linares, E; Rosello, E.A

    2001-01-01

    Cooling rates can be used to constrain the unroofing history of plutonic-metamorphic system. Geocronological cooling rates (Spear and Parrish, 1996) can be unravelled using age calculations on minerals that were open systems and subsequently passed through their closure temperatures (Dodson, 1973) during cooling. Several age determinations on different minerals are needed in order to accurately constrain the cooling path of a pluton (Hodges 1991, Spear and Parrish, 1996 and references therein). Isotopic open-system behaviour in minerals can be modelled as volume diffusion process (Hodges, 1991 and references therein), which depends on the cooling rate of the whole system. We present the first results on the calculation of the cooling rate of the Renca batholith on the basis of the combination of both thermometric calculations and available crystallization and cooling ages (au)

  20. A Preliminary Study on Calculation of Inter-Pebble Dancoff Factor in a Pebble Type Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Hong Chul; Kim, Soon Young; Noh, Jae Man; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The Dancoff factor is an entering probability of the neutron escaped from specific fuel kernel to another one without the interaction with moderators. Currently, Dancoff factors are mainly evaluated from stochastic methods, hence a research on analytical method is considerably insufficient in this field. In order to analytically evaluate Dancoff factor considering double-heterogeneous effect, inter-pebble and intra-pebble Dancoff factors should be calculated, respectively. Intra-pebble Dancoff factor related with the fuel kernels in one pebble was analyzed in past study. For the evaluation of inter-pebble Dancoff factor, fuel region to region Dancoff factor (FRDF) was defined and the method to calculate the FRDF is developed in this study. The result is compared with the calculation result of the MCNP5 code

  1. Preliminary calculations of release rates from spent fuel in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; O'Connell, W.J.; Lee, K.H.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Ueng, T.S.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Time-dependent release rates of Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135, and Np-237 have been calculated for wet-drip and moist-continuous release modes from the engineered barrier system of a potential nuclear waste repository in unsaturated tuff, representative of a possible repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. We describe the modes of water contact and of release of dissolved radionuclides to the surrounding intact rock, and the corresponding calculational models. We list the parameter values adopted, and then present numerical results, conclusions, and recommendations. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Preliminary Calculation of the Indicators of Sustainable Development for National Radioactive Waste Management Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, Won Jae

    2003-01-01

    As a follow up to the Agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicators in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. In addition, a series of innate limitations in calculation and comparison of the indicators was analyzed. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for a few major countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program.

  3. A flexible Monte Carlo tool for patient or phantom specific calculations: comparison with preliminary validation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S.; Cui, J.; Followill, D.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.

    2008-02-01

    The Dose Planning Method (DPM) is one of several 'fast' Monte Carlo (MC) computer codes designed to produce an accurate dose calculation for advanced clinical applications. We have developed a flexible machine modeling process and validation tests for open-field and IMRT calculations. To complement the DPM code, a practical and versatile source model has been developed, whose parameters are derived from a standard set of planning system commissioning measurements. The primary photon spectrum and the spectrum resulting from the flattening filter are modeled by a Fatigue function, cut-off by a multiplying Fermi function, which effectively regularizes the difficult energy spectrum determination process. Commonly-used functions are applied to represent the off-axis softening, increasing primary fluence with increasing angle ('the horn effect'), and electron contamination. The patient dependent aspect of the MC dose calculation utilizes the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence file exported from the treatment planning system DICOM output, coupled with the source model, to derive the particle transport. This model has been commissioned for Varian 2100C 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams using percent depth dose, dose profiles, and output factors. A 3-D conformal plan and an IMRT plan delivered to an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used to benchmark the model. The calculated results were compared to Pinnacle v7.6c results and measurements made using radiochromic film and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD).

  4. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  5. Preliminary calculation with code CONTEMPT-LT for spray cooling tests with JAERI model containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mitsugu

    1978-01-01

    LWR plants have a containment spray system to reduce the escape of radioactive material to the environment in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) by washing out fission products, especially radioiodine, and condensing the steam to lower the pressure. For carrying out the containment spray tests, pressure and temperature behaviour of the JAERI Model Containment Vessel in spray cooling has been calculated with computer program CONTEMPT-LT. The following could be studied quantitatively: (1) pressure and temperature raise rates for steam addition rate and (2) pressure fall rate for spray flow rate and spray heat transfer efficiency. (auth.)

  6. Preliminary Criticality Calculation on Conceptual Deep Borehole Disposal System for Trans-metal Waste during Operational Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Choi, Heui Joo; Cho, Dong Geun

    2013-01-01

    The primary function of any repository is to prevent spreading of dangerous materials into surrounding environment. In the case of high-level radioactive waste repository, radioactive material must be isolated and retarded during sufficient decay time to minimize radiation hazard to human and surrounding environment. Sub-criticality of disposal canister and whole disposal system is minimum requisite to prevent multiplication of radiation hazard. In this study, criticality of disposal canister and DBD system for trans-metal waste is calculated to check compliance of sub-criticality. Preliminary calculation on criticality of conceptual deep borehole disposal system and its canister for trans-metal waste during operational phase is conducted in this study. Calculated criticalities at every temperature are under sub-criticalities and criticalities of canister and DBD system considering temperature are expected to become 0.34932 and 0.37618 approximately. There are obvious limitations in this study. To obtain reliable data, exact elementary composition of each component, system component temperature must be specified and applied, and then proper cross section according to each component temperature must be adopted. However, many assumptions, for example simplified elementary concentration and isothermal component temperature, are adopted in this study. Improvement of these data must be conducted in the future work to progress reliability. And, post closure criticality analyses including geo, thermal, hydro, mechanical, chemical mechanism, especially fissile material re-deposition by precipitation and sorption, must be considered to ascertain criticality safety of DBD system as a future work

  7. Preliminary Calculation of the EROI for the Production of Gas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nogovitsyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of energy resources. Production of energy resources in Russia is profitable, both economically and in terms of the energy produced (as measured by EROI. At the present time, Russian oil and gas companies have a policy of energy saving, and data on energy consumption is given in annual reports. Based on these data, we can make the EROI calculation. In 2013, the EROI for the production, transportation and processing of gas for Open joint stock company (OJSC “Gazprom” was 79:1; for OJSC “NOVATEK”, 76:1; for OJSC “Yakutsk Fuel and Energy Company (YATEC”, only for production, 116:1. Currently, the situation in the oil and gas industry has come to a point when there is a need for the introduction of an energy audit.

  8. External radiotherapy in macular degeneration: Our technique, dosimetric calculation, and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmansu, M.; Dirican, Bahar; Oeztuerk, Berrin; Egehan, Ibrahim; Subasi, Mahmut; Or, Meral

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of external-beam radiotherapy in patients with age-related subfoveal neovascularization. Methods and Materials: Between January 1996 and September 1996, 25 patients with a mean age of 70.5 (60-84) years were enrolled. All patients underwent fluorescein angiographic evaluation and documentation of their neovascular disease prior to irradiation. A total of 25 patients were treated with a total dose of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over 8 days. We used a lens-sparing technique and patients were treated with a single lateral 6-MV photon beam. To assess the risk of radiation carcinogenesis after treatment of age-related subfoveal neovascularization, we estimated the effective dose for a standard patient on the basis of tissue-weighting factors as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The calculations were made with TLD on a male randophantom. The lens dose was found to be 0.217 Gy per fraction. Results: No significant acute morbidity was noted. Visual acuity was maintained or improved in 76% and 80% of treated patients at their 1- and 3-month follow-up examinations, respectively. On angiographic imaging, there was stabilization of subfoveal neovascular membranes in 23 patients (92%) at 3 months after irradiation. Conclusion: Our observations on these 25 patients in this study indicate that many patients will have improved or stable vision after radiotherapy treatment with low-dose irradiation

  9. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin

  10. Preliminary neutronics calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xubo; Chen Yixue; Gao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel in PWR was preliminarily studied in this paper. According to the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel characteristics, PWR assembly including fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel was designed. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and their variation were investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly are similar. The design of this paper has a smaller uniformity coefficient of power at the same fissile isotope mass percentage. The results will provide technical support for the future fusion-fission hybrid reactor and PWR combined with cycle system. (authors)

  11. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%. Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.

  12. Preliminary neutron shielding calculations of the electronics in the EAST BES systems focusing on neutron induced displacement damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Náfrádi, Gábor, E-mail: nafradi@reak.bme.hu [Institute of Nuclear Techniques (NTI), Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kovácsik, Ákos, E-mail: kovacsik.akos@reak.bme.hu [Institute of Nuclear Techniques (NTI), Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Németh, József, E-mail: nemeth.jozsef@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics (Wigner RCP), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Pór, Gábor, E-mail: por@reak.bme.hu [Institute of Nuclear Techniques (NTI), Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Zoletnik, Sándor, E-mail: zoletnik.sandor@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics (Wigner RCP), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were carried out to compare neutron shielding capabilities of three frequently used neutron shielding materials: polyethylene without neutron absorbers, polyethylene with boron absorbers and polyethylene with lithium absorbers, according to Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL). The results of 1D shielding calculations showed that simple neutron moderating materials can provide sufficient and cheap shielding against 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV fusion neutrons, in terms of 1 MeV neutron equivalent flux, in silicon targets, which is the most commonly used material of electronic components. Based on these results a new shielding concept is proposed which can be taken into consideration where the reduction of displacement damage is the main goal and the free space available for shielding is limited. Based on this shielding concept detailed 3D calculations were carried out to describe the properties of the neutron shielding of the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) system installed at the EAST tokamak.

  13. Manual for calculating critical loads of heavy metals for soils and surface waters; preliminary guidelines for environmental quality criteria, calculation methods and input data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Bakker, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Methodologies are described for calculating critical loads of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and mercury for soils and surface waters. The aspects which are discussed are: selection of a computation model, determination of environmental-quality criteria for the metals, collection of

  14. SU-C-204-06: Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Kilovoltage X-Ray-Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold

  15. Single crystal structures and theoretical calculations of uranium endohedral metallofullerenes (U@C2n , 2n = 74, 82) show cage isomer dependent oxidation states for U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenting; Morales-Martínez, Roser; Zhang, Xingxing; Najera, Daniel; Romero, Elkin L; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Fortier, Skye; Chen, Ning; Poblet, Josep M; Echegoyen, Luis

    2017-08-01

    Charge transfer is a general phenomenon observed for all endohedral mono-metallofullerenes. Since the detection of the first endohedral metallofullerene (EMF), La@C 82 , in 1991, it has always been observed that the oxidation state of a given encapsulated metal is always the same, regardless of the cage size. No crystallographic data exist for any early actinide endohedrals and little is known about the oxidation states for the few compounds that have been reported. Here we report the X-ray structures of three uranium metallofullerenes, U@ D 3h -C 74 , U@ C 2 (5)-C 82 and U@ C 2v (9)-C 82 , and provide theoretical evidence for cage isomer dependent charge transfer states for U. Results from DFT calculations show that U@ D 3h -C 74 and U@ C 2 (5)-C 82 have tetravalent electronic configurations corresponding to U 4+ @ D 3h -C 74 4- and U 4+ @ C 2 (5)-C 82 4- . Surprisingly, the isomeric U@ C 2v (9)-C 82 has a trivalent electronic configuration corresponding to U 3+ @ C 2v (9)-C 82 3- . These are the first X-ray crystallographic structures of uranium EMFs and this is first observation of metal oxidation state dependence on carbon cage isomerism for mono-EMFs.

  16. Preliminary calculations for the CAFE project (Clean Air For Europe); Calculs preparatoires pour la strategie thematique CAFE (Clean Air For Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The European Commission decided in 2001 an analysis program to reduce the atmospheric emissions. This report presents different limit scenari for France in 2020 (the reference scenari and the MTFR scenari, Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction), optimized scenari calculated by the RAINS model (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation), the costs of the scenari calculated with RAINS and the cost-benefit analysis of the strategy CAFE. From the study results, the benefits are higher than the costs, even with the most ambitious scenari. At an european level the emission reduction strategies have no effect on the employment but an impact on the Gross Domestic Product (decrease between 0,04 % and 0,12 % in function of the scenari). (A.L.B.)

  17. Ratio of thyroid radioiodine uptake calculated via the physic decay rate of the standard radioactive source: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yu; Zhou Luyi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the difference of the ratio of thyroid radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake calculated by actually measuring counts of the standard radioactive source(method 1) and by computing counts of the standard radioactive source via physic half life of 131 I (method 2). Methods: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with Graves' Disease were prospectively recruited. The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake was calculated by two methods at 4 h and 24 h after administration of 1.48 MBq 131 I, respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the two methods. Results: The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake at 4h was (32±16)% and ( 35±10)% (t=1.98, P=0.20), at 24h (72±19)% and (69±24)% ( t=1.49, P=0.23), respectively, by the two methods. Conclusion: To calculate the ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake via the physic half life of the standard radioactive resource is feasible, and can both reduce the risk of ionizing radiation to technical staff and act as verifying method for quality control of thyroid function equipment. (authors)

  18. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Kujtim, E-mail: Kujtim.Latifi@Moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Oliver, Jasmine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (United States); Baker, Ryan [University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States); Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin [Department of Biostatics and Bioinformatics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible

  19. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  20. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  1. Preliminary results of the seventh three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark problem calculation. Solution with DYN3D and RELAP5-3D codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, M.; Hadek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives a brief survey of the seventh three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark calculation results received with the codes DYN3D and RELAP5-3D at Nuclear Research Institute Rez. This benchmark was defined at the twentieth AER Symposium in Hanassari (Finland). It is focused on investigation of transient behaviour in a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. Its initiating event is opening of the main isolation valve and re-connection of the loop with its main circulation pump in operation. The WWER-440 plant is at the end of the first fuel cycle and in hot full power conditions. Stationary and burnup calculations were performed with the code DYN3D. Transient calculation was made with the system code RELAP5-3D. The two-group homogenized cross sections library HELGD05 created by HELIOS code was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The detailed six loops model of NPP Dukovany was adopted for the seventh AER dynamic benchmark purposes. The RELAP5-3D full core neutronic model was coupled with 49 core thermal-hydraulic channels and 8 reflector channels connected with the three-dimensional model of the reactor vessel. The detailed nodalization of reactor downcomer, lower and upper plenum was used. Mixing in lower and upper plenum was simulated. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristic of RELAP5-3D system code and a short description of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters. (Authors)

  2. Preliminary shielding calculation for the system of CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery; Calculo de blindagem preliminar para o sistema de radiocirurgia robotica CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toreti, Dalila; Xavier, Clarice; Moura, Fabio, E-mail: clarice.xavier@rem.ind.b, E-mail: fabio.moura@rem.ind.b [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The CyberKnife robotic system uses a manipulator with six grade of freedom for positioning a 6 MV Linac accelerator for treatment of lesions. This paper presents calculations for a standard room, with 200 cm of thickness walls primary, build for a CyberKnife system, and calculations for a room originally designed for a Linac conventional (with gantry), with secondary barriers of 107 cm thickness. After the realization of shielding for both rooms, the results shown that walls of standard room with 200 cm thickness are adequate for the secondary shield, and for a room with a conventional Linac, from all six evaluated points, two would require additional shielding of nine cm and four cm of concrete with 2.4 g/cubic cm. This shows that the CyberKnife system can be installed in a originally designed room for a conventional Linac with neither restrict nor any shielding, since no incidence of beams on the secondary barriers is existent

  3. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Son (ed.) [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Lanru Jing (ed.) [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Chijimatzu, Masakazu [Hazama Corporation (Japan); Jussila, Petri [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the

  4. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task A. Influence of near field coupled THM phenomena on the performance of a spent fuel repository. Report of Task A1: Preliminary scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Son; Lanru Jing; Boergesson, Lennart; Chijimatzu, Masakazu; Jussila, Petri; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2007-02-01

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. The project involves a large number of research teams supported by radioactive waste management agencies or governmental regulatory bodies in Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden and USA, who conducted advanced studies and numerical modelling of coupled THMC processes under five tasks. This report presents the definition of the first phase, Task A-1, of the Task A of the project. The task is a working example of how interaction between THMC modelling and SA analysis could be performed. Starting with the technical definition of the Task A, the report presents the results of preliminary THM calculations with a purpose of an initial appreciation of the phenomena and material properties that must be better understood in subsequent phases. Many simplifications and assumptions were introduced and the results should be considered under these assumptions. Based on the evaluation of the multiple teams' results, a few points of concern were identified that may guide the successive phases of Task A studies: 1. The predicted maximum total stress in the MX-80 bentonite could slightly exceed the 15 MPa design pressure for the container

  5. Validation of an online risk calculator for the prediction of anastomotic leak after colon cancer surgery and preliminary exploration of artificial intelligence-based analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, T; Cohen, L; Karunatillake, A I; Lewis, M; Lawrence, M J; Hunter, A; Moore, J W; Thomas, M L

    2017-11-01

    Recently published data support the use of a web-based risk calculator ( www.anastomoticleak.com ) for the prediction of anastomotic leak after colectomy. The aim of this study was to externally validate this calculator on a larger dataset. Consecutive adult patients undergoing elective or emergency colectomy for colon cancer at a single institution over a 9-year period were identified using the Binational Colorectal Cancer Audit database. Patients with a rectosigmoid cancer, an R2 resection, or a diverting ostomy were excluded. The primary outcome was anastomotic leak within 90 days as defined by previously published criteria. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was derived and compared with that of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program ® (ACS NSQIP) calculator and the colon leakage score (CLS) calculator for left colectomy. Commercially available artificial intelligence-based analytics software was used to further interrogate the prediction algorithm. A total of 626 patients were identified. Four hundred and fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria, and 402 had complete data available for all the calculator variables (126 had a left colectomy). Laparoscopic surgery was performed in 39.6% and emergency surgery in 14.7%. The anastomotic leak rate was 7.2%, with 31.0% requiring reoperation. The anastomoticleak.com calculator was significantly predictive of leak and performed better than the ACS NSQIP calculator (AUROC 0.73 vs 0.58) and the CLS calculator (AUROC 0.96 vs 0.80) for left colectomy. Artificial intelligence-predictive analysis supported these findings and identified an improved prediction model. The anastomotic leak risk calculator is significantly predictive of anastomotic leak after colon cancer resection. Wider investigation of artificial intelligence-based analytics for risk prediction is warranted.

  6. Preliminary Calculation of the Energy Budget of the Radio Lines Orbital Method of Monitoring of Incidents caused by the Operator of the GLONASS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yurievich Senatorov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of the power transmitter onboard GLONASS satellites is submitted for the operation method of orbital monitoring of incidents caused by the system operator. Article is devoted to the description of actual ways of possible distribution of malwares such, as “Easter eggs”, client network applications (torrent-client and service of digital distribution. As the experiment description on distribution of malwares is provided in the simulated virtual network by means of service of digital distribution. Rules on safety of the user computers in a network are developed.

