WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary benefit analysis

  1. Preliminary benefit-cost analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) power addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Lezberg, A.J.; Scott, M.J.; Tawil, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The primary objective of this report is to conduct a preliminary benefit-cost study for the proposed power addition to FFTF to determine whether the project is cost-effective. If the project is authorized, construction will begin in 1986 and end in 1991. Full power operation is scheduled to begin in 1991 and a project life of 20 years is assumed. The undiscounted cost during the construction period of the FFTF power addition is estimated to be approximately $117 million over the construction period (1984 dollars). An additional $3 million is estimated as the opportunity cost - or value of these resources in their most favorable alternative use - of surplus FFTF equipment and unused CRBR equipment, including materials for steam generator fabrication. The annual operating and maintenance cost of the project is estimated to be about $2.1 million in 1984 dollars. 20 references.

  2. Site-specific, adult bone benefits attributed to loading during youth: A preliminary longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, Tamara A; Bernardoni, Brittney; Wang, Sijian; Rathouz, Paul J; Li, Quefeng; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2016-04-01

    We examined site-specific bone development in relation to childhood and adolescent artistic gymnastics exposure, comparing up to 10years of prospectively acquired longitudinal data in 44 subjects, including 31 non-gymnasts (NON) and 13 gymnasts (GYM) who participated in gymnastics from pre-menarche to ≥1.9years post-menarche. Subjects underwent annual regional and whole-body DXA scans; indices of bone geometry and strength were calculated. Anthropometrics, physical activity, and maturity were assessed annually, coincident with DXA scans. Non-linear mixed effect models centered growth in bone outcomes at menarche and adjusted for menarcheal age, height, and non-bone fat-free mass to evaluate GYM-NON differences. A POST-QUIT variable assessed the withdrawal effect of quitting gymnastics. Curves for bone area, mass (BMC), and strength indices were higher in GYM than NON at both distal radius metaphysis and diaphysis (pGYM BMC (pGYM endosteal diameter (pGYM advantages in narrow neck cortical thickness and buckling ratio (both pGYM than NON (pGYM slopes increased for distal radius diaphysis parameters (p≤0.01) and for narrow neck BR (p=0.02). At the distal radius metaphysis, GYM BMC and compressive strength slopes decreased, as did slopes for lumbar spine BMC, femoral neck BMC, and narrow neck cortical thickness (p<0.02). In conclusion, advantages in bone mass, geometry, and strength at multiple skeletal sites were noted across growth and into young adulthood in girls who participated in gymnastics loading to at least 1.9years post-menarche. Following gymnastics cessation, advantages at cortical bone sites improved or stabilized, while advantages at corticocancellous sites stabilized or diminished. Additional longitudinal observation is necessary to determine whether residual loading benefits enhance lifelong skeletal strength.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis for sheltered employment service programs for people with disabilities in Taiwan - a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Tung; Lin, Yi-Jiun; Shu, Ching-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to do a cost-benefit analysis with monetary and non-monetary benefits for sheltered employment service programs and try to provide more evidence-based information for policy makers and practitioners to understand the outcomes of sheltered employment services. This study analyzed 3 sheltered employment service programs for people with disabilities (2006-2007) implemented by Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation in Taiwan using cost-benefit analysis (including non-monetary benefits). Three groups were analyzed, including participants in the programs, taxpayers, and society (participants and taxpayers). This study found that the net social monetary benefit was $NT29,432.07 per participant per year and the benefit cost ratio was 1.43. (In 2006-2007, $US1 = $NT32.5 averagely around.) The net monetary benefit for the participants was between $NT7,890.86 and $NT91,890.86 per participant per year. On the non-monetary benefit side, the physical health (raised 7.49%), social relationship (raised 3.36%) domains, and general quality of life (raised 2.53%) improved. However, the psychological (decreased 1.51%) and working/environment (decreased 3.85%) domains backslided. In addition, the differences between pre-test and post-test average scores of all domains were not statistically significant. This study is the first to use monetary and non-monetary cost-benefit analysis methods to analyze sheltered employment service programs for people with disabilities in Taiwan. The findings indicated that sheltered employment service programs for people with disabilities could be efficient and beneficial for the whole society and sheltered employees/clients, and also helpful for raising their quality of lives.

  4. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.

  5. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  6. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  7. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  8. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  9. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  10. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  11. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  12. Estimation of Social Benefits in Cost-benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Fodor

    2012-01-01

    While examining the cost-benefit analysis related to public policy decisions in the Hungarian and international literature, this paper is looking for the answer to the question of what the methodological principles are according to which the benefit impacts can be determined. The processed Hungarian and English-language studies indicate that the theoretical-methodological questions of the determination of benefit impacts are not clear cut. The author has constructed a model that contains the ...

  13. Concept Overview & Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is an opportunity for wide-scale use of hydrogen as an intermediate that carries energy from various production options to multiple uses. It is based on identifying and developing opportunities for low-cost hydrogen production and investigating opportunities for using that hydrogen across the electricity, industrial, and transportation sectors. One of the key production opportunities is use of low-cost electricity that may be generated under high penetrations of variable renewable generators such as wind and solar photovoltaics. The technical potential demand for hydrogen across the sectors is 60 million metric tons per year. The U.S. has sufficient domestic renewable resources so that each could meet that demand and could readily meet the demand using a portfolio of generation options. This presentation provides an overview of the concept and the technical potential demand and resources. It also motivates analysis and research on H2@Scale.

  14. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  15. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.; Sivo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the implications and problems associated with the use of cost-benefit techniques is presented. Knowledge of these problems is useful in the structure of a decision making process. A methodology of cost-benefit analysis is presented for the evaluation of space technology. The use of the methodology is demonstrated with an evaluation of ion thrusters for north-south stationkeeping aboard geosynchronous communication satellites. A critique of the concept of consumers surplus for measuring benefits is also presented.

  17. Cost benefit analysis for climate change adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.J.H.; Bruin, de K.; Rietveld, P.; Bockarjova, M.; Hofkes, M.; Brouwer, R.; Dekker, T.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this programme was on the development of decision making tools based on cost benefit analysis under uncertainty, for analysing adaptation and mitigation options related to spatial planning in the Netherlands. The full programme focused on the methodological issues for cost benefit analy

  18. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  19. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  20. Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive analyses reported in Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and Resource Use, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  2. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix...... of environmental services. Costs typically depend on the level of ambitions regarding the magnitude and multitude of benefits. Decision makers are therefore confronted with the questions: how can generically different benefits be measured in comparable terms and how should different levels of project costs...... be weighed against benefits? Economic valuation methods and CBA simplify the decision problem by reducing the various effects to single-valued commensurate magnitudes, which - in principle at least - facilitates the identification of a socially optimal solution. The main objective of this article...

  4. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOOD, ALEXANDER M.; POWERS, RICHARD

    DIFFICULTIES ARE ENCOUNTERED WHEN COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES ARE APPLIED TO EDUCATION. THERE ARE PROBLEMS IN THE ATTEMPT TO DEFINE AN EDUCATIONAL GOAL AND IN THE ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS NOW ENGAGED IN A MULTITUDE OF PROJECTS DESIGNED TO COORDINATE RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT. THIS ENTAILS CONTINUED…

  5. Preliminary Report and Benefit Analysis on Entire Mechanization Cultivation Techniques of Potatoes in Fuxin%阜新地区马铃薯全程机械化栽培技术初报和效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海新; 赵艳; 尤淑丽

    2012-01-01

    Fuxin, located in the northwest of Liaoning Province, is suitable for growing poatoes as it has enough sunshine and long frost-free period. It was proved by the practice in recent years that farmers could obtain remarkable benefits if they plant potatoes and then broccoli in a double cropping system. Furthermore, this planting system could increase the production efficiency or decrease labor force with entire mechanization. This paper mainly introduced the entire mechanization cultivation techniques for potatoes and benefit analysis for the following crop in Fuxin.%阜新位于辽宁省的西北部,光照时间充足,无霜期长,适宜马铃薯生长。近几年的实践证明,在当地种植上茬马铃薯、下茬西兰花等蔬菜效益显著。而且能够实现全程钡械化,既减少人工投入,又能提高生产效率。文中主要对阜新地区马铃薯全程机械化栽培技术做了阐述,对马铃薯下茬复种效益进行分析。

  6. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  8. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    to avoid the potential of mishaps due to jumping across open water to reach both sides of the lift. With the life expectancy of a boat ramp...to jumping across open water to reach both sides of the lift. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts 11 UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC | B. Fike...equipment from boats and craft that have been corrosion problems in the past. such as wire rope and non-stainless steel hardware. Corrosion is a function

  9. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  10. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  11. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the cost of debt service (interest and amortization) of the estimated installation costs plus the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  12. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  13. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures...... is to present and discuss some of these problems from a user and social point of view. A brief presentation of a preliminary study of the importance of including benefits in life-cycle cost-benefit analysis in management systems for bridges is shown. Benefits may be positive as well as negative from the user...

  14. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine.

  16. Educational Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Problem of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Gordon A.

    Benefit-cost analysis consists of establishing ratios of benefits to costs for a set of project variants. The decision rule is to select that project variant where the ratio is a maximum. This paper argues that specification and estimation errors can contribute to findings for large-scale systems of benefit-cost ratios approximating zero. The…

  17. Investigating the benefits of transactional analysis in conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation looks into the current literature on behaviour management in England’s secondary schools, from media coverage to policy to psychology. A focus on therapeutic education and Transactional Analysis then allows for small scale research with a year eight form group to find out if learning about and applying Transactional Analysis has any benefits or potential benefits for conflict management. The results show a small number of benefits, and few disadvantages, but gained a positiv...

  18. BASE Flexible Array Preliminary Lithospheric Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Anderson, M. L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Erslev, E.; Harder, S. H.; Miller, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) is a Flexible Array experiment integrated with EarthScope. The goal of BASE is to develop a better understanding of how basement-involved foreland arches form and what their link is to plate tectonic processes. To achieve this goal, the crustal structure under the Bighorn Mountain range, Bighorn Basin, and Powder River Basin of northern Wyoming and southern Montana are investigated through the deployment of 35 broadband seismometers, 200 short period seismometers, 1600 “Texan” instruments using active sources and 800 “Texan” instruments monitoring passive sources, together with field structural analysis of brittle structures. The novel combination of these approaches and anticipated simultaneous data inversion will give a detailed structural crustal image of the Bighorn region at all levels of the crust. Four models have been proposed for the formation of the Bighorn foreland arch: subhorizontal detachment within the crust, lithospheric buckling, pure shear lithospheric thickening, and fault blocks defined by lithosphere-penetrating thrust faults. During the summer of 2009, we deployed 35 broadband instruments, which have already recorded several magnitude 7+ teleseismic events. Through P wave receiver function analysis of these 35 stations folded in with many EarthScope Transportable Array stations in the region, we present a preliminary map of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. This crustal map is our first test of how the unique Moho geometries predicted by the four hypothesized models of basement involved arches fit seismic observations for the Bighorn Mountains. In addition, shear-wave splitting analysis for our first few recorded teleseisms helps us determine if strong lithospheric deformation is preserved under the range. These analyses help lead us to our final goal, a complete 4D (3D spatial plus temporal) lithospheric-scale model of arch formation which will advance our understanding of the mechanisms

  19. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  20. Environmental standards need cost/benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltman, E.W.

    1978-02-01

    To illustrate the basic advantages of employing cost/benefit analyses in the determination of emission limits for various sources of pollution, General Electric Co. discusses the activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency in the development of new source performance standards for combustion turbines. A review of specific decisions and their consequences regarding the emission of SO/sub 2/, CO, and NO/sub x/ from gas and oil turbines shows that to ensure good regulation, regulators must consider all sides of the issue; industry, in turn, must present its case in the most technically accurate manner possible to avoid the decrease in reliability, safety, and availability of equipment that can result from too restrictive emission limits.

  1. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  2. Combined multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld

    1996-01-01

    of the application of utility-based Multi-Criteria Analyses methods as an extension and refinement of the traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis are provided. The theory presented in this paper is closely related the methods used in the WARP software (Leleur & Jensen, 1989). The presentation is however wider in scope......The paper is an introduction to both theory and application of combined Cost-Benefit and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The first section is devoted to basic utility theory and its practical application in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Based on some of the problems encountered, arguments in favour...

  3. SCGE modelling in cost-benefit analysis: the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial computable general equilibrium (SCGE) models offer opportunities for computing wider economic effects in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in a theoretically satisfactory way. This is important for the correct estimation of additional economic benefits and international relocation impacts. In the

  4. Identifying the Costs and Benefits of Educational Psychology: A Preliminary Exploration in Two Local Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Simon; Papps, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of a small-scale pilot study of the cost and perceived benefits of the educational psychology services in two comparably small local authorities in England. This study is preparatory to a more detailed examination of the costs and likely benefits of state provision of educational psychology services in England. The…

  5. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteijn, J M; White, B C; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; McCarron, P A; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in medicine has been a valuable tool in the regulation of medicines since the 1960s. Benefit-risk assessment takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's life-cycle and can be conducted in a variety of ways, using methods ranging from qualitative to quantitative. Each benefit-risk assessment method is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Despite its widespread and long-time use, benefit-risk assessment in medicine is subject to debate and suffers from a number of limitations and is currently still under development. This state of the art review paper will discuss the various aspects and approaches to benefit-risk assessment in medicine in a chronological pathway. The review will discuss all types of benefit-risk assessment a medicinal product will undergo during its lifecycle, from Phase I clinical trials to post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies. The benefit-risk profile of a drug is dynamic and differs for different indications and patient groups. In the end of this review we conclude benefit-risk analysis in medicine is a developed practice that is subject to continuous improvement and modernisation. Improvement not only in methodology, but also in cooperation between organizations can improve benefit-risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Tuscan Chronic Care Model: a preliminary analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Angelo; Meggiolaro, Angela; Rossi, Luigi; Fioravanti, C; Palermita, F; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to present a preliminary analysis of efficacy and effectiveness of a model of chronically ill care (Chronic Care Model, CCM). the analysis took into account 106 territorial modules, 1016 General Practitioners and 1,228,595 patients. The diagnostic and therapeutic pathways activated (PDTA), involved four chronic conditions, selected according to the prevalence and incidence, in Tuscany Region: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Heart Failure (SC), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and stroke. Six epidemiological indicators of process and output were selected, in order to measure the model of care performed, before and after its application: adherence to specific follow-up for each pathology (use of clinical and laboratory indicators), annual average of expenditure per/capita/euro for diagnostic tests, in laboratory and instrumental, average expenditure per/capita/year for specialist visits; hospitalization rate for diseases related to the main pathology, hospitalization rate for long-term complications and rate of access to the emergency department (ED). Data were collected through the database; the differences before and after the intervention and between exposed and unexposed, were analyzed by method "Before-After (Controlled and Uncontrolled) Studies". The impact of the intervention was calculated as DD (difference of the differences). DM management showed an increased adhesion to follow-up (DD: +8.1%), and the use of laboratory diagnostics (DD: +4,9 €/year/pc), less hospitalization for long-term complications and for endocrine related diseases (DD respectively: 5.8/1000 and DD: +1.2/1000), finally a smaller increase of access to PS (DD: -1.6/1000), despite a slight increase of specialistic visits (DD: +0,38 €/year/pc). The management of SC initially showed a rising adherence to follow-up (DD: +2.3%), a decrease of specialist visits (DD:E 1.03 €/year/pc), hospitalization and access to PS for exacerbations (DD: -4.4/1000 and DD: -6

  7. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  8. Risk-benefit analysis and public policy: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.M.; Van Horn, A.J.

    1976-11-01

    Risk-benefit analysis has been implicitly practiced whenever decision-makers are confronted with decisions involving risks to life, health, or to the environment. Various methodologies have been developed to evaluate relevant criteria and to aid in assessing the impacts of alternative projects. Among these have been cost-benefit analysis, which has been widely used for project evaluation. However, in many cases it has been difficult to assign dollar costs to those criteria involving risks and benefits which are not now assigned explicit monetary values in our economic system. Hence, risk-benefit analysis has evolved to become more than merely an extension of cost-benefit analysis, and many methods have been applied to examine the trade-offs between risks and benefits. In addition, new scientific and statistical techniques have been developed for assessing current and future risks. The 950 references included in this bibliography are meant to suggest the breadth of those methodologies which have been applied to decisions involving risk.

  9. Q-Sync Motors in Commercial Refrigeration. Preliminary Test Results and Projected Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Becker, Bryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides background information on various fractional-horsepower electric motor technologies, summarizes initial data from a DOE-sponsored Q-Sync motor demonstration project, and extrapolates that data to project the potential economic and environmental benefits resulting from upgrading the current installed base of 9–12 W evaporator fan motors to Q-Sync motors.

  10. Combined multi-criteria and cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld

    1996-01-01

    The paper is an introduction to both theory and application of combined Cost-Benefit and Multi-Criteria Analysis. The first section is devoted to basic utility theory and its practical application in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Based on some of the problems encountered, arguments in favour...... of the application of utility-based Multi-Criteria Analyses methods as an extension and refinement of the traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis are provided. The theory presented in this paper is closely related the methods used in the WARP software (Leleur & Jensen, 1989). The presentation is however wider in scope...... sensitivity. Since pair-wise comparisons contains information on the trade-off’s acceptable to the decision maker, it is possible to calculate the shadow price of the effect compared to a given price base. The final section discusses two different approaches for the building of weight profiles...

  11. Preliminary benefits study for a public service communications satellite system: Task order 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic and social benefits to accrue from an operational public service communications satellite system are estimated for the following applications: teleradiology, emergency medical services, teleconferencing for both civilian and defense agencies, data transfer, remote cardiac monitoring, teleconsultation, continuing education for professionals, and severe storm warning. The potential impact of improved communication on the cost and quality of services are assessed for various agencies, professions, and industries.

  12. Valuing the broader benefits of dengue vaccination, with a preliminary application to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer C

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of dengue has been on the rise since at least the 1960s, bringing greater urgency to the need for a vaccine to prevent the disease. Recent advances suggest that the scientific world is moving closer to an effective dengue vaccine. However, there are concerns that the price of a future vaccine could limit its uptake. High prices, in addition to other challenges, have already weighed negatively in government decisions to include other new vaccines in national immunization programs, e.g., the pneumococcal, rotavirus, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Recent research on the value of vaccination, however, suggests that vaccination confers benefits that are often neglected by traditional economic evaluations. In the case of dengue, commonly overlooked benefits are likely to include reduced spending on outbreak control, averted losses in tourism flows, and avoided productivity losses due to long-term dengue sequelae. Accounting for these and other broader benefits of dengue vaccination could reveal significantly greater economic value and strengthen the case for inclusion of dengue vaccination in national immunization programs. In this article we discuss a framework for the broader value of vaccination and review its application in the context of dengue vaccination for Brazil.

  13. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  14. A cost-benefit analysis of The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Theissen, Kevin; Bernknopf, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Geography Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted this cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of The National Map. This analysis is an evaluation of the proposed Geography Discipline initiative to provide the Nation with a mechanism to access current and consistent digital geospatial data. This CBA is a supporting document to accompany the Exhibit 300 Capital Asset Plan and Business Case of The National Map Reengineering Program. The framework for estimating the benefits is based on expected improvements in processing information to perform any of the possible applications of spatial data. This analysis does not attempt to determine the benefits and costs of performing geospatial-data applications. Rather, it estimates the change in the differences between those benefits and costs with The National Map and the current situation without it. The estimates of total costs and benefits of The National Map were based on the projected implementation time, development and maintenance costs, rates of data inclusion and integration, expected usage levels over time, and a benefits estimation model. The National Map provides data that are current, integrated, consistent, complete, and more accessible in order to decrease the cost of implementing spatial-data applications and (or) improve the outcome of those applications. The efficiency gains in per-application improvements are greater than the cost to develop and maintain The National Map, meaning that the program would bring a positive net benefit to the Nation. The average improvement in the net benefit of performing a spatial data application was multiplied by a simulated number of application implementations across the country. The numbers of users, existing applications, and rates of application implementation increase over time as The National Map is developed and accessed by spatial data users around the country. Results from the 'most likely' estimates of model parameters and data inputs indicate that

  15. Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  16. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result in...

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of road safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Traffic and transport budgets, national ones as well as regional ones, should be spent as optimally as possible. It is therefore essential to be able to make a good assessment of a variety of measures and compare them with each other. This is possible when a cost-benefit analysis is used. This

  18. 40 CFR 1502.23 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost-benefit analysis. 1502.23 Section 1502.23 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT... be when there are important qualitative considerations. In any event, an environmental...

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of replacing maize with rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-benefit analysis of replacing maize with rice husk supplemented with grindazyme, nutrsea ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Rice husk was added at the expense of maize in the control diet and each experimental ...

  20. Evaluating Training: Return on Investment and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Training interventions can be evaluated by calculating return on investment (ROI) and cost-benefit analysis. The four-level model proposed by Kirkpatrick is the dominant evaluation model used. Calculating ROI has been a critical issue for trainers and executives, but only a few organizations have implemented the process that is considered as…

  1. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  2. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gwyn

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001.

  3. The benefits of customer profitability analysis in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Georgiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the benefits of customer profitability analysis implementation according to the specifics of the hotel product and the state of the management accounting in hotels. On this basis is substantiated the necessity management accounting and information systems in the hotels to be anteriorly adapted and developed in relevance with the objectives and methodological tools of customer profitability analysis, while keeping their function in collecting information for operational revenues and costs by responsibility centers. A model for customer profitability analysis based on ABC method is proposed in this connection, providing an example to clarify its methodological aspects and benefits. The latter consist in providing information for the purposes of taking a variety of management decisions regarding costs, product mix, pricing, performance measurement and implementation of various marketing initiatives.

  4. Preliminary Cost Benefit Assessment of Systems for Detection of Hazardous Weather. Volume II. Appendices,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    intensification went undetected. The straight-line winds from the storm, a microburst in Dr. Ted Fujita’s analysis, damaged 65 homes and mobile homes...Science and Technologyy , 95th Congress, No. 32, U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C. 36 U.S. House of Representatives, 1978, Weather Forecasting - Past, Present

  5. Fort Drum Preliminary Fiscal Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    of inmigrants 0 Fiscal histories, projections, and impacts for counties, cities, towns, villages, school districts, and the state. The results of...distribution of the inmigrating population within the three counties. Thus, an accurate forecast of the expected distribution of the inmigrating population is a...The distribution of inmigration to the school districts was made using the analysis explained in Chapter 3. Children associated with 800 new on-post

  6. Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare.

  7. Preliminary analysis of turbochargers rotors dynamic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monoranu, R.; Ştirbu, C.; Bujoreanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Turbocharger rotors for the spark and compression ignition engines are resistant steels manufactured in order to support the exhaust gas temperatures exceeding 1200 K. In fact, the mechanical stress is not large as the power consumption of these systems is up to 10 kW, but the operating speeds are high, ranging between 30000 ÷ 250000 rpm. Therefore, the correct turbochargers functioning involves, even from the design stage, the accurate evaluation of the temperature effects, of the turbine torque due to the engine exhaust gases and of the vibration system behaviour caused by very high operating speeds. In addition, the turbocharger lubrication complicates the model, because the classical hydrodynamic theory cannot be applied to evaluate the floating bush bearings. The paper proposes a FEM study using CATIA environment, both as modeling medium and as tool for the numerical analysis, in order to highlight the turbocharger complex behaviour. An accurate design may prevent some major issues which can occur during its operation.

  8. Can Homeopathy Bring Additional Benefits to Thalassemic Patients on Hydroxyurea Therapy? Encouraging Results of a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency, Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF, fetal hemoglobin (HbF, hemoglobin (Hb, platelet count (PC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, white blood cell (WBC count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    results of the current analysis and in Mouton et al., 2015, is the relative cost -effectiveness between the CH-47D and the Mi-17v5. In the previous...helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost -effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of

  10. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment.

  12. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  13. Who gains? allocation of freight transport user benefits from international infrastructure projects in multicountry cost-benefit analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Buus

    2005-01-01

    A public decision by several countries on whether to cofinance an international infrastructure project is the subject of a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA elements are broken out and analyzed for each country. The issue of freight user benefits is discussed, and results are derived from...

  14. Benefits of Group Singing for People with Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Non-Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaxia Pavlakou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the possible benefits of participation in group singing for people with eating disorders in a non-clinical context. The creation of a group singing workshop for women that exhibited disordered eating provided the opportunity to explore the participants’ experiences as perceived by them. A qualitative approach utilizing a semi-structured interview was employed to explore in depth the women’s perceptions regarding the group singing workshop. A thematic analysis of the data identified four main categories concerning the benefits of group singing for the population under study. The theoretical model of Sears (1968 of the processes in music therapy and its application on anorexic clients (Parente 1989 informed the discussion of the empirical findings.

  15. Digital Image Analysis in Pathology: Benefits and Obligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas Laurinavicius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology has recently entered the era of personalized medicine. This brings new expectations for the accuracy and precision of tissue-based diagnosis, in particular, when quantification of histologic features and biomarker expression is required. While for many years traditional pathologic diagnosis has been regarded as ground truth, this concept is no longer sufficient in contemporary tissue-based biomarker research and clinical use. Another major change in pathology is brought by the advancement of virtual microscopy technology enabling digitization of microscopy slides and presenting new opportunities for digital image analysis. Computerized vision provides an immediate benefit of increased capacity (automation and precision (reproducibility, but not necessarily the accuracy of the analysis. To achieve the benefit of accuracy, pathologists will have to assume an obligation of validation and quality assurance of the image analysis algorithms. Reference values are needed to measure and control the accuracy. Although pathologists' consensus values are commonly used to validate these tools, we argue that the ground truth can be best achieved by stereology methods, estimating the same variable as an algorithm is intended to do. Proper adoption of the new technology will require a new quantitative mentality in pathology. In order to see a complete and sharp picture of a disease, pathologists will need to learn to use both their analogue and digital eyes.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country.

  17. Valuation of road safety effects in cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Wesemann, Paul; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2009-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is a common method for evaluating the social economic impact of transport projects, and in many of these projects the saving of human lives is an issue. This implies, within the framework of cost-benefit analysis, that a monetary value should be attached to saving human lives. This paper discusses the 'Value of a Statistical Life' (VoSL), a concept that is often used for monetising safety effects, in the context of road safety. Firstly, the concept of 'willingness to pay' for road safety and its relation to the VoSL are explained. The VoSL approach will be compared to other approaches to monetise safety effects, in particular the human capital approach and 'quality adjusted life years'. Secondly, methods to estimate the VoSL and their applicability to road safety will be discussed. Thirdly, the paper reviews the VoSL estimates that have been found in scientific research and compares them with the values that are used in policy evaluations. Finally, a VoSL study in the Netherlands will be presented as a case study, and its applicability in policy evaluation will be illustrated.

  18. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  19. Agenda-setting for Canadian caregivers: using media analysis of the maternity leave benefit to inform the compassionate care benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Sarah; Williams, Allison M

    2014-04-24

    The Compassionate Care Benefit was implemented in Canada in 2004 to support employed informal caregivers, the majority of which we know are women given the gendered nature of caregiving. In order to examine how this policy might evolve over time, we examine the evolution of a similar employment insurance program, Canada's Maternity Leave Benefit. National media articles were reviewed (n = 2,698) and, based on explicit criteria, were analyzed using content analysis. Through the application of Kingdon's policy agenda-setting framework, the results define key recommendations for the Compassionate Care Benefit, as informed by the developmental trajectory of the Maternity Leave Benefit. Recommendations for revising the Compassionate Care Benefit are made.

  20. Terrorism risks and cost-benefit analysis of aviation security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark G; Mueller, John

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate, for the U.S. case, the costs and benefits of three security measures designed to reduce the likelihood of a direct replication of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. To do so, we assess risk reduction, losses, and security costs in the context of the full set of security layers. The three measures evaluated are installed physical secondary barriers (IPSB) to restrict access to the hardened cockpit door during door transitions, the Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), and the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program. In the process, we examine an alternate policy measure: doubling the budget of the FFDO program to $44 million per year, installing IPSBs in all U.S. aircraft at a cost of $13.5 million per year, and reducing funding for FAMS by 75% to $300 million per year. A break-even cost-benefit analysis then finds the minimum probability of an otherwise successful attack required for the benefit of each security measures to equal its cost. We find that the IPSB is costeffective if the annual attack probability of an otherwise successful attack exceeds 0.5% or one attack every 200 years. The FFDO program is costeffective if the annual attack probability exceeds 2%. On the other hand, more than two otherwise successful attacks per year are required for FAMS to be costeffective. A policy that includes IPSBs, an increased budget for FFDOs, and a reduced budget for FAMS may be a viable policy alternative, potentially saving hundreds of millions of dollars per year with consequences for security that are, at most, negligible.

  1. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of ULPC Light Curves Using Fourier Decomposition Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi; Barrett, Brittany; Lin, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on Ultra Long Period Cepheids (ULPCs) has suggested their usefulness as a distance indicator, but has not commented on their relationship as compared with other types of variable stars. In this work, we use Fourier analysis to quantify the structure of ULPC light curves and compare them to Classical Cepheids and Mira variables. Our preliminary results suggest that the low order Fourier parameters of ULPCs show a continuous trend defined by Classical Cepheids after the resonance around 10 days. However their Fourier parameters also overlapped with those from Miras, which make the classification of long period variable stars difficult based on the light curves information alone.

  3. Determinants of Trade Credit: A Preliminary Analysis on Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a preliminary analysis of the correlations between trade credit and some selected measures of financial performance for a sample of 958 firms acting in the construction sector. The examined period covers 2004-2013. The sample derived from Amadeus database contains firms that have sold and bought on credit. Results showed that larger firms offered and used more credit than counterparties. Firms offered and used in same time credit, but not in same level. Firms with higher return on assets and profit margin used and offered less credit from suppliers, respectively to clients. Moreover, more liquid firms used less trade payables.

  4. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H; Groncki, P J; Kleeman, P; Lukachinski, J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1979-10-01

    This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51127 and BNL--51128).

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of multifunctional agriculture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. YRJÖLÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the costs and benefits of multifunctional agriculture, and it is one of the very first studies using a quantitative approach to this new subject. The starting point is that if current farm subsidies are regarded as means to maintain the multifunctional characteristics of agriculture, what happens if subsidies are reduced. The effects of the decline in agricultural support on multifunctional characteristics of agriculture in Finland are estimated using the cost-benefit analysis (CBA. Only a part of the consequences can be assessed by the CBA due to lack of data on the economic value of many elements of multifunctional agriculture. Hence, the results should not be generalised too strongly, but they still provide useful information for the political decision-making. Concerning further research, we should study, inter alia, what the so-called correct level of compensation for the adequate supply of public goods would be, and what kind of means of agricultural policy are the most efficient to unambiguously enhance the multifunctional character of agriculture.

  6. CONTENT ANALYSIS, DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical essay aims to reflect on three models of text interpretation used in qualitative research, which is often confused in its concepts and methodologies (Content Analysis, Discourse Analysis, and Conversation Analysis. After the presentation of the concepts, the essay proposes a preliminary discussion on conceptual and theoretical methodological differences perceived between them. A review of the literature was performed to support the conceptual and theoretical methodological discussion. It could be verified that the models have differences related to the type of strategy used in the treatment of texts, the type of approach, and the appropriate theoretical position.

  7. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  8. [Disease management programs: Difficulties in the analysis of benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Roland; Horenkamp-Sonntag, D; Bestmann, B; Battmer, U; Heilmann, T; Verheyen, F

    2015-04-01

    After an introduction to the theme with an overview of the implementation of the Disease Management Programs (DMP), accompanying documentation, present utilization and costs of the programs, the present article is primarily devoted to the issue of the analysis of the benefits of DMP. Following an assessment of the legally specified evaluation requirements, in the absence of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial (RCT), the results of three studies are first summarized, which, with the application of propensity score matching, utilize the routine data of the statutory health insurance schemes to form a control group. The overview concludes with a look at the planned changes in evaluation and the intended expansion of the DMP to programs for other chronic illnesses.

  9. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  10. Electronic Warfare M-on-N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    E. Jarvis Electronic Warfare M-on- N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Advanced Techniques Branch Tactical...12-04-2017 NRL Memorandum Report Electronic Warfare M-on- N Digital Simulation Logging Requirements and HDF5: A Preliminary Analysis Donald E...ELECTRONIC WARFARE M-ON- N DIGITAL SIMULATION LOGGING REQUIREMENTS AND HDF5: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION HDF5 technology [Folk] has been

  11. Task-shifting alcohol interventions for HIV+ persons in Kenya: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Gao, Burke; Gakinya, Benson N; Klein, Debra A; Wamai, Richard G; Sidle, John E; Papas, Rebecca K

    2017-03-28

    Among HIV+ patients, alcohol use is a highly prevalent risk factor for both HIV transmission and poor adherence to HIV treatment. The large-scale implementation of effective interventions for treating alcohol problems remains a challenge in low-income countries with generalized HIV epidemics. It is essential to consider an intervention's cost-effectiveness in dollars-per-health-outcome, and the long-term economic impact -or "return on investment" in monetary terms. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis, measuring economic return on investment, of a task-shifted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention delivered by paraprofessionals to reduce alcohol use in a modeled cohort of 13,440 outpatients in Kenya. In our base-case, we estimated the costs and economic benefits from a societal perspective across a six-year time horizon, with a 3% annual discount rate. Costs included all costs associated with training and administering task-shifted CBT therapy. Benefits included the economic impact of lowered HIV incidence as well as the improvements in household and labor-force productivity. We conducted univariate and multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our results. Under the base case, total costs for CBT rollout was $554,000, the value of benefits were $628,000, and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.13. Sensitivity analyses showed that under most assumptions, the benefit-to-cost ratio remained above unity indicating that the intervention was cost-saving (i.e., had positive return on investment). The duration of the treatment effect most effected the results in sensitivity analyses. CBT can be effectively and economically task-shifted to paraprofessionals in Kenya. The intervention can generate not only reductions in morbidity and mortality, but also economic savings for the health system in the medium and long term. The findings have implications for other countries with generalized HIV epidemics, high prevalence of alcohol

  12. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-08-23

    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

  13. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  14. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: detailed projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H.; Groncki, P.J.; Kleeman, P.; Lukachinski, J.

    1979-10-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward restructuring the energy system in order to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. Results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51105 and BNL--51128). 11 references, 3 figures, 61 tables.

  15. Implementing root cause analysis in Iranian hospitals: challenges and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) has been widely used for retrospective investigations of patient safety incidents. To increase patient safety competencies, RCA has recently been introduced in Iranian hospitals. The aims of the current study were to explore team members' experiences and perceptions of RCA and to identify the challenges and benefits of using it in Iranian hospitals from their perspective. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 32 semi-structured interviews with health professionals who participated in the national training programme and were involved in RCA investigations. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis method. The participants encountered a range of obstacles while conducting RCA, including time constraints, a lack of resources, the blame culture and unsupportive colleagues. They stressed the need for further leadership support and cultural change within the Iranian healthcare system to facilitate the application of RCA. RCA was perceived as a beneficial analytical tool that improved patient care, fostered teamwork and communication among staff and promoted safety culture. This study concluded that applying RCA in the Iranian healthcare setting has had a significant impact on improving commitment to safety. However, the general adoption of this method is hindered by the lack of workplace and system supports. To maximize profits from RCA, clinical leaders must assign a high priority to RCA investigations and support RCA team efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. IAEA Safeguards: Cost/benefit analysis of commercial satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [SSC Satellitbild AB, Kiruna (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    A major milestone in the efforts to strengthen the Safeguards System was reached in May 1997 when the Board of Governors approved a `Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements`. The Protocol provides the legal basis necessary to enhance the Agency`s ability to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities by using information available from open sources to complement the declarations made by Member States. Commercially available high-resolution satellite data has emerged as one potential complementary open information source to support the traditional and extended Safeguard activities of IAEA. This document constitutes a first report from SSC Satellitbild giving the Agency tentative and initial estimates of the potential cost and time-savings possible with the new proposed technology. The initial cost/benefit simulation will be further finalised in the following `Implementation Blueprint` study. The general foundation and starting point for the cost/benefit calculation is to simulate a new efficient and relatively small `imagery unit` within the IAEA, capable of performing advanced image processing as a tool for various safeguards tasks. The image processing capacity is suggested to be task- and interpretation-oriented. The study was performed over a period of 1,5 weeks in late 1998, and is based upon interviews of IAEA staff, reviews of existing IAEA documentation as well as from SSC Satellitbild`s long-standing experience of satellite imagery and field missions. The cost/benefit analysis is based on a spreadsheet simulation of five potential applications of commercial satellite imagery: Reference information; Confirmation of Agency acquired and Member State supplied data; Change detection and on-going monitoring; Assessing open source information available to the Agency; Detecting undeclared activities and undeclared sites. The study confirms that the proposed concept of a relatively small `imagery unit` using high-resolution data will be a sound and

  17. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  18. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  19. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTINIOPTERIS RADIATA (SWARTZ LINK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manonmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of preliminary phytochemicals in six different solvent extracts of Actiniopteris radiata (Swartz link. by qualitative screening methods. The solvent used for the extraction of leaf and rhizome powder were ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, DMSO and aqueous. The secondary metabolites such as steroids, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, catechins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened by using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of both (leaf & rhizome revealed the presence of most active constituents than the other solvents. The ethanolic rhizome extracts of Actiniopteris radiata showed higher amount of phytochemicals when compared with the ethanolic leaf extracts.

  1. Benefits Analysis of Multi-Center Dynamic Weather Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; McNally, David; Morando, Alexander; Clymer, Alexis; Lock, Jennifer; Petersen, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic weather routes are flight plan corrections that can provide airborne flights more than user-specified minutes of flying-time savings, compared to their current flight plan. These routes are computed from the aircraft's current location to a flight plan fix downstream (within a predefined limit region), while avoiding forecasted convective weather regions. The Dynamic Weather Routes automation has been continuously running with live air traffic data for a field evaluation at the American Airlines Integrated Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX since July 31, 2012, where flights within the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center are evaluated for time savings. This paper extends the methodology to all Centers in United States and presents benefits analysis of Dynamic Weather Routes automation, if it was implemented in multiple airspace Centers individually and concurrently. The current computation of dynamic weather routes requires a limit rectangle so that a downstream capture fix can be selected, preventing very large route changes spanning several Centers. In this paper, first, a method of computing a limit polygon (as opposed to a rectangle used for Fort Worth Center) is described for each of the 20 Centers in the National Airspace System. The Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, a nationwide simulation and analysis tool, is used for this purpose. After a comparison of results with the Center-based Dynamic Weather Routes automation in Fort Worth Center, results are presented for 11 Centers in the contiguous United States. These Centers are generally most impacted by convective weather. A breakdown of individual Center and airline savings is presented and the results indicate an overall average savings of about 10 minutes of flying time are obtained per flight.

  2. CUSUM control charts based on likelihood ratio for preliminary analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi DAI; Zhao-jun WANG; Chang-liang ZOU

    2007-01-01

    To detect and estimate a shift in either the mean and the deviation or both for the preliminary analysis, the statistical process control (SPC) tool, the control chart based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT), is the most popular method.Sullivan and woodall pointed out the test statistic lrt (n1, n2) is approximately distributed as x2 (2) as the sample size n, n1 and n2 are very large, and the value of n1 = 2, 3,..., n- 2 and that of n2 = n- n1.So it is inevitable that n1 or n2 is not large. In this paper the limit distribution of lrt(n1, n2) for fixed n1 or n2 is figured out, and the exactly analytic formulae for evaluating the expectation and the variance of the limit distribution are also obtained.In addition, the properties of the standardized likelihood ratio statistic slr(n1,n) are discussed in this paper. Although slr(n1, n) contains the most important information, slr(i, n)(i ≠ n1) also contains lots of information. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart can obtain more information in this condition. So we propose two CUSUM control charts based on the likelihood ratio statistics for the preliminary analysis on the individual observations. One focuses on detecting the shifts in location in the historical data and the other is more general in detecting a shift in either the location and the scale or both.Moreover, the simulated results show that the proposed two control charts are, respectively, superior to their competitors not only in the detection of the sustained shifts but also in the detection of some other out-of-control situations considered in this paper.

  3. CUSUM control charts based on likelihood ratio for preliminary analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To detect and estimate a shift in either the mean and the deviation or both for the preliminary analysis, the statistical process control (SPC) tool, the control chart based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT), is the most popular method. Sullivan and woodall pointed out the test statistic lrt(n1, n2) is approximately distributed as x2(2) as the sample size n,n1 and n2 are very large, and the value of n1 = 2,3,..., n - 2 and that of n2 = n - n1. So it is inevitable that n1 or n2 is not large. In this paper the limit distribution of lrt(n1, n2) for fixed n1 or n2 is figured out, and the exactly analytic formulae for evaluating the expectation and the variance of the limit distribution are also obtained. In addition, the properties of the standardized likelihood ratio statistic slr(n1, n) are discussed in this paper. Although slr(n1, n) contains the most important information, slr(i, n)(i≠n1) also contains lots of information. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart can obtain more information in this condition. So we propose two CUSUM control charts based on the likelihood ratio statistics for the preliminary analysis on the individual observations. One focuses on detecting the shifts in location in the historical data and the other is more general in detecting a shift in either the location and the scale or both. Moreover, the simulated results show that the proposed two control charts are, respectively, superior to their competitors not only in the detection of the sustained shifts but also in the detection of some other out-of-control situations considered in this paper.

  4. EUBerry: Competitiveness and marketing strategies of sustainable berries validated for improved health benefits - Introduction to the project and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Kaim, E.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Zmarlicki, K.

    2014-01-01

    The EUBerry project is not only building on technical research but also studies berry production and consumption from a social sciences perspective. This paper aims to describe the approach used in the EUBerry project about business economics as well as marketing. In addition some preliminary

  5. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, amending the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, the new bill, The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016 was introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha (or Council of States, the upper house of the Parliament of India. Central aim of this article is to critically review the amendments to the bill regarding geographies of maternity leave and its associated facilities.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of the Oklahoma Wavefields Demonstration Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Sweet, J. R.; Woodward, R.; Karplus, M. S.; DeShon, H. R.; Magnani, M. B.; Hayward, C.; Langston, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    In June 2016, a field crew of 50 students, faculty, industry personnel and IRIS staff deployed a total of 390 stations as part of a community seismic experiment above an active seismic lineament in north-central Oklahoma. The goals of the experiment were to test new instrumentation and deployment strategies that record the full wavefield, and to advance understanding of earthquake source processes and regional lithospheric structure. The crew deployed 363 3C 4.5Hz Generation 2 Fairfield Z-Land nodes along three seismic lines and in a seven-layer nested gradiometer array. The seismic lines spanned a region 13 km long by 5 km wide. The nested gradiometer was designed to measure the full seismic wavefield using standard frequency-wavenumber techniques and spatial wave gradients. A broadband, 18 station "Golay 3x6" array was deployed around the gradiometer and seismic lines with an aperture of approximately 5 km to collect waveform data from local and regional events. In addition, 9 infrasound stations were deployed in order to capture and identify acoustic events that might be recorded by the seismic arrays and to quantify the wind acoustic noise effect on co-located broadband stations. The variety of instrumentation used in this deployment was chosen to capture the full seismic wavefield generated by the local and regional seismicity beneath the array and the surrounding region. We present preliminary results from the data collected during the experiment. We analyze the level of signal coherence observed across the nested gradiometer and Golay array as well as array design fidelity. We report on data quality, including completeness and noise levels, for the various types of instrumentation. We also examine the performance of co-located surface and buried nodes to determine the benefits of each installation type. Finally, we present performance comparisons between co-located nodes and broadband stations and compare these results to prior wavefield/large-N deployments

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of road safety measures: applicability and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of cost-benefit analysis as an aid to policy making for road safety measures. A framework for assessing the applicability of cost-benefit analysis is developed. Five main types of criticism of cost-benefit analysis are identified: 1. rejecting the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis as not applicable to road safety, 2. excluding some types of issues from the scope of calculation of costs and benefits, 3. setting policy objectives that are not amenable to cost-benefit analysis, 4. rejecting the need for maintaining a separation between policy objectives and policy programmes as required for cost-benefit analysis, and 5. rejecting, or denying the possibility of ever obtaining, acceptably valid and reliable economic valuations of the consequences of alternative policy programmes. It is concluded that rejecting the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis is a difficult position to defend, since these principles are simply a re-statement in economic terms of very general principles of rational choice. These principles are part of the normative basis of all formal techniques designed to aid policy making as well as the democratic system of government. Everybody, including those who advocate the use of cost-benefit analysis, agree that some issues are unsuitable for cost-benefit analysis, in particular those that involve basic human rights and fairness in distribution. There may, however, be disagreement with respect to the perception of a specific policy issue in terms of whether it is mainly about rights and fairness or mainly about the effective use of policy instruments to solve a social problem. Politicians may be tempted to set policy objectives that are ill suited for cost-benefit analysis, but this does not imply that cost-benefit analysis makes unreasonable assumptions. Perhaps the most important issue for the applicability of cost-benefit analysis is whether people in general have sufficiently well ordered

  8. Risk assessment for benefits analysis: framework for analysis of a thyroid-disrupting chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Baetcke, Karl; Dockins, Chris; Griffiths, Charles W; Hill, Richard N; Murphy, Patricia A; Owens, Nicole; Simon, Nathalie B; Teuschler, Linda K

    Benefit-cost analysis is of growing importance in developing policies to reduce exposures to environmental contaminants. To quantify health benefits of reduced exposures, economists generally rely on dose-response relationships estimated by risk assessors. Further, to be useful for benefits analysis, the endpoints that are quantified must be expressed as changes in incidence of illnesses or symptoms that are readily understood by and perceptible to the layperson. For most noncancer health effects and for nonlinear carcinogens, risk assessments generally do not provide the dose-response functions necessary for economic benefits analysis. This article presents the framework for a case study that addresses these issues through a combination of toxicology, epidemiology, statistics, and economics. The case study assesses a chemical that disrupts proper functioning of the thyroid gland, and considers the benefits of reducing exposures in terms of both noncancer health effects (hypothyroidism) and thyroid cancers. The effects are presumed to be due to a mode of action involving interference with thyroid-pituitary functioning that would lead to nonlinear dose response. The framework integrates data from animal testing, statistical modeling, human data from the medical and epidemiological literature, and economic methodologies and valuation studies. This interdisciplinary collaboration differs from the more typical approach in which risk assessments and economic analyses are prepared independently of one another. This framework illustrates particular approaches that may be useful for expanded quantification of adverse health effects, and demonstrates the potential of such interdisciplinary approaches. Detailed implementation of the case study framework will be presented in future publications.

  9. Preliminary analysis of distributed in situ soil moisture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brocca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. Remote sensing can provide an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas but ground based measurements are required to test its reliability and to calibrate retrieval algorithms. Recently, we had the opportunity to design and perform an experiment aimed at jointly acquiring measurements of surface soil water content at various locations and remotely sensed hyperspectral data. The area selected for the experiment is located in central Umbria and it extends for 90km2. For the area, detailed lithological and multi-temporal landslide inventory maps were available. We identified eight plots where measurements of soil water content were made using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR. The plots range in size from 100m2 to 600m2, and cover a variety of topographic and morphological settings. The TDR measurements were conducted during four days, on 5 April, 15 April, 2 May and 3 May 2004. On 3 May the NERC airborne CASI 2 acquired the hyperspectral data. Preliminary analysis concerning the matching between the landslides and the soil moisture were reported. Statistical and geostatistical analysis investigating the spatial-temporal soil moisture distribution were performed. These results will be compared with the data of surface temperature obtained from the remotely sensed hyperspectral sensor.

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Energy Management in Public Buildings: Four Italian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in public buildings is one of the main challenges for a sustainable requalification of energy issues and a consequent reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This paper aims to provide preliminary information about economic costs and energy consumption reductions (benefits of some considered interventions in existing public buildings. Methods include an analysis of some feasible interventions in four selected public buildings. Energy efficiency improvements have been assessed for each feasible intervention. The difference of the building global energy performance index (EPgl has been assessed before and after each intervention. Economic costs of each intervention have been estimated by averaging the amount demanded by different companies for the same intervention. Results obtained show economic costs and the EPgl percentage improvement for each intervention, highlighting and allowing for the comparison of energy consumption reduction and relative economic costs. The research results come from data gathered from four public buildings, and as such they could not be used to generically identify cost-beneficial energy efficiency interventions for every context or building type. However, the data reveals useful cost based considerations for selecting energy efficiency interventions in other public buildings.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Computer Resources for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Machine learning describes pattern-recognition algorithms - in this case, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs). These can be computationally intensive, in part because of the nonlinear optimizer, a numerical process that calibrates the PNN by minimizing a sum of squared errors. This report suggests efficiencies that are expressed as cost and benefit. The cost is computer time needed to calibrate the PNN, and the benefit is goodness-of-fit, how well the PNN learns the pattern in the data. There may be a point of diminishing returns where a further expenditure of computer resources does not produce additional benefits. Sampling is suggested as a cost-reduction strategy. One consideration is how many points to select for calibration and another is the geometric distribution of the points. The data points may be nonuniformly distributed across space, so that sampling at some locations provides additional benefit while sampling at other locations does not. A stratified sampling strategy can be designed to select more points in regions where they reduce the calibration error and fewer points in regions where they do not. Goodness-of-fit tests ensure that the sampling does not introduce bias. This approach is illustrated by statistical experiments for computing correlations between measures of roadless area and population density for the San Francisco Bay Area. The alternative to training efficiencies is to rely on high-performance computer systems. These may require specialized programming and algorithms that are optimized for parallel performance.

  12. Predicting travel time variability for cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, S.; Koopmans, C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are not taken into account in many cost-benefit-analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules on how variability can be predicted, based on travel time data from Dutch highways.

  13. Responding to consumer needs: Risk-benefit analysis of fortification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den

    1999-01-01

    In spite of an on average adequate dietary nutrient intake and status in most European countries, for some micronutrients (e.g. folate, vitamin D, B2, B6, B12 (in elderly), iron and iodine) subgroups have been identified which may be at risk and may benefit from a higher intake, especially elderly a

  14. Predicting travel time variability for cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Peer; C. Koopmans; E.T. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are not taken into account in many cost-benefit-analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules on how variability can be predicted, based on travel time data from Dutch highways. T

  15. Analysis of enabling factors in realizing modularization benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    Although modularization is becoming a welldescribed and broadly applied concept, many of today’s firms still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received far less attention compared to theo...

  16. Analysis of enabling factors in realizing modularization benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    to theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems.Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers...

  17. Prediction of travel time variability for cost-benefit analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, S.; Koopmans, C.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2012-01-01

    Unreliable travel times cause substantial costs to travelers. Nevertheless, they are often not taken into account in cost-benefit analyses (CBA), or only in very rough ways. This paper aims at providing simple rules to predict variability, based on travel time data from Dutch highways. Two different

  18. Are Violent Delinquents Worth Treating? A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael F.; Vitacco, Michael; Van Rybroek, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the cost benefits of an intensive treatment program for unmanageable juvenile delinquent boys, compared to the usual treatment in a secured juvenile corrections facility. A total of 101 boys who received the majority of their treatment services in a specialized program providing intensive mental health treatment were matched…

  19. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo [Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico); Marín-García, Liliana [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratories, NSLS, Upton, New York (United States); Moreno, Abel, E-mail: carcamo@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Unidad de Proteómica Médica, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the protein struthiocalcin 1 isolated from ostrich eggshell are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of struthiocalcin 1 (SCA-1), a protein obtained from the intramineral part of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshell, is reported.

  1. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Stacy A. [Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Scott, Ken [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Blanchard, Helen, E-mail: h.blanchard@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2007-11-01

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and β-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1. Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P2{sub 1}, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  3. Preliminary radiation criteria and nuclear analysis for ETF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engholm, B.A.

    1980-09-01

    Preliminary biological and materials radiation dose criteria for the Engineering Test Facility are described and tabulated. In keeping with the ETF Mission Statement, a key biological dose criterion is a 24-hour shutdown dose rate of 2 mrem/hr on the surface of the outboard bulk shield. Materials dose criteria, which primarily govern the inboard shield design, include 10/sup 9/ rads exposure limit to epoxy insulation, 3 x 10/sup -4/ dpa damage to the TF coil copper stabilizer, and a total nuclear heating rate of 5 kW in the inboard TF coils. Nuclear analysis performed during FY 80 was directed primarily at the inboard and outboard bulk shielding, and at radiation streaming in the neutral beam drift ducts. Inboard and outboard shield thicknesses to achieve the biological and materials radiation criteria are 75 cm inboard and 125 cm outboard, the configuration consisting of alternating layers of stainless steel and borated water. The outboard shield also includes a 5 cm layer of lead. NBI duct streaming analyses performed by ORNL and LASL will play a key role in the design of the duct and NBI shielding in FY 81. The NBI aluminum cryopanel nuclear heating rate during the heating cycle is about 1 milliwatt/cm/sup 3/, which is far less than the permissible limit.