  7. Preliminary calculations of stress change of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites for GFR with changing of thermal conductivity degradation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Naganuma, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is being researched as a candidate concept of Generation IV international Forum. As a main feature of GFR, it should be maintained high temperature and pressure of coolant gas for heat transfer efficiency. Such a demanding environment requires high-temperature-resistant structural materials distinguished from traditional steel material. Consequently, ceramics are promising candidate material of core components. Especially, Silicon Carbide fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide composites (SiC/SiC) have encouraging characteristics such as refractoriness, low activation and toughness. Application of new material to core components must be explained by the viewpoint of engineering validity. Therefore, present study surveyed that current report for mechanical strength and thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites. According to the reports, neutron irradiation environment degraded mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites. To confirm applicability to core components, model of fuel pin using SiC/SiC composites was assumed with feasible mechanical properties. Furthermore, it was calculated and estimated that the stress caused by temperature variation of inner and outer side of assumed model of cladding tube. Stress was calculated by changing of input date such as thickness of cladding tube, temperature variation, thermal conductivity and linear power. In the range of this study, the most important factor was identified as degradation of thermal conductivity by irradiation. It caused a significant stress and limited a geometrical design of fuel pin. It was discussed that the differences of heat transfer between isotropic and anisotropic materials like a metal and composites. These results should be helpful not only to determine a design factor of core component but also to indicate an improvement direction of SiC/SiC composites. Through these work, reliability and safety of GFR will be increased

  8. Preliminary study on the differentiation between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous using only pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Wei, Lequn; Ren, Chenglong; Zhou, Jieli; Shen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of using the quantitative parameters from only the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 28 patients with parapelvic cyst and 24 patients with HNC who underwent standard pre-contrast and multiphase contrast-enhanced dual-energy spectral CT imaging were retrospectively identified. The parapelvic cyst and HNC were identified using the contrast-enhanced scans, and their CT number in the 70-keV monochromatic images, effective atomic number (Zeff), iodine concentration (IC) and water concentration in the pre-contrast images were measured. The slope of the spectral curve (λ) was calculated. The difference in the measurements between parapelvic cyst and HNC was statistically analyzed using SPSS® v. 19.0 (IBM Corp., New York, NY; formerly SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) statistical software. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: The CT numbers in the 70-keV images, Zeff and IC values were statistically different between parapelvic cyst and HNC (all p  0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative parameters obtained in the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging may be used to differentiate between parapelvic cyst and HNC. Advances in knowledge: The pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT scans may be used to screen parapelvic cysts for patients who are asymptomatic, thereby avoiding contrast-enhanced CT or CT urography examination for these patients to reduce ionizing radiation dose and contrast dose. PMID:28281789

  9. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  11. Three recent TDHF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1981-05-01

    Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision 40 Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for 16 O + 24 Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of 86 Kr + 139 La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed

  12. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  13. A new calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux: the FLUKA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bloise, C.; Cavalli, D.; Ferrari, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rancati, T.; Resconi, S.; Ronga, F.; Sala, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary results from a full 3-D calculation of atmospheric neutrino fluxes using the FLUKA interaction model are presented and compared to previous existing calculations. This effort is motivated mainly by the 3-D capability and the satisfactory degree of accuracy of the hadron-nucleus models embedded in the FLUKA code. Here we show examples of benchmarking tests of the model with cosmic ray experiment results. A comparison of our calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux with that of the Bartol group, for E ν > 1 GeV, is presented

  14. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  15. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  16. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  17. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  20. 商標侵權案件定暫時狀態處分審酌因素之釋明──以eBay案後美國法發展與我國判決實務為中心 The Preliminary Showing on the Factors of Preliminary Injunction in Trademark Infringement Cases─Focusing on American Law after the eBay Case and Taiwan Court Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    范智達 Jr-Da Fan

    2015-12-01

    要求原告花費額外資源去釋明本案勝訴可能性以外之其他因素事實。 In eBay v. MercExchange (2006, the U.S. Supreme Court held that courts must apply the traditional four-factor test for injunctive relief in every case. These “principles of equity” required courts to employ the traditional four-factor test under which the plaintiff must demonstrate (1 a likelihood of success of the merits; (2 the existence of irreparable harm; (3 that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief; and (4 that granting an injunction would not harm the public interest. But when assessing whether a particular instance of trademark infringement resulted in “irreparable harm” U.S. federal courts almost uniformly presumed such irreparable harm upon a finding of likelihood of confusion. In fact, the eBay rules should not be used to eviscerate the normal presumption of irreparable harm that attaches upon a showing of liability in trademark cases. In our country when granting or denying preliminary injunction of trademark infringement cases, the plaintiff often provides a preliminary showing with regard to the existence of legal relation and trademark infringement documentary evidence, not actively providing the existence of irreparable harm, that the balance of hardships tilts in favor of injunctive relief and that an injunction is in the public interest. The court reviewing an application for preliminary injunction deliberates on the likelihood of success on the merits as the most important consideration. Compared with patent and copyright cases of the discretion of the preliminary injunction, the court mainly deliberates on the likelihood of success and the existence of irreparable harm as the most important factor. It is clear intellectual property cases, especially trademark cases on the set of preliminary injunction claim, do not require the plaintiff to take the burden of all factors of trial discretion in Taiwan. Because these harms to

  1. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  2. Theory analysis and simple calculation of travelling wave burnup scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yu Hong; Gang Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Travelling wave burnup scheme is a new burnup scheme that breeds fuel locally just before it burns. Based on the preliminary theory analysis, the physical imagine was found. Through the calculation of a R-z cylinder travelling wave reactor core with ERANOS code system, the basic physical characteristics of this new burnup scheme were concluded. The results show that travelling wave reactor is feasible in physics, and there are some good features in the reactor physics. (authors)

  3. A calculation of the ZH → γ H decay in the Littlest Higgs Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J I; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F; Tututi, E S; Cortés-Maldonado, I

    2016-01-01

    New heavy neutral gauge bosons are predicted in many extensions of the Standard Model, those new bosons are associated with additional gauge symmetries. We present a preliminary calculation of the branching ratio decay for heavy neutral gauge bosons ( Z h ) into γ H in the most popular version of the Little Higgs models. The calculation involves the main contributions at one-loop level induced by fermions, scalars and gauge bosons. Preliminary results show a very suppressed branching ratio of the order of 10 -6 . (paper)

  4. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  5. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  6. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianda, B.

    2004-01-01

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their

  7. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  8. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  9. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  10. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  11. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  12. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  13. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  14. Many-body calculations with deuteron based single-particle bases and their associated natural orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, G.

    2018-06-01

    We use the recently introduced single-particle states obtained from localized deuteron wave-functions as a basis for nuclear many-body calculations. We show that energies can be substantially lowered if the natural orbits (NOs) obtained from this basis are used. We use this modified basis for {}10{{B}}, {}16{{O}} and {}24{{Mg}} employing the bare NNLOopt nucleon–nucleon interaction. The lowering of the energies increases with the mass. Although in principle NOs require a full scale preliminary many-body calculation, we found that an approximate preliminary many-body calculation, with a marginal increase in the computational cost, is sufficient. The use of natural orbits based on an harmonic oscillator basis leads to a much smaller lowering of the energies for a comparable computational cost.

  15. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Preliminary safety analysis of the HTTR-IS nuclear hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tachibana, Yukio; Sakaba, Nariaki

    2010-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning to demonstrate hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting IS process utilizing heat from the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTTR (HTTR-IS system). The previous study identified that the HTTR modification due to the coupling of hydrogen production plant requires an additional safety review since the scenario and quantitative values of the evaluation items would be altered from the original HTTR safety review. Hence, preliminary safety analyses are conducted by using the system analysis code. Calculation results showed that evaluation items such as a coolant pressure, temperatures of heat transfer tubes at the pressure boundary, etc., did not exceed allowable values. Also, the peak fuel temperature did not exceed allowable value and therefore the reactor core was not damaged and cooled sufficiently. This report compiles calculation conditions, event scenarios and the calculation results of the preliminary safety analysis. (author)

  17. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  18. Nuclear Data Processing for Reactor Physics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear data processing for reactor physics calculation has been done. Raw nuclear data cross-sections on file ENDF should be prepared and processed before it used in neutronic calculation. The processing code system such as NJOY-PC code has been used from linearization of nuclear cross-sections data and background contribution of resonance parameter (MF2) using RECONR module (0K) with energy range from 10 -5 to 10 7 eV. Afterward, the neutron cross-sections data should be processed and broadened to desire temperature (i.e. 293K) by using BROADR module. The Grouper and Therma modules will be applied for multi-groups calculation which suitable for WIMS/D4 (69 groups) and thermalization of nuclear constants. The final stage of processing nuclear cross-sections is updating WIMS/D4 library. The WIMSR module in NJOY-PC and WILLIE code will be applied in this stage. The evaluated nuclear data file, especially for 1 H 1 isotope, was taken from JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI for preliminary study. The results of nuclear data processing 1 H 1 shows that the old-WIMS (WIMS-lama) library have much discrepancies comparing with JENDL-3.2 or ENDF/B-VI files, especially in energy around 5 keV

  19. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  20. Energy mesh optimization for multi-level calculation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, P.; Taofiki, A.; Bellier, P.; Prevost, A.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial calculations of third generation nuclear reactors are based on sophisticated strategies of homogenization and collapsing at different spatial and energetic levels. An important issue to ensure the quality of these calculation models is the choice of the collapsing energy mesh. In this work, we show a new approach to generate optimized energy meshes starting from the SHEM 281-group library. The optimization model is applied on 1D cylindrical cells and consists of finding an energy mesh which minimizes the errors between two successive collision probability calculations. The former is realized over the fine SHEM mesh with Livolant-Jeanpierre self-shielded cross sections and the latter is performed with collapsed cross sections over the energy mesh being optimized. The optimization is done by the particle swarm algorithm implemented in the code AEMC and multigroup flux solutions are obtained from standard APOLLO2 solvers. By this new approach, a set of new optimized meshes which encompass from 10 to 50 groups has been defined for PWR and BWR calculations. This set will allow users to adapt the energy detail of the solution to the complexity of the calculation (assembly, multi-assembly, two-dimensional whole core). Some preliminary verifications, in which the accuracy of the new meshes is measured compared to a direct 281-group calculation, show that the 30-group optimized mesh offers a good compromise between simulation time and accuracy for a standard 17 x 17 UO 2 assembly with and without control rods. (author)

  1. Preliminary design of RDE feedwater pump impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, pumps are being widely used in the thermal power generation including nuclear power plants. Reaktor Daya Experimental (RDE) is a proposed nuclear reactor concept for the type of nuclear power plant in Indonesia. This RDE has thermal power 10 MW th , and uses a feedwater pump within its steam cycle. The performance of feedwater pump depends on size and geometry of impeller model, such as the number of blades and the blade angle. The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary design on an impeller of feedwater pump for RDE and to simulate its performance characteristics. The Fortran code is used as an aid in data calculation in order to rapidly compute the blade shape of feedwater pump impeller, particularly for a RDE case. The calculations analyses is solved by utilizing empirical correlations, which are related to size and geometry of a pump impeller model, while performance characteristics analysis is done based on velocity triangle diagram. The effect of leakage, pass through the impeller due to the required clearances between the feedwater pump impeller and the volute channel, is also considered. Comparison between the feedwater pump of HTR-10 and of RDE shows similarity in the trend line of curve shape. These characteristics curves will be very useful for the values prediction of performance of a RDE feedwater pump. Preliminary design of feedwater pump provides the size and geometry of impeller blade model with 5-blades, inlet angle 14.5 degrees, exit angle 25 degrees, inside diameter 81.3 mm, exit diameter 275.2 mm, thickness 4.7 mm, and height 14.1 mm. In addition, the optimal values of performance characteristics were obtained when flow capacity was 4.8 kg/s, fluid head was 29.1 m, shaft mechanical power was 2.64 kW, and efficiency was 52 % at rotational speed 1750 rpm. (author)

  2. Preliminary test results from a telescope of Hughes pixel arrays at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.; Vezie, D.; Collins, T.; Krider, J.; Skubic, P.

    1992-09-01

    In December of 1991 three silicon hybrid pixel detectors each having 2.56 x 2.56 pixels 30 μm square, made by the Hughes Aircraft Company, were placed in a high energy muon beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Straight tracks were recorded in these detectors at angles to the normal to the plane of the silicon ranging from 0 to 45 degrees. In this note, preliminary results are presented on the straight through tracks, i.e., those passing through the telescope at normal incidence. Pulse height data, signal-to-noise data, and preliminary straight line fits to the data resulting in residual distributions are presented. Preliminary calculations show spatial resolution of less than 5 μm in two dimensions

  3. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette

    The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Experience has shown that results for the same room, obtained from two daylight simulation...... programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...

  4. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.

    1994-07-01

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)

  8. Magnetic field calculation of the Na-4 muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvach, J.; Il'yushchenko, V.I.; Savin, I.A.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    A NA-4 muon spectrometer is described. Preliminary results of calculating a magnetic field in a toroidal magnetic detector are given. The spectrometer includes 10 similar supermodules each of which consists of 32 iron discs with 275 cm outer diameter magnetized up to saturation. Each module is an independent detector. The POISSON program is used for calculating magnetic field distribution in a toroidal spectrometer magnet. The results obtained show that a magnetic field of iron is a toroidal one and drops approximately according to the logarithmic law from 21.1 kGs on an inner magnet rig to 17.7 kGs on an outer. Magnet support gives approximately 2 % error

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  11. 3-D calculations for comparison with the experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrsen, A M; Bosser, R

    1973-09-27

    In order to analyse the axial power profile measurements an attempt has been made to do full 3-D calculations for the Dragon reactor. The calculations are still at a very early stage, but the methods used will be outlined here together with the plans for investigations to be carried out in the near future. Some preliminary-results are reported as no final results have yet been obtained. 3-D calculations are rather expensive because of the computer time consumption. It is therefore essential, before too many big computer jobs are spent, to find approximations which can save calculation time. On the other hand some savings, for instance in the number of mesh points, may cause totally wrong results. The ''proper'' calculations have therefore to be proceeded by a number of preliminary investigations, to ensure optimum accuracy and computer expenses. This report contains some of these preliminary studies.

  12. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  13. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  14. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  15. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri

    2017-01-01

    for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up...... to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source....

  16. Comparison Between Calculated and Measured Cross Section Changes in Natural Uranium Irradiated in NRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, P E

    1961-03-15

    It is desirable to obtain an experimental check of the reliability of the methods currently used to determine reactivity changes in a reactor and, with a view to meeting this requirement to some extent, a preliminary comparison has been made between calculated and measured cross-section changes in rods of natural uranium irradiated in NRX. The measurements were made at Harwell in the GLEEP reactor and a description has been given by, inter alia, Ward and Craig. The theory of the calculations, which is briefly described in this report, has been indicated by Littler. The investigation showed that the methods for calculating burn up used at present provides a good illustration of the long-term variations in isotope contents. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with experimental results when calculating apparent cross-section changes in uranium rods due to irradiation if the fission cross- section for {sup 239}Pu is set to 780 b. This is 34 b higher than the figure quoted in BNL - 325 (1958). However, in order to get a good idea as to whether the calculated long-term variations in reactivity really correspond to reality, it is necessary to make further investigations. For this reason the results quoted in this report should be regarded as preliminary.

  17. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  18. Cadangan Full Preliminary Term Asuransi Dwiguna Dengan Hukum De Moivre

    OpenAIRE

    Faradilla, Sherly Mutya; ', Hasriati; Nababan, Tumpal Parulian

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses premium reserve endowment life insurance for years. The reserve is calculated by the method of full preliminary term based on net annual premium, with the first net annual premium and the second net annual premium . Net annual premium is affected by amount of single premium and annuity due. De Moivre law is applied to calculate the reserve.

  19. Preliminary thermal and stress analysis of the SINQ window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, G.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of a finite element analysis for the SINQ proton beam window are presented. Temperatures and stresses are calculated in an axisymmetric model. As a result of these calculations, the H 2 O-cooled window (safety window) could be redesigned in such a way that plastic deformation resulting from excessive stress in some areas is avoided. (author)

  20. Deuteron-induced activation data in EAF for IFMIF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.; Cook, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main type of activation calculations needed for fusion technology deals with the interaction of neutrons with materials. The road map for development of fusion as an electricity producing technology is based on ITER and IFMIF followed by DEMO. IFMIF is a materials testing facility that will enable materials planned to be used in DEMO to be irradiated to very high fluences, so providing the database of material properties required for the licensing of DEMO. IFMIF will use intense beams of high energy deuterons striking a flowing lithium target to produce the neutron field. Although the neutron spectrum is a good match to those produced in a D-T fusion device, there is a significant high energy tail extending up to 55 MeV. These high energy neutrons were the motivation for increasing the upper energy limit in the neutron-induced part of EAF-2005 so that activation calculations could be made in IFMIF. The deuterons themselves will also make a contribution to activation especially in the target where they strike the lithium but also due to beam losses in the accelerator. It was realised that because of corrosion in the lithium loop there is the potential for a wide range of elements to be present in the target region and it is therefore necessary to have a complete library of deuteron-induced cross section data, just as in the neutron case. A preliminary library based on model calculations with TALYS using global parameters was used to construct a deuteron-induced library and this was released as part of the maintenance release of EAF-2005.1 at the beginning of this year. This data library has been used with an updated version of the inventory code FISPACT to calculate the activation in the lithium target due to reactions of the deuterons with the corrosion products. These calculations show that deuterons are much more important than neutrons (about a factor of 70) in activating the elements other than lithium. This work shows the importance of the effect and means

  1. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  2. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon but also what people are intending to convey with their utterances: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this article we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of…

  3. Do Adults Show an Effect of Delayed First Language Acquisition When Calculating Scalar Implicatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Mayberry, Rachel I

    Language acquisition involves learning not only grammatical rules and a lexicon, but also what someone is intending to convey with their utterance: the semantic/pragmatic component of language. In this paper we separate the contributions of linguistic development and cognitive maturity to the acquisition of the semantic/pragmatic component of language by comparing deaf adults who had either early or late first exposure to their first language (ASL). We focus on the particular type of meaning at the semantic/pragmatic interface called scalar implicature , for which preschool-age children typically differ from adults. Children's behavior has been attributed to either their not knowing appropriate linguistic alternatives to consider or to cognitive developmental differences between children and adults. Unlike children, deaf adults with late language exposure are cognitively mature, although they never fully acquire some complex linguistic structures, and thus serve as a test for the role of language in such interpretations. Our results indicate an overall high performance by late learners, especially when implicatures are not based on conventionalized items. However, compared to early language learners, late language learners compute fewer implicatures when conventionalized linguistic alternatives are involved (e.g. ). We conclude that (i) in general, Gricean pragmatic reasoning does not seem to be impacted by delayed first language acquisition and can account for multiple quantity implicatures, but (ii) the creation of a scale based on lexical items can lead to ease in alternative creation that may be advantageously learned early in life, and that this may be one of several factors contributing to differences between adults and children on scalar implicature tasks.

  4. A preliminary DTI study showing no brain structural change associated with adolescent cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Kyle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses were performed on brain MRI scans from individuals who were frequent cannabis users (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age 21.1 ± 2.9, range: 18–27 in adolescence and similar age and sex matched young adults who never used cannabis (N = 10; 9 males, 1 female, mean age of 23.0 ± 4.4, range: 17–30. Cerebral atrophy and white matter integrity were determined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to quantify the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the fractional anisotropy (FA. Whole brain volumes, lateral ventricular volumes, and gray matter volumes of the amygdala-hippocampal complex, superior temporal gyrus, and entire temporal lobes (excluding the amygdala-hippocampal complex were also measured. While differences existed between groups, no pattern consistent with evidence of cerebral atrophy or loss of white matter integrity was detected. It is concluded that frequent cannabis use is unlikely to be neurotoxic to the normal developing adolescent brain.

  5. Preliminary Investigations Showing Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence in Patients with Residual Venous Obstruction in Singaporean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Ashish Anil; Er, Chaozer; Chong, Claudia Y X; Chin, Han Xin; Chin, Tay Jam

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the association of residual venous obstruction (RVO) with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). A retrospective cohort study was conducted determining if RVO on ultrasonography is associated with recurrent VTE in a Singaporean population. The subjects were identified from the Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory patients' record of Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), Singapore between 2008 and 2013. All the patients included had RVO after 3 months of anticoagulation. Data such as age, gender, race, thrombus location, etiology, history of malignancy, thrombophilia screen, treatment duration, and follow-up were recorded for analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata/SE 13.1 (StataCorp LLC). The study was approved by the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB), Singapore. Out of the 34 patients who had RVO, 6 (17.6%) developed VTE recurrence. Patients were treated with anticoagulation for a mean time of 24.5 months. The mean follow-up time for VTE recurrence was 25.4 months. Out of the six patients who had VTE recurrence, one had common iliac vein involvement, four had superficial femoral vein and common femoral vein involvement, zero had popliteal vein involvement, and one had calf veins involvement. There was a significant association between thrombophilia ( p  = 0.0195) and malignancy ( p  = 0.020) at inclusion with the risk of recurrent VTE. The presence of RVO after 3 months of anticoagulation is likely to increase the risk of VTE recurrence. Larger studies with RVO are needed to evaluate if there is an increased risk of VTE recurrence in the Asian population.

  6. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  7. Preliminary prediction of inflow into the D-holes at the Stripa Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Karasaki, K.; Davey, A.; Peterson, J.; Landsfeld, M.; Kemeny, J.; Martel, S.

    1990-02-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is contracted by the US Department of Energy to provide an auxiliary modeling effort for the Stripa Project. Within this effort, we are making calculations of inflow to the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE), i.e. inflow to six parallel, closely spaced D-holes, using a preliminary set of data collected in five other holes, the N- and W-holes during Stages 1 and 2 of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. Our approach has been to focus on the fracture zones rather than the general set of ubiquitous fractures. Approximately 90% of all the water flowing in the rock is flowing in fracture zones which are neither uniformly conductive nor are they infinitely extensive. Our approach has been to adopt the fracture zone locations as they have been identified with geophysics. We use geologic sense and the original geophysical data to add one zone where significant water inflow has been observed that can not be explained with the other geophysical zones. This report covers LBL's preliminary prediction of flow into the D-holes. Care should be taken in interpreting the results given in this report. As explained below, the approach that LBL has designed for developing a fracture hydrology model requires cross-hole hydrologic data. Cross-hole tests are planned for Stage 3 but were unavailable in Stage 1. As such, we have inferred from available data what a cross-hole test might show and used this synthetic data to make a preliminary calculation of the inflow into the D-holes. Then using all the Stage 3 data we will calculate flow into the Validation Drift itself. The report mainly demonstrates the use of our methodology and the simulated results should be considered preliminary

  8. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  9. Comparison of calculational methods for EBT reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, R.J.; Seed, T.J.; Soran, P.D.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Nucleonic calculations for a preliminary conceptual design of the first wall/blanket/shield/coil assembly for an EBT reactor are described. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo, and one- and two-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations are compared. Good agreement for the calculated values of tritium breeding and nuclear heating is seen. We find that the three methods are all useful and complementary as a design of this type evolves

  10. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zydroń Tymoteusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians - preliminary results. Preliminary shallow landslide susceptibility mapping of the Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys, located in the Polish Flysch Carpathians, is presented in the paper. For the purpose of mapping, there were used SINMAP and Iverson’s models integrating infiltration and slope stability calculations. The calibration of the used models parameters, obtained from limited field and laboratory tests, was performed using data from 8-9 July 1997, when as a consequence of a very intense rainfall, 94 shallow landslides were observed on meadows and arable lands. A comparison of the slope stability calculation results and the localisation of the noticed shallow landslides showed satisfactory agreement between localisation of the observed and computed unstable areas. However, it was concluded that better simulation results were obtained using Iverson’s model.

  11. Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Susilo,; Efendi, Joni [Agency for Geospatial Information (BIG) (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.