  4. Preliminary analysis of aerial hyperspectral data on shallow lacustrine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Remo; Castagnoli, A.; Cavalli, Rosa M.; Marino, Carlo M.; Pignatti, Stefano; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1995-11-01

    The availability of MIVIS hyperspectral data, deriving from an aerial survey recently performed over a test-site in Lake Garda, Italy, gave the possibility of a preliminary new insight in the field of specific applications of remote sensing to shallow water analysis. The spectroradiometers in the visible and in the thermal infrared were explored in particular, accessing to helpful information for the detection of bio-physical indicators of water quality, either related to the surface/sub-surface of waters or to the bottom of the lake, since the study area presents very shallow waters, never exceeding a 6-meter depth in any case. Primary interest was the detection of man-induced activities along the margins, like sewage effect and sedimentary structure in the bottom or algal bloom. Secondly, a correlation between absorbivity coefficients in the visible bands and bathimetric contour lines in the proximity of the marginal zone of the lake was accomplished, by means of two indicative spectroradiometric transects.

  5. Benefits Analysis of the Naval Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Dimes, Cystic Fibrosis, Multiple Sclerosis , Heart, Lung, Junior Diabetes, Leukemia, United Way, MDA, Save the Earth Bremerton High School, WA Aiken...of the program from multiple perspectives. The overall perception of the benefits derived from the NJROTC program was positive. This positive...for the BSU Black Heritage Talent Show. The students you have assigned to coordinate ehese efforts have conducted themselves in a courteous and

  6. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, A. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L-Y [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cuadra, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  7. Evaluation benefits of rainwater harvesting using infiltration pits in rainfed cropping systems: Preliminary results from Rushinga district, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chimweta, M.; Nyagumbo, I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occurrence of dry spells during the rainfall season is the major cause of crop failure in semi-arid areas. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is regarded as a viable option for mitigating these dry spells. However, benefits of most RWH systems have not been adequately quantified. The objective of t

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Remote Monitoring & Robotic Concepts for Performance Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. McAffee

    1997-02-18

    ) Identify and discuss the main Performance Confirmation monitoring needs and requirements during the post-emplacement preclosure period. This includes radiological, non-radiological, host rock, and infrastructure performance monitoring needs. It also includes monitoring for possible off-normal events. (Presented in Section 7.3). (3) Identify general approaches and methods for obtaining performance information from within the emplacement drifts for Performance Confirmation. (Presented in Section 7.4) (4)Review and discuss available technologies and design strategies that may permit the use of remotely operated systems within the hostile thermal and radiation environment expected within the emplacement drifts. (Presented in Section 7.5). (5) Based on Performance Confirmation monitoring needs and available technologies, identify potential application areas for remote systems and robotics for post-emplacement preclosure Performance Confirmation activities (Presented in Section 7.6). (6) Develop preliminary remote monitoring and robotic concepts for post-emplacement, preclosure Performance Confirmation activities. (Presented in Section 7.7) This analysis is being performed very early in the systems engineering cycle, even as issues related to the Performance Confirmation program planning phase are being formulated and while the associated needs, constraints and objectives are yet to be fully determined and defined. This analysis is part of an issue formulation effort and is primarily concerned with identification and description of key issues related to remotely monitoring repository performance for Performance Confirmation. One of the purposes of this analysis is to provide an early investigation of potential design challenges that may have a high impact on future design concepts. This analysis can be used to guide future concept development and help access what is feasible and achievable by application of remote systems technology. Future design and systems engineering

  9. A Preliminary Tsunami vulnerability analysis for Bakirkoy district in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, M.; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis has major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas under extreme events has major importance for preparedness and development of mitigation strategies. The Sea of Marmara has experienced numerous earthquakes as well as associated tsunamis. There are variety of coastal facilities such as ports, small craft harbors, and terminals for maritime transportation, water front roads and business centers mainly at North Coast of Marmara Sea in megacity Istanbul. A detailed vulnerability analysis for Yenikapi region and a detailed resilience analysis for Haydarpasa port in Istanbul have been studied in previously by Cankaya et al., (2015) and Aytore et al., (2015) in SATREPS project. In this study, the methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack given in Cankaya et al., (2015) is modified and applied to Bakirkoy district of Istanbul. Bakirkoy district is located at western part of Istanbul and faces to the North Coast of Marmara Sea from 28.77oE to 28.89oE. High resolution spatial dataset of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed. The bathymetry and topography database and the spatial dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the district are collated and utilized for tsunami numerical modeling and following vulnerability analysis. The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability assessment parameters in the district according to vulnerability and resilience are defined; and scored by implementation of a GIS based TVA with appropriate MCDA methods. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and TVA results at every location in Bakirkoy district. The preliminary results are presented and discussed

  10. Moving beyond benefit-cost analysis of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomey, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    The conventional benefit-cost approach to understanding the climate problem has serious limitations. Fortunately, an alternative way of thinking about the problem has arisen in recent decades, based on analyzing the cost effectiveness of achieving a normatively defined warming target. This approach yields important insights, showing that delaying action is costly, required emissions reductions are rapid, and most proved reserves of fossil fuels will need to stay in the ground if we’re to stabilize the climate. I call this method ‘working forward toward a goal’, and it is one that will see wide application in the years ahead.

  11. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement: A data envelopment analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Bijsterbosch, N.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternat

  12. Preliminary Core Analysis of a Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Chang Keun; Chang, Jongwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Venneri, Francesco [Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation, Los Alamos (United States); Hawari, Ayman [NC State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Micro Modular Reactor (MMR) will be 'melt-down proof'(MDP) under all circumstances, including the complete loss of coolant, and will be easily transportable and retrievable, and suitable for use with very little site preparation and Balance of Plant (BOP) requirements for a variety of applications, from power generation and process heat applications in remote areas to grid-unattached locations, including ship propulsion. The Micro Modular Reactor design proposed in this paper has 3 meter diameter core (2 meter active core) which is suitable for 'factory manufactured' and has few tens year of service life for remote deployment. We confirmed the feasibility of long term service life by a preliminary neutronic analysis in terms of the excess reactivity, the temperature feedback coefficient, and the control margins. We are able to achieve a reasonably long core life time of 5 ∼ 10 years under typical thermal hydraulic condition of a helium cooled reactor. However, on a situation where longer service period and safety is important, we can reduce the power density to the level of typical pebble bed reactor. In this case we can design 10 MWt MMR with core diameter for 10 ∼ 40 years core life time without much loss in the economics. Several burnable poisons are studied and it is found that erbia mixed in the compact matrix seems reasonably good poison. The temperature feedback coefficients were remaining negative during lifetime. Drum type control rods at reflector region and few control rods inside core region are sufficient to control the reactivity during operation and to achieve safe cold shutdown state.

  13. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of diabatic heating distribution from FGGE level 3b analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, A.; Mizzi, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the global distribution of diabatic heating rate. Preliminary results of global heating rate evaluated from the European center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Level IIIb analysis data is also presented.

  15. The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa

    2003-01-01

    Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission......Kristensen NH, Nielsen T, Bruselius-Jensen M, Scheperlen-Bøgh P, Beckie M, Foster C, Midmore P, Padel S (2002): The Organic Food Market and Marketing Initiatives in Europe: a Preliminary Analysis. Final Report to the EU Commission...

  16. Humans to Mars: A feasibility and cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Chowdhury, Jeeshan; Marzullo, Timothy C.; Eric Collins, R.; Litzenberger, Julie; Ibsen, Stuart; Krauser, Wendy R.; Dekock, Brandon; Hannon, Michael; Kinnevan, Jessica; Shepard, Rebekah; Douglas Grant, F.

    2005-05-01

    Mars is a compelling astrobiological target, and a human mission would provide an opportunity to collect immense amounts of scientific data. Exploration alone, however, cannot justify the increased risk. Instead, three factors drive a human mission: economics, education, and exploration. A human mission has a unique potential to inspire the next generation of young people to enter critically needed science and engineering disciplines. A mission is economically feasible, and the research and development program put in place for a human mission would propel growth in related high-technology industries. The main hurdles are human physiological responses to 1 2 years of radiation and microgravity exposure. However, enabling technologies are sufficiently mature in these areas that they can be developed within a few decade timescale. Hence, the decision of whether or not to undertake a human mission to Mars is a political decision, and thus, educational and economic benefits are the crucial factors.

  17. The social benefits of WEEE re-use schemes. A cost benefit analysis for PCs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Xose Manuel; Rodríguez, Miguel; Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2017-03-16

    One goal of the new European legislation set out in WEEE Directive 2012/19/UE is the promotion of WEEE re-use schemes. However, some authors are rather sceptical about the contribution of WEEE re-use schemes to improve resource efficiency. In order to evaluate and to design adequate policy instruments, some authors recommend the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a compulsory first step. In this context, the main contribution of this paper is to enlarge the empirical literature by providing a CBA of re-use schemes versus recycling processes of PCs. The analysis is made for Spain by quantifying in monetary terms the social damages of environmental impacts such as climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, metal depletion, etc. Our results suggest that promoting re-use against recycling (and consequently the need for manufacturing a new PC from raw materials) may reduce environmental costs by 45.20€ per PC. Those social benefits are mainly generated in the re-use preparation process and distribution activities, whereas the re-use scenario displays a worse performance in energy consumption. The difference in the distribution stage during the second life cycle originates from the fact that the ready to re-use product is produced locally, while the brand new product is manufactured and distributed from abroad, mainly Asia. These results provide valuable information to policymakers and think tanks willing to design support schemes for re-use over recycling operations.

  18. Preliminary study on washability and composition analysis of highsulfur coal in some mining areas in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yue-qin; MAO Song; ZHANG Qin; TIAN Ye; LIU Zhi-hong

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary sink-float experiments on high-sulfur coal was done in some mining areas and carried on elementary analysis, industrial analysis, and ashcontent analysis. Through the experiments, definite middlings, and gangue, the phase analysis of sulfur was carried on, by which a good understanding of sulfur characters in raw coal was achieved.

  19. A quantitative analysis of the net benefits of grid integrated wind

    OpenAIRE

    DENNY, ELEANOR; Bryans, Garth; Fitz Gerald, John; O'Malley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the world significant development is being encouraged in wind energy for electricity generation. A complete cost and benefit analysis has been conducted in this paper on grid connected wind generation. It takes into account system costs such as reserve requirements, start-up and ramping implications for conventional plants as well as wear and tear costs. The benefits of wind generation analysed include the emissions benefits, the saving on the fuel bill, the electricity generated a...

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.; Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2016-01-01

    This cost-benefit analysis assesses the benefits of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results report a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Production cost savings of 35 to 58 percent were reported over the composite manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels when compared with conventional metallic manufacturing. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. A case study compared these three alternatives for manufacturing a cylinder of specified geometry, with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity, with cost analyses performed by the analogy and parametric methods. Furthermore, a scalability study was conducted for three tank diameters to assess the highest potential payoff of the ANNST process for manufacture of large-diameter cryogenic tanks. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was subsequently used with a group of selected subject matter experts to assess the value of the various benefits achieved by the ANNST method for potential stakeholders. The AHP study results revealed that decreased final cylinder mass and quality assurance were the most valued benefits of cylinder manufacturing methods, therefore emphasizing the relevance of the benefits achieved with the ANNST process for future projects.

  1. Cusum charts for preliminary analysis of individual observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); R.J.M.M. Does (Ronald)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA preliminary Cusum chart based on individual observations is developed from the uniformly most powerful test for the detection of linear trends. This Cusum chart is compared with several of its competitors which are based on the likelihood ratio test and on transformations of standardiz

  2. Comprehensive Benefit Analysis on Development Models of Circular Agriculture in Wangcang County of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; CHU; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Taking Wangcang County of Sichuan Province as an example,this paper made comprehensive benefit analysis on models of circular agriculture in Wangcang County. Major models include " pig- biogas- fruit", " pig- biogas- vegetable",and " pig- biogas- tea". It made cost benefit analysis of economic,social and ecological benefits. Through benefit analysis charts,it obtained that the net present value of each household building biogas pool is 6029 yuan. In this way,it significantly improved ecological environment and social benefits,and the agricultural economic development model gradually changes to sustainable development model. However,there are still problems of insufficient government input and single model of agricultural circular economy. Therefore,government should increase input and develop diversified agricultural circular economical models in accordance with local situations,to realize sustainable agricultural development.

  3. The importance of cost-benefit analysis: a response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The critique by Draper raises some interesting points that we did not have space to discuss in our published paper. As he points out, taking a purely quantitative approach to the evaluation of ICT investments in teaching and learning is wholly inappropriate. However, in this transitional period, where ICT applications are new and the effects on operational processes within higher education institutions are unknown, it is not only qualitative issues that need to be investigated but also the potential changes to the scope and nature of the costs incurred by institutions. While the small-scale, and localized, introduction of ICT in teaching might only affect the time and effort of a few individual academics, large-scale deployment of the same methodology may require substantial institutional investment (for example, in network infrastructure, hardware, licenses, support staff. The CBA model encourages institutions to consider and record all the cost implications of their strategies, not in an attempt to quantify the outputs (benefits of these new learning processes but to identify and quantify the inputs to these processes. These quantitative inputs can then be evaluated in the context of qualitative outputs.

  4. Equitable cost-benefit analysis of climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, R.S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Studies, Hamburg University, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    The literature of welfare-maximising greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies pays remarkably little attention to equity. This paper introduces three ways to consider efficiency and equity simultaneously. The first method, inspired by Kant and Rawls, maximises net present welfare, without international cooperation, as if all regions share the fate of the region affected worst by climate change. Optimal emission abatement varies greatly depending on the spatial and temporal resolution, that is, the grid at which 'maximum impact' is defined. The second method is inspired by Varian's no-envy. Emissions are reduced so as to equalise total costs and benefits of climate change over all countries of the world and over all time periods. Emission reductions are substantial. This method approximately preserves the inequities that would occur in a world without climate change. The third method uses non-linear aggregations of welfare (the utilitarian default is linear) in a cooperative setting. This method cannot distinguish between sources of inequity. The higher the aversion to inequity, the higher optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction. 59 refs.

  5. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  6. Using Cost-Benefit Analysis to Determine Profitability of Secondary Vocational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, K. K.; And Others

    A major challenge confronting vocational educators is to justify programs in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to propose and implement a cost-benefit analysis model to determine the economic outcomes of secondary vocational education programs at the local level. For the study, a cost-benefit model for secondary vocational education…

  7. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Universal Preschool Education: Evidence from a Spanish Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314130799; Dumhs, E.; Plantenga, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071772944

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education. We focus on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. We extrapolate the benefits in terms of maternal employment and child

  8. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Real Cost-Benefit Analysis Is Needed in American Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert D. Stoneberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public school critics often point to rising expenditures and relatively flat test scores to justify their school reform agendas. The claims are flawed because their analyses fail to account for the difference in data types between dollars (ratio and test scores (interval. A cost-benefit analysis using dollars as a common metric for both costs and benefits can provide a good estimate of their relationship. It also acknowledges that costs and benefits are both subject to inflation. The National Center for Education Research administers a methods training program for researchers who want to know more about cost-benefit analyses on education policies and programs.

  10. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom

    2017-06-27

    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.

  11. Bayesian data analysis in population ecology: motivations, methods, and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century ecologists largely relied on the frequentist system of inference for the analysis of their data. However, in the past few decades ecologists have become increasingly interested in the use of Bayesian methods of data analysis. In this article I provide guidance to ecologists who would like to decide whether Bayesian methods can be used to improve their conclusions and predictions. I begin by providing a concise summary of Bayesian methods of analysis, including a comparison of differences between Bayesian and frequentist approaches to inference when using hierarchical models. Next I provide a list of problems where Bayesian methods of analysis may arguably be preferred over frequentist methods. These problems are usually encountered in analyses based on hierarchical models of data. I describe the essentials required for applying modern methods of Bayesian computation, and I use real-world examples to illustrate these methods. I conclude by summarizing what I perceive to be the main strengths and weaknesses of using Bayesian methods to solve ecological inference problems.

  12. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative timing strategies in greenhouse gas abatement. A data envelopment analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuosmanen, Timo [Economic Research Unit, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Luutnantintie 13, 00410 Helsinki (Finland); Bijsterbosch, Neil [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); MWH B.V., Rijnsburgstraat 9-11, 1059 AT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dellink, Rob [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Assessing the benefits of climate policies is complicated due to ancillary benefits: abatement of greenhouse gases also reduces local air pollution. The timing of the abatement measures influences both the economic costs and ancillary benefits. This paper conducts efficiency analysis of ten alternative timing strategies, taking into account the ancillary benefits. We apply the approach by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen [Valuing Environmental Factors in Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data Envelopment Analysis, Ecological Economics 62 (2007), 56-65], which does not require prior valuation of the environmental impacts. The assessment is based on synthetic data from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model calibrated to The Netherlands. Our assessment shows that if one is only interested in GHG abatement at the lowest economic cost, then equal reduction of GHGs over time is preferred. If society is willing to pay a premium for higher ancillary benefits, an early mid-intensive reduction strategy is optimal. (author)

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of three older adult fall prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carande-Kulis, Vilma; Stevens, Judy A; Florence, Curtis S; Beattie, Bonita L; Arias, Ileana

    2015-02-01

    One out of three persons aged 65 and older falls annually and 20% to 30% of falls result in injury. The purpose of this cost-benefit analysis was to identify community-based fall interventions that were feasible, effective, and provided a positive return on investment (ROI). A third-party payer perspective was used to determine the costs and benefits of three effective fall interventions. Intervention effectiveness was based on randomized controlled trial results. National data were used to estimate the average annual benefits from averting the direct medical costs of a fall. The net benefit and ROI were estimated for each of the interventions. For the Otago Exercise Program delivered to persons aged 65 and older, the net benefit was $121.85 per participant and the ROI was 36% for each dollar invested. For Otago delivered to persons aged 80 and older, the net benefit was $429.18 and the ROI was 127%. Tai chi: Moving for Better Balance had a net benefit of $529.86 and an ROI of 509% and Stepping On had a net benefit of $134.37 and an ROI of 64%. All three fall interventions provided positive net benefits. The ROIs showed that the benefits not only covered the implementation costs but also exceeded the expected direct program delivery costs. These results can help health care funders and other community organizations select appropriate and effective fall interventions that also can provide positive returns on investment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 33 CFR 279.7 - Information collection and preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and man-made resources of the project area are to be identified and the inter-relationships analyzed... historical resources, management techniques, and ecosystem interactions. (c) Social needs and benefits....

  15. Preliminary uncertainty analysis of OECD/UAM benchmark for the TMI-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Faria, Rochkhudson B.; Silva, Lucas M.C.; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays the demand from nuclear research centers for safety, regulation and better-estimated predictions provided with confidence bounds has been increasing. On that way, studies have pointed out that present uncertainties in the nuclear data should be significantly reduced, to get the full benefit from the advanced modeling and simulation initiatives. The major outcome of NEA/OECD (UAM) workshop took place Italy on 2006, was the preparation of a benchmark work program with steps (exercises) that would be needed to define the uncertainty and modeling tasks. On that direction, this work was performed within the framework of UAM Exercise 1 (I-1) 'Cell Physics' to validate the study, and to be able estimated the accuracies of the model. The objectives of this study were to make a preliminary analysis of criticality values of TMI-1 PWR and the biases of the results from two different nuclear codes multiplication factor. The range of the bias was obtained using the deterministic codes: NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code), the two-dimensional transport module that uses AMPX-formatted cross-sections processed by other SCALE; and WIMSD5 (Winfrith Improved Multi-Group Scheme) code. The WIMSD5 system consists of a simplified geometric representation of heterogeneous space zones that are coupled with each other and with the boundaries, while the properties of each spacing element are obtained from Carlson DSN method or Collision Probability method. (author)

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Radiation Therapy Services at Tripler Army Medical Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diehl, Diane S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the costs and benefits associated with continuance of "in-house" radiation therapy services to eligible beneficiaries at Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC...

  17. Current Mooring Design in Partner WECs and Candidates for Preliminary Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is the combined report of Commercial Milestone "CM1: Design and Cost of Current Mooring Solutions of Partner WECs" and Milestone "M3: Mooring Solutions for Preliminary Analysis" of the EUDP project "Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters". The report covers a description...... of the current mooring design of the partner Wave Energy Converter (WEC) developers in the project, together with a preliminary cost estimate of the systems....

  18. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Installation of a Wind Turbine on a Naval Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    phase induction, 480 V AC, 60 Hz Generator speed 1800 rpm cut-in, 1850 rpm max Brake Electro-mechanical disc , self adjusting System design life 25...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF...DATE September 2010 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cost Benefit Analysis of the Installation of a Wind

  19. Preliminary Dynamic Siol-Structure-Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wagenblast

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this analysis package is to document a preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation of a simplified design concept of the Wade Handling Building (WHB). Preliminary seismic ground motions and soil data will be used. Loading criteria of the WHB System Design Description will be used. Detail design of structural members will not be performed.. The results of the analysis will be used to determine preliminary sizes of structural concrete and steel members and to determine whether the seismic response of the structure is within an acceptable level for future License Application design of safety related facilities. In order to complete this preliminary dynamic evaluation to meet the Site Recommendation (SR) schedule, the building configuration was ''frozen in time'' as the conceptual design existed in October 1999. Modular design features and dry or wet waste storage features were intentionally excluded from this preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation. The document was prepared in accordance with the Development Plan for the ''Preliminary/Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b), which was completed, in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''.

  20. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS - TOOL FOR ALLOCATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR MAJOR PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CLIPICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The judicious selection of investment projects, at the micro and macro level, with recognition of resource constraints and complementary involvement of the private sector, will lead to sustained economic growth, equitable development, poverty reduction and private sector growth. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they are worthwhile. This research enterprise proposes the study of the advantages of cost-benefit analysis and identify the several major principles that collectively describe the assumption base, objectives, analytical tasks, and merits of this important project assessment methodology.

  1. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  2. Cost benefit analysis of 20 mph zones in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Cairns, John; Grundy, Chris; Edwards, Phil

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify uncertainty in the results associated with model parameters. Results indicate a net present value (NPV) of £18 947 (90% credible limits -£75 252 to £82 021 2005 prices) after 5 years and £67 306 (£-29 157 to £137 890) after 10 years when 20 mph zones are implemented in areas with one or more casualty per kilometre of road. Simulations from our model suggest that the 'threshold of casualties' where NPVs become positive using a 10 year time horizon is 0.7 casualties per kilometre.

  3. Cost benefit analysis on different configurations of berthing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, G.; Saravanan, R.; Ravichandran, Vijaya; Parameswara Pandian, S.; Ramani Sujatha, Evangelin

    2017-07-01

    Port and harbors are essential for handling of the imports/exports of good transported through shipping. This paper discusses the different configuration of berthing structure, their design with respect to the site conditions and suitability. The analysis includes detailed load calculations conforming to the various codal provisions and design of the structure. The configuration of berthing structure considered are analyzed and designed using STAAD Pro for different combination of loads as per IS 4651. Bill of Quantities are prepared and final cost of construction is calculated. Factors affecting the construction and maintenance such as land availability, soil conditions, hydrodynamics of the site, dredging requirements, design ship size etc. are considered to finalize the configuration of the berthing structure. Result of the study shows that Diaphragm wall type of berthing structure is economic for Ennore port.

  4. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. This analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  5. Distributional Benefit Analysis of a National Air Quality Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Executive Order 12898, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA must perform environmental justice (EJ reviews of its rules and regulations. EJ analyses address the hypothesis that environmental disamenities are experienced disproportionately by poor and/or minority subgroups. Such analyses typically use communities as the unit of analysis. While community-based approaches make sense when considering where polluting sources locate, they are less appropriate for national air quality rules affecting many sources and pollutants that can travel thousands of miles. We compare exposures and health risks of EJ-identified individuals rather than communities to analyze EPA’s Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD rule as an example national air quality rule. Air pollutant exposures are estimated within grid cells by air quality models; all individuals in the same grid cell are assigned the same exposure. Using an inequality index, we find that inequality within racial/ethnic subgroups far outweighs inequality between them. We find, moreover, that the HDD rule leaves between-subgroup inequality essentially unchanged. Changes in health risks depend also on subgroups’ baseline incidence rates, which differ across subgroups. Thus, health risk reductions may not follow the same pattern as reductions in exposure. These results are likely representative of other national air quality rules as well.

  6. Cost benefit analysis of policy measures in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, N. [COWI (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The Government has introduced a national target for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector, which aims to stabilize emissions at the 1988 level, by the year 2005. This target was first formalized in the Government`s 1990 transport action plan, and later repeated in `Traffic 2005`, published in December 1993. The latter document also makes reference to six strategies, which the Government proposed in order to attain the national target. The majority of the transport policy measures will impact on CO{sub 2} emissions from the sector, even if they are targeted at different objectives, e.g. road safety, air pollution, time savings, etc. A long-list of potential measures, which might be adopted with the primary purpose is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, has been identified from the six overall strategies. The measures identified have been subjected to detailed analyses, to ascertain all the potential impacts. The main emphasis has been on clarifying the potential efficacy of each of the measures in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, and the social costs in a wide sense. The analysis assumes that each policy measure is implemented separately. A methodology is developed that presents the respective consequences in commensurate terms. Similar calculations are undertaken for two different combinations of policy measures. (EG)

  7. Cusum charts for preliminary analysis of individual observations

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA preliminary Cusum chart based on individual observations is developed from the uniformly most powerful test for the detection of linear trends. This Cusum chart is compared with several of its competitors which are based on the likelihood ratio test and on transformations of standardized recursive residuals on which for instance the Q-chart methodology is based. It turns out that the new proposed Cusum chart is not only superior in the detection of linear trend out-of-control co...

  8. Grid-connected ICES preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    A group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical education facilities, known as the HEAL Complex, was chosen as the site (in New Orleans) for the demonstration of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). The contract work included a preliminary energy supply/demand assessment of the Demonstration Community, a preliminary feasibility analysis and conceptual design of a candidate Demonstration System, preliminary assessment of institutional factors, preparation of a detailed work management plan for subsequent phases of the demonstration program, firming-up of commitments from participating parties, and reporting thereon. This Phase I study has indicated that a central ICES plant producing steam, chilled water, and by-product electricity to serve the HEAL Complex is technically and economically feasible to the extent that Phase II, Detailed Feasibility and Preliminary Design, should be implemented. (MCW)

  9. Development of the cost-benefit analysis methodology for FR cycle research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Ono, Kiyoshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Yasumatsu, Naoto [Nuclear Energy System Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis system for Fast Reactor (FR) cycle research and development (R and D) has been developed. The benefits derived from FR cycle research and development, which are compared with the cost for the FR cycle R and D in the system, are environmental burden reduction, risk reduction, contribution to energy security and resource import reduction, as well as power generation cost reduction. Cost-benefit analyses for a typical FR cycle R and D and the sensitivity analyses for some parameters have confirmed the validity of the system and the effects of the parameters. Different cost-benefit ratios were obtained form the analyses on the R and Ds for six FR cycle concepts in the first phase of the Feasibility Studies on commercialized FR cycle system. Those analyses showed that several-fold benefit will be derived from FR cycle R and D investment but there remains uncertainty of the parameters on future society. (author)

  10. Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oil. Phase I. Preliminary Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-09

    Process Analysis A. F. Talbot. V. Elanchenny, L. H. Finkel, A. Macris and 3. P. Schwedock Sun Tech, Inc., A Subsidiary of Sun Co. P. 0. Box 1135 Marcus Hook...investigation be carried out in three discrete phases, as described below: Phase I - Preliminary process analysis includes an eval- uation of the potential of

  11. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  12. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost benefit analysis of two policy options for cannabis: status quo and legalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised-regulated option was conducted. A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised-regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised-regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

  14. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; de Jong, N; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Hendriksen, M; Hoekstra, J; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; van Leeuwen, F X R; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Rompelberg, C; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in food and nutrition is relatively new. It weighs the beneficial and adverse effects that a food (component) may have, in order to facilitate more informed management decisions regarding public health issues. It is rooted in the recognition that good food and nutrition can improve health and that some risk may be acceptable if benefit is expected to outweigh it. This paper presents an overview of current concepts and practices in benefit-risk analysis for food and nutrition. It aims to facilitate scientists and policy makers in performing, interpreting and evaluating benefit-risk assessments. Historically, the assessments of risks and benefits have been separate processes. Risk assessment is mainly addressed by toxicology, as demanded by regulation. It traditionally assumes that a maximum safe dose can be determined from experimental studies (usually in animals) and that applying appropriate uncertainty factors then defines the 'safe' intake for human populations. There is a minor role for other research traditions in risk assessment, such as epidemiology, which quantifies associations between determinants and health effects in humans. These effects can be both adverse and beneficial. Benefit assessment is newly developing in regulatory terms, but has been the subject of research for a long time within nutrition and epidemiology. The exact scope is yet to be defined. Reductions in risk can be termed benefits, but also states rising above 'the average health' are explored as benefits. In nutrition, current interest is in 'optimal' intake; from a population perspective, but also from a more individualised perspective. In current approaches to combine benefit and risk assessment, benefit assessment mirrors the traditional risk assessment paradigm of hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Benefit-risk comparison can be qualitative and quantitative. In a quantitative comparison, benefits

  15. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  16. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) Method for Fabricating Stiffened Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Marie L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Stoner, Mary Cecilia; Hehir, Austin R.

    2016-01-01

    Low Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and high levels of uncertainty make it challenging to develop cost estimates of new technologies in the R&D phase. It is however essential for NASA to understand the costs and benefits associated with novel concepts, in order to prioritize research investments and evaluate the potential for technology transfer and commercialization. This paper proposes a framework to perform a cost-benefit analysis of a technology in the R&D phase. This framework was developed and used to assess the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) manufacturing process for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. The ANNST method was compared with the conventional multi-piece metallic construction and composite processes for fabricating integrally stiffened cylinders. Following the definition of a case study for a cryogenic tank cylinder of specified geometry, data was gathered through interviews with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), with particular focus placed on production costs and process complexity. This data served as the basis to produce process flowcharts and timelines, mass estimates, and rough order-of-magnitude cost and schedule estimates. The scalability of the results was subsequently investigated to understand the variability of the results based on tank size. Lastly, once costs and benefits were identified, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to assess the relative value of these achieved benefits for potential stakeholders. These preliminary, rough order-of-magnitude results predict a 46 to 58 percent reduction in production costs and a 7-percent reduction in weight over the conventional metallic manufacturing technique used in this study for comparison. Compared to the composite manufacturing technique, these results predict cost savings of 35 to 58 percent; however, the ANNST concept was heavier. In this study, the predicted return on investment of equipment required for the ANNST method was ten cryogenic tank barrels

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report, the second in the series, analyzes historical benefits and impacts of all state RPS policies, in aggregate, employing a consistent and well-vetted set of methods and data sets. The analysis focuses on three specific benefits: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water use. It also analyzes three other impacts: gross job additions, wholesale electricity market price suppression, and natural gas price suppression. These are an important subset, but by no means a comprehensive set, of all possible effects associated with RPS policies. These benefits and impacts are also subject to many uncertainties, which are described and, to the extent possible, quantified within the report.

  19. Public versus Private Incentives to Invest in Green Roofs: A Cost Benefit Analysis for Flanders.

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Karla; Rousseau, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    By means of a cost benefit analysis, we compare public and private incentives to invest in extensive green roofs in urban areas. From the comparison of these public and private incentives we find that subsidies for green roofs are socially desirable and that subsidies are actually needed to convince potential private investors to construct green roofs. Specifically, we estimate the costs and benefits associated with an investment project in Groot-Bijgaarden (Belgium) where a real estate inves...

  20. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  1. Report to the Legislature on Scoliosis Screening Cost/Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    A report is given of an analysis of costs and benefits of scoliosis screening tests given to children in the 9th and 10th grades. For comparison, an analysis is included on the effectiveness of tests in grades 5 through 8. Information was collected on the number of children in the State of Washington who underwent either brace treatment or…

  2. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  3. Cost-benefit analysis in occupational health: A comparison of intervention scenarios for occupational asthma and rhinitis among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.; Koningsveld, E.; Warren, N.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Use of cost-benefit analysis in occupational health increases insight into the intervention strategy that maximises the cost-benefit ratio. This study presents a methodological framework identifying the most important elements of a cost-benefit analysis for occupational health settings.

  4. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  5. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  6. Compressed air energy storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Task 1: Establish facility design criteria and utility benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) stores mechanical energy in the form of compressed air during off-peak hours, using power supplied by a large, high efficiency baseload power plant. At times of high electrical demand, the compressed air is drawn from storage and is heated in a combustor by the burning of fuel oil, after which the air is expanded in a turbine. Essentially all of the turbine output can be applied to the generation of electricity, unlike a conventional gas turbine which expends approximately two-thirds of the turbine shaft power in driving the air compressor. The separation of the compression and generation modes in the system results in increased net generation and greater premium fuel economy. Work performed in establishing facility design criteria for a CAES system with aquifer storage includes: determination of initial design bases; preliminary analysis of the CAES system; development of data for site-specific analysis of the CAES system; detailed analysis of the CAES system for three selected heat cycles; CAES power plant design; and an economic analysis of CAES.

  7. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 1: establish facility design criteria and utility benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) has been identified as one of the principal new energy storage technologies worthy of further research and development. The CAES system stores mechanical energy in the form of compressed air during off-peak hours, using power supplied by a large, high-efficiency baseload power plant. At times of high electrical demand, the compressed air is drawn from storage and is heated in a combustor by the burning of fuel oil, after which the air is expanded in a turbine. In this manner, essentially all of the turbine output can be applied to the generation of electricity, unlike a conventional gas turbine which expends approximately two-thirds of the turbine shaft power in driving the air compressor. The separation of the compression and generation modes in the CAES system results in increased net generation and greater premium fuel economy. The use of CAES systems to meet the utilities' high electrical demand requirements is particularly attractive in view of the reduced availability of premium fuels such as oil and natural gas. This volume documents the Task 1 work performed in establishing facility design criteria for a CAES system with aquifer storage. Information is included on: determination of initial design bases; preliminary analysis of the CAES system; development of data for site-specific analysis of the CAES system; detailed analysis of the CAES system for three selected heat cycles; CAES power plant design; and an economic analysis of CAES.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Large Hadron Collider to 2025 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Massimo; Sirtori, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, including climate change. It is often argued that it is impossible to extend the CBA approach to the evaluation of the social impact of research infrastructures, because the final benefit to society of scientific discovery is generally unpredictable. Here, we propose a quantitative approach to this problem, we use it to design an empirically testable CBA model, and we apply it to the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the highest-energy accelerator in the world, currently operating at CERN. We show that the evaluation of benefits can be made quantitative by determining their value to users (scientists, early-stage researchers, firms, visitors) and non-users (the general public). Four classes of contributions to users are identified: knowledge output, human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Benefits for non-users can be ...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kesterson, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  10. Preliminary Coupling of MATRA Code for Multi-physics Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongjin; Choi, Jinyoung; Yang, Yongsik; Kwon, Hyouk; Hwang, Daehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The boundary conditions such as the inlet temperature, mass flux, averaged heat flux, power distributions of the rods, and core geometry is given by constant values or functions of time. These conditions are separately calculated and provided by other codes, such as a neutronics or a system codes, into the MATRA code. In addition, the coupling of several codes in the different physics field is focused and embodied. In this study, multiphysics coupling methods were developed for a subchannel code (MATRA) with neutronics codes (MASTER, DeCART) and a fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3). Preliminary evaluation results for representative sample cases are presented. The MASTER and DeCART codes provide the power distribution of the rods in the core to the MATRA code. In case of the FRAPCON-3 code, the variation of the rod diameter induced by the thermal expansion is yielded and provided. The MATRA code transfers the thermal-hydraulic conditions that each code needs. Moreover, the coupling method with each code is described.

  11. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  12. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general proc...

  13. Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 uncertainty analysis--Preliminary selection of uncertain parameters and analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Kalinich, Donald A.

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) plans to conduct uncertainty analyses (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) plant with the MELCOR code. The model to be used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, that study only examined a handful of various model inputs and boundary conditions, and the predictions yielded only fair agreement with plant data and current release estimates. The goal of this uncertainty study is to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core melt progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, vessel lower head failure, etc.). In preparation for the SNL Fukushima UA work, a scoping study has been completed to identify important core melt progression parameters for the uncertainty analysis. The study also lays out a preliminary UA methodology.

  14. Multiple account benefit-cost analysis: a practical guide for the systematic evaluation of project and policy alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    ... with a proposed project or action. By contrast, multiple account benefit-cost analysis recognizes that all values are complex and that not all consequences can be expressed in monetary terms or incorporated into one summary measure of net benefit...

  15. Decision curve analysis revisited: overall net benefit, relationships to ROC curve analysis, and application to case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumbrunn Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision curve analysis has been introduced as a method to evaluate prediction models in terms of their clinical consequences if used for a binary classification of subjects into a group who should and into a group who should not be treated. The key concept for this type of evaluation is the "net benefit", a concept borrowed from utility theory. Methods We recall the foundations of decision curve analysis and discuss some new aspects. First, we stress the formal distinction between the net benefit for the treated and for the untreated and define the concept of the "overall net benefit". Next, we revisit the important distinction between the concept of accuracy, as typically assessed using the Youden index and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and the concept of utility of a prediction model, as assessed using decision curve analysis. Finally, we provide an explicit implementation of decision curve analysis to be applied in the context of case-control studies. Results We show that the overall net benefit, which combines the net benefit for the treated and the untreated, is a natural alternative to the benefit achieved by a model, being invariant with respect to the coding of the outcome, and conveying a more comprehensive picture of the situation. Further, within the framework of decision curve analysis, we illustrate the important difference between the accuracy and the utility of a model, demonstrating how poor an accurate model may be in terms of its net benefit. Eventually, we expose that the application of decision curve analysis to case-control studies, where an accurate estimate of the true prevalence of a disease cannot be obtained from the data, is achieved with a few modifications to the original calculation procedure. Conclusions We present several interrelated extensions to decision curve analysis that will both facilitate its interpretation and broaden its potential area of application.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of a Novel SAR Based Emergency System for Earth Orbit Satellites using Galileo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, E.K.A.; Helderweirt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary analysis of a novel Search and Rescue (SAR) based emergency system for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites using the Galileo Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It starts with a description of the space user SAR system including a concept description, mission ar

  17. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

    2014-03-01

    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

  18. Social responsibility on risk assessment and cost/benefit analysis for new regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Risk assessment and cost benefit analysis is an important factor to be considered for new regulations. There are hazards which cause an adverse effect on human health, particularly in the occupational setting, Maintaining the right degree of concern and caution about health and safety is critical to the well-being of the workplace. Industry must guard against excessive reaction about unknown hazards. At the same time, it is to the benefit of industry that management and employees both learn everything they can about occupational health risks thereby performing a risk assessment. Furthermore, managers and employees must take necessary and reasonable precautions against risks associated with the workplace thereby conducting cost benefit analysis. Additionally, the US Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources must limit exposure of ``Working America`` to many toxicants (such as benzene, lead or asbestos) without panic or unnecessary constrictions in living. To take effective action requires sound risk assessment and cost benefit analysis of industry, society and law. A balance between the needs of the workforce versus the needs of management to protect the people from occupational hazards when preference is given to mandate specific workplace technology when faced with distorted market signals causing defective functioning of private job market. Public policy concerning workplace health and safety will make society better thus providing great social improvement. The key underlying issue is the analytic techniques, (risk assessment and cost benefit analysis), appropriate for evaluating social states before and after the enactment of alternative government policies. Social responsibility on risk assessment and cost benefit analysis for new regulations applies to everyone; particularly employees. Employees must be reminded there are ways to mobilize action.

  19. Preliminary analysis techniques for ring and stringer stiffened cylindrical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines methods of analysis for the buckling of thin-walled circumferentially and longitudinally stiffened cylindrical shells. Methods of analysis for the various failure modes are presented in one cohesive package. Where applicable, more than one method of analysis for a failure mode is presented along with standard practices. The results of this report are primarily intended for use in launch vehicle design in the elastic range. A Microsoft Excel worksheet with accompanying macros has been developed to automate the analysis procedures.

  20. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume I. Benefit--cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Section II follows a brief introduction and is entitled ''Benefit-Cost Analysis Framework.'' The analytical framework deals with two major steps involved in assessing the pros and cons of energy resource development (or any other type of development). The first is to identify and describe the overall tribal resource planning and decision process. The second is to develop a detailed methodological approach to the assessment of the benefits and costs of energy development alternatives within the context of the tribe's overall planning process. Sections III, IV, and V present the application of the benefit-cost analysis methodology to coal; oil and gas; and uranium, oil shale, and geothermal development, respectively. The methodology creates hypothetical examples that illustrate realistic development opportunities for the majority of tribes that have significant reserves of one or more of the resources that may be economic to develop.

  1. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Wei; Chun-Xia Yang; Si-Han Lu; Juan Yang; Bian-Yun Li; Shi-Yong Lian; You-Lin Qiao

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a program named “Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer”(EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dyspiasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from ¥2707 to ¥4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was ¥13 115-¥14 920. The cost benefit was ¥58 944-¥155 110 (the saved treatment cost, ¥17 730, plus the value of prolonged life,¥41 214-¥137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  3. Preliminary Design and Analysis of ITER In-Wall Shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Changle; YU Jie; WU Songtao; CAI Yingxiang; PAN Wanjiang

    2007-01-01

    ITER in-wall shielding (IIS) is situated between the doubled shells of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (IVV). Its main functions are applied in shielding neutron, gamma-ray and toroidal field ripple reduction. The structure of IIS has been modelled according to the IVV design criteria which has been updated by the ITER team (IT). Static analysis and thermal expansion analysis were performed for the structure. Thermal-hydraulic analysis verified the heat removal capability and resulting temperature, pressure, and velocity changes in the coolant flow. Consequently, our design work is possibly suitable as a reference for IT's updated or final design in its next step.

  4. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program (The Program). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE).

  5. First fungal genome sequence from Africa: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Sutherland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most significant breakthroughs in the biological sciences this century will emerge from the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The ease of availability of DNA sequence made possible through these new technologies has given researchers opportunities to study organisms in a manner that was not possible with Sanger sequencing. Scientists will, therefore, need to embrace genomics, as well as develop and nurture the human capacity to sequence genomes and utilise the ’tsunami‘ of data that emerge from genome sequencing. In response to these challenges, we sequenced the genome of Fusarium circinatum, a fungal pathogen of pine that causes pitch canker, a disease of great concern to the South African forestry industry. The sequencing work was conducted in South Africa, making F. circinatum the first eukaryotic organism for which the complete genome has been sequenced locally. Here we report on the process that was followed to sequence, assemble and perform a preliminary characterisation of the genome. Furthermore, details of the computer annotation and manual curation of this genome are presented. The F. circinatum genome was found to be nearly 44 million bases in size, which is similar to that of four other Fusarium genomes that have been sequenced elsewhere. The genome contains just over 15 000 open reading frames, which is less than that of the related species, Fusarium oxysporum, but more than that for Fusarium verticillioides. Amongst the various putative gene clusters identified in F. circinatum, those encoding the secondary metabolites fumosin and fusarin appeared to harbour evidence of gene translocation. It is anticipated that similar comparisons of other loci will provide insights into the genetic basis for pathogenicity of the pitch canker pathogen. Perhaps more importantly, this project has engaged a relatively large group of scientists

  6. Show me the money: cost-benefit analysis in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Charles; Dunn, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    During the last several decades, Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has become a widely used technique in public policy-making. This review examines CBA from perspectives of both advocates and critics; it looks at its theory and practice, its purported advantages and shortcomings in application. It also proposes several ways in which the process can be made more accountable.

  7. The Benefits of Relationship Lending in a Cross-Country Context : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kysucky (Vlado); L. Norden (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelationship lending helps reduce asymmetric information, which potentially creates benefits for borrowers. However, empirical evidence is mixed. We conduct a meta-analysis to summarize and explain the heterogeneity in the results in the literature using hand-collected information from 1

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN REALIZING AND APPLYING COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Andrei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analysis represents the most frequent technique used for a rational allocation of resources. This modality of evaluating the expenditure programs is an attempt to measure the costs and gains of a community as a result of running the evaluated

  9. A SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SMALL-SCALE CLAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SOCIAL COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A SMALL-SCALE CLAM FISHERY IN ... as well as damage the aesthetic and ecological attributes of the beach system, ... the highest NPV was obtained for the scenario in which total production was ...

  10. A stochastic multicriteria model for evidence-based decision making in drug benefit-risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, Tommi; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Buskens, Erik; Hillege, Hans L.; Postmus, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Drug benefit-risk (BR) analysis is based on firm clinical evidence regarding various safety and efficacy outcomes. In this paper, we propose a new and more formal approach for constructing a supporting multicriteria model that fully takes into account the evidence on efficacy and adverse drug reacti

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    technologies follow: 1. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) 2. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) – electrically regenerated active (ERADPF...insurmountable obstacles such as vessel range, engine room space, SLM, additional electric power, etc. Recommendations are developed on the basis of both...Cost-Benefit Analysis Methodology: Install Commercially Compliant Engines on National Security Exempted Vessels? Jonathan DeHart 1 (M

  12. Dancing on the Bottom Line: An Unruly Cost-Benefit Analysis of Three Academic Development Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article offers an unconventional cost-benefit analysis of three academic development initiatives at a large Australasian university: a three-day foundation course for new academics, a series of one-on-one teaching consultations and a two-year postgraduate certificate program. Weaving together qualitative, quantitative and arts-based…

  13. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  14. What Are University Instructors Paid For: An Analysis of Compensation and Benefits Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodina, N. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of criteria for the material incentive of university instructors. These results were obtained from the compensation and benefits policies of 70 educational institutions under the jurisdiction of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. Foreign researchers have shown that the appraisal systems used in…

  15. Cost benefit analysis of a transport improvement in the case of search unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Ninette; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of search unemployment for the evaluation of a transport investment in a conventional cost benefit analysis (CBA) assuming perfect competition. Lower transport costs induce search over a larger area and longer commuting distances. The expected duration of vacancies...

  16. The Benefits of Relationship Lending in a Cross-Country Context : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kysucky (Vlado); L. Norden (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelationship lending helps reduce asymmetric information, which potentially creates benefits for borrowers. However, empirical evidence is mixed. We conduct a meta-analysis to summarize and explain the heterogeneity in the results in the literature using hand-collected information from

  17. Real Cost-Benefit Analysis Is Needed in American Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2015-01-01

    Public school critics often point to rising expenditures and relatively flat test scores to justify their school reform agendas. The claims are flawed because their analyses fail to account for the difference in data types between dollars (ratio) and test scores (interval). A cost-benefit analysis using dollars as a common metric for both costs…

  18. A semi-quantitative approach to GMO risk-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Jane

    2011-10-01

    In many countries there are increasing calls for the benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to be considered as well as the risks, and for a risk-benefit analysis to form an integral part of GMO regulatory frameworks. This trend represents a shift away from the strict emphasis on risks, which is encapsulated in the Precautionary Principle that forms the basis for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and which is reflected in the national legislation of many countries. The introduction of risk-benefit analysis of GMOs would be facilitated if clear methodologies were available to support the analysis. Up to now, methodologies for risk-benefit analysis that would be applicable to the introduction of GMOs have not been well defined. This paper describes a relatively simple semi-quantitative methodology that could be easily applied as a decision support tool, giving particular consideration to the needs of regulators in developing countries where there are limited resources and experience. The application of the methodology is demonstrated using the release of an insect resistant maize variety in South Africa as a case study. The applicability of the method in the South African regulatory system is also discussed, as an example of what might be involved in introducing changes into an existing regulatory process.

  19. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

  20. Performance analysis tool (PATO): Development and preliminary validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Martins; Filipe Clemente; Frutuoso Silva

    2017-01-01

    .... The Performance Analysis Tool (PATO) software was built with the aim to quickly codify relationships between players and built the adjacency matrices that can be used to test the network measures...

  1. Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

    2007-03-01

    This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

  2. Integrated transcriptome and methylome analysis in youth at high risk for bipolar disorder: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, G R; Quevedo, J; Zeni, C P; Kazimi, I F; Zunta-Soares, G; Spiker, D E; Bowden, C L; Walss-Bass, C; Soares, J C

    2017-03-14

    First-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), particularly their offspring, have a higher risk of developing BD and other mental illnesses than the general population. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this increased risk are still unknown, particularly because most of the studies so far have been conducted in chronically ill adults and not in unaffected youth at high risk. In this preliminary study we analyzed genome-wide expression and methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children and adolescents from three matched groups: BD patients, unaffected offspring of bipolar parents (high risk) and controls (low risk). By integrating gene expression and DNA methylation and comparing the lists of differentially expressed genes and differentially methylated probes between groups, we were able to identify 43 risk genes that discriminate patients and high-risk youth from controls. Pathway analysis showed an enrichment of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway with the genes MED1, HSPA1L, GTF2A1 and TAF15, which might underlie the previously reported role of stress response in the risk for BD in vulnerable populations. Cell-based assays indicate a GR hyporesponsiveness in cells from adult BD patients compared to controls and suggest that these GR-related genes can be modulated by DNA methylation, which poses the theoretical possibility of manipulating their expression as a means to counteract the familial risk presented by those subjects. Although preliminary, our results suggest the utility of peripheral measures in the identification of biomarkers of risk in high-risk populations and further emphasize the potential role of stress and DNA methylation in the risk for BD in youth.

  3. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    if language is not an obvious distinctive competence, i.e. a strategic element to be incorporated into products so as to increase the penetration into the desired markets. For communicators it is clear that terminology work is useful and necessary - in this relation both quality and price would be clear...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  6. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  7. Estimation of benefits from demonstrating advanced wet/dry cooling technology: a framework and partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, J.W.; Foley, T.J.

    1977-09-01

    An analysis was performed to estimate reductions in future electric power generation costs expected to occur through a proposed 6- to 10-MWe demonstration of an ammonia (NH/sub 3/) cooling concept. Theoretical and empirical research on technological substitution and diffusion were reviewed in developing the analytical framework and computer model used in this analysis. Stochastic learning and market penetration functions were used to derive benefit distributions for two primary scenarios. The distributions provide not only single best estimates of the benefits, but measures of the uncertainty surrounding the estimates as well. The benefits were estimated by subtracting the net present value of expected future cooling costs if no demonstration were to take place from the net present value of expected future cooling costs if the demonstration did take place. If the public demonstration does not occur, two scenarios were hypothesized: ammonia cooling will never be commercialized; and ammonia cooling will be commercialized at a later date than if the demonstration had occurred. The analysis suggests that the benefits from a public investment in demonstration would probably exceed the estimated $10 million project cost.