  12. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  13. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SZALEWSKI, B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering

  14. Adjoint electron Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adjoint Monte Carlo is the most efficient method for accurate analysis of space systems exposed to natural and artificially enhanced electron environments. Recent adjoint calculations for isotropic electron environments include: comparative data for experimental measurements on electronics boxes; benchmark problem solutions for comparing total dose prediction methodologies; preliminary assessment of sectoring methods used during space system design; and total dose predictions on an electronics package. Adjoint Monte Carlo, forward Monte Carlo, and experiment are in excellent agreement for electron sources that simulate space environments. For electron space environments, adjoint Monte Carlo is clearly superior to forward Monte Carlo, requiring one to two orders of magnitude less computer time for relatively simple geometries. The solid-angle sectoring approximations used for routine design calculations can err by more than a factor of 2 on dose in simple shield geometries. For critical space systems exposed to severe electron environments, these potential sectoring errors demand the establishment of large design margins and/or verification of shield design by adjoint Monte Carlo/experiment

  15. Feasibility study on embedded transport core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.; Zikatanov, L.; Ivanov, K.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an advanced core calculation methodology based on embedded diffusion and transport calculations. The scheme proposed in this work is based on embedded diffusion or SP 3 pin-by-pin local fuel assembly calculation within the framework of the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) diffusion core calculation. The SP 3 method has gained popularity in the last 10 years as an advanced method for neutronics calculation. NEM is a multi-group nodal diffusion code developed, maintained and continuously improved at the Pennsylvania State University. The developed calculation scheme is a non-linear iteration process, which involves cross-section homogenization, on-line discontinuity factors generation, and boundary conditions evaluation by the global solution passed to the local calculation. In order to accomplish the local calculation, a new code has been developed based on the Finite Elements Method (FEM), which is capable of performing both diffusion and SP 3 calculations. The new code will be used in the framework of the NEM code in order to perform embedded pin-by-pin diffusion and SP 3 calculations on fuel assembly basis. The development of the diffusion and SP 3 FEM code is presented first following by its application to several problems. Description of the proposed embedded scheme is provided next as well as the obtained preliminary results of the C3 MOX benchmark. The results from the embedded calculations are compared with direct pin-by-pin whole core calculations in terms of accuracy and efficiency followed by conclusions made about the feasibility of the proposed embedded approach. (authors)

  16. Heterogeneous Calculation of {epsilon}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-15

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of {epsilon}. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer.

  17. Heterogeneous Calculation of ε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-01

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer

  18. Criticality coefficient calculation for a small PWR using Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: dtrombetta@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chirayath, Sunil S., E-mail: sunilsc@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, TX (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Computational models of reactors are increasingly used to predict nuclear reactor physics parameters responsible for reactivity changes which could lead to accidents and losses. In this work, preliminary results for criticality coefficient calculation using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX were presented for a small PWR. The computational modeling developed consists of the core with fuel elements, radial reflectors, and control rods inside a pressure vessel. Three different geometries were simulated, a single fuel pin, a fuel assembly and the core, with the aim to compare the criticality coefficients among themselves.The criticality coefficients calculated were: Doppler Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Void Coefficient, Power Coefficient, and Control Rod Worth. The coefficient values calculated by the MCNP code were compared with literature results, showing good agreement with reference data, which validate the computational model developed and allow it to be used to perform more complex studies. Criticality Coefficient values for the three simulations done had little discrepancy for almost all coefficients investigated, the only exception was the Power Coefficient. Preliminary results presented show that simple modelling as a fuel assembly can describe changes at almost all the criticality coefficients, avoiding the need of a complex core simulation. (author)

  19. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... the seeds are used in the treatment of skin infections. ... Screening with DPPH showed prominent antioxidant spots on silica at Rf 0.8, 0.5, 0.4 .... underpins conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, ..... As a follow-up to the preliminary TLC studies.

  20. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  1. Preliminary bathymetry; approaches to Unakwik Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  2. Comparison of Calculation Models for Bucket Foundation in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Molina, Salvador Devant; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The possibility of fast and rather precise preliminary offshore foundation design is desirable. The ultimate limit state of bucket foundation is investigated using three different geotechnical calculation tools: [Ibsen 2001] an analytical method, LimitState:GEO and Plaxis 3D. The study has focused...... on resultant bearing capacity of variously embedded foundation in sand. The 2D models, [Ibsen 2001] and LimitState:GEO can be used for the preliminary design because they are fast and result in a rather similar bearing capacity calculation compared with the finite element models of Plaxis 3D. The 2D models...

  3. Nuclear Reactor Component Code CUPID-I: Numerical Scheme and Preliminary Assessment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young

    2007-12-01

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components of a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAC, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE, Row Scheme and so on. Among them, the ICE scheme for the three-field model was presented in the present report. The CUPID code is utilizing unstructured mesh for the simulation of complicated geometries of the nuclear reactor components. The conventional ICE scheme that was applied to RELAP5 and COBRA-TF, therefore, were modified for the application to the unstructured mesh. Preliminary calculations for the unstructured semi-implicit ICE scheme have been conducted for a verification of the numerical method from a qualitative point of view. The preliminary calculation results showed that the present numerical scheme is robust and efficient for the prediction of phase changes and flow transitions due to a boiling and a flashing. These calculation results also showed the strong coupling between the pressure and void fraction changes. Thus, it is believed that the semi-implicit ICE scheme can be utilized for transient two-phase flows in a component of a nuclear reactor

  4. Nuclear Reactor Component Code CUPID-I: Numerical Scheme and Preliminary Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young

    2007-12-15

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components of a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAC, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE, Row Scheme and so on. Among them, the ICE scheme for the three-field model was presented in the present report. The CUPID code is utilizing unstructured mesh for the simulation of complicated geometries of the nuclear reactor components. The conventional ICE scheme that was applied to RELAP5 and COBRA-TF, therefore, were modified for the application to the unstructured mesh. Preliminary calculations for the unstructured semi-implicit ICE scheme have been conducted for a verification of the numerical method from a qualitative point of view. The preliminary calculation results showed that the present numerical scheme is robust and efficient for the prediction of phase changes and flow transitions due to a boiling and a flashing. These calculation results also showed the strong coupling between the pressure and void fraction changes. Thus, it is believed that the semi-implicit ICE scheme can be utilized for transient two-phase flows in a component of a nuclear reactor.

  5. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  6. The friction of polymers around Tg,Tm : Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary and they......We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary...

  7. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  8. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  9. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  10. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  11. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  12. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  13. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  14. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  15. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  16. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  17. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  18. Uneconomical top calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.; Vanm Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2003-08-01

    The methodology used to calculate the financial gap of renewable electricity sources and technologies is described. This methodology is used for calculating the production subsidy levels (MEP subsidies) for new renewable electricity projects in 2004 and 2005 in the Netherlands [nl

  19. Molecular calculations with B functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinborn, E.O.; Homeier, H.H.H.; Ema, I.; Lopez, R.; Ramirez, G.

    2000-01-01

    A program for molecular calculations with B functions is reported and its performance is analyzed. All the one- and two-center integrals and the three-center nuclear attraction integrals are computed by direct procedures, using previously developed algorithms. The three- and four-center electron repulsion integrals are computed by means of Gaussian expansions of the B functions. A new procedure for obtaining these expansions is also reported. Some results on full molecular calculations are included to show the capabilities of the program and the quality of the B functions to represent the electronic functions in molecules

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  2. Dose calculation for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    The joint working group of ICRP/ICRU is advancing the works of reviewing the ICRP publication 51 by investigating the data related to radiation protection. In order to introduce the 1990 recommendation, it has been demanded to carry out calculation for neutrons, photons and electrons. As for electrons, EURADOS WG4 (Numerical Dosimetry) rearranged the data to be calculated at the meeting held in PTB Braunschweig in June, 1992, and the question and request were presented by Dr. J.L. Chartier, the responsible person, to the researchers who are likely to undertake electron transport Monte Carlo calculation. The author also has carried out the requested calculation as it was the good chance to do the mutual comparison among various computation codes regarding electron transport calculation. The content that the WG requested to calculate was the absorbed dose at depth d mm when parallel electron beam enters at angle α into flat plate phantoms of PMMA, water and ICRU4-element tissue, which were placed in vacuum. The calculation was carried out by the versatile electron-photon shower computation Monte Carlo code, EGS4. As the results, depth dose curves and the dependence of absorbed dose on electron energy, incident angle and material are reported. The subjects to be investigated are pointed out. (K.I.)

  3. Large scale GW calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govoni, Marco; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL; Galli, Giulia; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL

    2015-01-01

    We present GW calculations of molecules, ordered and disordered solids and interfaces, which employ an efficient contour deformation technique for frequency integration and do not require the explicit evaluation of virtual electronic states nor the inversion of dielectric matrices. We also present a parallel implementation of the algorithm, which takes advantage of separable expressions of both the single particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The method can be used starting from density functional theory calculations performed with semilocal or hybrid functionals. The newly developed technique was applied to GW calculations of systems of unprecedented size, including water/semiconductor interfaces with thousands of electrons

  4. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  5. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  6. Mordred: a molecular descriptor calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hirotomo; Tian, Yu-Shi; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya

    2018-02-06

    Molecular descriptors are widely employed to present molecular characteristics in cheminformatics. Various molecular-descriptor-calculation software programs have been developed. However, users of those programs must contend with several issues, including software bugs, insufficient update frequencies, and software licensing constraints. To address these issues, we propose Mordred, a developed descriptor-calculation software application that can calculate more than 1800 two- and three-dimensional descriptors. It is freely available via GitHub. Mordred can be easily installed and used in the command line interface, as a web application, or as a high-flexibility Python package on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, and macOS). Performance benchmark results show that Mordred is at least twice as fast as the well-known PaDEL-Descriptor and it can calculate descriptors for large molecules, which cannot be accomplished by other software. Owing to its good performance, convenience, number of descriptors, and a lax licensing constraint, Mordred is a promising choice of molecular descriptor calculation software that can be utilized for cheminformatics studies, such as those on quantitative structure-property relationships.

  7. Propagation calculation for reactor cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yanhua [School of Power and Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Moriyama, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hashimoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    The propagation of steam explosion for real reactor geometry and conditions are investigated by using the computer code JASMINE-pro. The ex-vessel steam explosion is considered, which is described as follow: during the accident of reactor core meltdown, the molten core melts a hole at the bottom of reactor vessel and causes the higher temperature core fuel being leaked into the water pool below reactor vessel. During the melt-water mixing interaction process, the high temperature melt evaporates the cool water at an extreme high rate and might induce a steam explosion. A steam explosion could experience first the premixing phase and then the propagation explosion phase. For a propagation calculation, we should know the information about the initial fragmentation time, the total melt mass, premixing region size, initial void fraction and distribution of the melt volume fraction, and so on. All the initial conditions used in this calculation are based on analyses from some simple assumptions and the observation from the experiments. The results show that the most important parameter for the initial condition of this phase is the total mass and its initial distribution. This gives the requirement for a premixing calculation. On the other hand, for higher melt volume fraction case, the fragmentation is strong so that the local pressure can exceed over the EOS maximum pressure of the code, which lead to the incorrect calculation or divergence of the calculation. (Suetake, M.)

  8. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  9. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  10. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  11. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  12. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  13. Casio Graphical Calculator Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences of a project aimed at developing and refining programs written on a Casio FX9750G graphing calculator. Describes in detail some programs used to develop mental strategies and problem solving skills. (MM)

  14. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  15. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  16. Activities for Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)

  17. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  18. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  19. Source and replica calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  20. Shielding calculations using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri; Tesch, K.; Dinter, H.

    1988-06-01

    The dose equivalent on the surface of concrete shielding has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA86 for incident proton energies from 10 to 800 GeV. The results have been compared with some simple equations. The value of the angular dependent parameter in Moyer's equation has been calculated from the locations where the values of the maximum dose equivalent occur. (author)

  1. Particle-in-Cell Calculations of the Electron Cloud in the ILC Positron Damping Ring Wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.; Furman, M.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    The self-consistent code suite WARP-POSINST is being used to study electron cloud effects in the ILC positron damping ring wiggler. WARP is a parallelized, 3D particle-in-cell code which is fully self-consistent for all species. The POSINST models for the production of photoelectrons and secondary electrons are used to calculate electron creation. Mesh refinement and a moving reference frame for the calculation will be used to reduce the computer time needed by several orders of magnitude. We present preliminary results for cloud buildup showing 3D electron effects at the nulls of the vertical wiggler field. First results from a benchmark of WARP-POSINST vs. POSINST are also discussed

  2. Preliminary assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, R.J.; Putney, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    A preliminary assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD3 is presented. The study is based on calculations against a series of steady-state commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR over a range of load conditions. Data from the tests are used to assess the modelling of primary to secondary side heat transfer and, in particular, to examine the effect of reverting to the standard form of the Chen heat transfer correlation in place of the modified form applied in RELAP5/MOD2. Comparisons between the two versions of the code are also used to show how the new interphase drag model in RELAP5/MOD3 affects the calculation of SG liquid inventory and the void fraction profile in the riser

  3. A preliminary model for estimating the first wall lifetime of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daenner, W.

    1975-02-01

    The estimation of the first wall lifetime is a necessary basis for predicting the availability of a fusion power plant. In order to do this, an analytical model was prepared and programmed for the computer which calculates the temperature and stress load of the first wall from the principal design parameters and quotes them against the relevant material properties. Neither the analytical model nor the information about the material performance is yet complete so that the answers obtained from the program are very preliminary. This situation is underlined by the results of sample calculations performed for the CTRD blanket module cell. The results obtained for vanadium and vanadium alloys show a strong dependence of the lifetime on the irradiation creep and the ductility of these materials. Completion of this model is envisaged as soon as the missing information becomes available. (orig.) [de

  4. Application of backtracking algorithm to depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingyu; Wang Shixi; Yang Yong; Zhang Qiang; Yang Jiayin

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of linear chain method for analytical depletion calculations, the burnup matrix is decoupled by the divide and conquer strategy and the linear chain with Markov characteristic is formed. The density, activity and decay heat of every nuclide in the chain then can be calculated by analytical solutions. Every possible reaction path of the nuclide must be considered during the linear chain establishment process. To confirm the calculation precision and efficiency, the algorithm which can cover all the reaction paths and search the paths automatically according to the problem description and precision restrictions should be found. Through analysis and comparison of several kinds of searching algorithms, the backtracking algorithm was selected to establish and calculate the linear chains in searching process using depth first search (DFS) method, forming an algorithm which can solve the depletion problem adaptively and with high fidelity. The complexity of the solution space and time was analyzed by taking into account depletion process and the characteristics of the backtracking algorithm. The newly developed depletion program was coupled with Monte Carlo program MCMG-Ⅱ to calculate the benchmark burnup problem of the first core of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the preliminary verification and validation of the program were performed. (authors)

  5. CALCULATION ALGORITHM TRUSS UNDER CRANE BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Akaev1

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The task of reducing the deflection and increase the rigidity of single-span beams are made. In the article the calculation algorithm for truss crane girders is determined.Methods. To identify the internal effort required for the selection of cross section elements the design uses the Green's function.Results. It was found that the simplest truss system reduces deflection and increases the strength of design. The upper crossbar is subjected not only to bending and shear and compression work due to tightening tension. Preliminary determination of the geometrical characteristics of the crane farms elements are offered to make a comparison with previous similar configuration of his farms, using a simple approximate calculation methods.Conclusion.The method of sequential movements (incrementally the two bridge cranes along the length of the upper crossbar truss beams is suggested. We give the corresponding formulas and conditions of safety.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shah; Desmedt, Yvo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  7. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  8. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Online plasma calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.

    2017-10-01

    APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.

  10. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  11. Modelling lung cancer due to radon and smoking in WISMUT miners: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijwaard, H.; Dekkers, F.; Van Dillen, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanistic two-stage carcinogenesis model has been applied to model lung-cancer mortality in the largest uranium-miner cohort available. Models with and without smoking action both fit the data well. As smoking information is largely missing from the cohort data, a method has been devised to project this information from a case-control study onto the cohort. Model calculations using 256 projections show that the method works well. Preliminary results show that if an explicit smoking action is absent in the model, this is compensated by the values of the baseline parameters. This indicates that in earlier studies performed without smoking information, the results obtained for the radiation parameters are still valid. More importantly, the inclusion of smoking-related parameters shows that these mainly influence the later stages of lung-cancer development. (authors)

  12. The 'equivalent plutonium' concept and its application to synergetic fuel cycles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tumini, L.L.; Sbaffoni, M.M.; Abbate, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The advanced fuel cycles are seen as very interesting alternatives to improve the utilization of uranium resources in the middle term. Among them, the synergetic cycles between different type of reactors, particularly PWR and CANDU are seen as very promising. In the frame of the Argentinean-Brazilian cooperation agreement, a neutronic and economical study was done on a Tandem cycle between the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor Angra-I, and the Argentinean CANDU reactor Embalse. The first calculations showed very interesting results regarding the obtainable savings in natural resources, the cost of the fuel cycle, and the lower quantity of wastes to be disposed. To perform the initial calculations, two methods were mainly used: standard calculation codes, which use discrete ordinates or collision probabilities method to solve the neutronics of the cell, or an algorithm that from now on we will call EQUIVALENT PLUTONIUM. The present work describes the concept in which the algorithm is based, the obtention of the coefficients needed for its determination, and, as an example, the results obtained applying the algorithm to two particular cases of Tandem cycles: CANDU MOX fuel fabricated from PWR fuel, diluted with natural uranium, and with depleted uranium. The obtained results are compared with calculations performed with WIMS code. It was verified that the methodology which makes use of the concepts of equivalent plutonium simplifies a lot burn-up and blending radio calculations for preliminary fuel cycle analysis, giving results with very good approximation (approximately 5%) and in a very simple way. (author)

  13. Fission neutron multiplicity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs

  14. Lattice cell burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics

  15. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  16. ODSCC algorithm shows correlation with degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, P.J.; Rootham, M.W.; Zupetic, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years we have attempted to develop an algorithm to evaluate the impact of secondary water chemistry on tube degradation in PWR steam generators. Effects of individual factors were assessed and then consolidated to form an algorithm for ODSCC propensity. The algorithm utilizes secondary water chemistry data to calculate ODSCC propensity as a variable named Mega PHI. Prior attempts to correlate algorithm calculations with actual degradation in operating steam generators have resulted in very disappointing results. Recent modifications to the algorithm have demonstrated improved correlation between Mega PHI (calculated result from the algorithm) and actual degradation history from operating plants. The recent modifications involve the inclusion of the synergistic effect of boric acid application of secondary water and of high silica concentration in steam generator toward inhibiting ODSCC. Data from several plants with mill annealed alloy 600 tubing in the steam generators and operating with the primary coolant inlet temperature in the range of 608 to 624 degrees F (320 to 329 degrees C) were evaluated and the results compared with actual degradation reported from in-service inspections. The population of plants includes those with very few tubes repaired and those with hundreds of tubes repaired due to ODSCC at tube support plates. The observation of substantial correlation between the algorithm calculation and actual degradation signifies the roles of boric acid and silica in inhibiting ODSCC. It is recommended that further evaluation of the role of these chemical species be performed using more extensive data. The goal is to modify secondary water chemistry guidelines with the ultimate aim of minimizing corrosion of steam generator tubes. (author)

  17. Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richebois, E.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)

  18. Development of My Footprint Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummidisetti, Karthik

    The Environmental footprint is a very powerful tool that helps an individual to understand how their everyday activities are impacting environmental surroundings. Data shows that global climate change, which is a growing concern for nations all over the world, is already affecting humankind, plants and animals through raising ocean levels, droughts & desertification and changing weather patterns. In addition to a wide range of policy measures implemented by national and state governments, it is necessary for individuals to understand the impact that their lifestyle may have on their personal environmental footprint, and thus over the global climate change. "My Footprint Calculator" (myfootprintcalculator.com) has been designed to be one the simplest, yet comprehensive, web tools to help individuals calculate and understand their personal environmental impact. "My Footprint Calculator" is a website that queries users about their everyday habits and activities and calculates their personal impact on the environment. This website was re-designed to help users determine their environmental impact in various aspects of their lives ranging from transportation and recycling habits to water and energy usage with the addition of new features that will allow users to share their experiences and their best practices with other users interested in reducing their personal Environmental footprint. The collected data is stored in the database and a future goal of this work plans to analyze the collected data from all users (anonymously) for developing relevant trends and statistics.

  19. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  20. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  1. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  2. Hypervelocity impact cratering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. E.; Moises, H.

    1971-01-01

    A summary is presented of prediction calculations on the mechanisms involved in hypervelocity impact cratering and response of earth media. Considered are: (1) a one-gram lithium-magnesium alloys impacting basalt normally at 6.4 km/sec, and (2) a large terrestrial impact corresponding to that of Sierra Madera.

  3. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  4. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  5. Reactor dynamics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.; Lefvert, T.; Stankiewiez, J.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter deals with the work done in reactor dynamics within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations by three groups in Belgium, Poland, Sweden and Italy. Discretization methods in diffusion theory, collision probability methods in time-dependent neutron transport and singular perturbation method are represented in this paper

  6. Equilibrium fission model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckerman, M.; Blann, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to aid in understanding the systematics of heavy ion fission and fission-like reactions in terms of the target-projectile system, bombarding energy and angular momentum, fission widths are calculated using an angular momentum dependent extension of the Bohr-Wheeler theory and particle emission widths using angular momentum coupling

  7. Nuclide release calculation in the near-field of a reference HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997 in order to develop a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as waste and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003 focusing on the near-field components of the repository system. According to above basic repository concept, which is similar to that of Swedish KBS-3 repository, the spent fuel is first encapsulated in corrosion resistant canisters, even though the material has not yet been determined, and then emplaced into the deposition holes surrounded by high density bentonite clay in tunnels constructed at a depth of about 500 m in a stable plutonic rock body. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near-field components of the repository, even though enough information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a methodology by which a generic safety assessment could be performed for further development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study strongly seems to be necessary

  8. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  9. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  10. Spallation reactions: calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods for calculating spallation reactions over various energy ranges are described and evaluated. Recent semiempirical fits to existing data will probably yield the most accurate predictions for these reactions in general. However, if the products in question have binding energies appreciably different from their isotropic neighbors and if the cross section is approximately 30 mb or larger, then the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation approach is probably better suited. (6 tables, 12 figures, 34 references) (U.S.)

  11. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  12. The Monte Carlo applied for calculation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is showed for the calculation of absorbed dose. The trajectory of the photon is traced simulating sucessive interaction between the photon and the substance that consist the human body simulator. The energy deposition in each interaction of the simulator organ or tissue per photon is also calculated. (C.G.C.) [pt

  13. Preliminary neutronic design of spock reactor: A nuclear system for space power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Santagata, A.; Cumo, M.; Fasano, A.; Frullini, M.