  8. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of a Behavioral Classrooms Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McCray, Cynthia; Lamkins, Carol; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Cihon, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Today many special education classrooms implement procedures based upon the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to establish educationally relevant skills and decrease aberrant behaviors. However, it is difficult for school staff and consultants to evaluate the implementation of various components of ABA and general classroom set up. In…

  10. A Preliminary MANPRINT Evaluation of the All Source Analysis (ASAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Rear (CEWI) FSIC ............................ 2 CEWI ( TCAE ) AIM(6) ........................... 2 DTOC AIM(6...Sensors and the Ml Battalion TCAE ..... ............... . 13 2. Ratings of Understanding of Tasks Required at the Completion of Training and at the...for transmission to the sensors and jammers. CEWI Tactical Control and Analysis Element ( TCAE ) AIM(6) The AIM module consists of a VAX 750R computer

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the LHC to 2025 and beyond: Was it Worth it ?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects has been successfully applied in different fields such as transport, energy, health, education, and environment, climate change policy, but often considered impossible for research infrastructures because of the impredictable benefits of scientific discovery. We have designed a CBA model for large scale research infrastructures and applied it to the LHC. After estimating investment and operation costs spread over 30 years (to 2025), combining data from the CERN and the experiments, we evaluate the benefits of knowledge output (publications), human capital development, technological spillovers, and cultural effects. Additionally, willingness-to-pay for the pure value of discovery at the LHC by the general public is estimated through a survey of around 1,ooo respondendents in four countries. Setting to zero any until now unpredictable economic value of discovery of the Higgs boson (or of any new physics), we compute a probability distribution for the net present va...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  13. A method for the analysis of the benefits and costs for aeronautical research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Hoy, H. H.; Anderson, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A relatively simple, consistent, and reasonable methodology for performing cost-benefit analyses which can be used to guide, justify, and explain investments in aeronautical research and technology is presented. The elements of this methodology (labeled ABC-ART for the Analysis of the Benefits and Costs of Aeronautical Research and Technology) include estimation of aircraft markets; manufacturer costs and return on investment versus aircraft price; airline costs and return on investment versus aircraft price and passenger yield; and potential system benefits--fuel savings, cost savings, and noise reduction. The application of this methodology is explained using the introduction of an advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft in the medium range market in 1978 as an example.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of LWR components: areas of investigation/benefits/recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. J. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify specific topics of investigation into design procedures, design concepts, methods of analysis, testing practices, and standards which are characterized by nonlinear behavior (both geometric and material) and which are considered to offer some economic and/or technical benefits to the LWR industry (excluding piping). In this study these topics were collected, compiled, and subjectively evaluated as to their potential benefit. The topics considered to have the greatest benefit/impact potential are discussed. The topics of investigation were found to fall basically into three areas: component, code interpretation, and load/failure mechanism. The topics are arbitrarily reorganized into six areas of investigation: Fracture, Fatigue, Vibration/Dynamic/Seismic, Plasticity, Component/Computational Considerations, and Code Interpretation.

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Otolaryngology Emergency Room Using a Contingent Valuation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Kozin, Elliot D; Sethi, Rosh K; Ota, H Gregory; Gray, Stacey T; Shrime, Mark G

    2015-10-01

    Dedicated otolaryngology emergency rooms (ERs) provide a unique mechanism of health care delivery. Relative costs and willingness to pay (WTP) for these services have not been studied. This study aims to provide a cost-benefit analysis of otolaryngology-specific ER care. Cost-benefit analysis based on contingent valuation surveys. An otolaryngology-specific ER in a tertiary care academic medical center. Adult English-speaking patients presenting to an otolaryngology ER were included. WTP questions were used to assess patient valuations of specialty emergency care. Sociodemographic data, income, and self-reported levels of distress were assessed. State-level and institution-specific historical cost data were merged with WTP data within a cost-benefit analysis framework. The response rate was 75.6%, and 199 patients were included in the final analysis. Average WTP for otolaryngology ER services was $319 greater than for a general ER (95% CI: $261 to $377), with a median value of $200. The historical mean cost per visit at a general ER was $575, and mean cost at the specialty ER was $551 (95% CI: $529 to $574). Subtracting incremental cost from incremental WTP yielded a net benefit of $343. Dedicated otolaryngology ER services are valued by patients for acute otolaryngologic problems and have a net benefit of $343 per patient visit. They appear to be a cost-beneficial method for addressing acute otolaryngologic conditions. This study has implications for ER-based otolaryngologic care and direct-to-specialist services. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of electronic medical records in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Samuel J; Middleton, Blackford; Prosser, Lisa A; Bardon, Christiana G; Spurr, Cynthia D; Carchidi, Patricia J; Kittler, Anne F; Goldszer, Robert C; Fairchild, David G; Sussman, Andrew J; Kuperman, Gilad J; Bates, David W

    2003-04-01

    Electronic medical record systems improve the quality of patient care and decrease medical errors, but their financial effects have not been as well documented. The purpose of this study was to estimate the net financial benefit or cost of implementing electronic medical record systems in primary care. We performed a cost-benefit study to analyze the financial effects of electronic medical record systems in ambulatory primary care settings from the perspective of the health care organization. Data were obtained from studies at our institution and from the published literature. The reference strategy for comparisons was the traditional paper-based medical record. The primary outcome measure was the net financial benefit or cost per primary care physician for a 5-year period. The estimated net benefit from using an electronic medical record for a 5-year period was 86,400 US dollars per provider. Benefits accrue primarily from savings in drug expenditures, improved utilization of radiology tests, better capture of charges, and decreased billing errors. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the model was most sensitive to the proportion of patients whose care was capitated; the net benefit varied from a low of 8400 US dollars to a high of 140,100 US dollars . A five-way sensitivity analysis with the most pessimistic and optimistic assumptions showed results ranging from a 2300 US dollars net cost to a 330,900 US dollars net benefit. Implementation of an electronic medical record system in primary care can result in a positive financial return on investment to the health care organization. The magnitude of the return is sensitive to several key factors. Copyright 2003 by Excerpta Medica Inc.

  17. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  18. Preliminary shielding analysis for the CSNS target station monolith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 陈义学; 杨寿海; 吴军; 殷雯; 梁天骄; 贾学军

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated at Dongguan,Guangdong,China.In spallation neutron sources the target station monolith is contaminated by a large number of fast neutrons whose energies can be as large as those of the protons of the proton beam directed towards the tungsten target.A detailed radiation transport analysis of the target station monolith is important for the construction of the CSNS.The analysis is performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method.Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and first collision source methodology is also illustrated.The dose at the edge of the monolith is calculated.The results demonstrate that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the required standard limit.

  19. [Multilevel Analysis in Health Services Research in Healthcare Organizations: Benefits, Requirements and Implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, L; Kuhr, K; Kowalski, C

    2017-03-01

    Multilevel Analysis (MLA) are still rarely used in Health Services Research in Germany, though hierarchical data, e. g. from patients clustered in hospitals, is often present. MLA provide the valuable opportunity to study the health care context in health care organizations and the associations between context and health care outcomes. This article's aims are to introduce this particular method of data analysis, to discuss its' benefits and its' applicability particularly for Health Services Research focusing on organizational characteristics and to provide a concise guideline for performing the analysis. First, the benefits and the necessity for MLA compared to ordinary correlation analyses in the case of hierarchical data are discussed. Furthermore, the statistical requirements and key decisions for the performance of MLA are illustrated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Robust Approach to Analysis of International Diversification Benefits between US, UK and Emerging Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yorulmaz

    Full Text Available As is known skewness and outliers are frequently observed in return series, overlooking both concepts during the statistical analysis may cause misleading interpretations. In this paper similar movements of stock markets through the returns of developed and emerging stock markets are recognized and appealing portfolio diversification benefits are identified for investors of USA, UK and Turkey. Different from the previous studies, modified robust principal component analysis which considers skewness and outliers effects was used to investigate the best portfolio diversification. Sixteen stock markets are represented with five components according to findings obtained from analysis. Hence Egyptian, Hungarian, Polish, Thai and Indonesian stock markets provide appealing portfolio diversification opportunities for investors of Turkey. And for the investors of USA and UK, selected emerging markets except Mexican and Turkish offer good diversification benefit.

  1. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper proposes a methodology that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessment. The methodology proposed combines conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) with multi-criteria analysis (MCA). The CBA methodology, based on welfare theory, assures that the project with the highest welfare...... down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper...... different methods for combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are examined and compared and a software system is presented. The software system gives the decision makers some possibilities regarding preference analysis, sensitivity and risk analysis. The aim of the software...

  2. An Analysis of the Use of Biosludge as an Energy Source and Its Environmental Benefits in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of energy utilization from biological wastewater treatment sludge (biosludge in Taiwan, a densely populated country (estimate 640 persons/km2 with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation and its management in the years 2004–2010. Findings showed that the main types of combustible waste (i.e., biosludge produced by the industrial and agricultural sectors of Taiwan included food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge and agricultural sludge which may be reused as auxiliary fuel in the utilities (e.g., generator, boiler and incinerator. Furthermore, two conceptual biosludge-to-energy systems have been addressed with regard to the thermochemical conversion processes. One is to adopt direct combustion for power generation in the combined heat and power system. Another system uses pyrolysis and gasification for producing biochar (solid fuel, bio-oil (liquid fuel and syngas (gas fuel. Based on their thermochemical properties and reported generation quantities, the energy potential and the environmental benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions were also analyzed in the study, showing around 1.1 × 103 TJ/year and 57 Gg CO2/year, respectively.

  3. Preliminary analysis of productivity of fruiting fungi on Strzeleckie meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis demonstrated that the fresh ahd dry weight as well as the ash content of fungal fruit bodies collected on a forest-surrounded unmown meadow (Stellario-Deschampsietum Freitag 1957 and Caricetum elatae W.Koch 1926 were lower than the same values for a plot of exploited mown meadow and higher than on an exploited unmown meadow (Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum (Br.-Bl. Oberd. 1952.

  4. A retrospective benefit-cost analysis of the 1997 stair-fall requirements for baby walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Gregory B; Leland, Elizabeth W

    2008-01-01

    Based on estimates from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), there were about 25,000 baby walker-related injuries treated annually in U.S. hospital emergency departments during the early 1990s. This amounted to about 8 injuries for every 1000 baby walkers in use. Most injuries resulted from falls down stairs. After CPSC initiated a regulatory proceeding in 1994, the CPSC staff worked with industry to address the stair-fall hazard. This cooperative effort resulted in requirements designed to prevent stair-fall injuries that became effective in 1997 as part of a revised voluntary safety standard. This study presents a retrospective benefit-cost analysis of the 1997 stair-fall requirements. The benefits were defined as the reduction in the costs of injuries resulting from the use of the safer walkers. The costs were defined as the additional resource costs associated with making baby walkers safer. The study found that the stair-fall requirements were highly effective in reducing the risk of stair-fall injury, and that the benefits of the requirements substantially exceeded the costs. The expected net benefits (i.e., benefits minus costs) amounted to an average of about $169 per walker, over the walker's expected product life. Given current U.S. sales of about 600,000 baby walkers annually, the present value of the expected net benefits associated with 1 year's production amounts to over $100 million annually. A sensitivity analysis showed that the major findings were robust with respect to variations in underlying assumptions.

  5. Preliminary analysis of knee stress in Full Extension Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Davoodi Makinejad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height. METHODS: The impact time and loads were measured via inverse dynamic analysis of free landing without knee flexion from three different heights (25, 50 and 75 cm, using five subjects with an average body mass index of 18.8. Three-dimensional data were developed from computed tomography scans and were reprocessed with modeling software before being imported and analyzed by finite element analysis software. The whole leg was considered to be a fixed middle-hinged structure, while impact loads were applied to the femur in an upward direction. RESULTS: Straight landing exerted an enormous amount of pressure on the knee joint as a result of the body's inability to utilize the lower extremity muscles, thereby maximizing the threat of injury when the load exceeds the height-safety threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers conclude that extended-knee landing results in serious deformation of the meniscus and cartilage and increases the risk of bone-to-bone contact and serious knee injury when the load exceeds the threshold safety height. This risk is considerably greater than the risk of injury associated with walking downhill or flexion landing activities.

  6. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  7. Quantifying co-benefits of source-specific CO2 emission reductions in Canada and the US: An adjoint sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Soltanzadeh, M.; Pappin, A. J.; Hakami, A.; Turner, M. D.; Capps, S.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Bash, J. O.; Napelenok, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.; Baek, J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Stanier, C. O.; Chai, T.; Byun, D.; Fahey, K.; Resler, J.; Mashayekhi, R.

    2016-12-01

    Scenario-based studies evaluate air quality co-benefits by adopting collective measures introduced under a climate policy scenario cannot distinguish between benefits accrued from CO2 reductions among sources of different types and at different locations. Location and sector dependencies are important factors that can be captured in an adjoint-based analysis of CO2 reduction co-benefits. The present study aims to quantify how the ancillary benefits of reducing criteria co-pollutants vary spatially and by sector. The adjoint of USEPA's CMAQ was applied to quantify the health benefits associated with emission reduction of criteria pollutants (NOX) in on-road mobile, Electric Generation Units (EGUs), and other select sectors on a location-by-location basis across the US and Canada. These health benefits are then converted to CO2 emission reduction co-benefits by accounting for source-specific emission rates of criteria pollutants in comparison to CO2. We integrate the results from the adjoint of CMAQ with emission estimates from 2011 NEI at the county level, and point source data from EPA's Air Markets Program Data and National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for Canada. Our preliminary results show that the monetized health benefits (due to averted chronic mortality) associated with reductions of 1 ton of CO2 emissions is up to 65/ton in Canada and 200/ton in US for mobile on-road sector. For EGU sources, co-benefits are estimated at up to 100/ton and 10/ton for the US and Canada respectively. For Canada, the calculated co-benefits through gaseous pollutants including NOx is larger than those through PM2.5 due to the official association between NO2 exposure and chronic mortality. Calculated co-benefits show a great deal of spatial variability across emission locations for different sectors and sub-sectors. Implications of such spatial variability in devising control policy options that effectively address both climate and air quality objectives will be discussed.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial genome evolutionary pattern in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Xingtao ZHANG; Xingkui TAO; Weiwei WANG; Ming LI

    2012-01-01

    Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis,primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features.Surprisingly,to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates.Here,we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank.The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons.Likewise,an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes.Within 13 protein-coding genes,the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence,while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes,indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites.Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes,and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias.Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene,consistent with near neutrality.Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species.Thus,with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes,evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial genome evolutionary pattern in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Xingtao; Tao, Xingkui; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis, primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features. Surprisingly, to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank. The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons. Likewise, an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes. Within 13 protein-coding genes, the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence, while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes, indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites. Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes, and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias. Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene, consistent with near neutrality. Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species. Thus, with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes, evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.

  10. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. B.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Ha, K. S.; Jeong, H. Y.; Heo, S

    2004-03-01

    KAERI is developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER-600 (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER-600 addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER-600 safety analysis are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER-600 conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER-600 core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER-600 system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In Chapter 4, the analysis of flow blockage for KALIMER-600 with the MATRA-LMR-FB code, which has been developed for the internal flow blockage in a LMR subassembly. The cases with a blockage of 6-subchannel, 24-subchannel, and 54-subchannel are analyzed.The performance analysis of the KALIMER-600 containment and some evaluations for the behaviors during HCDA will be performed later.

  11. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, D. H.; Kwon, Y. M.; Chang, W. P.; Suk, S. D.; Lee, S. O.; Lee, Y. B.; Jeong, K. S

    2000-07-01

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER(Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) under the long-term nuclear R and D program. In this report, descriptions of the KALIMER safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure design performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram(ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as bounding events(BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analysis are presented. The designs of the existing LMR containment and the KALIMER containment dome have been compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core kinetics and hydraulic behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Mathematical formulations have been developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method, and scoping analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions.

  12. Preliminary RAMI analysis of DFLL TBS for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dagui [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Yuan, Run [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wang, Jiaqun, E-mail: jiaqun.wang@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Wang, Fang; Wang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We performed the functional analysis of the DFLL TBS. • We performed a failure mode analysis of the DFLL TBS. • We estimated the reliability and availability of the DFLL TBS. • The ITER RAMI approach was applied to the DFLL TBS for technical risk control in the design phase. - Abstract: ITER is the first fusion machine fully designed to prove the physics and technological basis for next fusion power plants. Among the main technical objectives of ITER is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to the fusion power plants. To achieve this goal, China has proposed the dual functional lithium-lead test blanket module (DFLL TBM) concept design. The DFLL TBM and its associated ancillary system were called DFLL TBS. The DFLL TBS play a key role in next fusion reactor. In order to ensure reliable and available of DFLL TBS, the risk control project of DFLL TBS has been put on the schedule. As the stage of the ITER technical risk control policy, the RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Inspectability) approach was used to control the technical risk of ITER. In this paper, the RAMI approach was performed on the conceptual design of DFLL TBS. A functional breakdown was prepared on DFLL TBS, and the system was divided into 3 main functions and 72 basic functions. Based on the result of functional breakdown of DFLL TBS, the reliability block diagrams were prepared to estimate the reliability and availability of each function under the stipulated operating conditions. The inherent availability of the DFLL TBS expected after implementation of mitigation actions was calculated to be 98.57% over 2 years based on the ITER reliability database. A Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) was performed with criticality charts highlighting the risk level of the different failure modes with regard to their probability of occurrence and their effects on the availability.

  13. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Time Series Data (STATS). Users Manual (Preliminary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    15, 30. 60, 90, 120, andL -!/14:X.... 183 days are presently used. auto Page 1 of 10 wrpy *VtsE0> J1 record (continued) Field Variab Vlue D 2 NPRDS ...each event. 6 JEND + Order number of last period in time series to ( NPRDS ) select for analysis. If blank, the last period is assumed. 7 JPPF Plotting...values. 2 NPRDS + Actual number of periods for the event following on ’INO records until the next ID, BF, or LI record. IN record - T:E SERIES DATA

  15. A Preliminary Genetic Analysis of Complement 3 Gene and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianliang Ni

    Full Text Available Complement pathway activation was found to occur frequently in schizophrenia, and complement 3 (C3 plays a major role in this process. Previous studies have provided evidence for the possible role of C3 in the development of schizophrenia. In this study, we hypothesized that the gene encoding C3 (C3 may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese. We analyzed 7 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of C3 in 647 schizophrenia patients and 687 healthy controls. Peripheral C3 mRNA expression level was measured in 23 drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 24 controls. Two SNPs (rs1047286 and rs2250656 that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were excluded for further analysis. Among the remaining 5 SNPs, there was no significant difference in allele and genotype frequencies between the patient and control groups. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant SNP-gender interaction in either dominant model or recessive model. There was no significant difference in the level of peripheral C3 expression between the drug-naïve schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, the results of this study do not support C3 as a major genetic susceptibility factor in schizophrenia. Other factors in AP may have critical roles in schizophrenia and be worthy of further investigation.

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for a Quinquennial Census: The 2016 Population Census of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Bruce D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether to carry out a quinquennial Census is faced by national statistical offices in increasingly many countries, including Canada, Nigeria, Ireland, Australia, and South Africa. We describe uses and limitations of cost-benefit analysis in this decision problem in the case of the 2016 Census of South Africa. The government of South Africa needed to decide whether to conduct a 2016 Census or to rely on increasingly inaccurate postcensal estimates accounting for births, deaths, and migration since the previous (2011 Census. The cost-benefit analysis compared predicted costs of the 2016 Census to the benefits of improved allocation of intergovernmental revenue, which was considered by the government to be a critical use of the 2016 Census, although not the only important benefit. Without the 2016 Census, allocations would be based on population estimates. Accuracy of the postcensal estimates was estimated from the performance of past estimates, and the hypothetical expected reduction in errors in allocation due to the 2016 Census was estimated. A loss function was introduced to quantify the improvement in allocation. With this evidence, the government was able to decide not to conduct the 2016 Census, but instead to improve data and capacity for producing post-censal estimates.

  17. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  18. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Support Program for Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Wu, Albert W; Connors, Cheryl; Chappidi, Meera R; Sreedhara, Sushama K; Selter, Jessica H; Padula, William V

    2017-04-27

    A peer-support program called Resilience In Stressful Events (RISE) was designed to help hospital staff cope with stressful patient-related events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the RISE program by conducting an economic evaluation of its cost benefit. A Markov model with a 1-year time horizon was developed to compare the cost benefit with and without the RISE program from a provider (hospital) perspective. Nursing staff who used the RISE program between 2015 and 2016 at a 1000-bed, private hospital in the United States were included in the analysis. The cost of running the RISE program, nurse turnover, and nurse time off were modeled. Data on costs were obtained from literature review and hospital data. Probabilities of quitting or taking time off with or without the RISE program were estimated using survey data. Net monetary benefit (NMB) and budget impact of having the RISE program were computed to determine cost benefit to the hospital. Expected model results of the RISE program found a net monetary benefit savings of US $22,576.05 per nurse who initiated a RISE call. These savings were determined to be 99.9% consistent on the basis of a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The budget impact analysis revealed that a hospital could save US $1.81 million each year because of the RISE program. The RISE program resulted in substantial cost savings to the hospital. Hospitals should be encouraged by these findings to implement institution-wide support programs for medical staff, based on a high demand for this type of service and the potential for cost savings.

  19. Preliminary Rock Physics Analysis on Lodgepole Formation in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Keehm, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We present rock physics analysis results of Lodgepole Formation, a carbonate reservoir in Daly Field, Manitoba, Canada. We confirmed that the Lodgepole Formation can be divided into six units in the study area: Basal Limestone, Cromer Shale, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Cruickshank Shale, Daly member and Flossie Lake member from the bottom, using eight well log data and previous works. We then performed rock physics analyses on four carbonate units (Basal Limestone, Cruickshank Crinoidal, Daly and Flossie Lake), such as Vp-porosity, AI-porosity, DEM (differential effective medium) modeling, and fluid substitution analysis. In Vp-porosity domain, the top unit, Flossie Lake member has lower porosity and higher velocity, while the other units show similar porosity and velocity. We think that this results from the diagenesis of Flossie Lake member since it bounds with unconformity. However, the four units show very similar trend in Vp-porosity domain, and we can report one Vp-porosity relation for all carbonate units of the Lodgepole formation. We also found that the acoustic impedance varies more than 10% from low porosity zone (3-6%) to high porosity zone (9-12%) from AI-porosity analysis. Thus one can delineate high porosity zone from seismic impedance data. DEM modeling showed that Flossie Lake would have relatively low aspect ratio of pores than the others, which implies that the top unit has been influenced by diagenesis. To determine fluid sensitivity of carbonate units, we conducted fluid substitution on four units from 100% water to 100% oil. The top unit, Flossie Lake, showed slight increase of Vp, which seems to be density effect. The others showed small decrease of Vp, but not significant. If we observe Vp/Vs rather than Vp, the sensitivity increases. However, fluid discrimination would be difficult because of high stiffness of rock frame. In summary, three lower carbonate units of Lodgepole Formation would be prospective and high porosity zone can be delineated

  20. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  1. A Cost-benefit Analysis of a Proposed Immigrant Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening Program for Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Savvas; Talias, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The study explored the potential economic benefit of an expanded screening program of immigrants before entrance to Cyprus as a policy to reduce the overall cost of tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the aim of this study is to study whether screening all immigrants coming from countries (including European Union countries) with high incidence of tuberculosis would be in the economic interest of the Republic of Cyprus or not. Methods: In order to assess whether it could be economically beneficial for Cyprus to expand the screening checks for TB to all immigrants coming from high prevalence countries, a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) was employed, and the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project was calculated. In order to assess for uncertainty, sensitivity analysis using different scenarios, was conducted. Results: The analysis has a fifteen year length of implementation period and the base year (Year 0) was 2011. The NPV was estimated at €3,188,653 which is greater than zero; therefore, the expansion of screening diagnostic tests for TB to European citizens coming from countries with high prevalence of TB will have a significant benefit to the Cypriot economy and society. This result is also supported by the fact that all “what-if scenarios” of the sensitivity analysis yielded a positive NPV. Conclusion: Our study concludes that testing all immigrants, including immigrants from high prevalence European countries that are not currently tested for TB, would be a cost-saving strategy to reduce the cost of treating TB in Cyprus. PMID:28144201

  2. Brain hemisphere dominance and vocational preference: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Pearson, L Carolyn; Burgin, John S; Murray, Gerald C; Elrod, Lisa Marie

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in split-brain theory add support to the concept of specialization within brain hemispheres. Holland's vocational personality theory may overlap with Human Information Processing (HIP) characteristics. Holland's six RIASEC codes were developed to identify vocational personality characteristics, and HIP scales were designed to measure hemispheric laterality. Relationships between the two scales were evaluated through canonical correlation with some significant results, however not all Holland scale scores correlated with left, right, or integrated hemispheric preference. Additional findings related to participants self-perception of music and math ability were also correlated. Findings on this added analysis revealed a high correlation between perception of musical ability and right brain function but not between mathematical concept and left brain alone. Implications regarding vocational choice and work are discussed.

  3. City of Hoboken Energy Surety Analysis: Preliminary Design Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military and Energy Systems Analysis Dept.; Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military and Energy Systems Analysis Dept.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military and Energy Systems Analysis Dept.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Military and Energy Systems Analysis Dept.; Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Readiness and Sustainment Technology Dept.; Smith, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Readiness and Sustainment Technology Dept.; Guttromson, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research Dept.; Henry, Jordan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Critical Infrastructure Systems Dept.; Jensen, Richard Pearson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated much of the U.S. northeast coastal areas. Among those hardest hit was the small community of Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the banks of the Hudson River across from Manhattan. This report describes a city-wide electrical infrastructure design that uses microgrids and other infrastructure to ensure the city retains functionality should such an event occur in the future. The designs ensure that up to 55 critical buildings will retain power during blackout or flooded conditions and include analysis for microgrid architectures, performance parameters, system control, renewable energy integration, and financial opportunities (while grid connected). The results presented here are not binding and are subject to change based on input from the Hoboken stakeholders, the integrator selected to manage and implement the microgrid, or other subject matter experts during the detailed (final) phase of the design effort.

  4. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, C; Jiménez, M; Olea-Serrano, M F; Moreno-Frías, M; Cañabate, F; Olea, N; Bayés, R; Molina-Font, J A

    2001-11-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heat transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.

  6. Preliminary analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteome in patients with neurocysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-jun; LI Jing-yi; HUANG Yong; XUE Yan-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is the infection of the nervous system by the larvae of Taenia solium (T. solium). Despite continuous effort, the experimental diagnosis of neurocysticercosis remains unresolved. Since the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contacts with the brain, dynamic information about pathological processes of the brain is likely to be reflected in CSF. Therefore, CSF may serve as a rich source of putative biomarkers related to neurocysticercosis. Comparative proteomic analysis of CSF of neurocysticercosis patients and control subjects may find differentially expressed proteins. Methods Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to investigate differentially expressed proteins in CSF of patients with neurocysticercosis by comparing the protein profile of CSF from neurocysticercosis patients with that from control subjects. The differentially expressed spots/proteins were recognized with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry. Results Forty-four enzyme digested peptides were obtained from 4 neurocysticercotic patients. Twenty-three were identified through search of the NCBI protein database with Mascot software, showing 19 up-expressed and 4 down-expressed. Of these proteins, 26S proteosome related to ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins and lipocalin type prostaglandin D synthase involved in PGD2-synthesis and extracellular transporter activities were up-expressed, while transferrin related to iron metabolism within the brain was down-expressed. Conclusions This study established the proteomic profile of pooled CSF from 4 patients with neurocysticercosis, suggesting the potential value of proteomic analysis for the study of candidate biomarkers involved in the diagnosis or pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis.