    2007-01-01

    the feasibility of the standard nuclear data sets for the design of space nuclear devices. Finally, FLUENT 6.2.16 preliminary calculations show for a hot pin fuel temperature of 1700 K, 325 kW t h were transferred to the coolant (Γ= 1.8 Kg/s, ΔT = 150 K) with the possibility to be converted in 30 kW e l by using an advanced thermoelectric converter system. Reference: [1] M. Cumo, M. Frullini, A. Gandini, A. Naviglio, L. Sorabella 'MAUS - 1.5 Nuclear Reactor for Space Electric Power', ICENES 2005- Bruxelles August 2005

  14. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  15. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  16. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6±18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477±107 MBq (12.9±2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94±17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9 patients

  17. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina [Centro PET de Imagenes Moleculares, Hospital Militar de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6{+-}18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477{+-}107 MBq (12.9{+-}2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94{+-}17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9

  18. Core physics calculation and analysis for SNRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiachun; Zhao Shouzhi; Jia Baoshan

    2010-01-01

    Five different precise calculation models have been set up for Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) core based on MCNP code, and then the effective multiplication constant, drum control worth and power distribution were calculated. The results from different models indicate that the model in which elements are homogeneous could be used in the reactivity calculation, but a detailed description of elements have to be used in the element internal power distribution calculation. The results of physics parameters show that the basic characteristics of SNRE are reasonable. The drum control worth is sufficient. The power distribution is symmetrical and reasonable. All of the parameters can satisfy the design requirement. (authors)

  19. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  20. A Preliminary Fire PSA on PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Han, Sanghoon; Lee, KwiLim

    2017-01-01

    A Prototype Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (PGSFR) is under design with defense in depth concept with active, passive, and inherent safety features to acquire a design approval for PGSFR from Korean regulatory authority by around 2017. A preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR is done in 2016 and a final fire PSA of PGSFR will be done in 2017. The characteristics of the preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR are described in this paper. Since PGSFR is very safe reactor, it is not bad approach to use a conservative assumption in the preliminary PSA. In addition, several drawings including cable routing are not yet issued, a conservative calculation for CDF is performed. As shown in Table 2, the CDF caused by the fire in the control room takes 89% portion of total CDF. Thus, a detailed fire modeling for control room is necessary for the final fire PSA on PGSFR. Also, the increased ignition frequency due to sodium leak would be derived by considering the sodium piping complexity in the final fire PSA on PGSFR. The 4th column of Table 2 is derived the 3rd column by multiplying the factor (592/1177). The 5th column is the ignition frequency caused by the sodium leak. The 6th column is derived by summing the 4th column and the 5th column. The 7th column is the CDF portion of each fire area. The control room (fire area F-A404A) is the most important area since the control room fire takes 89% portion of total CDF.

  1. Calculations for very low energy scattering of positrons by molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.N. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: james.cooper@maths.nottingham.ac.uk; Armour, E.A.G. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    We give a progress report on ongoing calculations of phase shifts for very low energy elastic scattering of positrons by molecular hydrogen, using the generalised Kohn variational method. Further, provisional calculations of Z{sub eff} for molecular hydrogen at low energies are presented and discussed. The preliminary nature of the work is emphasised throughout.

  2. Comparison of SOLA-FLX calculations with experiments at systems, science and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, J.K.; Hirt, C.W.; Stein, L.R.

    1977-03-01

    Preliminary results of a comparison between hydroelastic calculations at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and experiments at Systems, Science and Software are described. The axisymmetric geometry is an idealization of a pressurized water reactor at a scale of 1/25. Reasons for some of the discrepancies are described, and suggestions for improving both experiments and calculations are discussed

  3. Carbon Footprint Calculator | Climate Change | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    An interactive calculator to estimate your household's carbon footprint. This tool will estimate carbon pollution emissions from your daily activities and show how to reduce your emissions and save money through simple steps.

  4. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  5. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  6. Perturbation calculations with Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto Junior, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    We present perturbative calculations with the Wilson loop (WL). The dimensional regularization method is used with a special attention concerning to the problem of divergences in the WL expansion in second and fourth orders, in three and four dimensions. We show that the residue in the pole, in 4d, of the fourth order graphs contribution sum is important for the charge renormalization. We compute up to second order the exact expression of the WL, in three-dimensional gauge theories with topological mass as well as its assimptotic behaviour for small and large distances. the author [pt

  7. Criticality calculations for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellozo, S.O.

    1981-01-01

    Criticality studies in uranium nitrate and plutonium nitrate aqueous solutions were done. For uranium compound three basic computer codes are used: GAMTEC-II, DTF-IV, KENO-IV. Water was used as refletor and the results obtained with the different computer codes were analyzed and compared with the 'Handbuck zur Kriticalitat'. The cross sections and the cylindrical geometry were generated by Gamtec-II computer code. In the second compound the thickness of the recipient with plutonium nitrate are used with rectangular geometry and concret reflector. The effective multiplication constant was calculated with the Gamtec-II and Keno-IV library. The results show many differences. (E.G) [pt

  8. Radiation shielding calculation using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masukawa, Fumihiro

    2001-01-01

    To verify the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A as a tool to generate the reference data in the shielding designs and the safety evaluations, various shielding benchmark experiments were analyzed using this code. These experiments were categorized in three types of the shielding subjects; bulk shielding, streaming, and skyshine. For the variance reduction technique, which is indispensable to get meaningful results with the Monte Carlo shielding calculation, we mainly used the weight window, the energy dependent Russian roulette and spitting. As a whole, our analyses performed enough small statistical errors and showed good agreements with these experiments. (author)

  9. Calculation of the inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Oliveira Brandao, R. de.

    1988-04-01

    The theory of Point Kernel applied to a source uniformelly distributed in a cylindrical geometry was utilized to estimated the Cs-137 content of each package of radioactive waste collected. The Taylor equation was employed to calculate the build-up factor and the Green function G was adjusted by means of a least square method. The theory also takes into account factors such as aditional shielding, heterogeneity and humidity of the medium as well as associated uncertanties of the parameters envolved. (author) [pt

  10. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  11. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  12. Technical note: Rapid calculation of genomic evaluations for new animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M; Cooper, T A

    2015-03-01

    A method was developed to calculate preliminary genomic evaluations daily or weekly before the release of official monthly evaluations by processing only newly genotyped animals using estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects from the previous official evaluation. To minimize computing time, reliabilities and genomic inbreeding are not calculated, and fixed weights are used to combine genomic and traditional information. Correlations of preliminary and September official monthly evaluations for animals with genotypes that became usable after the extraction of genotypes for August 2014 evaluations were >0.99 for most Holstein traits. Correlations were lower for breeds with smaller population size. Earlier access to genomic evaluations benefits producers by enabling earlier culling decisions and genotyping laboratories by making workloads more uniform across the month. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

  14. Error estimates for ice discharge calculated using the flux gate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, F. J.; Sánchez Gámez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice discharge to the ocean is usually estimated using the flux gate approach, in which ice flux is calculated through predefined flux gates close to the marine glacier front. However, published results usually lack a proper error estimate. In the flux calculation, both errors in cross-sectional area and errors in velocity are relevant. While for estimating the errors in velocity there are well-established procedures, the calculation of the error in the cross-sectional area requires the availability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles transverse to the ice-flow direction. In this contribution, we use IceBridge operation GPR profiles collected in Ellesmere and Devon Islands, Nunavut, Canada, to compare the cross-sectional areas estimated using various approaches with the cross-sections estimated from GPR ice-thickness data. These error estimates are combined with those for ice-velocities calculated from Sentinel-1 SAR data, to get the error in ice discharge. Our preliminary results suggest, regarding area, that the parabolic cross-section approaches perform better than the quartic ones, which tend to overestimate the cross-sectional area for flight lines close to the central flowline. Furthermore, the results show that regional ice-discharge estimates made using parabolic approaches provide reasonable results, but estimates for individual glaciers can have large errors, up to 20% in cross-sectional area.

  15. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  16. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  17. Buoyant plume calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures

  18. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  19. Vestibule and Cask Preparation Mechanical Handling Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambre, N.

    2004-01-01

    The scope of this document is to develop the size, operational envelopes, and major requirements of the equipment to be used in the vestibule, cask preparation area, and the crane maintenance area of the Fuel Handling Facility. This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAIC Company L.L.C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Ref. 167124). This correspondence was appended by further correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (Ref. 16875 1). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process

  20. Calculated NWIS signatures for enriched uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Koehler, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) signatures have been calculated using a Monte Carlo transport code for measurement configurations of a 252 Cf source, detectors, and a uranium metal casting. NWIS signatures consist of a wide variety of time-and frequency-analysis signatures such as the time distribution of neutrons after californium fission, the time distribution of counts in a detector after a previous count, the number of times n pulses occur in a time interval, and various frequency-analysis signatures, such as auto-power and cross-power spectral densities, coherences, and a ratio of spectral densities. This ratio is independent of detection efficiency. The analysis presented here, using the MCNP-DSP code, evaluates the applicability of this method for measurement of the 235 U content of 19-kg castings of depleted uranium and uranium with enrichments of 20, 40, 60, 80, 90, and 93.2 wt % 235 U. The dependence of the wide variety of NWIS signatures on 235 U content and possible configurations of a measurement system are presented. These preliminary calculations indicate short measurement times. Additional calculations are being performed to optimize the source-detector-moderator-casting configuration for the shortest measurement time. Although the NWIS method was developed for nuclear weapons identification, the development of a small processor now allows it to be also applied in a practical way to subcriticality measurements, nuclear fuel process monitoring and qualitative nondestructive assay of special nuclear material

  1. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  2. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  3. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  4. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  5. Preliminary Design of a Femtosecond Oscilloscope

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, Edmond D; Kalantaryan, Davit K; Laziev, Edouard; Margaryan, Amour

    2005-01-01

    The calculations on motion of electrons in a finite length electromagnetic field of linearly and circularly polarized laser beams have shown that one can use the transversal deflection of electrons on a screen at a certain distance after the interaction region for the measurement of the length and longitudinal particle distribution of femtosecond bunches. In this work the construction and preliminary parameters of various parts of a device that may be called femtosecond oscilloscope are considered. The influence of various factors, such as the energy spread and size of the electron bunches, are taken into account. For CO2 laser intensity 1016 W/cm2 and field free drift length 1m the deflection is 5.3 and 0.06 cm, while the few centimeters long interaction length between 2 mirrors requires assembling accuracy 6 mm and 1.3 micron for 20 MeV to 50 keV, respectively.

  6. Preliminary Shielding Analysis for HCCB TBM Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Zhao, Fengchao; Cao, Qixiang; Zhang, Guoshu; Feng, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis on the transport of the Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (HCCB TBM) from France back to China after being irradiated in ITER is presented in this contribution. Emphasis was placed on irradiation safety during transport. The dose rate calculated by MCNP/4C for the conceptual package design satisfies the relevant dose limits from IAEA that the dose rate 3 m away from the surface of the package containing low specific activity III materials should be less than 10 mSv/h. The change with location and the time evolution of dose rates after shutdown have also been studied. This will be helpful for devising the detailed transport plan of HCCB TBM back to China in the near future. supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013GB108000)

  7. An extension of the fenske-hall LCAO method for approximate calculations of inner-shell binding energies of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, Ch.; Reinhold, J.

    1980-02-01

    The approximate LCAO MO method of Fenske and Hall has been extended to an all-election method allowing the calculation of inner-shell binding energies of molecules and their chemical shifts. Preliminary results are given.

  8. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  9. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  10. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  11. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  12. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  13. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  14. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  15. Calculating graduation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, Patricia L; Love, Karen; McPherson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the focus has been on increasing the number of registered nurse (RN) graduates. Numerous states have initiated programs to increase the number and quality of students entering nursing programs, and to expand the capacity of their programs to enroll additional qualified students. However, little attention has been focused on an equally, if not more, effective method for increasing the number of RNs produced-increasing the graduation rate of students enrolling. This article describes a project that undertook the task of compiling graduation data for 15 entry-level programs, standardizing terms and calculations for compiling the data, and producing a regional report on graduation rates of RN students overall and by type of program. Methodology is outlined in this article. This effort produced results that were surprising to program deans and directors and is expected to produce greater collaborative efforts to improve these rates both locally and statewide.

  16. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  17. Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a new software tool for the automatic volume calculation of hepatic tumors. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, S.; Mildenberger, P.; Pitton, M.; Thelen, M.; Schenk, A.; Bourquain, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: computed tomography has become the preferred method in detecting liver carcinomas. The introduction of spiral CT added volumetric assessment of intrahepatic tumors, which was unattainable in the clinical routine with incremental CT due to complex planimetric revisions and excessive computing time. In an ongoing clinical study, a new software tool was tested for the automatic detection of tumor volume and the time needed for this procedure. Materials and methods: we analyzed patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All patients underwent treatment with repeated transcatheter chemoembolization of the hepatic arteria. The volumes of the HCC lesions detected in CT were measured with the new software tool in HepaVison (MeVis, Germany). The results were compared with manual planimetric calculation of the volume performed by three independent radiologists. Results: our first results in 16 patients show a correlation between the automatically and the manually calculated volumes (up to a difference of 2 ml) of 96.8%. While the manual method of analyzing the volume of a lesion requires 2.5 minutes on average, the automatic method merely requires about 30 seconds of user interaction time. Conclusion: These preliminary results show a good correlation between automatic and manual calculations of the tumor volume. The new software tool requires less time for accurate determination of the tumor volume and can be applied in the daily clinical routine. (orig.) [de

  19. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  20. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  1. Ionizing radiation calculations and comparisons with LDEF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with the analysis of LDEF ionizing radiation dosimetry data, a calculational program is in progress to aid in data interpretation and to assess the accuracy of current radiation models for future mission applications. To estimate the ionizing radiation environment at the LDEF dosimeter locations, scoping calculations for a simplified (one dimensional) LDEF mass model were made of the primary and secondary radiations produced as a function of shielding thickness due to trapped proton, galactic proton, and atmospheric (neutron and proton cosmic ray albedo) exposures. Preliminary comparisons of predictions with LDEF induced radioactivity and dose measurements were made to test a recently developed model of trapped proton anisotropy.

  2. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  3. Some calculator programs for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series Σa/sub n/P/sub n/(x) at a series of values of x. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first-associated Legendre polynomial series Σb/sub n/P/sub n/ 1 (x) at a series of values of x. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi 2 , Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial- and final-state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a 2-body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a 2-body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even-degree-of-freedom-chi 2 and the Poisson cases, and there is a short version of TWO BODY (CM) that calculates just the c.m. energy and initial-state momentum. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator

  4. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  5. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    phlobatannins when petroleum ether, methanol and water extracts were used. Petroleum ether extract show the ... forests for fuel wood production and in front of schools or college .... alkaloids were shown to inhibit cell division, changes in ...

  6. Preliminary design county plan Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary design 'Streekplan Zeeland' (Country plan Zeeland, with regard to the location of additional nuclear power plants in Zeeland, the Netherlands) has passed through a consultation and participation round. Thereupon 132 reactions have been received. These have been incorporated and answered in two notes. This proposal deals with the principal points of the preliminary design and treats also the remarks of the committees Environmental (town and country) Planning (RO), Provincial (town and country) Planning Committee (PPC) and Association of Communities of Zeeland (VZG), on the reply notes. The preliminary design with the modifications, collected in appendix 3, is proposed to be the starting point in the drawing-up of the design-country-plan. This design subsequently will pass the formal country-plan procedure. (author). 1 fig

  7. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewig, F; Allelein, H J [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schwarz, S; Weber, G [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I{sub 2}-concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I{sub 2} is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO{sub 3}{sup -}. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  8. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewig, F.; Allelein, H.J.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-01-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model which originally was only drafted for chains of compartments was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO 3 - is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO 3 - are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I 2 -concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I 2 is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO 3 - . (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12

  9. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  10. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  11. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  12. Relativistic few body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  13. Equilibrium calculations, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van

    1976-01-01

    A calculation is presented of dimer intensities obtained in supersonic expansions. There are two possible limiting considerations; the dimers observed are already present in the source, in thermodynamic equilibrium, and are accelerated in the expansion. Destruction during acceleration is neglected, as are processes leading to newly formed dimers. On the other hand one can apply a kinetic approach, where formation and destruction processes are followed throughout the expansion. The difficulty of this approach stems from the fact that the density, temperature and rate constants have to be known at all distances from the nozzle. The simple point of view has been adopted and the measured dimer intensities are compared with the equilibrium concentration in the source. The comparison is performed under the assumption that the detection efficiency for dimers is twice the detection efficiency for monomers. The experimental evidence against the simple point of view that the dimers of the onset region are formed in the source already, under equilibrium conditions, is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Ployzou, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  15. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  16. How Accurately Can We Calculate Neutrons Slowing Down In Water ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D E; Blomquist, R; Greene, M; Lent, E; MacFarlane, R; McKinley, S; Plechaty, E; Sublet, J C

    2006-01-01

    We have compared the results produced by a variety of currently available Monte Carlo neutron transport codes for the relatively simple problem of a fast source of neutrons slowing down and thermalizing in water. Initial comparisons showed rather large differences in the calculated flux; up to 80% differences. By working together we iterated to improve the results by: (1) insuring that all codes were using the same data, (2) improving the models used by the codes, and (3) correcting errors in the codes; no code is perfect. Even after a number of iterations we still found differences, demonstrating that our Monte Carlo and supporting codes are far from perfect; in particularly we found that the often overlooked nuclear data processing codes can be the weakest link in our systems of codes. The results presented here represent the today's state-of-the-art, in the sense that all of the Monte Carlo codes are modern, widely available and used codes. They all use the most up-to-date nuclear data, and the results are very recent, weeks or at most a few months old; these are the results that current users of these codes should expect to obtain from them. As such, the accuracy and limitations of the codes presented here should serve as guidelines to code users in interpreting their results for similar problems. We avoid crystal ball gazing, in the sense that we limit the scope of this report to what is available to code users today, and we avoid predicting future improvements that may or may not actual come to pass. An exception that we make is in presenting results for an improved thermal scattering model currently being testing using advanced versions of NJOY and MCNP that are not currently available to users, but are planned for release in the not too distant future. The other exception is to show comparisons between experimentally measured water cross sections and preliminary ENDF/B-VII thermal scattering law, S(α,β) data; although these data are strictly preliminary

  17. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  18. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  19. Learning with Calculator Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  20. Mixed first- and second-order transport method using domain decomposition techniques for reactor core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, E.; Ruggieri, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the last developments made on a domain decomposition method applied to reactor core calculations. In this method, two kind of balance equation with two different numerical methods dealing with two different unknowns are coupled. In the first part the two balance transport equations (first order and second order one) are presented with the corresponding following numerical methods: Variational Nodal Method and Discrete Ordinate Nodal Method. In the second part, the Multi-Method/Multi-Domain algorithm is introduced by applying the Schwarz domain decomposition to the multigroup eigenvalue problem of the transport equation. The resulting algorithm is then provided. The projection operators used to coupled the two methods are detailed in the last part of the paper. Finally some preliminary numerical applications on benchmarks are given showing encouraging results. (authors)

  1. Preliminary design of a borax internal core-catcher for a gas cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schumacher, G.

    1976-09-01

    Preliminary thermal calculations show that a core-catcher appears to be feasible, which is able to cope with the complete meltdown of the core and blankets of a 1,000 MWe GCFR. This core-catcher is based on borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ) as dissolving material of the oxide fuel and of the fission products occuring in oxide form. The borax is contained in steel boxes forming a 2.1 meter thick slab on the base of the reactor cavity inside the prestressed concrete reactor vessel, just underneath the reactor core. The fission products are dispersed in the pool formed by the liquid borax. The heat power density in the pool is conveniently reduced and the resulting heat fluxes at the borders of the pool can be safely carried away through the PCRV liner and its water cooling system. (orig.) [de

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. Dispersion relations in loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to the use of dispersion relations in loop calculations. We first derive dispersion relations which allow us to recover the real part of a physical amplitude from the knowledge of its absorptive part along the branch cut. In perturbative calculations, the latter may be constructed by means of Cutkosky's rule, which is briefly discussed. For illustration, we apply this procedure at one loop to the photon vacuum-polarization function induced by leptons as well as to the γf anti-f vertex form factor generated by the exchange of a massive vector boson between the two fermion legs. We also show how the hadronic contribution to the photon vacuum polarization may be extracted from the total cross section of hadron production in e + e - annihilation measured as a function of energy. Finally, we outline the application of dispersive techniques at the two-loop level, considering as an example the bosonic decay width of a high-mass Higgs boson. (author)

  4. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  5. Method of preliminary localization of the iris in biometric access control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.

  6. Importance iteration in MORSE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    An expression to calculate point values (the expected detector response of a particle emerging from a collision or the source) is derived and implemented in the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo code. It is outlined how these point values can be smoothed as a function of energy and as a function of the optical thickness between the detector and the source. The smoothed point values are subsequently used to calculate the biasing parameters of the Monte Carlo runs to follow. The method is illustrated by an example that shows that the obtained biasing parameters lead to a more efficient Monte Carlo calculation

  7. Importance iteration in MORSE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    An expression to calculate point values (the expected detector response of a particle emerging from a collision or the source) is derived and implemented in the MORSE-SGC/S Monte Carlo code. It is outlined how these point values can be smoothed as a function of energy and as a function of the optical thickness between the detector and the source. The smoothed point values are subsequently used to calculate the biasing parameters of the Monte Carlo runs to follow. The method is illustrated by an example, which shows that the obtained biasing parameters lead to a more efficient Monte Carlo calculation. (orig.)