  7. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  8. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the use of smartwatches for longitudinal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil

    2015-08-01

    New generations of smartwatches feature continuous measurement of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin resistance (GSR), and temperature. In this paper we present the results of preliminary analysis of the use of Basis Peak smartwatch for longitudinal health monitoring during a 4 month period. Physiological measurements during sleep are validated using Zephyr Bioharness 3 monitor and SOMNOscreen+ polysomnographic monitoring system from SOMNOmedics. Average duration of sequences with no missed data was 49.9 minutes, with maximum length of 17 hours, and they represent 88.88% of recording time. Average duration of the charging event was 221.9 min, and average time between charges was 54 hours, with maximum duration of the charging event of 16.3 hours. Preliminary results indicate that the physiological monitoring performance of existing smartwatches provides sufficient performance for longitudinal monitoring of health status and analysis of health and wellness trends.

  10. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  11. Estimating genetic benefits of polyandry from experimental studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Rachel A; Mautz, Brian S; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Jennions, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of polyandry for female fitness are controversial. Sexual conflict studies and a meta-analysis of mating rates in insects suggest that there is a longevity cost when females mate repeatedly. Even so, compensatory material benefits can elevate egg production and fertility, partly because polyandry ensures an adequate sperm supply. Polyandry can therefore confer direct benefits. The main controversy surrounds genetic benefits. The argument is analogous to that surrounding the evolution of conventional female mate choice, except that with polyandry it is post-copulatory mechanisms that might bias paternity towards males with higher breeding values for fitness. Recent meta-analyses of extra-pair copulations in birds have cast doubt on whether detectable genetic benefits exist. By contrast, another meta-analysis showed that polyandry elevates egg hatching success (possibly due to a fertilization bias towards sperm with paternal genes that elevate embryo survival) in insects. A detailed summary of whether polyandry elevates other components of offspring performance is lacking. Here we present a comprehensive meta-analysis of 232 effect sizes from 46 experimental studies. These experiments were specifically designed to try to quantify the potential genetic benefits of polyandry by controlling fully for the number of matings by females assigned to monandry and polyandry treatments. The bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals for egg hatching success (d = -0.01 to 0.61), clutch production (d = 0.07 to 0.45) and fertility (d = 0.04 to 0.40) all suggest that polyandry has a beneficial effect (although P values from parametric tests were marginally non-significant at P = 0.075, 0.052 and 0.058, respectively). Polyandry was not significantly beneficial for any single offspring performance trait (e.g. growth rate, survival, adult size), but the test power was low due to small sample sizes (suggesting that many more studies are still needed). We then calculated a

  12. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation

  13. Sammon mapping for preliminary analysis in Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae APOSTOLESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present the implementation of the Sammon algorithm developed for finding N points in a lower m-dimensional subspace, where the original points are from a high n-dimensional space. This mapping is done so interpoints Euclidian distances in m-space correspond to the distances measured in the n-dimensional space. This method known as non-linear projection method or multidimensional scaling (MDS aims to preserve the global properties of points. The method is based on the idea of transforming the original, n-dimensional input space into a reduced, m-dimensional one, where mAnalysis (PCA may be applied as a pre-processing procedure for starting, in order to obtain the N points in the lower subspace. The algorithm was tested on hyperspectral data with spectra of various lengths. Depending of the size of the input data (number of points, the number of learning iterations and computational facilities available, Sammon mapping might be computationally expensive.

  14. A simplified procedure of linear regression in a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Facchinetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a statistical large data-set can be led by the study of a particularly interesting variable Y – regressed – and an explicative variable X, chosen among the remained variables, conjointly observed. The study gives a simplified procedure to obtain the functional link of the variables y=y(x by a partition of the data-set into m subsets, in which the observations are synthesized by location indices (mean or median of X and Y. Polynomial models for y(x of order r are considered to verify the characteristics of the given procedure, in particular we assume r= 1 and 2. The distributions of the parameter estimators are obtained by simulation, when the fitting is done for m= r + 1. Comparisons of the results, in terms of distribution and efficiency, are made with the results obtained by the ordinary least square methods. The study also gives some considerations on the consistency of the estimated parameters obtained by the given procedure.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  16. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  17. A Benefit-Risk Analysis Approach to Capture Regulatory Decision-Making: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G K; Gurumurthi, K; Domike, R; Kazandjian, D; Blumenthal, G; Pazdur, R; Woodcock, J

    2016-12-01

    Drug regulators around the world make decisions about drug approvability based on qualitative benefit-risk analyses. There is much interest in quantifying regulatory approaches to benefit and risk. In this work the use of a quantitative benefit-risk analysis was applied to regulatory decision-making about new drugs to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Benefits and risks associated with 20 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decisions associated with a set of candidate treatments submitted between 2003 and 2015 were analyzed. For benefit analysis, the median overall survival (OS) was used where available. When not available, OS was estimated based on overall response rate (ORR) or progression-free survival (PFS). Risks were analyzed based on magnitude (or severity) of harm and likelihood of occurrence. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was explored to demonstrate analysis of systematic uncertainty. FDA approval decision outcomes considered were found to be consistent with the benefit-risk logic.

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  19. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  20. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  1. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  2. Economic valuation through cost-benefit analysis--possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansjürgens, Bernd

    2004-12-15

    The economic approach used to evaluate effects on human health and the environment centres around cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Thus, for most economists, economic valuation and CBA are one and the same. However, the question of the possibilities and limitations of cost-benefit analysis is one of the most controversial aspects of environmental research. In this paper, the possibilities and limitations of CBA are analysed. This is done not only by explaining the central elements of CBA, but also by commenting on criticism of it. What becomes clear is that CBA is not only a mere mechanism of monetarisation, but a heuristic model for the whole process of valuation. It can serve as a guideline for collecting the necessary data in a systematic way. The limits of CBA can be mainly seen in the non-substitutability of essential goods, irreversibility, long-term effects and inter-generational fairness.

  3. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    -term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new....... Additionally, they can significantly modify the weight of the different components of the overall project costs – evidently becoming a significant part of the estimated construction cost. Therefore, the suggested approach guarantees a higher quality of information thus providing decision makers with a more......Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long...

  4. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Young Tae

    2013-09-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy would have benefits for the disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Electronic searches for studies of adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer patients between March 1971 and March 2012 were made on MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane library. Articles with more than 4 stars on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale or a score of more than 4 on the modified Jadad scale were included. A meta-analysis was performed, and pooled hazard ratios (HR) of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients whose adjuvant chemotherapy was combined with radiotherapy (the CTx+RTx group) and patients with adjuvant radiotherapy only (the RTx group) were derived from the fixed effect model or random effect model. Three observational studies and 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the final analysis. Subgroup analysis for FIGO stage showed that the CTx+RTx group had a more significant survival benefit compared to that of the RTx group in advanced stage endometrial cancer (OS HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36-0.80; PFS HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.77), but no significant benefit in early stage endometrial cancer (OS HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.32; PFS HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.39-2.58). This meta-analysis suggests that adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy could probably reduce disease progression and overall death in patients with advanced-stage disease. In order to examine whether the multimodal treatment has benefit in high-risk endometrial cancer, we need further large-scale RCTs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Military and Veterans’ Benefits: Analysis of VA Compensation Levels for Survivors of Veterans and Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    pensions , and life insurance. Lastly, GAO interviewed officials from VA and groups representing veterans, servicemembers, and their survivors. GAO is...in our analysis other sources of income survivors may receive, such as Social Security, private pensions , or life insurance. For additional context...with survivors receiving a percentage of the employee’s calculated retirement annuity .31 FERS offers similar survivor benefits, but the maximum is 50

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the root of the plant. The shed dried materials were grinded and used in the study. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the root was used. The extract was prepared by standard protocol. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, resins, saponin, flavonoid, alkaloids, steroids and phenol. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 3000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus we can conclude that, the root of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of using natural gas in vehicles of the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.; Trinidad-Garcia, H.G.; Diaz, L.; Perdomo, V.; Castillo, H.; Schifter, I. [Istituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) authorities the transport sector causes 75% of total pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, that is why to mitigate pollution several programs focus on reducing emissions from mobile sources, one of these programs promotes the use of Natural Gas (NG) in vehicles of the MCMA instead of gasoline or diesel. This work shows the cost-benefit analysis results of this program. The analysis considered the period 1999-2014. Projections for the MCMA vehicular fleet, and for the type and number of vehicles that would switch from gasoline or diesel to NG were made. To obtain the change in exhaust emissions, measurements were performed using the U. S. Federal Test Procedure 75 in vehicles consuming gasoline and NG Vehicle conversion, conversion shops, and gas station costs were considered in the analysis The estimated benefits stemmed from fuel price and efficiency differential, vehicle taxes, maintenance costs, and pollutant emission reductions. The Benefit/Cost ratio found was 3.79, and the vehicles suggested for conversion were those of intensive use circulating exclusively in the MCMA. Even though ozone formation simulations were done using the CIT trajectory model, the changes in ozone concentrations observed were smaller than the model resolution, mainly because the change in ozone precursors due to the fuel change in some of the MCMA vehicles, was less than 1% of total emissions. (authors)

  9. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  10. Using discrete choice experiments within a cost-benefit analysis framework: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Emma

    2006-01-01

    A great advantage of the stated preference discrete choice experiment (SPDCE) approach to economic evaluation methodology is its immense flexibility within applied cost-benefit analyses (CBAs). However, while the use of SPDCEs in healthcare has increased markedly in recent years there has been a distinct lack of equivalent CBAs in healthcare using such SPDCE-derived valuations. This article outlines specific issues and some practical suggestions for consideration relevant to the development of CBAs using SPDCE-derived benefits. The article shows that SPDCE-derived CBA can adopt recent developments in cost-effectiveness methodology including the cost-effectiveness plane, appropriate consideration of uncertainty, the net-benefit framework and probabilistic sensitivity analysis methods, while maintaining the theoretical advantage of the SPDCE approach. The concept of a cost-benefit plane is no different in principle to the cost-effectiveness plane and can be a useful tool for reporting and presenting the results of CBAs.However, there are many challenging issues to address for the advancement of CBA methodology using SPCDEs within healthcare. Particular areas for development include the importance of accounting for uncertainty in SPDCE-derived willingness-to-pay values, the methodology of SPDCEs in clinical trial settings and economic models, measurement issues pertinent to using SPDCEs specifically in healthcare, and the importance of issues such as consideration of the dynamic nature of healthcare and the resulting impact this has on the validity of attribute definitions and context.

  11. How to do (or not to do) ... a benefit incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ataguba, John E

    2011-03-01

    Benefit incidence analysis (BIA) considers who (in terms of socio-economic groups) receive what benefit from using health services. While traditionally BIA has focused on only publicly funded health services, to assess whether or not public subsidies are 'pro-poor', the same methodological approach can be used to assess how well the overall health system is performing in terms of the distribution of service benefits. This is becoming increasingly important in the context of the growing emphasis on promoting universal health systems. To conduct a BIA, a household survey dataset that incorporates both information on health service utilization and some measure of socio-economic status is required. The other core data requirement is unit costs of different types of health service. When utilization rates are combined with unit costs for different health services, the distribution of benefits from using services, expressed in monetary terms, can be estimated and compared with the distribution of the need for health care. This paper aims to provide an introduction to the methods used in the 'traditional' public sector BIA, and how the same methods can be applied to undertake an assessment of the whole health system. We consider what data are required, potential sources of data, deficiencies in data frequently available in low- and middle-income countries, and how these data should be analysed.

  12. Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds.

  13. Benefits Comparison Analysis of Different Rice and Wheat Cropping Patterns to Adapt to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Ping; MA Shi-Ming; LIN Er-Da; LI Ying-Chun; ZHUANG Heng-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the input-output survey of farmers and experts in one of the Jiangsu GEF project areas, the Cost-Benefit analysis method and greenhouse gas estimation method recommended by IPCC were applied to evaluate and compare the social, economic and ecological benefits of artificial transplanting (ATR), mechanical transplanting (MTR) and direct seeding (DSR) rice under wheat-rice Double Late mode (late rice harvest and late wheat sowing). Results showed that the MTR and DSR rice achieved obvious social benefits. Farming measures resulted in excessive emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Through the use of ATR rice and wheat rotation mode it is possible to obtain most economic and ecological benefits. The Double Late mode of action had good application prospects, but the key to implementation was the timely exploitation of the recently increased availability of agricultural climate resources. The cropping pattern of combining the wheat-rice Double Late mode with the ATR was a better choice in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

  14. Benefits Comparison Analysis of Diferent Rice and Wheat Cropping Patterns to Adapt to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Huan-Ping; MA; Shi-Ming; LIN; Er-Da; LI; Ying-Chun; ZHUANG; Heng-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the input-output survey of farmers and experts in one of the Jiangsu GEF project areas,the Cost-Benefit analysis method and greenhouse gas estimation method recommended by IPCC were applied to evaluate and compare the social,economic and ecological benefits of artificial transplanting(ATR),mechanical transplanting(MTR)and direct seeding(DSR)rice under wheat-rice Double Late mode(late rice harvest and late wheat sowing).Results showed that the MTR and DSR rice achieved obvious social benefits.Farming measures resulted in excessive emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases.Through the use of ATR rice and wheat rotation mode it is possible to obtain most economic and ecological benefits.The Double Late mode of action had good application prospects,but the key to implementation was the timely exploitation of the recently increased availability of agricultural climate resources.The cropping pattern of combining the wheat-rice Double Late mode with the ATR was a better choice in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of a Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis prevention programme in The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcangco, M R; Armour, C L; Salole, E G; Taylor, S J

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae in children under 5 years of age. Vaccines which can prevent this infection are available. To evaluate the costs and benefits of a 3-dose immunisation schedule in Manila, Philippines. Government and societal perspectives. A cost-benefit analysis based on a birth cohort of 100,000 children. The state of health of the cohort with and without a Hib immunisation programme was modelled over a 5-year period. A survey of medical records of patients with Hib in Manila provided data on the extent and cost of sequelae following infection. A 3-dose Hib vaccination programme given at ages 2, 3 and 4 months. The model predicted that vaccinating children against Hib meningitis would prevent 553 cases per year in a birth cohort of 100,000, at a cost of 56,200 Philippine pesos (PHP) [$US1,605; 1998 exchange rate] per case (base case assumptions of 90% vaccine efficacy rate, 95 per 100,000 Hib incidence rate, 85% vaccination coverage). Results from the cost-benefit analyses indicated that the saving to the government would be around PHP39 million ($US1.11 million), and the saving to society would be PHP255 million ($US7.28 million). There would be a positive economic benefit for the Philippine government and for the Filipino society if a Hib vaccination programme was introduced in Manila.

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    SPIDERS) at the Waste Water Treatment Plant ( WWTP ) located on Hickam AFB is a comprehensive analysis of the costs and benefits of an Energy Surety...Treatment Plant ( WWTP ) located on Hickam AFB is a comprehensive analysis of the costs and benefits of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) facility to the Navy...HICKAM AFB WWTP ...............................................19  A.  METHODOLOGY

  17. Management of the Benefits on the Client's Involvement on Ergonomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Isabel F.; Leão, Celina P.; Arezes, Pedro

    Nowadays, market trade economy is witnessing to a continuous development and transformation. The organizations come to be seen as sociotechnical systems with new ergonomic contexts. Various types of relationships can be established. From the ergonomic analysis point of view, it is necessary to understand all the mechanisms that regulate these relationships. The interaction between clients and professionals (workers) reproduce a relationship that can be important to the ergonomic analysis. This paper allows a better comprehension of the relationship in the effective's ergonomic intervention. A case study was analyzed in a private health sector using the Ergonomic Three-dimension Analysis as an ergonomic approach. This analysis is made by three different but related dimensions: analyst, professional and client. The results show that that clients' involvement in the ergonomic analysis will benefit the ergonomic intervention and consequently the professional environment.

  18. Looking beyond borders: integrating best practices in benefit-risk analysis into the field of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Poto, M; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, O; White, B C; Holm, F; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    An integrated benefit-risk analysis aims to give guidance in decision situations where benefits do not clearly prevail over risks, and explicit weighing of benefits and risks is thus indicated. The BEPRARIBEAN project aims to advance benefit-risk analysis in the area of food and nutrition by learning from other fields. This paper constitutes the final stage of the project, in which commonalities and differences in benefit-risk analysis are identified between the Food and Nutrition field and other fields, namely Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics and Marketing-Finance, and Consumer Perception. From this, ways forward are characterized for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition. Integrated benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition may advance in the following ways: Increased engagement and communication between assessors, managers, and stakeholders; more pragmatic problem-oriented framing of assessment; accepting some risk; pre- and post-market analysis; explicit communication of the assessment purpose, input and output; more human (dose-response) data and more efficient use of human data; segmenting populations based on physiology; explicit consideration of value judgments in assessment; integration of multiple benefits and risks from multiple domains; explicit recognition of the impact of consumer beliefs, opinions, views, perceptions, and attitudes on behaviour; and segmenting populations based on behaviour; the opportunities proposed here do not provide ultimate solutions; rather, they define a collection of issues to be taken account of in developing methods, tools, practices and policies, as well as refining the regulatory context, for benefit-risk analysis in Food and Nutrition and other fields. Thus, these opportunities will now need to be explored further and incorporated into benefit-risk practice and policy. If accepted, incorporation of these opportunities will also involve a paradigm shift in Food and Nutrition benefit

  19. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  20. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  1. GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Jasminum cuspidatum leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singumsetty Vinay; Shaik Karimulla; Devarajan Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was investigating the GC-MS analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, physicochemical analysis and anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of the leaves of Jasminum cuspidatum...

  2. Applications of Earth Observations for Fisheries Management: An analysis of socioeconomic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.; Kiefer, D. A.; Turner, W.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will discuss the socioeconomic impacts of a project applying Earth observations and models to support management and conservation of tuna and other marine resources in the eastern Pacific Ocean. A project team created a software package that produces statistical analyses and dynamic maps of habitat for pelagic ocean biota. The tool integrates sea surface temperature and chlorophyll imagery from MODIS, ocean circulation models, and other data products. The project worked with the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, which issues fishery management information, such as stock assessments, for the eastern Pacific region. The Commission uses the tool and broader habitat information to produce better estimates of stock and thus improve their ability to identify species that could be at risk of overfishing. The socioeconomic analysis quantified the relative value that Earth observations contributed to accurate stock size assessments through improvements in calculating population size. The analysis team calculated the first-order economic costs of a fishery collapse (or shutdown), and they calculated the benefits of improved estimates that reduce the uncertainty of stock size and thus reduce the risk of fishery collapse. The team estimated that the project reduced the probability of collapse of different fisheries, and the analysis generated net present values of risk mitigation. USC led the project with sponsorship from the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program, which conducted the socioeconomic impact analysis. The paper will discuss the project and focus primarily on the analytic methods, impact metrics, and the results of the socioeconomic benefits analysis.

  3. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 Preliminary Determination Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2010-11-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, Standard 90.1-2010, or 2010 edition) would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007(ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Standard 90.1-2007, or 2007 edition). The preliminary analysis considered each of the 109 addenda to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 that were included in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 16 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s preliminary determination. However, out of the 109 addenda, 34 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.

  4. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-31

    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  5. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Trewia nudiflora Linn. roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, N; Srivastava, Mayank; Tiwari, Pallavi

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causative factors of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Plants have been used in traditional medicine in different parts of world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies for human kind. The present study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) and antioxidant activity by 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytochemicals including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of roots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora showed significant antioxidant activity compared to standard drug ascorbic acid.

  6. Planning and Construction of Low Carbon Cities:The Relevance of Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; C.T.YIP

    2011-01-01

    Cities are the major source of carbon dioxide emissions in China,and are the critical locations where emissions should be effectively managed.Adopting a low carbon urban development model is the pathway towards reducing the emissions.A low carbon city development model means achieving efficient and effective urban growth through low energy consumption and low emissions.While many local authorities in China have started to express the intention to construct low carbon cities,it is important to emphasize the need to apply a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) to low carbon urban policies and development projects.Since all policies and projects will have their costs and benefits to the society,the effects of the policies and projects on reducing emissions should be measured and assessed objectively.Through the setting up of an analysis framework to assess the costs and benefits,one can provide a scientific basis for decision making,and enhance the overall efficiency in the use of resources for the society as a whole.

  7. Impact of Six Sigma in a developing economy: analysis on benefits drawn by Indian industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshak A. Desai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Overall operational excellence is the key requirement of any business to have global competence and sustained growth. Indian industries are not the exception to this. Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective business improvement strategies world wide.  Nothing much has been published so far illustrating an overall experience of Indian industries with Six Sigma. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of Six Sigma on developing economy like India.  The paper provides an insight into what kind of benefits Indian industries are gaining from Six Sigma as a whole. The study further highlights similarity and differences of benefit gained by different scales and sectors of Indian industries through Six Sigma. This exhaustive analysis of the benefits drawn by Indian industries through Six Sigma can assist other industries in India as well as those in other developing countries, who have yet not experimented with Six Sigma, to become more focused regarding their expectations from this improvement drive. 

  8. A cost-benefit analysis of Salmonella-control strategies in Danish pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Stine Gissel; Alban, Lis

    2006-11-17

    In Denmark, it was agreed to lower the Salmonella prevalence in pork to 1.2% before the end of 2006. The current control did not seem to be sufficient to attain this goal. Therefore, four alternatives to the existing Danish control strategy for Salmonella in pork were compared in a cost-benefit analysis: (1) hot-water decontamination of all pigs at slaughter, (2) sanitary slaughter of pigs from herds with high levels of Salmonella, (3) use of home-mixed feed in herds with slaughter pigs and (4) use of acidified feed for slaughter pigs. The data originated from official statistics, published papers as well as expert opinion. The partial cost-benefit analysis was restricted to slaughterhouses affiliated with the Danish Meat Association and Danish human cases ascribable to pork from these slaughterhouses. Only hot-water decontamination was socio-economically profitable. Hot-water decontamination had a net present value over 15 years of 3.5 million euros. For sanitary slaughter the net present value was - 43.6 million euros, for home-mixed feed it was - 262.3 million euros and for acidified feed it was - 79.9 million euros. For all alternatives the costs were born solely by the pig sector, whereas primarily the consumers and public authorities received the benefits. The conclusions were robust in sensitivity analyses.

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHINESE LEARNERS' PARALLEL CORPUS OF JAPANESE AND ITS PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Dantsuji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the project to construct the Chinese learners' corpus (LC of Japanese at Dalian University of Technology (DUT, and detail the LC construction, development of DUT Corpus Linguistics Tools, and contribution to the education of Japanese as a second language. The outstanding characteristic of the LC is its parallel form with learners' Japanese texts and their Chinese translation, which enables us to make comprehensive analysis of the influence of Chinese (L1 to Japanese (L2. We have made a preliminary analysis of the errors contained.

  10. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    In the course of time many arguments for the introduction and implementation of a Terminology Management System have been presented: information about concepts, terms and their equivalents are readily accessible terminology makes a subject field accessible and understandable terminology can...... be reused from one project to another, consistency in the terminology is secured in different texts knowledge is maintained in the organization when there are personnel changes  (Grinsted (1991:38-39)). Serious terminology work requires resources, but it is not always easy to have the resources allocated...... distinctive competences. However, management in private and public organizations (most often) requires concrete figures and numbers to document the arguments before allocating resources. Cost/benefit-analysis supports the arguments through a comparison between benefits and costs of a given new initiative...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...... productivity for every 10% reduction in the proportion of occupants entering a space who are dissatisfied with the air quality. With this assumption, the annual benefit due to improved air quality was always at least 10 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. The payback time...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    productivity for every 10% reduction in the proportion of occupants entering a space who are dissatisfied with the air quality. With this assumption, the annual benefit due to improved air quality was always at least 10 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. The payback time......A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...

  14. Family/children cash benefits in Serbia: The analysis and policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matković Gordana

    2014-01-01

    , seems the least controversial measure. When it comes to child allowance benefits, comparative analysis shows that it is more important to increase the coverage rather than to increase the amount. Elimination of requirement for the parents to be covered with health insurance, allowing child allowance right for 4 children (instead of the first 4 children in the family and relaxation of property criteria could act toward this end. Both from the perspective of improving the coverage and better targeting, the cadastral revenue as eligibility criteria for agricultural households should be replaced with some more realistic criteria. When it comes to child-birth related leaves, due to evidence of misuse of maternity/parental leave benefit by formal employment registration just a few months before child’s birth, one of the recommendations is to prolong the benefit calculation period, while at the same time extending the coverage for women with flexible jobs. Also, the introduction of flexible arrangements for parental leave, such as a choosing different combinations of benefit level and leave duration, part-time work and similar. Speaking of birth grants, there are advantages of introducing one-off payment instead of payment in installments, which actually implies returning to the model before changes were introduced in 2005. In addition, indexation of property threshold should be introduced. Finally, there is a need for benefits’ consolidation and simplification of administrative procedures.

  15. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  16. Is it really possible to build a bridge between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Edlin, Richard

    2002-09-01

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a recognised as the economic evaluation technique that accords most with the underlying principles of standard welfare economic theory. However, due to problems associated with the technique, economists evaluating resources allocation decisions in health care have most often used cost-effective analysis (CEA), in which health benefits are expressed in non-monetary units. As a result, attempts have been made to build a welfare economic bridge between cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). In this paper, we develops these attempts and finds that, while assumptions can be made to facilitate a constant willingness-to-pay per unit of health outcome, these restrictions are highly unrealistic. We develop an impossibility theorem that shows it is not possible to link CBA and CEA if: (i) the axioms of expected utility theory hold; (ii) the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model is valid in a welfare economic sense; and (iii) illness affects the ability to enjoy consumption. We conclude that, within a welfare economic framework, it would be unwise to rely on a link between CBA and CEA in economic evaluations.

  17. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  18. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    benefits of CAD/CAR and of the next generation technology, CIDER . The CADOS study (Ref. 13] offers a method to measure the intangibles of CAD/CAR...methodology that measures both tangible and intangible benefits of present CAD technology. This method would be hard to extend to CIDER technology because of...D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE

  19. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  20. Benefit analysis and contribution prediction of engine remanufacturing to cycle economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-can; SHI Pei-jing; XU Bin-shi; XING Zhong; XIE Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    The first automobile engine remanufacture company in China, Jinan Fuqiang Power Co, Ltd, was intro duced. The engine remanufacturing technological process of this company was described. The benefit statistic of re manufacturing 10 000 Styer engines were analyzed, and the contribution of engine remanufacturing to cycle economy was predicted. The results show that remanufacturing engineering could use the maximal additional values of obsolete engines, and make contributions to materials conservation, capital saving, energy conservation and environment protection. 10 000 engines are supposed to be remanufactured per year, the following benefits would be obtained:reclaiming additional values of RMB3.23 hundred million, saving metallic materials about 7.65 thousand tons, saving energy of 16 million kilowatt-hours, reducing emission of CO2 about 11.3 - 15.3 thousand tons, and providing employment for 500 persons. According to the survey and analysis, tremendous benefits will be gained by the year of 2020. For example, reclaiming additional values per year of 1424 - 2236 hundred million RMB, saving energy per year of 60 - 90 hundred million kilowatt-hours, reducing emission of CO2 about 6.67 - 9.69 million tons. It can be deduced that developing remanufacturing will play an important role in enriching the cycle economy and accelerating the development of national economy.

  1. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Georgiev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships. Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females.

  2. Analysis of Benefits to Young Rail Enthusiasts of Participating in Extracurricular Academic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fraszczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a number of positive academic outcomes achieved by university students who, as young rail enthusiasts representing over 10 European institutions, took part in extracurricular rail-related academic activities. Analyses presented in the paper are based on the evaluation of the responses to the questionnaire distributed amongst participants of three consecutive editions of an intensive program in rail and logistics which took place in 2012, 2013, and 2014. Also, quotes from follow-up one-to-one interviews with participants are used to support the results presented. The sample for each year varies in terms of numbers, nationalities, academic backgrounds, and male:female ratio. Academic benefits are specifically looked into, which includes teaching and learning activities throughout the three weeks of the program. The analysis of results revealed that young rail enthusiasts who participated in the program benefited from lectures delivered in Week 1, especially those focused on multimodal transport and rail infrastructure in 2013, which received positive mean ratings of 4.45 and 4.53, respectively, on a five-point Likert scale. Moreover, academic benefits were strongly supported by non-technical skills improvements in areas such as English language and communication, both reaching the mean ratings of 4.35 or above in 2014. A number of recommendations for improvements of next editions of similar rail-related programs as well as areas for future research are identified in the paper

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of High-Speed Rail Link between Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Legislative Council in Hong Kong has approved a funding of USD$8.60 billion to build the high-speed rail (HSR line linking mainland China. HSR is a break-through technology that allows trains running at a speed over 250 km per hour. The most controversial part of the HSR investment is whether its cost could be compensated by the social benefits. In this study, a cost-benefit analysis of the Hong Kong to mainland HSR (HKM-HSR line is carried out. First, all the direct and indirect costs, and social benefits are defined; then, monetary equivalents are assigned to these elements; third, all the future values are discounted into present values and aggregated. The results show that the project has a positive net present value (NPV up to USD$2,068.49 million, which proves that the investment is worth. In addition, other transport alternatives, i.e. the existing roadway and conventional railway, are examined and compared with HKM-HSR, which unveils that HSR has the largest positive NPV among these three passenger transportation modes because of its excellent performance in ticket revenue, travel time savings and safety improvement.

  4. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Government Compensation of Kidney Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, P J; McCormick, F; Ojo, A; Roberts, J P

    2016-03-01

    From 5000 to 10 000 kidney patients die prematurely in the United States each year, and about 100 000 more suffer the debilitating effects of dialysis, because of a shortage of transplant kidneys. To reduce this shortage, many advocate having the government compensate kidney donors. This paper presents a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of such a change. It considers not only the substantial savings to society because kidney recipients would no longer need expensive dialysis treatments--$1.45 million per kidney recipient--but also estimates the monetary value of the longer and healthier lives that kidney recipients enjoy--about $1.3 million per recipient. These numbers dwarf the proposed $45 000-per-kidney compensation that might be needed to end the kidney shortage and eliminate the kidney transplant waiting list. From the viewpoint of society, the net benefit from saving thousands of lives each year and reducing the suffering of 100 000 more receiving dialysis would be about $46 billion per year, with the benefits exceeding the costs by a factor of 3. In addition, it would save taxpayers about $12 billion each year. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. A Cost‐Benefit Analysis of Government Compensation of Kidney Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, F.; Ojo, A.; Roberts, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract From 5000 to 10 000 kidney patients die prematurely in the United States each year, and about 100 000 more suffer the debilitating effects of dialysis, because of a shortage of transplant kidneys. To reduce this shortage, many advocate having the government compensate kidney donors. This paper presents a comprehensive cost‐benefit analysis of such a change. It considers not only the substantial savings to society because kidney recipients would no longer need expensive dialysis treatments—$1.45 million per kidney recipient—but also estimates the monetary value of the longer and healthier lives that kidney recipients enjoy—about $1.3 million per recipient. These numbers dwarf the proposed $45 000‐per‐kidney compensation that might be needed to end the kidney shortage and eliminate the kidney transplant waiting list. From the viewpoint of society, the net benefit from saving thousands of lives each year and reducing the suffering of 100 000 more receiving dialysis would be about $46 billion per year, with the benefits exceeding the costs by a factor of 3. In addition, it would save taxpayers about $12 billion each year. PMID:26474298

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Yang; Wen-Qiang Wei; Jin Niu; Zhi-Cai Liu; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.METHODS:Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies.Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age,screening frequencies,and follow-up intervals.Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China,published literatures,and surveillance data.RESULTS:Compared with non-screening outcomes,all strategies with hypothetical 100 000 subjects saved life years.Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis,screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52).Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e.,six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06).Compared with six times(40)fstrategy,screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV,but the same BCR.CONCLUSION:EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China.Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit,population acceptance,and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.

  7. GHG and Air Pollution Co-benefits Analysis to Support Decision Making in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, S.; Shah, M.

    2008-12-01

    The increasing energy demand in the transport and industrial sectors accounts for a high carbon footprint in Hyderabad, India, and consequently to increasing air pollution. Integrated Environmental Strategies program under US EPA supported the analysis of Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (PCB), to identify the major sources of pollution (local and global) and prioritize a series of strategies to better address mitigation in a cost effective manner. In Hyderabad, under the current trends, PM10 and CO2 emissions in 2020 are estimated to increase ~50 percent, compared to 2006 levels to ~43.5 ktons and ~10.3 million tons respectively. A co-benefits framework was implemented in analyzing the future control scenarios for human health benefits and carbon savings. Overall, implementing a series of interventions ranging from urban planning including better transport planning with bus rapid transport and metro rail, relocation of industries, and waste management, are expected to reduce the local and global emissions below the 2006 levels and yield an estimated ~US 196 million and ~US 492 million, in 2010 and 2020 respectively, in combined benefits of health and carbon savings. The PCB is coordinating the efforts for planning and implementation of these strategies. This paper will focus on presenting the methodology utilized for estimating emissions, pollutant dispersion, and impact on local and global environments, evaluated against the business as usual scenarios.

  8. A Cost–Benefit Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness of Frontal Center Curtain Airbag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyeong Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several new varieties of airbags are under consideration for development. However, their commercialization decision must be backed by a positive Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA outcome. In this study, we propose a CBA framework for the frontal center curtain airbag, a newly designed safety system intended to reduce the injury risk of rear-seat passengers. The proposed CBA covers not only economic benefits of the producer but also the effectiveness in sustainable reduction of the fatal and injury rate. In this context, with accumulated field data on road traffic accidents, a forecasting method reflecting the reduced casualties and the market share of vehicle sales associated with frontal center curtain airbag is utilized. Our results suggest that the use of frontal center curtain airbags helps to reduce the number of casualties with a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS of 3 or above by 87.4%. Furthermore, both the initial market penetration rate and price of the frontal center curtain airbag significantly influence its socioeconomic benefits. By evaluating the effectiveness of the frontal center curtain airbag, our study can contribute to the decision making for its commercialization.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of central softening for production of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bruggen, B; Goossens, H; Everard, P A; Stemgée, K; Rogge, W

    2009-01-01

    Softening drinking water before distribution yields advantages with environmental impact, such as lower household products consumption, less scaling in piping and machines, and the avoidance of decentralized, domestic softeners. Central softening is under consideration in Flanders by the largest water supplier, VMW (Dutch acronym for "Flemish Company for Water Supply"), to deliver soft (15 degrees F) water to their customers. A case study is presented for a region with hard water (47 degrees F). The chosen technique is the pellet reactor, based on precipitation of CaCO(3) by NaOH addition. This softening operation has possibly large impact on the environment and the water consumption pattern. A cost-benefit analysis has been made to estimate the added value of central softening, by investigating the impact on the drinking water company, on their customers, on employment, on environment, on health, etc. The analysis for the region of study revealed benefits for customers which were higher than the costs for the drinking water company. However, pricing of drinking water remains an important problem. A sensitivity analysis of these results has also been made, to evaluate the impact of important hypothesis, and to be able to expand this study to other regions. The conclusions for this part show that softening is beneficial if water hardness is to be decreased by at least 5 degrees F.

  10. A cost benefit analysis of an enhanced seat belt enforcement program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G T; Olukoga, I A

    2005-04-01

    To examine whether a program to increase the wearing of seat belts in a South African urban area would be worthwhile in societal terms. A cost benefit analysis of a one year enhanced seat belt enforcement program in eThekwini (Durban) Municipality. Data were drawn from two main sources--a 1998 study of the cost of road crashes in South Africa and, given the absence of other data, a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of various types of interventions to reduce road crash casualties in the United States--and were analyzed using cost benefit analysis. A program designed to enforce greater wearing of seat belts, estimated to cost 2 million rand in one year, could be reasonably expected to increase seat belt usage rates by 16 percentage points and reduce fatalities and injuries by 9.5%. This would result in saved social costs of 13.6 million rand in the following year or a net present value of 11.6 million rand. There would also be favorable consequences for municipal finances. Investment in a program to increase seat belt wearing rates is highly profitable in societal terms.

  11. A Quantitative Risk-Benefit Analysis of Prophylactic Surgery Prior to Extended-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Danielle; Reyes, David; Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Antonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Among otherwise healthy astronauts undertaking deep space missions, the risks for acute appendicitis (AA) and cholecystitis (AC) are not zero. If these conditions were to occur during spaceflight they may require surgery for definitive care. The proposed study quantifies and compares the risks of developing de novo AA and AC in-flight to the surgical risks of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and cholecystectomy (LC) using NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM). METHODS: The IMM is a Monte Carlo simulation that forecasts medical events during spaceflight missions and estimates the impact of these medical events on crew health. In this study, four Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were created to assess the probability of an astronaut developing in-flight small-bowel obstruction (SBO) following prophylactic 1) LA, 2) LC, 3) LA and LC, or 4) neither surgery (SR# S-20160407-351). Model inputs were drawn from a large, population-based 2011 Swedish study that examined the incidence and risks of post-operative SBO over a 5-year follow-up period. The study group included 1,152 patients who underwent LA, and 16,371 who underwent LC. RESULTS: Preliminary results indicate that prophylactic LA may yield higher mission risks than the control DRM. Complete analyses are pending and will be subsequently available. DISCUSSION: The risk versus benefits of prophylactic surgery in astronauts to decrease the probability of acute surgical events during spaceflight has only been qualitatively examined in prior studies. Within the assumptions and limitations of the IMM, this work provides the first quantitative guidance that has previously been lacking to this important question for future deep space exploration missions.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Confidentiality Policies for Advanced Knowledge Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D

    2003-03-01

    Knowledge Discovery (KD) processes can create new information within a Knowledge Management (KM) system. In many domains, including government, this new information must be secured against unauthorized disclosure. Applying an appropriate confidentiality policy achieves this. However, it is not evident which confidentiality policy to apply, especially when the goals of sharing and disseminating knowledge have to be balanced with the requirements to secure knowledge. This work proposes to solve this problem by developing a cost-benefit analysis technique for examining the tradeoffs between securing and sharing discovered knowledge.

  13. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Alternative Traffic Lights Systems for the Colourful City of Zamzam

    OpenAIRE

    Machimbirike, Alexious

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Zamzam Infrastructure Bank has been approached by the country’s third largest city to finance the upgrading and expansion of its traffic lights system. Since the project is social in nature, the Bank intends to justify the borrowing on the basis of Colourful City’s ability to service the loan from its consolidated cash flows. A pre-requisite however, is the need to confirm the project’s socio-economic viability through economic cost benefit analysis. The Bank assessed and is satis...

  14. Counting the Costs of Acquisitions: Using Cost-Benefit Analysis in a Seminary and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Getahun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how cost-benefit analysis may be used in a small to mid-sized library to identify cost-savings in the acquisitions of monographs. The essay highlights parallel studies conducted at Luther Seminary Library and Bethel University Library which compared prices, discounts, and time costs across a range of vendor types to identify whether searching for the best price per item is cost-effective, and how much this strategy could save yearly in acquisitions. Both libraries found that substantial potential savings were identified through this study.

  15. Would contact with extraterrestrials benefit or harm humanity? A scenario analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Seth D; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; 10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.10.012

    2011-01-01

    While humanity has not yet observed any extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), contact with ETI remains possible. Contact could occur through a broad range of scenarios could occur that have varying consequences for humanity. However, many discussions of this question assume that contact will follow a particular scenario that derives from the hopes and fears of the author. In this paper, we analyze a broad range of contact scenarios in terms of whether contact with ETI would benefit or harm humanity. This type of broad analysis can help us prepare for actual contact with ETI even if the details of contact do not fully resemble any specific scenario.

  16. Lean VOC-Air Mixtures Catalytic Treatment: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Competing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baldissone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various processing routes are available for the treatment of lean VOC-air mixtures, and a cost-benefit analysis is the tool we propose to identify the most suitable technology. Two systems have been compared in this paper, namely a “traditional” plant, with a catalytic fixed-bed reactor with a heat exchanger for heat recovery purposes, and a “non-traditional” plant, with a catalytic reverse-flow reactor, where regenerative heat recovery may be achieved thanks to the periodical reversal of the flow direction. To be useful for decisions-making, the cost-benefit analysis must be coupled to the reliability, or availability, analysis of the plant. Integrated Dynamic Decision Analysis is used for this purpose as it allows obtaining the full set of possible sequences of events that could result in plant unavailability, and, for each of them, the probability of occurrence is calculated. Benefits are thus expressed in terms of out-of-services times, that have to be minimized, while the costs are expressed in terms of extra-cost for maintenance activities and recovery actions. These variable costs must be considered together with the capital (fixed cost required for building the plant. Results evidenced the pros and cons of the two plants. The “traditional” plant ensures a higher continuity of services, but also higher operational costs. The reverse-flow reactor-based plant exhibits lower operational costs, but a higher number of protection levels are needed to obtain a similar level of out-of-service. The quantification of risks and benefits allows the stakeholders to deal with a complete picture of the behavior of the plants, fostering a more effective decision-making process. With reference to the case under study and the relevant operational conditions, the regenerative system was demonstrated to be more suitable to treat lean mixtures: in terms of time losses following potential failures the two technologies are comparable (Fixed bed

  17. The Analysis of the Potential Environmental Benefits by Investigating the Hedonistic Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Gradinaru

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers get some usefulness from the attributes of heterogeneous products and they adjust their acquisitions as a response to the existing differences. Producers or vendors confront with varying prices depending on the scale of attributes provided. A plan for balancing the prices is developed as a consequence of the market interaction between the consumers and suppliers (by analogy it happens in the case of the interaction between employees and employers on the labour market. Taking into consideration the late concepts regarding hedonistic price, the article presents a way of analysis of potential benefits that environment may offer to human communities by hedonistic price investigation, using regression as instrument.

  18. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  19. Cost-benefit analysis of foot and mouth disease control in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, Monique; Rushton, Jonathan; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-09-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurs endemically in Ethiopia. Quantitative insights on its national economic impact and on the costs and benefits of control options are, however, lacking to support decision making in its control. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to estimate the annual costs of FMD in cattle production systems of Ethiopia, and to conduct an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of potential control alternatives. The annual costs of FMD were assessed based on production losses, export losses and control costs. The total annual costs of FMD under the current status quo of no official control program were estimated at 1354 (90% CR: 864-2042) million birr. The major cost (94%) was due to production losses. The costs and benefits of three potential control strategies: 1) ring vaccination (reactive vaccination around outbreak area supported by animal movement restrictions, 2) targeted vaccination (annual preventive vaccination in high risk areas plus ring vaccination in the rest of the country), and 3) preventive mass vaccination (annual preventive vaccination of the whole national cattle population) were compared with the baseline scenario of no official control program. Experts were elicited to estimate the influence of each of the control strategies on outbreak incidence and number of cases per outbreak. Based on these estimates, the incidence of the disease was simulated stochastically for 10 years. Preventive mass vaccination was epidemiologically the most efficient control strategy by reducing the national outbreak incidence below 5% with a median time interval of 3 years, followed by targeted vaccination strategy with a corresponding median time interval of 5 years. On average, all evaluated control strategies resulted in positive net present values. The ranges in the net present values were, however, very wide, including negative values. The targeted vaccination strategy was the most economic strategy with a median benefit cost ratio of 4

  20. Early infant male circumcision: Systematic review, risk-benefit analysis, and progress in policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Kennedy, Sean E; Wodak, Alex D; Mindel, Adrian; Golovsky, David; Schrieber, Leslie; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Handelsman, David J; Ziegler, John B

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword “circumcision” together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further. The most relevant and representative of the topic were included. Bibliographies were examined to retrieve further key references. Randomized controlled trials, recent high quality systematic reviews or meta-analyses (level 1++ or 1+ evidence) were prioritized for inclusion. A risk-benefit analysis of articles rated for quality was performed. For efficiency and reliability, recent randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, high quality systematic reviews and large well-designed studies were used if available. Internet searches were conducted for other relevant information, including policies and Australian data on claims under Medicare for MC. RESULTS Evidence-based policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) support infant and later age male circumcision (MC) as a desirable public health measure. Our systematic review of relevant literature over the past decade yielded 140 journal articles that met our inclusion criteria. Together, these showed that early infant MC confers immediate and lifelong benefits by protecting against urinary tract infections having potential adverse long-term renal effects, phimosis that causes difficult and painful erections and “ballooning” during urination, inflammatory skin conditions, inferior penile hygiene, candidiasis, various sexually transmissible

  1. Value of Earth Observations: Key principles and techniques of socioeconomic benefits analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.; Macauley, M.; Bernknopf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Internationally, multiple organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal benefits that governments, businesses, and NGOs can derive from applications of Earth-observing satellite observations, research, and models. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services by companies, agencies, and civil society. There are, however, significant efforts needed to bridge the Earth sciences and social and economic sciences fields to build capacity, develop case studies, and refine analytic techniques in quantifying socioeconomic benefits from the use of Earth observations. Some government programs, such as the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program have initiated activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from applications of Earth observations research, and to develop multidisciplinary models for organizations' decision-making activities. A community of practice has conducted workshops, developed impact analysis reports, published a book, developed a primer, and pursued other activities to advance analytic methodologies and build capacity. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to pursue a research agenda on analytic techniques, develop a body of knowledge, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  2. Impact analysis of critical success factors on the benefits from statistical process control implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigues Soriano

    Full Text Available Abstract The Statistical Process Control - SPC is a set of statistical techniques focused on process control, monitoring and analyzing variation causes in the quality characteristics and/or in the parameters used to control and process improvements. Implementing SPC in organizations is a complex task. The reasons for its failure are related to organizational or social factors such as lack of top management commitment and little understanding about its potential benefits. Other aspects concern technical factors such as lack of training on and understanding about the statistical techniques. The main aim of the present article is to understand the interrelations between conditioning factors associated with top management commitment (Support, SPC Training and Application, as well as to understand the relationships between these factors and the benefits associated with the implementation of the program. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used in the analysis since the main goal is to establish the causal relations. A cross-section survey was used as research method to collect information of samples from Brazilian auto-parts companies, which were selected according to guides from the auto-parts industry associations. A total of 170 companies were contacted by e-mail and by phone in order to be invited to participate in the survey. However, just 93 industries agreed on participating, and only 43 answered the questionnaire. The results showed that the senior management support considerably affects the way companies develop their training programs. In turn, these trainings affect the way companies apply the techniques. Thus, it will reflect on the benefits gotten from implementing the program. It was observed that the managerial and technical aspects are closely connected to each other and that they are represented by the ratio between top management and training support. The technical aspects observed through SPC

  3. Analysis of cost-benefit trade-offs of complex security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Mary J.

    1997-01-01

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of cost and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. CPA (cost and performance analysis) is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance tools: ACE and ASSESS. ACE is an existing DOD PC-based cost analysis tool that supports cost analysis over the full life-cycle of the system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. These tools are integrated using C++ and Microsoft Excel macros. Cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path element levels.

  4. Preliminary analysis of Alvito-Odivelas reservoir system operation under climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides a preliminary analysis of the impact of climate change on a water resources system of Alentejo region in the South of Portugal. Regional climate model HadRM3P forced by the Global Circulation Model HadAM3P A2 of the Hadley Centre, is used to derive temperature and precipitation data, which in turn is used as input to hydrological model (SHETRAN) for simulation of future streamflow. Dynamic programming based models are used for operation of reservoir system in order ...

  5. Stock assessment of Haliporoides triarthrus (Fam. Solenoceridae) off Mozambique: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensen, E.; Pacule, H.

    1992-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Haliporoides triarthrus, is an important species in the deep-water shrimp fishery in Mozambique. Total catches are in the range of 1,500 to 2,700 tons, with the pink shrimp accounting for 70-90%. Estimates of growth parameters and of natural mortality are used for a preliminary assessment of the fishery, based on length-structured virtual population analysis and yield-per-recruit analyses. With an arbitrarily chosen terminal fishing mortality F, the results indicate a situati...

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Liquid Metal MHD Pressure Drop in the Blanket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳; 吴宜灿; 何晓雄

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary analysis and calculation of liquid metal Li17Pb83 magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the blanket for the FDS have been presented to evaluate the significance of MHD effects on the thermal-hydraulic design of the blanket. To decrease the liquid metal MHD pressure drop, Al2O3 is applied as an electronically insulated coating onto the inner surface of the ducts. The requirement for the insulated coating to reduce the additional leakage pressure drop caused by coating imperfections has been analyzed. Finally, the total liquid metal MHD pressure drop and magnetic pump power in the FDS blanket have been given.

  7. Preliminary performance analysis of a transverse flow spectrally selective two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roos_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2694 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roos_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 21st SolarPACES... International Conference (SolarPACES 2015), 13-16 October 2015 Preliminary Performance Analysis of a Transverse Flow Spectrally Selective Two-slab Packed Bed Volumetric Receiver Thomas H. Roos1, a) and Thomas M. Harms2, b) 1Aeronautical Systems...

  8. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  9. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  10. Benefits for Plants in Ant-Plant Protective Mutualisms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Matthew D.; Bhotika, Smriti; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Andrade, Gilda V.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; McKeon, C. Seabird; Osenberg, Craig W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model) and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75) indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial) explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several questions to guide

  11. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  12. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  13. Eliciting benefit-risk preferences and probability-weighted utility using choice-format conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, George; Johnson, F Reed; Kilambi, Vikram; Hauber, A Brett

    2011-01-01

    This study applies conjoint analysis to estimate health-related benefit-risk tradeoffs in a non-expected-utility framework. We demonstrate how this method can be used to test for and estimate nonlinear weighting of adverse-event probabilities and we explore the implications of nonlinear weighting on maximum acceptable risk (MAR) measures of risk tolerance. We obtained preference data from 570 Crohn's disease patients using a web-enabled conjoint survey. Respondents were presented with choice tasks involving treatment options that involve different efficacy benefits and different mortality risks for 3 possible side effects. Using conditional logit maximum likelihood estimation, we estimate preference parameters using 3 models that allow for nonlinear preference weighting of risks--a categorical model, a simple-weighting model, and a rank dependent utility (RDU) model. For the second 2 models we specify and jointly estimate 1- and 2-parameter probability weighting functions. Although the 2-parameter functions are more flexible, estimation of the 1-parameter functions generally performed better. Despite well-known conceptual limitations, the simple-weighting model allows us to estimate weighting function parameters that vary across 3 risk types, and we find some evidence of statistically significant differences across risks. The parameter estimates from RDU model with the single-parameter weighting function provide the most robust estimates of MAR. For an improvement in Crohn's symptom severity from moderate and mild, we estimate maximum 10-year mortality risk tolerances ranging from 2.6% to 7.1%. Our results provide further the evidence that quantitative benefit-risk analysis used to evaluate medical interventions should account explicitly for the nonlinear probability weighting of preferences.

  14. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  15. Limited benefit of antiretroviral resistance testing in treatment-experienced patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panidou, Ermioni T; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2004-11-05

    To estimate the effectiveness of resistance assessments based on viral sequencing (genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing, GART), phenotypic antiretroviral resistance testing (PART) or virtual PART (vPART) in the management of treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing treatments aided by GART, PART and vPART, and controls. The meta-analysis synthesized data on the proportion of patients with undetectable plasma viral load, the decrease in viral load, and the increase in CD4 cell count at 3 and 6 months after randomization. Ten trials were analyzed (total 2258 participants). Compared with controls, at 3 and 6 months GART increased the proportion of patients with viral load below detection by 11% [95% confidence interval (CI), 6-16], and 10% (95% CI, 5-16), respectively. The difference in viral load change was 0.27 log10 copies/ml (95% CI, 0.11-0.43) and 0.21 log10 copies/ml (95% CI, 0.09-0.34), respectively. However, no improvement was observed in the CD4 cell count at either time point: the difference in CD4 cell count -5.7 x 10(6) cells/l (95% CI, -18.8 to 7.3) and 1.2 x 10(6) cells/l (95% CI, -15.0 to 17.4), respectively, at 3 and 6 months. For PART, there was no clear evidence for any benefit versus no testing (three trials). vPART conferred a small benefit in indirect comparisons versus no testing. Evidence for benefit of antiretroviral resistance testing is sparse and limited to small short-term improvements of virologic response, mostly with GART and less with vPART. Current guidelines widely recommending the use of antiretroviral resistance testing in clinical practice are not commensurate with the available evidence.