  8. Calculation of resonance integral for fuel cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsak, S.

    1969-01-01

    The procedure for calculating the shielding correction, formulated in the previous paper [6], was broadened and applied for a cluster of cylindrical rods. The sam analytical method as in the previous paper was applied. A combination of Gauss method with the method of Almgren and Porn used for solving the same type of integral was used to calculate the geometry functions. CLUSTER code was written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer to calculate the shielding corrections for pairs of fuel rods in the cluster. Computing time for one pair of fuel rods depends on the number of closely placed rod, and for two closely placed rods it is about 3 hours. Calculations were done for clusters containing 7 and 19 UO 2 rods. results show that calculated values of resonance integrals are somewhat higher than the values obtained by Helstrand empirical formula. Taking into account the results for two rods from the previous paper it can be noted that the calculated and empirical values for clusters with 2 and 7 rods are in agreement since the deviations do not exceed the limits of experimental error (±2%). In case of larger cluster with 19 rods deviations are higher than the experimental error. Most probably the calculated values exceed the experimental ones result from the fact that in this paper the shielding correction is calculated only in the region up to 1 keV [sr

  9. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation

  10. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  11. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  12. Preliminary HECTOR analysis by Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, W; Woloch, F

    1972-06-02

    From the different cores measured in HECTOR, only ACH 4/B-B was selected for the Dragon analysis, since it presented the largest amount of uniform fuel loading in the central test region and is therefore nearest to an infinite lattice. Preliminary results are discussed.

  13. Methods of statistical calculation of fast reactor core with account of influence of fuel assembly form change in process of campaign and other factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, G.A.; Zhukov, A.V.; Bogoslovskaya, G.P.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The method of calculation of a temperature field in fast reactor core using criterion equal thermo-technical reliability of subassemblies in various zones throttling taking into account change thermohydraulic characteristics of subassemblies during campaign under influence change form of core, redistribution heat generation, casual any deviation of various parameters is stated. The distribution of the statistical characteristics of a temperature field in subassemblies is calculated on subchannel method with account of an interchannel exchange and feature of influence of deformation on a temperature field in subassemblies using Monte-Carlo method. The results of the calculations show that deformation can have significant influence on a temperature mode of core. It is necessary to make thermohydraulic analysis of core during campaign at a stage of preliminary study of the projects fast reactors. (author)

  14. How to calculate linear absorption spectra with lifetime broadening using fewest switches surface hopping trajectories: A simple generalization of ground-state Kubo theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Andrew S.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a surface hopping approach for calculating linear absorption spectra using ensembles of classical trajectories propagated on both the ground and excited potential energy surfaces. We demonstrate that our method allows the dipole-dipole correlation function to be determined exactly for the model problem of two shifted, uncoupled harmonic potentials with the same harmonic frequency. For systems where nonadiabatic dynamics and electronic relaxation are present, preliminary results show that our method produces spectra in better agreement with the results of exact quantum dynamics calculations than spectra obtained using the standard ground-state Kubo formalism. As such, our proposed surface hopping approach should find immediate use for modeling condensed phase spectra, especially for expensive calculations using ab initio potential energy surfaces

  15. MOx Depletion Calculation Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Felice, Laurence; Eschbach, Romain; Dewi Syarifah, Ratna; Maryam, Seif-Eddine; Hesketh, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) has been established to study the reactor physics, fuel performance, radiation transport and shielding, and the uncertainties associated with modelling of these phenomena in present and future nuclear power systems. The WPRS has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific issues in these fields. The Expert Group on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Systems (EGRPANS) was created in 2011 to perform specific tasks associated with reactor physics aspects of present and future nuclear power systems. EGRPANS provides expert advice to the WPRS and the nuclear community on the development needs (data and methods, validation experiments, scenario studies) for different reactor systems and also provides specific technical information regarding: core reactivity characteristics, including fuel depletion effects; core power/flux distributions; Core dynamics and reactivity control. In 2013 EGRPANS published a report that investigated fuel depletion effects in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). This was entitled 'International Comparison of a Depletion Calculation Benchmark on Fuel Cycle Issues' NEA/NSC/DOC(2013) that documented a benchmark exercise for UO 2 fuel rods. This report documents a complementary benchmark exercise that focused on PuO 2 /UO 2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel rods. The results are especially relevant to the back-end of the fuel cycle, including irradiated fuel transport, reprocessing, interim storage and waste repository. Saint-Laurent B1 (SLB1) was the first French reactor to use MOx assemblies. SLB1 is a 900 MWe PWR, with 30% MOx fuel loading. The standard MOx assemblies, used in Saint-Laurent B1 reactor, include three zones with different plutonium enrichments, high Pu content (5.64%) in the center zone, medium Pu content (4.42%) in the intermediate zone and low Pu content (2.91%) in the peripheral zone

  16. Preliminary conceptual design and analysis on KALIMER reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum

    1996-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to perform preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) reactor structures to assess the design feasibility and to identify detailed analysis requirements. KALIMER thermal hydraulic system analysis results and neutronic analysis results are not available at present, only-limited preliminary structural analyses have been performed with the assumptions on the thermal loads. The responses of reactor vessel and reactor internal structures were based on the temperature difference of core inlet and outlet and on engineering judgments. Thermal stresses from the assumed temperatures were calculated using ANSYS code through parametric finite element heat transfer and elastic stress analyses. While, based on the results of preliminary conceptual design and structural analyses, the ASME Code limits for the reactor structures were satisfied for the pressure boundary, the needs for inelastic analyses were indicated for evaluation of design adequacy of the support barrel and the thermal liner. To reduce thermal striping effects in the bottom are of UIS due to up-flowing sodium form reactor core, installation of Inconel-718 liner to the bottom area was proposed, and to mitigate thermal shock loads, additional stainless steel liner was also suggested. The design feasibilities of these were validated through simplified preliminary analyses. In conceptual design phase, the implementation of these results will be made for the design of the reactor structures and the reactor internal structures in conjunction with the thermal hydraulic, neutronic, and seismic analyses results. 4 tabs., 24 figs., 4 refs. (Author)

  17. Preliminary study to improve the performance of SCWR-M during loss-of-flow accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.J., E-mail: xiaojingliu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Chai, X.; Xiong, J.B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Validation of the ATHLET-SC code to the safety analysis for SCWR. • Loss of flow accident analysis for SCWR-M is performed. • The passive design parameter is optimized. • The optimized SCWR-M design shows a better safety performance. - Abstract: The SCWR-M is one of the conceptual core designs with mixed neutron spectrum (fast and thermal), which is developed at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Some preliminary calculations of this new conceptual SCWR indicate the SCWR-M system gets better safety characteristics compared to other single spectrum supercritical water cooled reactors. Loss of flow accident (LOFA) is of particular importance among the abnormal events and accidents for SCWR-M. In order to perform the preliminary study to improve the current SCWR-M safety design, this paper presents the validation results of the ATHLET-SC code and optimization work for safety system design parameters of the ICS, ACC, GDCS based on LOFA analysis. The better performance of the optimized design parameters are demonstrated by comparison with the previous design.

  18. Surface EEG Shows that Functional Segregation via Phase Coupling Contributes to the Neural Substrate of Mental Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Kanatsouli, Kassiani; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Tsirka, Vasso; Vourkas, Michael; Micheloyannis, Sifis

    2012-01-01

    Multichannel EEG traces from healthy subjects are used to investigate the brain's self-organisation tendencies during two different mental arithmetic tasks. By making a comparison with a control-state in the form of a classification problem, we can detect and quantify the changes in coordinated brain activity in terms of functional connectivity.…

  19. BIPS-FS preliminary design, miscellaneous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A compendium of flight system preliminary design internal memos and progress report extracts for the Brayton Isotope Power System Preliminary Design Review to be held July 20, 21, and 22, 1975 is presented. The purpose is to bring together those published items which relate only to the preliminary design of the Flight System, Task 2 of Phase I. This preliminary design effort was required to ensure that the Ground Demonstration System will represent the Flight System as closely as possible

  20. Vivitron 1995, transient voltage simulation, high voltage insulator tests, electric field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, G.; Osswald, F.; Heusch, B.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed clearly that, because of the discrete electrode structure of the Vivitron, important overvoltage leading to insulator damage can appear in case of a spark. The first high voltage tests showed damage connected with such events. This fact leads to a severe voltage limitation. This work describes, at first, studies made to understand the effects of transients and the associated over-voltage appearing in the Vivitron. Then we present the high voltage tests made with full size Vivitron components using the CN 6 MV machine as a pilot machine. Extensive field calculations were made. These involve simulations of static stresses and transient overvoltages, on insulating boards and electrodes. This work gave us the solutions for arrangements and modifications in the machine. After application, the Vivitron runs now without any sparks and damage at 20 MV. In the same manner, we tested column insulators of a new design and so we will find out how to get to higher voltages. Electric field calculation around the tie bars connecting the discrete electrodes together showed field enhancements when the voltages applied on the discrete electrodes are not equally distributed. This fact is one of the sources of discharges and voltage limitations. A scenario of a spark event is described and indications are given how to proceed towards higher voltages, in the 30 MV range. (orig.)

  1. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  2. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  3. Results of calculation of WWER-440 fuel rods (Kol`skaya-3 NPP) at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheglov, A; Proselkov, V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Panin, M; Pitkin, Yu [Kol` skaya NPP, (Russian Federation); Tzibulya, V [AO Mashinostroitelnij Zavod Electrostal (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Thermal-physical characteristics of fuel rods of two fuel assemblies which were operated within 5 - 8 and 5 - 9 core fuel loadings of the Unit 3 of the Kol`skaya NPP are calculated. They have achieved deep burnup during 4-year (> 46 Mwd/kg U) and 5-year (> 48 Mwd/kg U) fuel cycle. Fuel assemblies have been unloaded off the reactor and subjected to a post-irradiation testing. PIN-mod2 code originally designed for modelling of WWER fuel rod behaviour in a quasi-steady-state operation is used. The average fuel rod in the fuel assembly and the fuel rod with maximum burnup are selected. The preliminary comparison of the calculation results with those of the post-irradiation examination shows a satisfactory agreement. On the basis of the results obtained in the post-irradiation experiments an improvement of the model for calculation of fission gas release and creep of the cladding is planned. The results of the analysis performed indicate that the fuel rod completely preserves its working ability; fuel temperature does not exceed 1300{sup o} C; fission gas release does not exceed 4%; maximum gas pressure inside the cladding at the end of campaign does not exceed 2 MPa. 2 tabs., 11 figs., 5 refs.

  4. MCNP and OMEGA criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, E.

    1998-04-01

    The reliability of OMEGA criticality calculations is shown by a comparison with calculations by the validated and widely used Monte Carlo code MCNP. The criticality of 16 assemblies with uranium as fissionable is calculated with the codes MCNP (Version 4A, ENDF/B-V cross sections), MCNP (Version 4B, ENDF/B-VI cross sections), and OMEGA. Identical calculation models are used for the three codes. The results are compared mutually and with the experimental criticality of the assemblies. (orig.)

  5. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  6. Practical Recommendations for the Preliminary Design Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interior-to-exterior shear ratios for equal and unequal bay frames, as well as column inflection points were obtained to serve as practical aids for preliminary analysis/design of fixed-feet multistory sway frames. Equal and unequal bay five story frames were analysed to show the validity of the recommended design ...

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF RHEUM EMODI

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Ashfaq Ahmad; K. W. Shah; Showkat Ahmad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical investigation of aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts of Rheum emodi followed by their TLC profiling were carried out. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of diverse groups of phytoconstituents in two different extracts (aqueous and methanolic rhizome extracts). Chemical constituents also show different Rf values in two different solvent systems.

  8. Preliminary bathymetry; Ester Passage to Eaglek Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  9. Development and preliminary validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henrie-Barrus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.

  10. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  11. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  12. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  13. A compartment model for nuclide release calculation in the near-and far-field of a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2004-01-01

    The HLW-relevant R and D program for disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since early 1997, from which a conceptual Korea Reference Repository System for direct disposal of nuclear spent fuel is to be introduced by the end of 2007. A preliminary reference geologic repository concept considering such established criteria and requirements as spent fuel and generic site characteristics in Korea was roughly envisaged in 2003. Not only to demonstrate how much a reference repository is safe in the generic point of view with several possible scenarios and cases associated with a preliminary repository concept by conducting calculations for nuclide release and transport in the near - and far - field components of the repository, even though sufficient information has not been available that much yet, but also to show a appropriate methodology by which both a generic and site - specific safety assessment could be performed for further in - depth development of Korea reference repository concept, nuclide release calculation study for various nuclide release cases is mandatory. To this end a similar study done and yet limited for the near - field release case has been extended to the case including far - field system by introducing some more geosphere compartments. Advective and longitudinal dispersive nuclide transports along the fracture with matrix diffusion as well as several retention mechanisms and nuclide ingrowth has been added

  14. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  15. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  16. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  17. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  18. Spreadsheet eases heat balance, payback calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a generalized Lotus type spreadsheet program has been developed to perform the heat balance and simple payback calculations for various turbine-generator (TG) inlet steam pressures. It can be used for potential plant expansions or new cogeneration installations. The program performs the basic heat balance calculations that are associated with turbine-generator, feedwater heating process steam requirements and desuperheating. The printout, shows the basic data and formulation used in the calculations. The turbine efficiency data used are applicable for automatic extraction turbine-generators in the 30-80 MW range. Simple payback calculations are for chemical recovery boilers and power boilers used in the pulp and paper industry. However, the program will also accommodate boilers common to other industries

  19. Parallel computational in nuclear group constant calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Rustandi, Yaddi K.; Kurniadi, Rizal

    2002-01-01

    In this paper parallel computational method in nuclear group constant calculation using collision probability method will be discuss. The main focus is on the calculation of collision matrix which need large amount of computational time. The geometry treated here is concentric cylinder. The calculation of collision probability matrix is carried out using semi analytic method using Beckley Naylor Function. To accelerate computation speed some computer parallel used to solve the problem. We used LINUX based parallelization using PVM software with C or fortran language. While in windows based we used socket programming using DELPHI or C builder. The calculation results shows the important of optimal weight for each processor in case there area many type of processor speed

  20. Infinite slab-shield dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    I calculated neutron and gamma-ray equivalent doses leaking through a variety of infinite (laminate) slab-shields. In the shield computations, I used, as the incident neutron spectrum, the leakage spectrum (<20 MeV) calculated for the LANSCE tungsten production target at 90 degree to the target axis. The shield thickness was fixed at 60 cm. The results of the shield calculations show a minimum in the total leakage equivalent dose if the shield is 40-45 cm of iron followed by 20-15 cm of borated (5% B) polyethylene. High-performance shields can be attained by using multiple laminations. The calculated dose at the shield surface is very dependent on shield material. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement

  2. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  3. Presentation and qualification of criticality calculation in fuel element storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermumcu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Monnier, A.; Nimal, J.C.

    Faced with the growing size of criticality calculation requests a fast and slightly conservative method has been perfected for evaluating the effective multiplication constant of sites containing PWR type elements. This method is based on the use of the DOT 3.5 code which requires a bidimensional modelisation of the geometry of the problem and the placing into groups of the macroscopic cross sections of the various materials. This preliminary work is effected by various APOLLO calculations. This diagram is qualified by comparison with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo TRIPOLI code. Comparing the values obtained by MORET and APOLLO-DOT for the criticality of transport flask end in good agreement. For the parametric studies, a large number of calculations can be necessary, and analytical methods cost little for simple geometries. This diagram can be used for studying small transport flasks but it is particularly advantageous for storages [fr

  4. Thermohydraulic calculations in rectangular channels for RA-6 type reactors with transition regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillin, N; Vertullo, A.; Masson, V.; Hilal, R

    2009-01-01

    In August 2000 and within the framework of the RA-6 core conversion from high to low enrichment (20%), a preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate the maximum power that the reactor could operate with the new kernel without makeing substantial changes. This meant keeping intact, for example, the concrete shield of the pool and the nucleus inlet and outlet pipes embedded in the walls. Preliminary results indicated that for these boundary conditions a maximum power of about 3 MWt could be achieved. In August 2005 the project was resumed and new calculations performed taking as a starting point the ECBE plate fuel element(U3O8-Al). A core was developed with cooling channle widths of 2.6 mm for the control fuel elements and 2.7 mm for standard fuel elements. The thermo-hydraulic calculation puts in evidence that coolant flow into the core was in the transitional regime for the vast majority of configurations. While TERMIC code, used for thermo-hydraulic design, has been extensively tested and validated for use in research reactors under turbulent and laminar flows, this is not so for transition conditions. The transition regime is strongly dependent on conditions such as flow inlet characteristics, channel geometry, etc.. and therefore there are no reliable correlations for general use. For this reason we found it convenient to carry out experiments simulating the working conditions in order to adjust the code results with experimental data. In the present work we show the experimental results, the simulation of the experiences using the TERMIC code, and the adjustments made to the correlations used by the code so that it can be applied to the thermo-hydraulic design of the new core. [es

  5. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  6. Invert Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. Anderson; H.M. Wade; T.L. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective thermal conductivities of a repository-emplaced invert steel set and surrounding ballast material. The scope of this calculation analyzes a ballast-material thermal conductivity range of 0.10 to 0.70 W/m · K, a transverse beam spacing range of 0.75 to 1.50 meters, and beam compositions of A 516 carbon steel and plain carbon steel. Results from this calculation are intended to support calculations that identify waste package and repository thermal characteristics for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 1, ICN 0, Calculations

  7. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε 2 and ε 4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  8. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  9. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  10. Microscopic calculation of four-nucleon scattering observables in dd → dd and dd → p3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The four-body equations of Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas are solved for a system of four nucleons, using realistic NN interactions. The results of the calculations are compared with data for the reactions and dd → dd and dd → p 3 H. Preliminary calculations indicate that the nucleon-nucleon p-waves have a strong effect on 4N observables. (orig.)

  11. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  12. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  13. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  14. Artificial neural networks, a new alternative to Monte Carlo calculations for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.; Gschwind, R.; Henriet, J.; Sauget, M.; Makovicka, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the computing time needed by Monte Carlo codes in the field of irradiation physics, notably in dosimetry, the authors report the use of artificial neural networks in combination with preliminary Monte Carlo calculations. During the learning phase, Monte Carlo calculations are performed in homogeneous media to allow the building up of the neural network. Then, dosimetric calculations (in heterogeneous media, unknown by the network) can be performed by the so-learned network. Results with an equivalent precision can be obtained within less than one minute on a simple PC whereas several days are needed with a Monte Carlo calculation

  15. Nonlinear calculations for bump Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, S.W.; Cox, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations to find strictly periodic solutions for the fundamental mode pulsations of 7 M/sub sun/ models were made using the von Sengbusch--Stellingwerf relaxation method. The models have a helium enrichment in the surface convection zones to Y = 0.78, which from the linear theory period ratio π 2 /π 0 and the Simon and Schmidt resonance hypothesis, should give the observed Hertzsprung progression of light and velocity curve bump phase with period. These surface helium enhanced models show the proper nonlinear bump phase behavior without resort to any mass loss before or during the blue loop phases of yellow giant evolution. At 6000 K and the evolution theory luminosity of 4744 L/sub sun/ for 7 M/sub sun/, that is, at a fundamental mode period of 8.5 day, the velocity curve bump is well after the maximum expansion velocity. At 5400 K and at the same luminosity (period of 12.5 days), there is a bump on the velocity curve well before maximum expansion velocity time. The latter case seems to exhibit the Christy echos but not the former. The echo interpretation may not be appropriate for these masses which are larger than the anomalous masses used by Christy, Stobie, and Adams. Resonance of the fundamental and second overtone modes should not necessarily show echos of surface disturbances from the center. The conclusion is that helium enrichment in the surface convection zones can adequately explain observations of bump Cepheids at evolution theory masses. 12 references

  16. Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of table wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits. Distilled spirits include vodka, whiskey, gin, rum, and ... is 5% alcohol by volume (alc/vol), table wine is about 12% alc/vol, and straight 80-proof distilled spirits is 40% alc/vol. The percent alcohol by ...

  17. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  18. Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lantz Fleming

    2017-11-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct. Certainly, this examination can only be preliminary, indicating what should be a wide and vigorous discussion among practitioners and ethicists. It concludes with practical suggestions for how the medical and bioethics community may proceed with ethical assessment.

  19. The Majorana Demonstrator Status and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.-H.; Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; Othman, G.; Pettus, W.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Ruof, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is using an array of high-purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay are understood to be the only viable experimental method for testing the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Observation of this decay would imply violation of lepton number, that neutrinos are Majorana in nature, and provide information on the neutrino mass. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR comprises 44.1 kg of p-type point-contact Ge detectors (29.7 kg enriched in 76Ge) surrounded by a low-background shield system. The experiment achieved a high efficiency of converting raw Ge material to detectors and an unprecedented detector energy resolution of 2.5 keV FWHM at Qββ. The MAJORANA collaboration began taking physics data in 2016. This paper summarizes key construction aspects of the Demonstrator and shows preliminary results from initial data.

  20. Preliminary analysis of four numerical models for calculating the mesoscale transport of Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D W; Cooper, R E [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1983-01-01

    A performance study of four numerical algorithms for multi-dimensional advection-diffusion prediction on mesoscale grids has been made. Dispersion from point and distributed sources and a simulation of a continuous source are compared with analytical solutions to assess relative accuracy. Model predictions are then compared with actual measurements of Kr-85 emitted from the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The particle-in-cell and method of moments algorithms exhibit superior accuracy in modeling single source releases. For modeling distributed sources, algorithms based on the pseudospectral and finite element interpolation concepts exhibit comparable accuracy. The method of moments is felt to be the best overall performer, although all the models appear to be relatively close in accuracy.

  1. Preliminary assessment of Geant4 HP models and cross section libraries by reactor criticality benchmark calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Mullet, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Geant4 is an open source general purpose simulation toolkit for particle transportation in matter. Since the extension of the thermal scattering model in Geant4.9.5 and the availability of the IAEA HP model cross section libraries, it is now possible to extend the application area of Geant4......, U and O in uranium dioxide, Al metal, Be metal, and Fe metal. The native HP cross section library G4NDL does not include data for elements with atomic number larger than 92. Therefore, transuranic elements, which have impacts for a realistic reactor, can not be simulated by the combination of the HP...... models and the G4NDL library. However, cross sections of those missing isotopes were made available recently through the IAEA project “new evaluated neutron cross section libraries for Geant4”....

  2. Preliminary thermal/hydraulic sizing calculations for duplex tube evaporator/superheater (interchangeable units). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waszink, R.P.; Hwang, J.Y.; Efferding, L.E.

    1974-06-01

    This is a preliminry thermal/hydraulic report reflecting work under Subtask 6.2 of Ref. 1.1. This report is an extension of the previous thermal/hydraulic design report. Parts of this report have been transmitted to GE. The detailed design basis, listed by source, is given. Additional details are discussed

  3. Censoring Data for Resistance Factor Calculations in Load and Resistance Factor Design: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Evans; David W. Green

    2007-01-01

    Reliability estimates for the resistance distribution of wood product properties may be made from test data where all specimens are broken (full data sets) or by using data sets where information is obtained only from the weaker pieces in the distribution (censored data). Whereas considerable information exists on property estimation from full data sets, much less...

  4. Proposal of a calculation methodology for the preliminary design of a coalescing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Dobrosky, Cintia

    2015-01-01

    Coalescing filters are described which are equipments for capture and recovery of mist most efficient, inexpensive and have fewer limitations of application. The operation, equations and ideal characteristics of filter media of these models are explained. A methodology for design and scale-up of this type of equipment for liquid recovery in gaseous currents is proposed from experimental tests, in order to guide the interested reader in its making. (author) [es

  5. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Core calculational techniques and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Described are the procedures and techniques employed by B and W in core design analyses of power peaking, control rod worths, and reactivity coefficients. Major emphasis has been placed on current calculational tools and the most frequently performed calculations over the operating power range

  7. Economic calculation in socialist countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1930s, when the classical socialist system emerged, economic decisions were based not on detailed and precise economic methods of calculation but on rough and ready political methods. An important method of economic calculation - particularly in the post-Stalin period - was that of

  8. Calculation of Spectra of Solids:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The Gilat-Raubenheimer method simplified to tetrahedron division is used to calculate the real and imaginary part of the dynamical response function for electrons. A frequency expansion for the real part is discussed. The Lindhard function is calculated as a test for numerical accuracy...

  9. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  10. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  11. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  12. Calculations of core-excited states in Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbockhaven, G.; Hansen, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We report on progress in the calculation of three-electron states making use of B-spline basis sets. In particular we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a Hartree-Fock basis (expanded in B-splines) compared to the use of hydrogenic basis states. Preliminary results are presented for the 2 S terms in Li below the 1s2s 3 S limit at 64.4 eV. The 2 S terms have been studied less extensively than other core-excited states in Li. In this particular case the choice of basis has a large influence on the quality of the results. (orig.)

  13. Calculating computer-generated optical elements to produce arbitrary intensity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, S.; Nugent, K.A.; Scholten, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe preliminary investigation into using a computer to generate optical elements (CGOEs) with phase-only variation, that will produce an arbitrary intensity distribution in a given image plane. An iterative calculation cycles between the CGOE and the image plane and modifies each according to the appropriate constraints. We extend this to the calculation of defined intensity distributions in two separated planes by modifying both phase and intensity at the CGOE

  14. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Thomsen, D.H.

    1975-08-01

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  15. Calculation of magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in MHD superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Moisio, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The realization of a superconducting prototype magnet for MHD energy conversion is under development in Italy. Electromechanical industries and University research groups are involved in the project. The paper deals with analytical methods developed at the Department of Electrical Engineering of Padova University for calculating magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in MHD superconducting magnets and utilized in the preliminary design of the prototype

  16. Preliminary shielding analysis of VHTR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy M.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of methods have been established for automated variance reduction in Monte Carlo shielding simulations. Hybrid methods rely on deterministic adjoint and/or forward calculations to generate these parameters. In the present study, we use the FWCADIS method implemented in MAVRIC sequence of the SCALE6 package to perform preliminary shielding analyses of a VHTR reactor. MAVRIC has been successfully used by a number of researchers for a range of shielding applications, including modeling of LWRs, spent fuel storage, radiation field throughout a nuclear power plant, study of irradiation facilities, and others. However, experience in using MAVRIC for shielding studies of VHTRs is more limited. Thus, the objective of this work is to contribute toward validating MAVRIC for such applications, and identify areas for potential improvement. A simplified model of a prismatic VHTR has been devised, based on general features of the 600 MWt reactor considered as one of the NGNP options. Fuel elements have been homogenized, and the core region is represented as an annulus. However, the overall mix of materials and the relatively large dimensions of the spatial domain challenging the shielding simulations have been preserved. Simulations are performed to evaluate fast neutron fluence, dpa, and other parameters of interest at relevant positions. The paper will investigate and discuss both the effectiveness of the automated variance reduction, as well as applicability of physics model from the standpoint of specific VHTR features. (author)

  17. Preliminary Study of 20 MWth Experiment Power Reactor based on Pebble Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto, Dwi; Permana, Sidik; Pramuditya, Syeilendra

    2017-07-01

    In this study, preliminary design calculations for experimental small power reactor (20 MWt) based on Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) are performed. PBR technology chosen due to its advantages in neutronic and safety aspects. Several important parameters, such as fissile enrichment, number of fuel passes, burnup and effective multiplication factor are taken into account in the calculation to find neutronic characteristics of the present reactor design.

  18. Many body calculations in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the many-body perturbation theory for atomic calculations are reviewed. The major emphasis is on the use of the linked-cluster many-body perturbation theory derived by Brueckner and Goldstone. Applications of many-body theory to calculations of hyperfine structure are examined. Auger rates and parity violation are discussed. Photoionization is reviewed, and the authors show how many-body perturbation theory can be applied to problems ranging from structural properties such as correlation energies and hyperfine structure to dynamical properties such as transitions induced by weak neutral currents and photoionization cross sections

  19. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...... in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  20. Subjective Organization Calculator for Free Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Senkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The free recall measure has an advantage over other memory measures because the free recall measure can provide organization measures, which can reveal the strategies participants used to maximize recall. For instance, even when a study list does not show a clear organizational scheme, recall outputs are often far from random, evidenced by participants recalling the same two or more items together repeatedly across multiple test trials. Unfortunately, computing organizational measures is laborious. The present article introduces a calculator to compute subjective organization (SO measures. The calculator is based on a popular platform accessible to most researchers and is designed to compute commonly used SO measures for each participant.

  1. Depletion calculations of adjuster rods in Darlington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, B.; Tsang, K., E-mail: benoit.arsenault@amecfw.com, E-mail: kwok.tsang@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation methodology and reactivity worth calculated for aged adjuster rods in the Darlington core. ORIGEN-S IST was applied to simulate the isotope transmutation process of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters. The compositions were used in DRAGON-IST to calculate the change in incremental properties of aged adjusters. Pre-simulations of the reactivity worth of the stainless steel and titanium adjusters in Darlington were performed using RFSP-IST and the results showed that the titanium adjuster rods exhibit faster reactivity-worth drop than that of stainless steel rods. (author)

  2. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  4. Versator divertor experiment: preliminary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1984-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic divertors as an impurity control and ash removal mechanism for future tokamak reactors bring on the need for further experimental verification of the divertor merits and their ability to operate at reactor relevant conditions, such as with auxiliary heating. This paper presents preliminary designs of a bundle and a poloidal divertor for Versator II, which can operate in conjunction with the existing 150 kW of LHRF heating or LH current drive. The bundle divertor option also features a new divertor configuration which should improve the engineering and physics results of the DITE experiment. Further design optimization in both physics and engineering designs are currently under way

  5. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  6. Assessment of the 3He pressure inside the CABRI transient rods - Development of a surrogate model based on measurements and complementary CFD calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamens, Olivier; Lecerf, Johann; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Duc, Bertrand; Cadiou, Thierry; Blaise, Patrick; Biard, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    CABRI is an experimental pulse reactor, funded by the French Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection Institute (IRSN) and operated by CEA at the Cadarache research center. It is designed to study fuel behavior under RIA conditions. In order to produce the power transients, reactivity is injected by depressurization of a neutron absorber (3He) situated in transient rods inside the reactor core. The shapes of power transients depend on the total amount of reactivity injected and on the injection speed. The injected reactivity can be calculated by conversion of the 3He gas density into units of reactivity. So, it is of upmost importance to properly master gas density evolution in transient rods during a power transient. The 3He depressurization was studied by CFD calculations and completed with measurements using pressure transducers. The CFD calculations show that the density evolution is slower than the pressure drop. Surrogate models were built based on CFD calculations and validated against preliminary tests in the CABRI transient system. Studies also show that it is harder to predict the depressurization during the power transients because of neutron/3He capture reactions that induce a gas heating. This phenomenon can be studied by a multiphysics approach based on reaction rate calculation thanks to Monte Carlo code and study the resulting heating effect with the validated CFD simulation.

  7. Assessment of the 3He pressure inside the CABRI transient rods - Development of a surrogate model based on measurements and complementary CFD calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clamens Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CABRI is an experimental pulse reactor, funded by the French Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection Institute (IRSN and operated by CEA at the Cadarache research center. It is designed to study fuel behavior under RIA conditions. In order to produce the power transients, reactivity is injected by depressurization of a neutron absorber (3He situated in transient rods inside the reactor core. The shapes of power transients depend on the total amount of reactivity injected and on the injection speed. The injected reactivity can be calculated by conversion of the 3He gas density into units of reactivity. So, it is of upmost importance to properly master gas density evolution in transient rods during a power transient. The 3He depressurization was studied by CFD calculations and completed with measurements using pressure transducers. The CFD calculations show that the density evolution is slower than the pressure drop. Surrogate models were built based on CFD calculations and validated against preliminary tests in the CABRI transient system. Studies also show that it is harder to predict the depressurization during the power transients because of neutron/3He capture reactions that induce a gas heating. This phenomenon can be studied by a multiphysics approach based on reaction rate calculation thanks to Monte Carlo code and study the resulting heating effect with the validated CFD simulation.

  8. Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAROTHERS, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18, 1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30, 1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''

  9. Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAROTHERS, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18,1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30,1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''

  10. Reactor core performance calculating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kenji; Bando, Masaru; Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can calculate a power distribution efficiently at high speed by a plurality of calculation means while taking an amount of the reactor state into consideration. Namely, an input device takes data from a measuring device for the amount of the reactor core state such as a large number of neutron detectors disposed in the reactor core for monitoring the reactor state during operation. An input data distribution device comprises a state recognition section and a data distribution section. The state recognition section recognizes the kind and amount of the inputted data and information of the calculation means. The data distribution section analyzes the characteristic of the inputted data, divides them into a several groups, allocates them to each of the calculation means for the purpose of calculating the reactor core performance efficiently at high speed based on the information from the state recognition section. A plurality of the calculation means calculate power distribution of each of regions based on the allocated inputted data, to determine the power distribution of the entire reactor core. As a result, the reactor core can be evaluated at high accuracy and at high speed irrespective of the whole reactor core or partial region. (I.S.)

  11. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  12. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  13. Reactor calculations and nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1977-12-01

    The relationship of sets of nuclear parameters and the macroscopic reactor quantities that can be calculated from them is examined. The framework of the study is similar to that of Usachev and Bobkov. The analysis is generalised and some properties required by common sense are demonstrated. The form of calculation permits revision of the parameter set. It is argued that any discrepancy between a calculation and measurement of a macroscopic quantity is more useful when applied directly to prediction of other macroscopic quantities than to revision of the parameter set. The mathematical technique outlined is seen to describe common engineering practice. (Author)

  14. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  15. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  16. Software testing in roughness calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y L; Hsieh, P F; Fu, W E

    2005-01-01

    A test method to determine the function quality provided by the software for roughness measurement is presented in this study. The function quality of the software requirements should be part of and assessed through the entire life cycle of the software package. The specific function, or output accuracy, is crucial for the analysis of the experimental data. For scientific applications, however, commercial software is usually embedded with specific instrument, which is used for measurement or analysis during the manufacture process. In general, the error ratio caused by the software would be more apparent especially when dealing with relatively small quantities, like the measurements in the nanometer-scale range. The model of 'using a data generator' proposed by NPL of UK was applied in this study. An example of the roughness software is tested and analyzed by the above mentioned process. After selecting the 'reference results', the 'reference data' was generated by a programmable 'data generator'. The filter function of 0.8 mm long cutoff value, defined in ISO 11562 was tested with 66 sinusoid data at different wavelengths. Test results from commercial software and CMS written program were compared to the theoretical data calculated from ISO standards. As for the filter function in this software, the result showed a significant disagreement between the reference and test results. The short cutoff feature for filtering at the high frequencies does not function properly, while the long cutoff feature has the maximum difference in the filtering ratio, which is more than 70% between the wavelength of 300 μm and 500 μm. Conclusively, the commercial software needs to be tested more extensively for specific application by appropriate design of reference dataset to ensure its function quality

  17. The dynamic capacity calculation method and the flood control ability of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Jing, Zhu; Yi, Yujun; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the flood control ability of a river-type reservoir, an accurate simulation method for the flood storage, discharge process, and dynamic capacity of the reservoir is important. As the world's largest reservoir, the storage capacity and flood control capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has attracted widespread interest and academic debate for nearly 20 years. In this study, a model for calculating the dynamic capacity of a river-type reservoir is established based on data from 394 river cross sections and 2.5-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data of the TGR area. The storage capacity and flood control capacity of the TGR were analysed based on the scheduling procedures of a normal impoundment period. The results show that the static capacity of the TGR is 43.43 billion m3, the dynamic flood control capacity is 22.45 billion m3, and the maximum floodwater flow regulated by the dynamic capacity at Zhicheng is no more than 67,700 m3/s. This study supply new simulation method and up-to-date high-precision data to discuss the 20 years debate, and the results reveal the TGR design is conservative for flood control according to the Preliminary Design Report of the Three Gorges Project. The dynamic capacity calculation method used here can provide a reference for flood regulation of large river-type reservoirs.

  18. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Shankar; Brun-Yaba, Christine; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Williams, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  19. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Shankar [Menon Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden); Brun-Yaba, Christine [Inst. de Radioprotection et Securite Nucleaire (France); Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Bjerler, Jan [Studsvik Stensand, Nykoeping (Sweden); Williams, Alexander [Dept. of Energy (United States). Office of Environmental Management

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  20. Preliminary Assessment of PHTS Pump Piping Break Accident of DSFR-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Bae, Moohoon; Choi, Yongwon; Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    KINS is evaluating the applicability of TRACE code for safety analysis of SFR Since 2012. Based on the steady-state input deck for Demonstration Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor 600MW (DSFR-600) component-wise specific modeling is developed for DSFR-600. Preliminary analysis was performed with TRACE code for DSFR-600 PHTS pump piping break accident. The calculation result showed that the calculated safety parameters are conforms to the design criteria for DBA accidents. RHRS design of DSFR-600 and its performance during transient was also reviewed by sensitivity study on the effect of sodium condition to the transient decay heat removal capability of RHRS. Following insights are identified. These should be considered in improving the design also in licensing review of SFR safety analysis. The transient performance of RHRS might differ from the component's design capacity. RHRS's transient performance also should be included in the design documents and validated with reasonable test and/or analysis with consideration of the variation of coolant conditions during transient. The analytic model used for safety analysis should consider 3-D effect of vessel pool and its uncertainty with reasonable conservatism.

  1. Adjoint spectrum calculation in fuel heterogeneous cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In most codes for cells calculation, the multigroup cross sections are generated taking into consideration the conservation of the reaction rates in the forward spectrum. However, for certain uses of the perturbation theory it's necessary to use the average of the parameters for energy macrogroups over the forward and the adjoint spectra. In this thesis the adjoint spectrum was calculated from the adjoint neutron balance equations, that were obtained for a heterogeneous unit cell. The collision probabilities method was used to obtain these equations. In order optimize the computational run-time, the Gaussian quadrature method was used in the calculation of the neutron balance equations, forward and adjoint. This method of integration was also used for the Doppler broadening functions calculation, necessary for obtaining the energy dependent cross sections. In order to calculate the reaction rates and the average cross sections, using both the forward and the adjoint neutron spectra, the most important resonances of the U 238 were considered. The results obtained with the method show significant differences for the different cross sections weighting schemes. (author)

  2. Calculation of pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, N.; Amirarjomand, S.

    1975-09-01

    The pion form factor is calculated using the structure function Wsub(2), which incorporates kinematical constraints, threshold behaviour and scaling. The Bloom-Gilman sum rule is used and only the two leading Regge trajectories are taken into account

  3. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  4. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  5. Numerical calculations near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenginoglu, Anil

    2007-01-01

    After describing in short some problems and methods regarding the smoothness of null infinity for isolated systems, I present numerical calculations in which both spatial and null infinity can be studied. The reduced conformal field equations based on the conformal Gauss gauge allow us in spherical symmetry to calculate numerically the entire Schwarzschild-Kruskal spacetime in a smooth way including spacelike, null and timelike infinity and the domain close to the singularity

  6. Calculating radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and procedures used to calculate the radiation exposures and radiation doses to designated employees of the Olympic Dam Project. Each of the three major exposure pathways are examined. These are: gamma irradiation, radon daughter inhalation and radioactive dust inhalation. A further section presents ICRP methodology for combining individual pathway exposures to give a total dose figure. Computer programs used for calculations and data storage are also presented briefly

  7. Eurisol-DS Multi MW Target Preliminary Study of the Windlowless Transverse Film (WTF) Liquid Metal Proton-to Neutron Converter

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Rocca, R; Samec, K

    2008-01-01

    This technical note summarises the design calculations performed within Task#2 of the European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL-DS) for the WTF (Windowless Transverse Film) mercur converter. A preliminary study was carried out in order to determine the heat deposition within the mercury and estimate the mercury velocity needed in the film. The geometry used is based on previous analysis simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. The results of these calculations show the baseline parameters, which will be used for the detailed design. Particularly, with a 1 GeV proton beam with a $\\sigma$ ~2 mm Gaussian distribution on a 4x30x40cm long target and with a 5m/s velocity at the peak power density region seems a suitable solution.

  8. Evaluation of calculational and material models for concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.; Yuan, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A computer code utilizing an appropriate finite element, material and constitutive model has been under development as a part of a comprehensive effort by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop and validate a realistic methodology for the ultimate load analysis of concrete containment structures. A preliminary evaluation of the reinforced and prestressed concrete modeling capabilities recently implemented in the ABAQUS-EPGEN code has been completed. This effort focuses on using a state-of-the-art calculational model to predict the behavior of large-scale reinforced concrete slabs tested under uniaxial and biaxial tension to simulate the wall of a typical concrete containment structure under internal pressure. This paper gives comparisons between calculations and experimental measurements for a uniaxially-loaded specimen. The calculated strains compare well with the measured strains in the reinforcing steel; however, the calculations gave diffused cracking patterns that do not agree with the discrete cracking observed in the experiments. Recommendations for improvement of the calculational models are given. (orig.)

  9. Inventory calculations in sediment samples with heterogeneous plutonium activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Dahlgaard, H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to determine the total inventory of a heterogeneously distributed contamination of marine sediments is described. The study site is the Bylot Sound off the Thule Airbase, NW Greenland, where marine sediments became contaminated with plutonium in 1968 after a nuclear weapons accident. The calculation is based on a gamma spectrometric screening of the 241 Am concentration in 450 one-gram aliquots from 6 sediment cores. A Monte Carlo programme then simulates a probable distribution of the activity, and based on that, a total inventory is estimated by integrating a double exponential function. The present data indicate a total inventory around 3.5 kg, which is 7 times higher than earlier estimates (0.5 kg). The difference is partly explained by the inclusion of hot particles in the present calculation. A large uncertainty is connected to this estimate, and it should be regarded as preliminary. (au)

  10. MD simulations and QM/MM calculations show that single-site mutations of cytochrome P450BM3 alter the active site’s complexity and the chemoselectivity of oxidation without changing the active species† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The RMS deviation of the protein during 100 ns (and 200 ns) of simulation and the total QM/MM and ZPE energies, as well as the Cartesian coordinates of all of the computed species. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01932g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Wang, Binju; Vajpai, Manu

    2017-01-01

    It is a long-standing mechanistic consensus that the mutation of the proton-shuttle mediator Threonine (T) in Cytochrome P450 enzymes severs the water channel and thereby quenches the formation of the active species: the high-valent iron(iv)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical species, compound I (Cpd I). Using MD simulations and hybrid QM/MM calculations of P450BM3 we demonstrate that this is not the case. Thus, while the original water channel is disrupted in the T268A mutant of the enzyme, a new channel is formed that generates Cpd I. With this new understanding, we address the puzzling regiochemical and kinetic-isotope effect (KIE) results (Volz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 9724–9725) on the sulfoxidation and N-dealkylation of dimethyl-(4-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)-amine by wild type (WT) P450BM3 and its T268A vs. F87A mutants. We show that the observed variable ratio of S/Me oxidation for these enzymes, vis-à-vis the constant KIE, originates from Cpd I being the sole oxidant. Thus, while the conserved KIE probes the conserved nature of the transition state, the variable regiochemical S/Me ratio reflects the active-site reorganization in the mutants: the shifted location of the new water channel in T268A tightens the binding of the S-end by Cpd I and increases the S/Me ratio, whereas the absence of π-interaction with the S-end in F87A creates a looser binding that lowers the S/Me ratio. Our results match the experimental findings. As such, this study sheds light on puzzling experimental results, and may shift a central paradigm in P450 research. The broader implication on enzymatic research is that a single-site mutation is not a localised alteration but one that may lead to a profound change in the active site, sufficiently so as to change the chemoselectivity of catalyzed reactions. PMID:29568477

  11. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  12. Preliminary ATWS analysis for the IRIS PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena Barra; Marco S Ghisu; David J Finnicum; Luca Oriani

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002. IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions. The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction. To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. A preliminary but extensive Level 1 PRA model has been developed to support the pre-application licensing of the IRIS design. As a result of the Preliminary IRIS PRA, an optimization of the design from a reliability point of view was completed, and an extremely low (about 1.2 E -8 ) core damage frequency (CDF) was assessed to confirm the impact of the safety by design approach. This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events. During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed

  13. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  14. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  16. The Preliminary GAMMA Code Thermal hydraulic Analysis for the Steady State of HTR-10 Initial Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Su; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis of HTR-10 steady state full power initial core to provide a benchmark calculation of VHTGR(Very High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) safety analysis code of GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis). The input data of GAMMA code are produced for the models of fluid block, wall block, radiation heat transfer and each component material properties in HTR-10 reactor. The temperature and flow distributions of HTR-10 steady state 10 MW{sub th} full power initial core are calculated by GAMMA code with boundary conditions of total reactor inlet flow rate of 4.32 kg/s, inlet temperature of 250 .deg. C, inlet pressure of 3 MPa, outlet pressure of 2.992 MPa and the fixed temperature at RCCS water cooling tube of 50 .deg C. The calculation results are compared with the measured solid material temperatures at 22 fixed instrumentation positions in HTR-10. The wall temperature distribution in pebble bed core shows that the minimum temperature of 358 .deg. C is located at upper core, a higher temperature zone than 829 .deg. C is located at the inner region of 0.45 m radius at the bottom of core centre, and the maximum wall temperature is 897 .deg. C. The wall temperatures linearly decreases at radially and axially farther side from the bottom of core centre. The maximum temperature of RPV is 230 .deg. C, and the maximum values of fuel average temperature and TRISO centreline temperature are 907 .deg. C and 929 .deg. C, respectively and they are much lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 .deg. C. The comparsion between the GAMMA code predictions and the measured temperature data shows that the calculation results are very close to the measured values in top and side reflector region, but a great difference is appeared in bottom reflector region. Some measured data are abnormally high in bottom reflector region, and so the confirmation of data is necessary in future. Fifteen of twenty two data have a

  17. Calculation of radon concentration in water by toluene extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaaki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Noguchi method and Horiuchi method have been used as the calculation method of radon concentration in water. Both methods have two problems in the original, that is, the concentration calculated is changed by the extraction temperature depend on the incorrect solubility data and the concentration calculated are smaller than the correct values, because the radon calculation equation does not true to the gas-liquid equilibrium theory. However, the two problems are solved by improving the radon equation. I presented the Noguchi-Saito equation and the constant B of Horiuchi-Saito equation. The calculating results by the improved method showed about 10% of error. (S.Y.)

  18. Helical tomotherapy shielding calculation for an existing LINAC treatment room: sample calculation and cautions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chuan; Guo Fanqing; Purdy, James A

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a step-by-step shielding calculation recipe for a helical tomotherapy unit (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI, USA), recently installed in an existing Varian 600C treatment room. Both primary and secondary radiations (leakage and scatter) are explicitly considered. A typical patient load is assumed. Use factor is calculated based on an analytical formula derived from the tomotherapy rotational beam delivery geometry. Leakage and scatter are included in the calculation based on corresponding measurement data as documented by TomoTherapy Inc. Our calculation result shows that, except for a small area by the therapists' console, most of the existing Varian 600C shielding is sufficient for the new tomotherapy unit. This work cautions other institutions facing the similar situation, where an HT unit is considered for an existing LINAC treatment room, more secondary shielding might be considered at some locations, due to the significantly increased secondary shielding requirement by HT. (note)

  19. Preliminary analyses of AP600 using RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S.M.; Beelman, R.J.; Fisher, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents results of preliminary analyses of the proposed Westinghouse Electric Corporation AP600 design. AP600 is a two loop, 600 MW (e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) arranged in a two hot leg, four cold leg nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) configuration. In contrast to the present generation of PWRs it is equipped with passive emergency core coolant (ECC) systems. Also, the containment and the safety systems of the AP600 interact with the reactor coolant system and each other in a more integral fashion than present day PWRs. The containment in this design is the ultimate heat sink for removal of decay heat to the environment. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has studied applicability of the RELAP5 code to AP600 safety analysis and has developed a model of the AP600 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The model incorporates integral modeling of the containment, NSSS and passive safety systems. Best available preliminary design data were used. Nodalization sensitivity studies were conducted to gain experience in modeling of systems and conditions which are beyond the applicability of previously established RELAP5 modeling guidelines or experience. Exploratory analyses were then undertaken to investigate AP600 system response during postulated accident conditions. Four small break LOCA calculations and two large break LOCA calculations were conducted

  20. The SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Lillie, R.A.; Barnes, J.M.; McNeilly, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the conceptual design phase of the SNS project, the target station bulk-biological shield was characterized and the activation of the major targets station components was calculated. Shielding requirements were assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shut-down, and accident conditions utilizing the SNS shield design criteria, DOE Order 5480.25, and requirements specified in 10 CFR 835. Since completion of the conceptual design phase, there have been major design changes to the target station as a result of the initial shielding and activation analyses, modifications brought about due to engineering concerns, and feedback from numerous external review committees. These design changes have impacted the results of the conceptual design analyses, and consequently, have required a re-investigation of the new design. Furthermore, the conceptual design shielding analysis did not address many of the details associated with the engineering design of the target station. In this paper, some of the proposed SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding design analyses will be presented. The SNS facility (with emphasis on the target station), shielding design requirements, calculational strategy, and source terms used in the analyses will be described. Preliminary results and conclusions, along with recommendations for additional analyses, will also be presented. (author)

  1. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  2. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  3. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  4. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report

  5. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhou, E-mail: zhaozhou@swip.ac.cn; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  6. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhou; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li_4SiO_4 pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  7. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  8. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  9. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  10. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  11. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  12. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  13. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  14. Calculation of magnetic hyperfine constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 - 'central molucule', to describe the wavefunction of the defect. Calculations have shown that introduction of a small degree of covalence, between this central molecule and neighboring ions, is necessary to improve the electronic structure description of the defect. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of the ions neighboring the central molecule; these relaxations have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different theoretical methods have been used

  15. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-02-01

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author) [pt

  16. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  17. PHEBUS-FPTO Benchmark calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.; Ball, A.; Trambauer, K.; Barbero, F.; Olivar Dominguez, F.; Herranz, L.; Biasi, L.; Fermandjian, J.; Hocke, K.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a set of pre-test predictions made for the first Phebus-FP test, FPT-O. There were many different calculations, performed by various organizations and they represent the first attempt to calculate the whole experimental sequence, from bundle to containment. Quantitative agreement between the various calculations was not good but the particular models in the code responsible for disagreements were mostly identified. A consensus view was formed as to how the test would proceed. It was found that a successful execution of the test will require a different operating procedure than had been assumed here. Critical areas which require close attention are the need to devize a strategy for the power and flow in the bundle that takes account of uncertainties in the modelling and the shroud conductivity and the necessity to develop a reliable method to achieve the desired thermalhydraulic conditions in the containment

  18. Methodology and a preliminary data base for examining the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    An analytical model was developed to assess and examine the health effects associated with the production of electricity from uranium and coal fuels. The model is based on a systematic methodology that is both simple and easy to check, and provides details about the various components of health risk. A preliminary set of data that is needed to calculate the health risks was gathered, normalized to the model facilities, and presented in a concise manner. Additional data will become available as a result of other evaluations of both fuel cycles, and they should be included in the data base. An iterative approach involving only a few steps is recommended for validating the model. After each validation step, the model is improved in the areas where new information or increased interest justifies such upgrading. Sensitivity analysis is proposed as the best method of using the model to its full potential. Detailed quantification of the risks associated with the two fuel cycles is not presented in this report. The evaluation of risks from producing electricity by these two methods can be completed only after several steps that address difficult social and technical questions. Preliminary quantitative assessment showed that several factors not considered in detail in previous studies are potentially important. 255 refs., 21 figs., 179 tabs.

  19. Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculation Using Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model Flow Measurements in Primary Loop of Coolant in a Pressurized Water Reactor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Farkas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate the thermohydraulic consequences of a main steam line break and to compare the obtained results with Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM 1.1 experimental results. The objective is to utilize data from steady-state mixing experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations to determine the flow distribution and the effect of thermal mixing phenomena in the primary loops for the improvement of normal operation conditions and structural integrity assessment of pressurized water reactors. The numerical model of ROCOM was developed using the FLUENT code. The positions of the inlet and outlet boundary conditions and the distribution of detailed velocity/turbulence parameters were determined by preliminary calculations. The temperature fields of transient calculation were averaged in time and compared with time-averaged experimental data. The perforated barrel under the core inlet homogenizes the flow, and therefore, a uniform temperature distribution is formed in the pressure vessel bottom. The calculated and measured values of lowest temperature were equal. The inlet temperature is an essential parameter for safety assessment. The calculation predicts precisely the experimental results at the core inlet central region. CFD results showed a good agreement (both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental results.

  20. Automatic calculations of electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Kato, K.; Tanaka, H.

    1996-01-01

    GRACE system is an excellent tool for calculating the cross section and for generating event of the elementary process automatically. However it is not always easy for beginners to use. An interactive version of GRACE is being developed so as to be a user friendly system. Since it works exactly in the same environment as PAW, all functions of PAW are available for handling any histogram information produced by GRACE. As its application the cross sections of all elementary processes with up to 5-body final states induced by e + e - interaction are going to be calculated and to be summarized as a catalogue. (author)

  1. Calculation methods in program CCRMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chonghai, Cai [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Physics; Qingbiao, Shen [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    CCRMN is a program for calculating complex reactions of a medium-heavy nucleus with six light particles. In CCRMN, the incoming particles can be neutrons, protons, {sup 4}He, deuterons, tritons and {sup 3}He. the CCRMN code is constructed within the framework of the optical model, pre-equilibrium statistical theory based on the exciton model and the evaporation model. CCRMN is valid in 1{approx} MeV energy region, it can give correct results for optical model quantities and all kinds of reaction cross sections. This program has been applied in practical calculations and got reasonable results.

  2. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  3. Selfconsistent calculations at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Quentin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have been done for the spherical nuclei 40 Ca, 208 Pb and the hypothetical superheavy nucleus with Z=114, A=298, as well as for the deformed nucleus 168 Yb. The temperature T was varied from zero up to 5 MeV. For T>3 MeV, some numerical problems arise in connection with the optimization of the basis when calculating deformed nuclei. However, at these high temperatures the occupation numbers in the continuum are sufficiently large so that the nucleus starts evaporating particles and no equilibrium state can be described. Results are obtained for excitation energies and entropies. (Auth.)

  4. Benchmark neutron porosity log calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Michael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations have been made for a benchmark neutron porosity log problem with the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP and the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McDNL. For accuracy and timing comparison purposes the CRAY XMP and MicroVax II computers have been used with these codes. The CRAY has been used for an analog version of the MCNP code while the MicroVax II has been used for the optimized variance reduction versions of both codes. Results indicate that the two codes give the same results within calculated standard deviations. Comparisons are given and discussed for accuracy (precision) and computation times for the two codes

  5. Lattice calculations in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD

  6. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The purpose of this calculation is to conservatively estimate the weight of equipment and structures being added over Tank 241-C-106 as a result of Project W-320 and combine these weights with the estimated weights of existing structures and equipment as calculated in Attachment 1. The combined weights will be compared to the allowable live load limit to provide a preliminary assessment of loading conditions above Tank 241-C-106.

  7. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  8. Numerical methods for calculating thermal residual stresses and hydrogen diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.B.; Devaux, J.; Dubois, D.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal residual stresses and hydrogen concentrations are two major factors intervening in cracking phenomena. These parameters were numerically calculated by a computer programme (TITUS) using the FEM, during the deposition of a stainless clad on a low-alloy plate. The calculation was performed with a 2-dimensional option in four successive steps: thermal transient calculation, metallurgical transient calculation (determination of the metallurgical phase proportions), elastic-plastic transient (plain strain conditions), hydrogen diffusion transient. Temperature and phase dependence of hydrogen diffusion coefficient and solubility constant. The following results were obtained: thermal calculations are very consistent with experiments at higher temperatures (due to the introduction of fusion and solidification latent heats); the consistency is not as good (by 70 degrees) for lower temperatures (below 650 degrees C); this was attributed to the non-introduction of gamma-alpha transformation latent heat. The metallurgical phase calculation indicates that the heat affected zone is almost entirely transformed into bainite after cooling down (the martensite proportion does not exceed 5%). The elastic-plastic calculations indicate that the stresses in the heat affected zone are compressive or slightly tensile; on the other hand, higher tensile stresses develop on the boundary of the heat affected zone. The transformation plasticity has a definite influence on the final stress level. The return of hydrogen to the clad during the bainitic transformation is but an incomplete phenomenon and the hydrogen concentration in the heat affected zone after cooling down to room temperature is therefore sufficient to cause cold cracking (if no heat treatment is applied). Heat treatments are efficient in lowering the hydrogen concentration. These results enable us to draw preliminary conclusions on practical means to avoid cracking. (orig.)

  9. Influence of FRAPCON-1 evaluation models on fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, R.; Laats, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary set of nine evaluation models (EMs) was added to the FRAPCON-1 computer code, which is used to calculate fuel rod behavior in a nuclear reactor during steady-state operation. The intent was to provide an audit code to be used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing activities when calculations of conservative fuel rod temperatures are required. The EMs place conservatisms on the calculation of rod temperature by modifying the calculation of rod power history, fuel and cladding behavior models, and materials properties correlations. Three of the nine EMs provide either input or model specifications, or set the reference temperature for stored energy calculations. The remaining six EMs were intended to add thermal conservatism through model changes. To determine the relative influence of these six EMs upon fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors, a sensitivity study was conducted. That study is the subject of this paper

  10. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  11. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Pai, Sandeep R; Hegde, Shruti V; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes(®) CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS) illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  13. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  14. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  15. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended

  16. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Grigsby, J.M. [G & P Consulting, Inc. (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  17. Numericware i: Identical by State Matrix Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsong Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce software, Numericware i, to compute identical by state (IBS matrix based on genotypic data. Calculating an IBS matrix with a large dataset requires large computer memory and takes lengthy processing time. Numericware i addresses these challenges with 2 algorithmic methods: multithreading and forward chopping. The multithreading allows computational routines to concurrently run on multiple central processing unit (CPU processors. The forward chopping addresses memory limitation by dividing a dataset into appropriately sized subsets. Numericware i allows calculation of the IBS matrix for a large genotypic dataset using a laptop or a desktop computer. For comparison with different software, we calculated genetic relationship matrices using Numericware i, SPAGeDi, and TASSEL with the same genotypic dataset. Numericware i calculates IBS coefficients between 0 and 2, whereas SPAGeDi and TASSEL produce different ranges of values including negative values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the matrices from Numericware i and TASSEL was high at .9972, whereas SPAGeDi showed low correlation with Numericware i (.0505 and TASSEL (.0587. With a high-dimensional dataset of 500 entities by 10 000 000 SNPs, Numericware i spent 382 minutes using 19 CPU threads and 64 GB memory by dividing the dataset into 3 pieces, whereas SPAGeDi and TASSEL failed with the same dataset. Numericware i is freely available for Windows and Linux under CC-BY 4.0 license at https://figshare.com/s/f100f33a8857131eb2db .

  18. Calculated fission properties of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1986-09-01

    A quantitative calculation is presented that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. For the macroscopic part a Yukawa-plus-exponential model is used and for the microscopic part a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential is used. The three-quadratic-surface parameterization generates shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. The results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives are presented for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  19. Microscopic calculation of the 4He system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a consistent, microscopic calculation of the bound and scattering states in the 4 He system employing a realistic nucleon-nucleon potential in the framework of the resonating group model (RGM). We present for comparison with these microscopic RGM calculations the results from a charge-independent, Coulomb-corrected R-matrix analysis of all types of data for reactions in the A=4 system. Comparisons are made between the phase shifts, and with a selection of measurements from each reaction, as well as between the resonance spectra obtained from both calculations. In general, the comparisons are favorable, but distinct differences are observed between the RGM calculations and some of the polarisation data. The partial-wave decomposition of the experimental data produced by the R-matrix analysis shows that these differences can be attributed to just a few S-matrix elements, for which inadequate tensor-force strength in the N-N interaction used appears to be responsible. (orig.)

  20. Magma addition rates in continental arcs: New methods of calculation and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Paterson, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of mass, heat and geochemical constituents (elements and volatiles) from the mantle to the atmosphere occurs via magma addition to the lithosphere. Calculation of magma addition rates (MARs) in continental arcs based on exposed proportions of igneous arc rocks is complex and rarely consistently determined. Multiple factors influence MAR calculations such as crust versus mantle contributions to magmas, a change in MARs across the arc and with depths throughout the arc crustal column, `arc tempos' with periods of high and low magmatic activity, the loss of previous emplaced arc rocks by subsequent magmatism and return to the mantle, arc migration, variations in the intrusive versus extrusive additions and evolving arc widths and thicknesses during tectonism. All of these factors need to be considered when calculating MARs.This study makes a new attempt to calculate MARs in continental arcs by studying three arc sections: the Famatinian arc, Argentina, the Sierra Nevada batholith, California and the Coast Mountain batholith, Washington and British Columbia. Arcs are divided into fore-arc, main arc and back arc sections and `boxes' with a defined width, length and thickness spanning upper middle and lower crustal levels are assigned to each section. Representative exposed crustal slices for each depth are then used to calculate MARs based on outcrop proportions for each box. Geochemical data is used to infer crustal recycling percentages and total thickness of the arc. Preliminary results show a correlation between MARs, crustal thicknesses and magmatic flare-up durations. For instance, the Famatinian arc shows a strong decrease in MARs between the main arc section (9.4 km3/Ma/arc-km) and the fore-arc (0.61 km3/Ma/arc-km) and back-arc (1.52 km3/Ma/arc-km) regions and an increase in the amount of magmatism with depth.Global MARs over geologic timescales have the potential to investigate mantle melt generation rates and the volatile outgassing contribution

  1. Calculations of nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    We present a method of calculating deep inelastic nucleon structure functions using bag model wavefunctions. Our method uses the Peierls - Yoccoz projection to form translation invariant bag states. We obtain the correct support for the structure functions and satisfy the positivity requirements for quark and anti-quark distribution functions. (orig.)

  2. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  3. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stabl...

  4. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  5. Ab-initio ZORA calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, S.; Snijders, Jaap; van Lenthe, J.H.; HernandezLaguna, A; Maruani, J; McWeeny, R; Wilson, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the first application of the ZORA (Zeroth Order Regular Approximation of the Dirac Fock equation) formalism in Ab Initio electronic structure calculations. The ZORA method, which has been tested previously in the context of Density Functional Theory, has been implemented in

  6. Introduction to calculations of recuperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollar, M.

    1977-01-01

    Physical principles of heat transfer between fluid under turbulent flow conditions and a wall of a duct are described. The methods of calculations of heat transfer coefficient and the theory of recuperative heat exchangers are presented. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theory. (author)

  7. Photoproduction data for heating calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Marck, Steven C.; Koning, Arjan J.; Rochman, Dimitri

    2008-01-01

    For irradiations in a materials test reactor, the prediction of the amount of gamma heating in the reactor is important. Only a good predictive calculation will lead to an irradiation in which the specified temperatures are reached. The photons produced by fission product decay are often missing in spectrum calculations for a reactor, but the contribution of the photons can be computed effectively using engineering correlations for the amount of fission product decay and the ensuing photon spectrum. The prompt photons are usually calculated by a spectrum code based on the underlying nuclear data libraries. For most of the important nuclides, the nuclear data libraries contain data for the photon productions rates. However, there are still many nuclides for which the photon production data are missing, and some of these nuclides contribute to gamma heating. In this paper it is estimated what the contributions to heating are from photon production on nuclides such as 236 U, 238 Pu, 135 I, 135 Xe, 147 Pm, 148 Pm, 148m Pm, and 149 Sm. Also, simple arguments are given to judge the effect from photon production on all other (lumped) fission products, and from 28 Al decay. For all these calculations the High Flux Reactor is used as an example. (authors)

  8. Methods for magnetostatic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for magnetostatic field calculation: differential and integrat are considered. Both approaches are shown to have certain merits and drawbacks, choice of the method depend on the type of the solved problem. An opportunity of combination of these tWo methods in one algorithm (hybrid method) is considered

  9. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  10. Study on the concurrent calculation with a multitransputer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Shinji; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1992-06-01

    A relation between the calculation processing time and the overhead of multitransputer network is studied in performing several concurrent calculations. Hardware configuration we used was a ring-type linked nine transputer network on an INMOS B008 mother board which was inserted into a slot of a personal computer compatible with IBM PC/AT. Further we used the occam2 toolset of MS-DOS version to write the calculation programs in the occam2 language. On arithmetic operations, some trigonometric and transcendental functions and numerical integrations, the calculation time and overhead were measured. The results show that the relative calculation speed is proportional to the number of transputers when the ratio of calculation time to overhead is much greater than 1.0. And the overhead is consumed in inter-communicating among transputers for the parallel calculation set-up. (author)

  11. Calculation of low-energy reactor neutrino spectra reactor for reactor neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyana, Eka Sapta; Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Matsuura, Hideaki [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Katakura, Junichi [Dept. of Nuclear System Safety Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear reactors produce a great number of antielectron neutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may take part in special weak interactions. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectrum from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor core. To calculate neutrino spectra, we need information about all generated nuclides that emit neutrinos. They are mainly fission fragments, reaction products and trans-uranium nuclides that undergo negative beta decay. Information in relation to trans-uranium nuclide compositions and its evolution in time (burn-up process) were provided by a reactor code MVP-BURN. We used typical PWR parameter input for MVP-BURN code and assumed the reactor to be operated continuously for 1 year (12 months) in a steady thermal power (3.4 GWth). The PWR has three fuel compositions of 2.0, 3.5 and 4.1 wt% {sup 235}U contents. For preliminary calculation we adopted a standard burn-up chain model provided by MVP-BURN. The chain model treated 21 heavy nuclides and 50 fission products. The MVB-BURN code utilized JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. We confirm that the antielectron neutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel. The antielectron-neutrino spectrum in low energy region is influenced by beta emitter nuclides with low Q value in beta decay (e.g. {sup 241}Pu) which is influenced by burp-up level: Low energy antielectron-neutrino spectra or emission rates increase when beta emitters with low Q value in beta decay accumulate. Our result shows the flux of low energy reactor neutrinos increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel.

  12. Development of a nuclear spallation simulation code and calculations of primary spallation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Takahiko; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1986-08-01

    In order to make evaluations of computational models for the nuclear spallation reaction from a nuclear physics point of view, a simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by modifying and combining the Monte Carlo codes NMTC/JAERI and NMTA/JAERI for calculating only the nuclear spallation reaction (intranuclear cascade + evaporation and/or fast fission) between a nucleus and a projectile without taking into consideration of internuclear transport. New several plotting routines have been provided for the rapid process of much more event data, obtained by using the ARGUS plotting system. The results obtained by our code can be directly compared with the experimental results using by thin foil experiments in which internuclear multiple collisions have little effects, and will serve to upgrade the calculational methods and the values of nuclear parameters currently used in the calculations. Some discussions are done about the preliminary computational results obtained by using NUCLEUS. The mass distribution and charge dispersion of reaction products are examined in some detail for the nuclear spallation reaction between incident protons and target nuclei, such as U, Pb and Ag, in the energy range from 0.5 GeV to 3.0 GeV. These results show that the distribution of reaction products ceases to change its form as the proton energy increases over about 2 GeV. The same tendency is seen in the energy dependence of the number of primary particles emitted from a nucleus. After spallation reactions, a variety of nuclei, especially many neutron deficient nuclides with nuclear charges nearly equal to ones of a target nucleus, are produced. Due to their short lifetime most of them will change to stable nuclides in due time. Finally, some important issues are discussed to improve the present simulation method. (author)

  13. Adaptation of GRS calculation codes for Soviet reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbuch, S.; Petri, A.; Steinborn, J.; Stenbok, I.A.; Suslow, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ATHLET for incident calculation of WWER has been tested and verified in numerous calculations. Further adaptation may be needed for the WWER 1000 plants. Coupling ATHLET with the 3D nuclear model BIPR-8 for WWER cores clearly improves studies of the influence of neutron kinetics. In the case of FBMK reactors ATHLET calculations show that typical incidents in the complex RMBK reactors can be calculated even though verification still has to be worked on. Results of the 3D-core model QUABOX/CUBBOX-HYCA show good correlation of calculated and measured values in reactor plants. Calculations carried out to date were used to check essential parameters influencing RBMK core behaviour especially dependence of effective voidre activity on the number of control rods. (orig./HP) [de

  14. SU-F-T-111: Investigation of the Attila Deterministic Solver as a Supplement to Monte Carlo for Calculating Out-Of-Field Radiotherapy Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Lee, C [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (United States); Failla, G [Varian Medical Systems, Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing average organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective

  15. Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core; Calcul de coeur R.E.P. en transport 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richebois, E

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)

  16. Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core; Calcul de coeur R.E.P. en transport 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richebois, E

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)

  17. Preliminary exploitation of industrial facility for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    have shown that the construction solution of the reaction chamber (irradiation with scanning along the chamber axis and protective air curtain under the window to introduce the electron beam into the reaction chamber) approve themselves under industrial conditions. Calibration procedures of analytical equipment were applied to test instruments and obtain reliable data regarding facility running parameters. Experimental data obtained during preliminary exploitation show good agreement with results of theoretical calculations and performed pilot plant experiments. The results of the industrial facility preliminary exploitation indicate that: SO 2 and NO x desired pollutants removal efficiency from the flue gas can be obtained under certain conditions like sufficient humidity, suitable flue gas temperature, dose rate and ammonia stoichiometry; depends on local conditions SO 2 or NO x removal can be optimized to achieve primary goals of the installation; good reliability of the accelerators are crucial for smooth exploitation of the facility; by-product quality may be influenced by coal and water quality used in the process. The primary task of preliminary exploitation is related to facility and separate systems optimization in respect to pollutants removal efficiency, energy consumption, by-product filtration efficiency, by-product handling system perfection, accelerator testing and improvement control systems perfection. The details procedures regarding facility operation were established to achieve smooth facility exploitation under typical conditions related to EPS service. The successful implementation of this technology in EPS Pomorzany may led to decisions concerning designing and construction other flue gas treatment facilities to solve environmental problems in Poland. (author)

  18. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P.; Roeser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  19. Development of Audit Calculation Methodology for RIA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joosuk; Kim, Gwanyoung; Woo, Swengwoong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The interim criteria contain more stringent limits than previous ones. For example, pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction(PCMI) was introduced as a new failure criteria. And both short-term (e.g. fuel-to coolant interaction, rod burst) and long-term(e.g., fuel rod ballooning, flow blockage) phenomena should be addressed for core coolability assurance. For dose calculations, transient-induced fission gas release has to be accounted additionally. Traditionally, the approved RIA analysis methodologies for licensing application are developed based on conservative approach. But newly introduced safety criteria tend to reduce the margins to the criteria. Thereby, licensees are trying to improve the margins by utilizing a less conservative approach. In this situation, to cope with this trend, a new audit calculation methodology needs to be developed. In this paper, the new methodology, which is currently under developing in KINS, was introduced. For the development of audit calculation methodology of RIA safety analysis based on the realistic evaluation approach, preliminary calculation by utilizing the best estimate code has been done on the initial core of APR1400. Followings are main conclusions. - With the assumption of single full-strength control rod ejection in HZP condition, rod failure due to PCMI is not predicted. - And coolability can be assured in view of entalphy and fuel melting. - But, rod failure due to DNBR is expected, and there is possibility of fuel failure at the rated power conditions also.

  20. Calculating zeros: Non-equilibrium free energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenbrink, Chris; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2006-01-01

    Free energy calculations on three model processes with theoretically known free energy changes have been performed using short simulation times. A comparison between equilibrium (thermodynamic integration) and non-equilibrium (fast growth) methods has been made in order to assess the accuracy and precision of these methods. The three processes have been chosen to represent processes often observed in biomolecular free energy calculations. They involve a redistribution of charges, the creation and annihilation of neutral particles and conformational changes. At very short overall simulation times, the thermodynamic integration approach using discrete steps is most accurate. More importantly, reasonable accuracy can be obtained using this method which seems independent of the overall simulation time. In cases where slow conformational changes play a role, fast growth simulations might have an advantage over discrete thermodynamic integration where sufficient sampling needs to be obtained at every λ-point, but only if the initial conformations do properly represent an equilibrium ensemble. From these three test cases practical lessons can be learned that will be applicable to biomolecular free energy calculations

  1. Preliminary design study of a steady state tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Nakajima, Shinji; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; and athors)

    1992-09-01

    Preliminary design study has been made for a steady tokamak with the plasma current of 10MA, as the next to the JT-60U experimental programs. The goal of the research program is the integrated study of steady state, high-power physics and technology. Present candidate design is to use superconducting TF and PF magnet systems and long pulse operation of 100's-1000's of sec with non inductive current drive mainly by 500keV negative ion beam injection of 60MW. Low activation material such as titanium alloy is chosen for the water tank type vacuum vessel, which is also the nuclear shield for the superconducting coils. The present preliminary design study shows that the device can meet the existing JT-60U facility capability. (author)

  2. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Preliminary geologic map of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Harrington, C.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Wells, S.; Turrin, B.; Champion, D.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary geologic map has been compiled for the bedrock geology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. The map was completed through use of a combination of stereo photographic interpretation and field mapping on color aerial photographs. These photographs (scale 1:4000) were obtained from American Aerial Surveys, Inc. They were flown on August 18, 1987, at the request of the Yucca Mountain Project (then Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations). The photographs are the Lathrop Wells VC-Area 25 series, numbers 1--32. The original negatives for these photographs are on file with American Aerial Surveys, Inc. Copies of the negatives have been archived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group N-5. The preliminary geologic map is a bedrock geologic map. It does not show alluvial deposits, eolian sands, or scoria fall deposits from the youngest eruptive events. The units will be compiled on separate maps when the geomorphic and soils studies are more advanced

  4. TREE STEM RECONSTRUCTION USING VERTICAL FISHEYE IMAGES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berveglieri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  5. Preliminary results of statistical dynamic experiments on a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    The inherent noise signals present in a heat exchanger have been recorded and analysed in order to determine some of the statistical dynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger. These preliminary results show that the primary side temperature frequency response may be determined by analysing the inherent noise. The secondary side temperature frequency response and cross coupled temperature frequency responses between primary and secondary are poorly determined because of the presence of a non-stationary noise source in the secondary circuit of this heat exchanger. This may be overcome by correlating the dependent variables with an externally applied noise signal. Some preliminary experiments with an externally applied random telegraph type of signal are reported. (author)

  6. Parameters calculation of fuel assembly with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Ju Haitao; Yao Dong

    2006-01-01

    The code DRAGON was developed for CANDU reactor by Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal of Canada. In order to validate the DRAGON code's applicability for complex geometry fuel assembly calculation, the rod shape fuel assembly of PWR benchmark problem and the plate shape fuel assembly of MTR benchmark problem were analyzed by DRAGON code. Some other shape fuel assemblies were also discussed simply. Calculation results show that the DRAGON code can be used to calculate variform fuel assembly and the precision is high. (authors)

  7. Application of MCNP in the criticality calculation for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhaopeng; Shi Gong; Hu Yongming

    2003-01-01

    The criticality calculation is carried out with 3-D Monte Carlo code (MCNP). The author focuses on the introduction of modelling of the core and reflector. The core description is simplified by using repetition structure function of MCNP. k eff in different control rods positions are calculated for the case of JRR3, and the results is consistent with that of the reference. This work shows that MCNP is applicable for reactor criticality calculation

  8. The genetic variability of the Podolica cattle breed from the Gargano area. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cianci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Podolica cattle breed is autochthonous of Southern Italy and denoted by its particular rusticity. This study presents the preliminary results of the genetic characterization of the Podolica breed using DNA STR markers. A total of 20 microsatellite loci were analysed in 79 individuals reared in the Gargano area. Number of polymorphisms, allele fre- quencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium between loci and genetic similarities between animals were calculated. The results showed a high deficiency of heterozygotes, the observed mean of het- erozygosis being 0.449, whereas the expected mean was 0.766. Many markers showed also deviations from the Hardy- Weinberg proportions and significant linkage disequilibrium between loci. However the genetic similarity within the pop- ulation was low (0.281 and the average number of alleles per locus was high (10, representing a high genetic vari- ability. In order to explain these results, a stratification of the breed in sub-populations with a high interior genetic homo- geneity but markedly differentiated one from each other could be hypothesized; this situation probably derived from non- random mating within each herd (consanguinity and from the lack of exchange of genetic material between the herds. A further study is needed on a wider sample and extending the analysis to FAO-ISAG microsatellite panel in order to con- firm this hypothesis. This could eventually provide the information necessary for the correct management of the repro- ductive schemes and for genomic traceability of meat production.

  9. Extracts of Morinda oleifera (Moringaceae) show anti-retroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... medications in middle and low-income countries with high prevalence rate of ... et al., 1994), diuretic (Morton, 1991), antihypertensive. (Gilani et al., 1994), .... cellular toxicity (TC50) of the test extracts was calculated by non-.

  10. Preliminary results for the k0-INAA methodology implementation at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, LAN-IPEN, using k0-IAEA software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Davi B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato

    2009-01-01

    The present paper presents the preliminary results obtained in the implementation of the k 0 standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the program k 0 -IAEA, provided by The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This method is an important alternative for the comparative neutron activation analysis, which has been used for several years at LAN-IPEN. This quasiabsolute standardization method presents a great advantage with relation to the comparative method, since it does not require the preparation of accurate individual standards for each analysed element, which is very laborious and time-consuming. The k 0 method allows the determination of almost all elements whose gammaray peaks are present in the gamma spectrum. The analysis of gamma-ray spectra and the calculation of concentration are performed by the k 0 software, thus the analysis time is shortened: the time spent to calculate, for instance, the concentration of 25 elements in 10 samples takes about 5 minutes.The efficiency curve of one of the gamma-ray spectrometers used at LAN was determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilised counting geometries. The parameters α and f were determined by irradiating a Certified Nuclear Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0,1% Au alloys and high purity zirconium comparators at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology, the geological reference material basalt JB-1 (GSJ) was analysed. The preliminary results obtained showed promising results in spite of some discrepancies of the data in comparison to certified values. These preliminary results indicate that some improvements in the parameters required for the use of the k 0 -IAEA software should be made so that the k 0 - NAA software can be completely successful. (author)

  11. Benchmarks for evaluation of shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, P.R.P.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial-energy neutron distribution emerging from a laminated shielding (stainless, polyethylene and lead) were measured by a fast neutron spectrometer and some experimental results were compared with those calculated by a network of codes. The source neutrons incident in the shielding were 14 MeV neutrons from a H-3(d,n)He-4 reaction coming from a Van de Graaff accelerator. Experimentally was verified a good radial symmetry of neutron energy-spectrum, and also a moderation and attenuation effect for points located out of the central axis of symmetry. These results indicate that the experiment can be well modelated by R-Z geometry. A neutron-energy spectra calculated by DOT 3.5 was compared with the measured spectra, showing a good agreement in the shape and value of the spectra (12% for an integrated spectrum from 2 to 16 MeV). (author) [pt

  12. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrault, M.; Cances, E.; Hager, W.W.; Le Bris, C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure

  13. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  14. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  15. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  16. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  17. Mechanical calculation of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, Francis.

    1977-01-01

    Many heat exchangers are still being dimensioned at the present time by means of the American TEMA code (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The basic formula of this code often gives rise to significant tubular plate thicknesses which, apart from the cost of materials, involve significant machining. Some constructors have brought into use calculation methods that are more analytic so as to take into better consideration the mechanical phenomena which come into play in a heat exchanger. After a brief analysis of these methods it is shown, how the original TEMA formulations have changed to reach the present version and how this code has incorporated Gardner's results for treating exchangers with two fixed heads. A formal and numerical comparison is then made of the analytical and TEMA methods by attempting to highlight a code based on these methods or a computer calculation programme in relation to the TEMA code [fr

  18. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. The Collective Practice of Calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Ida

    The calculation of costs plays an increasingly large role in the decision-making processes of public sector human service organizations. This has brought scholars of management accounting to investigate the relationship between caring professions and demands to make economic entities of the service...... productions as either a process of hybridization or conflict. With these approaches, though, they fail to interrogate the possibility that professional action might not be either the one or the other, but entail a broad variety of relationships between calculations and judgements. This paper elaborates...... and judgement to reach decisions to invest in social services. The line is not drawn between the two, but between the material arrangements that make decisions possible. This implies that the insisting on qualitatively based decisions gives the professionals agency to collectively engage in practical...

  20. Computer programs for lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.; Reich, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the workshop was to find out whether some standardisation could be achieved for future work in this field. A certain amount of useful information was unearthed, and desirable features of a ''standard'' program emerged. Progress is not expected to be breathtaking, although participants (practically from all interested US, Canadian and European accelerator laboratories) agreed that the mathematics of the existing programs is more or less the same. Apart from the NIH (not invented here) effect, there is a - to quite some extent understandable - tendency to stay with a program one knows and to add to it if unavoidable rather than to start using a new one. Users of the well supported program TRANSPORT (designed for beam line calculations) would prefer to have it fully extended for lattice calculations (to some extent already possible now), while SYNCH users wish to see that program provided with a user-friendly input, rather than spending time and effort for mastering a new program

  1. Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Occupationally Exposed Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.T.; Farag, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased

  2. A Paleolatitude Calculator for Paleoclimate Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J J van Hinsbergen

    Full Text Available Realistic appraisal of paleoclimatic information obtained from a particular location requires accurate knowledge of its paleolatitude defined relative to the Earth's spin-axis. This is crucial to, among others, correctly assess the amount of solar energy received at a location at the moment of sediment deposition. The paleolatitude of an arbitrary location can in principle be reconstructed from tectonic plate reconstructions that (1 restore the relative motions between plates based on (marine magnetic anomalies, and (2 reconstruct all plates relative to the spin axis using a paleomagnetic reference frame based on a global apparent polar wander path. Whereas many studies do employ high-quality relative plate reconstructions, the necessity of using a paleomagnetic reference frame for climate studies rather than a mantle reference frame appears under-appreciated. In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of plate tectonic reconstructions and their reference frames tailored towards applications of paleoclimate reconstruction, and show that using a mantle reference frame, which defines plate positions relative to the mantle, instead of a paleomagnetic reference frame may introduce errors in paleolatitude of more than 15° (>1500 km. This is because mantle reference frames cannot constrain, or are specifically corrected for the effects of true polar wander. We used the latest, state-of-the-art plate reconstructions to build a global plate circuit, and developed an online, user-friendly paleolatitude calculator for the last 200 million years by placing this plate circuit in three widely used global apparent polar wander paths. As a novelty, this calculator adds error bars to paleolatitude estimates that can be incorporated in climate modeling. The calculator is available at www.paleolatitude.org. We illustrate the use of the paleolatitude calculator by showing how an apparent wide spread in Eocene sea surface temperatures of southern high

  3. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Woolley, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new coil protection calculator (CPC) is presented in this paper. It is now being developed for TFTR's magnetic field coils will replace the existing coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPC will permit operation up to the actual coil limits by accurately and continuously computing coil parameters in real-time. The improvement will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates

  4. Rotor calculations for neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, G.

    1968-01-01

    The determination of stress in a rotating disk plane of symmetry normal to the axis of rotation has been studied by a number of investigators. In a recent paper Reich gives an operating process for an analytical solution in an asymmetric rotating disk. In the report we give the calculation of finite difference stress solutions applicable to the two rotating disks. The equations are then programmed for the 360.75 computer by Fortran methods concerning the rotors of choppers. (author) [fr

  5. Preliminary heat flow map of Europe. Explanatory text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V.; Hurtig, E.

    1977-08-08

    A preliminary heat flow map of Europe was prepared, based on data contained in 401 references. The map was prepared on a scale of 1:5,000,000 and shows broad-scale geological structure (e.g., platforms, shields, foredeeps) and specialized rock suites (ophiolites, volcanites). Primary faults and thrust faults are indicated, and contours showing the depth of crystalline basement are given. Heat flow is plotted using 10.0 mW/m/sup 2/ isotherms. The accompanying explanatory text describes data acquisition and techniques of correction, and discusses some implications of the results.

  6. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated

  7. Microcomputer generated pipe support calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, R.F.; Czarnowski, P.; Roemer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost and complexity of pipe support design has been a continuing challenge to the construction and modification of commercial nuclear facilities. Typically, pipe support design or qualification projects have required large numbers of engineers centrally located with access to mainframe computer facilities. Much engineering time has been spent repetitively performing a sequence of tasks to address complex design criteria and consolidating the results of calculations into documentation packages in accordance with strict quality requirements. The continuing challenges of cost and quality, the need for support engineering services at operating plant sites, and the substantial recent advances in microcomputer systems suggested that a stand-alone microcomputer pipe support calculation generator was feasible and had become a necessity for providing cost-effective and high quality pipe support engineering services to the industry. This paper outlines the preparation for, and the development of, an integrated pipe support design/evaluation software system which maintains all computer programs in the same environment, minimizes manual performance of standard or repetitive tasks, and generates a high quality calculation which is consistent and easily followed

  8. Calculational methods for lattice cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    At the current stage of development, direct simulation of all the processes involved in the reactor to the degree of accuracy required is not an economic proposition, and this is achieved by progressive synthesis of models for parts of the full space/angle/energy neutron behaviour. The split between reactor and lattice calculations is one such simplification. Most reactors are constructed of repetitions of similar geometric units, the fuel elements, having broadly similar properties. Thus the provision of detailed predictions of their behaviour is an important step towards overall modelling. We shall be dealing with these lattice methods in this series of lectures, but will refer back from time to time to their relationship with overall reactor calculation The lattice cell is itself composed of somewhat similar sub-units, the fuel pins, and will itself often rely upon a further break down of modelling. Construction of a good model depends upon the identification, on physical and mathematical grounds, of the most helpful division of the calculation at this level

  9. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  10. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  11. A Note for Graphing Calculators in the Fundamental Finance Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The financial calculator is incorporated in finance education. In class, the instructor shows students how to use the financial calculator's function keys to solve time value of money (TVM) related problems efficiently. The fundamental finance course is required for all majors in the business school. Some students, especially…

  12. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  13. Authentication by Keystroke Timing: Some Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaines, R. S; Lisowski, William; Press, S. J; Shapiro, Norman

    1980-01-01

    ... of an individual seeking access to the computer. This report summarizes preliminary efforts to establish whether an individual can be identified by the statistical characteristics of his or her typing...

  14. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  15. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SEEDS OF GLYPHAEA BREVIS. (SPRENG) MONACHINO FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL PRINCIPLES. Michael Lahai1, Tiwalade Adewale Olugbade2. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine ...

  16. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  18. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  19. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  20. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.