  16. 公共管理效益评价方法初探%The Preliminary Exploration of the Method to Evaluate Public Management Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨缅昆; 熊萧

    2005-01-01

    This topic puts forward the notion of public management's benefit on the definitions of its production with national welfare and cost on public expense. The index of its benefit is designed to appraise the achievement of public management. After the discussion of these indexes, the frame of evaluation is built on the model of national welfare described as "strong nation, rich people, comfortable lodging and content work".

  17. Combining a building simulation with energy systems analysis to assess the benefits of natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    systems analysis. Results show that for an energy system such as the Mexican, with a relatively simple connection between supply and demand of electricity, natural ventilation mainly creates savings, whereas in the Danish system, the system operation is also affected by energy savings through natural......This article shows the combination of a thermal air flow simulation program with an energy systems analysis model in order to assess the use of natural ventilation as a method for saving energy within residential buildings in large-scale scenarios. The aim is to show the benefits for utilizing...... natural airflow instead of active systems such as mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning in buildings where the indoor temperature is over the upper limit of the comfort range. The combination is done by introducing the energy saving output - calculated with a model of natural ventilation using...

  18. Optimal climate policy is a utopia. From quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-20

    The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate-economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that does more harm than good. An alternative approach is to focus the attention on extreme events, structural change and complexity. It is argued that a qualitative rather than a quantitative CBA that takes account of these aspects can support the adoption of a minimax regret approach or precautionary principle in climate policy. This means: implement stringent GHG reduction policies as soon as possible.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species.

  20. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  1. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  2. A preliminary analysis of climate change effect on long-term risk-based design of flood defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Vrijling, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    The lifetime of a flood defense usually lasts for decades or centuries. The future flood probabilistic distribution is not stationary due to climate change. Therefore in the long-term design of flood defense systems, the effect of climate change should be taken into account. The design height of Bengbu dike segment (about 10 km) along Huai River in China is studied as an example to explore the potential effects of climate change on long-term risk-based design. The economic-optimal design height of the dike is determined based on cost-benefit analysis. In this analysis the incremental investments in more safety are balanced with the reduction of the risk. Since climate change will result in the change of flood probability and hence the change of flooding risk, the optimal height might be shifted. To describe the possible future climate, the ensemble prediction of Global Climate Models (GCMs) is used in the study. River runoff series, which is required in deriving annual probability of peak runoff, is obtained by forcing a hydrological model with each GCM climate prediction. Then the probability of high water level in the river is derived based on the relationship between water level and peak runoff. The probability of flooding is assumed to equal to the exceedance probability of the high water level in the river. The possible future flood risk is calculated based on the flooding probability estimates, and is corresponding to each member of the GCMs ensemble. The result will provide information about the significance of potential effects of climate change on the long-term design of flood defense. With comparison to the baseline period, the shift of risk curve in future will be shown on the cost-benefit diagram as well as the change of economic optimal design dike height. As it is a preliminary analysis in this study a sensitivity analysis will be carried out. The sensitivity of use of GCMs ensemble, the damage value and the investment cost will be investigated.

  3. Benefits of a Working Memory Training Program for Inattention in Daily Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Spencer-Smith; Torkel Klingberg

    2015-01-01

    Background Many common disorders across the lifespan feature impaired working memory (WM). Reported benefits of a WM training program include improving inattention in daily life, but this has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether one WM training method has benefits for inattention in daily life by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline and PsycINFO, relevant journals and contacted authors for studies with an interven...

  4. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    48 Daniel Jurta et al. MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV Manning Cost Benefit Analysis. EMBA Project Report...December 8, 2012). 36 The exact cost of this training is difficult to ascertain, but a Naval Postgraduate School Executive MBA ( EMBA ) Capstone...57 Daniel Jurta et al. MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV Manning Cost Benefit Analysis. EMBA Project Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey: Naval

  5. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Clostridium botulinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Renwick C. J., E-mail: rdobson@unimelb.edu.au; Atkinson, Sarah C. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gorman, Michael A. [St Vincents Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Newman, Janet M. [CSIRO Division of Molecular and Health Technologies, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Parker, Michael W. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); St Vincents Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Perugini, Matthew A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2008-03-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of DHDPS from C. botulinum are reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. This enzyme, which is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, couples (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum, an important bacterial pathogen, are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly using PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.9 Å resolution and displaying P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2 symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 92.9, c = 60.4 Å. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 41%. The structure of the enzyme will help guide the design of novel therapeutics against the C. botulinum pathogen.

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of Reactor Performance Test (LOEP) for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Su-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The final phase of commissioning is reactor performance test, which is to prove the integrated performance and safety of the research reactor at full power with fuel loaded such as neutron power calibration, Control Absorber Rod/Second Shutdown Rod drop time, InC function test, Criticality, Rod worth, Core heat removal with natural mechanism, and so forth. The last test will be safety-related one to assure the result of the safety analysis of the research reactor is marginal enough to be sure about the nuclear safety by showing the reactor satisfies the acceptance criteria of the safety functions such as for reactivity control, maintenance of auxiliaries, reactor pool water inventory control, core heat removal, and confinement isolation. After all, the fuel integrity will be ensured by verifying there is no meaningful change in the radiation levels. To confirm the performance of safety equipment, loss of normal electric power (LOEP), possibly categorized as Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO), is selected as a key experiment to figure out how safe the research reactor is before turning over the research reactor to the owner. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the reactor performance test (LOEP) for a research reactor. The results showed how different the transient between conservative estimate and best estimate will look. Preliminary analyses have shown all probable thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of importance as to opening of flap valve, minimum critical heat flux ratio, the change of flow direction, and important values of thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of telehealth in pre-hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Alqusairi, Diaa; Kim, Junghyun; Jackson, Adria; Persse, David; Gonzalez, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Objective There has been very little use of telehealth in pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), yet the potential exists for this technology to transform the current delivery model. In this study, we explore the costs and benefits of one large telehealth EMS initiative. Methods Using a case-control study design and both micro- and gross-costing data from the Houston Fire Department EMS electronic patient care record system, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) comparing costs with potential savings associated with patients treated through a telehealth-enabled intervention. The intervention consisted of telehealth-based consultation between the 911 patient and an EMS physician, to evaluate and triage the necessity for patient transport to a hospital emergency department (ED). Patients with non-urgent, primary care-related conditions were then scheduled and transported by alternative means to an affiliated primary care clinic. We measured CBA as both total cost savings and cost per ED visit averted, in US Dollars ($USD). Results In total, 5570 patients were treated over the first full 12 months with a telehealth-enabled care model. We found a 6.7% absolute reduction in potentially medically unnecessary ED visits, and a 44-minute reduction in total ambulance back-in-service times. The average cost for a telehealth patient was $167, which was a statistically significantly $103 less than the control group ( p cost savings from the societal perspective, or $2468 cost savings per ED visit averted (benefit). Conclusion Patient care enabled by telehealth in a pre-hospital environment, is a more cost effective alternative compared to the traditional EMS 'treat and transport to ED' model.

  8. Preliminary design and thermal analysis of device for finish cooling Jaffa biscuits in a.d. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper preliminary design of device for finish cooling chocolate topping of biscuits in A.D. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka was done. The proposed preliminary design followed by the required technological process of finish cooling biscuits and required parameters of process which was supposed to get and which represented part of project task. Thermal analysis was made and obtained percentage error between surface contact of the air and chocolate topping, obtained from heat balance and geometrical over proposed preliminary design, wasn't more than 0.67%. This is a preliminary design completely justified because using required length of belt conveyor receive required temperature of chocolate topping at the end of the cooling process.

  9. Mini-DIAL system measurements coupled with multivariate data analysis to identify TIC and TIM simulants: preliminary absorption database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, P.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; Poggi, L. A.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Toxic Industrial Components (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) are one of the most dangerous and diffuse vehicle of contamination in urban and industrial areas. The academic world together with the industrial and military one are working on innovative solutions to monitor the diffusion in atmosphere of such pollutants. In this phase the most common commercial sensors are based on “point detection” technology but it is clear that such instruments cannot satisfy the needs of the smart cities. The new challenge is developing stand-off systems to continuously monitor the atmosphere. Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) research group has a long experience in laser system development and has built two demonstrators based on DIAL (Differential Absorption of Light) technology could be able to identify chemical agents in atmosphere. In this work the authors will present one of those DIAL system, the miniaturized one, together with the preliminary results of an experimental campaign conducted on TICs and TIMs simulants in cell with aim of use the absorption database for the further atmospheric an analysis using the same DIAL system. The experimental results are analysed with standard multivariate data analysis technique as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to develop a classification model aimed at identifying organic chemical compound in atmosphere. The preliminary results of absorption coefficients of some chemical compound are shown together pre PCA analysis.

  10. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  11. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis: the first real rule of fight club?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kristin L

    2013-12-19

    Competition is ubiquitous among social animals. Vying against a conspecific to achieve a particular outcome often requires one to act aggressively, but this is a costly and inherently risky behavior. So why do we aggressively compete, or at the extreme, fight against others? Early work suggested that competitive aggression might stem from an innate aggressive tendency, emanating from subcortical structures. Later work highlighted key cortical regions that contribute toward an instrumental aggression network, one that is recruited or suppressed as needed to achieve a goal. Recent neuroimaging work hints that competitive aggression is upmost a cost-benefit decision, in that it appears to recruit many components of traditional, non-social decision-making networks. This review provides a historical glimpse into the neuroscience of competitive aggression, and proposes a conceptual advancement for studying competitive behavior by outlining how utility calculations of contested-for resources are skewed, pre- and post-competition. A basic multi-factorial model of utility assessment is proposed to account for competitive endowment effects that stem from the presence of peers, peer salience and disposition, and the tactical effort required for victory. In part, competitive aggression is a learned behavior that should only be repeated if positive outcomes are achieved. However, due to skewed utility assessments, deviations of associative learning occur. Hence truly careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before choosing to vie against another.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis: the first real rule of fight club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Louise Hillman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition is ubiquitous among social animals. Vying against a conspecific to achieve a particular outcome often requires one to act aggressively, but this is a costly and inherently risky behaviour. So why do we aggressively compete, or at the extreme, fight against others? Early work suggested that competitive aggression might stem from an innate aggressive tendency, emanating from subcortical structures. Later work highlighted key cortical regions that contribute towards an instrumental aggression network, one that is recruited or suppressed as needed to achieve a goal. Recent neuroimaging work hints that competitive aggression is upmost a cost-benefit decision, in that it appears to recruit many components of traditional, non-social decision-making networks. This review provides a historical glimpse into the neuroscience of competitive aggression, and proposes a conceptual advancement for studying competitive behaviour by outlining how utility calculations of contested-for resources are skewed, pre- and post-competition. A basic multi-factorial model of utility assessment is proposed to account for competitive endowment effects that stem from the presence of peers, peer salience and disposition, and the tactical effort required for victory. In part, competitive aggression is a learned behaviour that should only be repeated if positive outcomes are achieved. However due to skewed utility assessments, deviations of associative learning occur. Hence truly careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before choosing to vie against another.

  14. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Legalization of an Informal Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Philippines--a developing Southeast Asian country--exemplifies the co-existence of Western-oriented, medical science and indigenous, non-allopathic practices collectively known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. The purpose of this study is to determine why and how the economics and politics of CAM’s integration with biomedical science could impede the achievement of health care redistribution in developing countries like the Philippines. Approach: Representative case studies of CAM methods and content analysis of related legislation and policy initiatives were undertaken. Results: The study shed light on the problems, challenges and opportunities in addressing the misdistribution of primary and secondary health care in the Philippines. It found that subjective considerations underlie CAM’s legitimacy. These become critical when scientific validity is at issue, information exchanged is asymmetric and political consensus is not readily available. How these considerations were valued from a cost-benefit perspective shaped actual policy outcomes. Conclusion: The study suggested that proper timing, phasing and collaborative strategies are critical to CAM's institutionalization in light of confining economic conditions and political conflicts over health policy. Both objective and subjective costs and benefits of CAM methods and products should be considered in integrating the formal (biomedical and informal (CAM health sectors, particularly in developing countries where health care is largely dependent on individual or household resource-based access and competitive prowess.

  15. Risk–benefit analysis of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindlacheruvu, R; Mendelow, A; Mitchell, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine under what circumstances repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be beneficial. Methods: A life expectancy analysis of patients with unruptured aneurysms with and without repair based on prospective data from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA). Results: Life years are lost at all ages by repairing anterior circulation aneurysms under 7 mm in diameter in patients with no history of a subarachnoid haemorrhage from another aneurysm (incidental). For all other aneurysms the number of life years saved by repair is dependent on the patient's age at the time when repair is undertaken. Between 2 and 40 years are saved by repairing aneurysms in patients aged 20 years. These benefits fall to 0 when remaining life expectancy falls below 15–35 years, corresponding to the age range of 45–70 years. Conclusions: Repair of unruptured aneurysms benefits patients harbouring them by improving life expectancy except in certain circumstances. The exceptions are patients with remaining life expectancy less than 15–35 years or aged 45–70 (depending on aneurysm size and location) and patients with aneurysms of the anterior circulation under 7 mm in diameter with no history of a previous subarachnoid haemorrhage. These results are based on the findings of the ISUIA and are dependent on their accuracy. PMID:15654039

  16. Benefit Transfer for Water Management along the Han River in South Korea Using Meta-Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hio-Jung Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the magnitude of economic benefits that are justified in transfer from downstream users to upstream users for the use of the Han River in South Korea in terms of foregone economic benefits by regulations. Based on the existing non-market valuation studies associated with water management issues in South Korea from 1997 to 2014, a meta-regression analysis was performed to provide alternatives for regional benefit sharing of water resource use. The benefits from the use of water resource along the Han River are estimated on average to be KRW 7,728 (US $7.7 per household per month. The total net benefits are estimated to be about KRW 449 billion (US $449 million per year. Following the principle regarding equal distribution of benefits, the stakeholders who received more net benefits than others should return their extra net benefits to other stakeholders through a policy tool such as tradable development rights. The results of our study provide economic indicators useful for the establishment of common resource policy and to consider stakeholders’ rights within the framework of regional benefits. This study also provides practical solutions that could be used as a valid policy instrument to mediate the conflicts and disputes associated with water resource use.

  17. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  18. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  19. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Preliminary Uncertainty Analysis for SMART Digital Core Protection and Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon Seung; In, Wang Kee; Hwang, Dae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) developed on-line digital core protection and monitoring systems, called SCOPS and SCOMS as a part of SMART plant protection and monitoring system. SCOPS simplified the protection system by directly connecting the four RSPT signals to each core protection channel and eliminated the control element assembly calculator (CEAC) hardware. SCOMS adopted DPCM3D method in synthesizing core power distribution instead of Fourier expansion method being used in conventional PWRs. The DPCM3D method produces a synthetic 3-D power distribution by coupling a neutronics code and measured in-core detector signals. The overall uncertainty analysis methodology which is used statistically combining uncertainty components of SMART core protection and monitoring system was developed. In this paper, preliminary overall uncertainty factors for SCOPS/SCOMS of SMART initial core were evaluated by applying newly developed uncertainty analysis method

  2. Preliminary cladistic analysis of genera of the cestode order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Campbell, R A; Palm, H W

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary cladistic analysis was carried out on the 49 currently recognised genera of the order Trypanorhyncha. Forty-four characters were analysed; a functional outgroup was used for scolex and strobilar characters, while Nybelinia was utilised to polarise characters related to the rhyncheal system. Eight well-resolved clades were evident in the resultant cladogram, which is compared with existing phenetic classifications. An analysis of families resulted in a similar clustering of taxa to that observed in the case of the genera. The results suggest that two key characters used in existing classifications, namely the presence of sensory fossettes on the bothridia and the development of atypical heteroacanth and poeciloacanth armatures from typical heteroacanth armatures, have occurred on several occasions. Some clades provide support for the arrangements used in current classifications. Suggestions are made for future avenues of research which might provide more robust phylogenetic data for the Trypanorhyncha.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  4. Dimensions of Human-Work Domain Interaction: A Preliminary Analysis for the Design of a Corporate Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong

    2003-01-01

    Applies the cognitive system engineering approach to investigate human-work interaction at a corporate setting. Reports preliminary analysis of data collected from diary analysis and interview of 20 subjects. Results identify three dimensions for each of four interactive activities involved in human-work interaction and their relationships.…

  5. Use of Mesh in Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair: A Meta-Analysis and Risk-Benefit Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat P Müller-Stich

    Full Text Available Mesh augmentation seems to reduce recurrences following laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPHR. However, there is an uncertain risk of mesh-associated complications. Risk-benefit analysis might solve the dilemma.A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational clinical studies (OCSs comparing laparoscopic mesh-augmented hiatoplasty (LMAH with laparoscopic mesh-free hiatoplasty (LH with regard to recurrences and complications. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to determine potential benefits of LMAH. All data regarding LMAH were used to estimate risk of mesh-associated complications. Risk-benefit analysis was performed using a Markov Monte Carlo decision-analytic model.Meta-analysis of 3 RCTs and 9 OCSs including 915 patients revealed a significantly lower recurrence rate for LMAH compared to LH (pooled proportions, 12.1% vs. 20.5%; odds ratio (OR, 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.34 to 0.89; p = 0.04. Complication rates were comparable in both groups (pooled proportions, 15.3% vs. 14.2%; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.65; p = 0.94. The systematic review of LMAH data yielded a mesh-associated complication rate of 1.9% (41/2121; 95% CI, 1.3% to 2.5% for those series reporting at least one mesh-associated complication. The Markov Monte Carlo decision-analytic model revealed a procedure-related mortality rate of 1.6% for LMAH and 1.8% for LH.Mesh application should be considered for LPHR because it reduces recurrences at least in the mid-term. Overall procedure-related complications and mortality seem to not be increased despite of potential mesh-associated complications.

  6. The influence of costs and benefits' analysis on service strategy formulation: Learnings from the shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Andersen, Jakob Axel Bejbro

    2017-01-01

    Although servitization as a transformation process is being recognized by an increasing number of firms as a source of competitive advantage, the role of economic evaluations in service strategy formulation has so far attracted limited attention–and predominantly from the manufacturer perspective....... This paper assesses how the analysis of costs and benefits of Product-Service Systems (PSS) as servitized offerings influences the formulation of service strategies in the shipping industry. The study examines both the manufacturer and customer perspectives using two case studies from the shipping sector...... manufacturers and customers. For both case studies the LCC revealed that, while the PSS resulted in a decrease in life cycle costs and a possible revenue opportunity, there was also a lack of fundamental demand for PSS that could complicate the formulation of service strategies. Towards formulating service...

  7. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Early Childhood Hygiene Interventions in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan ATANIYAZOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies cost-benefit analysis (CBA technique to estimate the effectiveness of hand hygiene and oral health interventions in Uzbekistan for children of kindergarten age (3-6 years old. Our primary objective in this study is to apply CBA framework to investigate economic viability of hand hygiene and oral health interventions on respiratory diseases (influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia, intestinal diseases (diarrhea, hepatitis A, and helminthiasis, and dental caries and stomatitis. Though it is often difficult to attribute a specific hygiene intervention to a reduction in specific illness, our study shows that prevention of disease through hygiene promotion is cost-effective. To be the most effective, however, hygiene interventions should be accompanied by education and awareness-raising of teachers, parents and children.

  8. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope....... The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...... with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas...

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  10. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results.

  11. Evaluation of Cloud Computing Hidden Benefits by Using Real Options Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Náplava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies have brought new attributes to the IT world. One of them is a flexibility of IT resources. It enables effectively both to downsize and upsize the capacity of IT resources in real time. Requirements for IT size change defines business strategy and actual market state. IT costs are not stable but dynamic in this case. Standard investment valuation methods (both static and dynamic are not able to include the flexibility attribute to the evaluation of IT projects. This article describes the application of the Real Options Analysis method for the valuation of the cloud computing flexibility. The method compares costs of the on-premise and cloud computing solutions by combining put and call option valuation. Cloud computing providers can use the method as an advanced tool that explains hidden benefits of cloud computing. Unexperienced cloud computing customers can simulate the market behavior and better plan necessary IT investments.

  12. Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

  13. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark;

    2013-01-01

    with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas......This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope....... The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...

  14. Value Benefit Analysis Software and Its Application in Bolu-Lake Abant Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Lutfu Corbaci

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Value benefit analysis (VBA is a psychometric instrument for finding the best compromise in forestry multiple-use planning, when the multiple objectives cannot be expressed in the same physical or monetary unit. It insures a systematic assessment of the consequences of proposed alternatives and thoroughly documents the decision process. The method leads to a ranking of alternatives based upon weighting of the objectives and evaluation of the contribution of each alternative to these objectives. The use of the method is illustrated with hypothetical data about Bolu-Lake Abant Natural Park (BLANP. In this study, in addition, computer software controlling the confidence was created. This software puts into practice the method proposed by Churchman and Ackoff, and determines the significance of the alternatives quickly and accurately.

  15. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope...... with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas...... amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken....

  16. Benefit-cost analysis of selected DOE/OHER investments in coal liquefaction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fillo, J.P.; Gray, R.H.; Felix, W.D.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-09-01

    Based in large part of the lack of specific information about the nature and magnitude of health impacts that could occur from commercialization of a coal liquefaction industry, DOE initiated a broad-based program to study the potential health and environmental fate and effects of process streams from several coal liquefaction process options. Responsibility for this research was assigned to OHER. Specific results of this research program that are important for the purpose of this analysis include findings that: the toxicity and teratogenic potential of coal liquids boiling below 450/sup 0/F is small; mutagenic and carcinogenic activity is typically expressed in coal liquids boiling above 750/sup 0/F; and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity increases markedly in coal liquids boiling above 800/sup 0/F. Based on the above findings, OHER funded research to evaluate the effect of various hydrotreatment levels on the biological activity of coal-derived liquids. Studies using the Ames assay or mammalian cell transformation assays indicated that hydrotreatment was effective in reducing biological activity of coal-derived liquids. Skin-painting studies demonstrated that carcinogenicity was also reduced by hydrotreatment. Studies in progress are evaluating the effects of hydrotreatment severity on biological activity. However, it appears reasonably clear that health risks can be reduced by hydrotreating only materials that boil above 750/sup 0/F. Materials boiling below 750/sup 0/ could be marketed directly without significant risk to individuals exposed to these products. The benefit-cost analysis presented is based on the premise that the cost differential between full and partial hydrotreatment provides the basis for approximating the potential benefits associated with the relevant OHER research investments.

  17. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Francisco AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used Methods Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions and malaria transmission risk using imported malaria cases and numbers of travellers to malarious countries. By calculating the minimal threshold malaria risk below which the economic costs of chemoprophylaxis are greater than the avoided health costs we were able to identify the point at which chemoprophylaxis would be economically rational. Results The threshold incidence at which malaria chemoprophylaxis policy becomes cost effective for UK travellers is an accumulated risk of 1.13% assuming a given set of cost parameters. The period a travellers need to remain exposed to achieve this accumulated risk varied from 30 to more than 365 days, depending on the regions intensity of malaria transmission. Conclusions The cost-benefit analysis identified that chemoprophylaxis use was not a cost-effective policy for travellers to Thailand or the Amazon region of Brazil, but was cost-effective for travel to West Africa and for those staying longer than 45 days in India and Indonesia.

  18. Biomarkers of acute appendicitis: systematic review and cost-benefit trade-off analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Amish; Markar, Sheraz R; Ni, Melody; Hanna, George B

    2017-03-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and can represent a challenging diagnosis, with a negative appendectomy rate as high as 20 %. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of individual biomarkers in the diagnosis of appendicitis and appraise the quality of these studies. A systematic review of the literature between January 2000 and September 2015 using of PubMed, OvidMedline, EMBASE and Google Scholar was conducted. Studies in which the diagnostic accuracy, statistical heterogeneity and predictive ability for severity of several biomarkers could be elicited were included. Information regarding costs and process times was retrieved from the regional laboratory. European surgeons blinded to these reviews were independently asked to rank which characteristics of biomarkers were most important in acute appendicitis to inform a cost-benefit trade-off. Sensitivity testing and the QUADAS-2 tool were used to assess the robustness of the analysis and study quality, respectively. Sixty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Traditional biomarkers (such as white cell count) were found to have a moderate diagnostic accuracy (0.75) but lower costs in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Conversely, novel markers (pro-calcitonin, IL 6 and urinary 5-HIAA) were found to have high process-related costs including analytical times, but improved diagnostic accuracy. QUADAS-2 analysis revealed significant potential biases in the literature. When assessing biomarkers, an appreciation of the trade-offs between the costs and benefits of individual biomarkers is needed. Further studies should seek to investigate new biomarkers and address concerns over bias, in order to improve the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  19. Preliminary failure modes and effects analysis on Korean HCCR TBS to be tested in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Postulated initiating events are identified through failure modes and effects analysis on the current HCCR TBS design. • A set of postulated initiating events are selected for consideration of deterministic analysis. • Accident evolutions on the selected postualted initiating events are qualitatively described for deterministic analysis. - Abstract: Korean Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) Test blanket system (TBS), which comprises Test blanket module (TBM) and ancillary systems in various locations of ITER building, is operated at high temperature and pressure with decay heat. Therefore, safety is utmost concern in design process and it is required to demonstrate that the HCCR TBS is designed to comply with the safety requirements and guidelines of ITER. Due to complexity of the system with many interfaces with ITER, a systematic approach is necessary for safety analysis. This paper presents preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study performed for the HCCR TBS. FMEA is a systematic methodology in which failure modes for components in the system and their consequences are studied from the bottom-up. Over eighty failure modes have been investigated on the HCCR TBS. The failure modes that have similar consequences are grouped as postulated initiating events (PIEs) and total seven reference accident scenarios are derived from FMEA study for deterministic accident analysis. Failure modes not covered here due to evolving design of the HCCR TBS and uncertainty in maintenance procedures will be studied further in near future.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  1. Application of Bayesian and cost benefit risk analysis in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varouchakis, E. A.; Palogos, I.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Decision making is a significant tool in water resources management applications. This technical note approaches a decision dilemma that has not yet been considered for the water resources management of a watershed. A common cost-benefit analysis approach, which is novel in the risk analysis of hydrologic/hydraulic applications, and a Bayesian decision analysis are applied to aid the decision making on whether or not to construct a water reservoir for irrigation purposes. The alternative option examined is a scaled parabolic fine variation in terms of over-pumping violations in contrast to common practices that usually consider short-term fines. The methodological steps are analytically presented associated with originally developed code. Such an application, and in such detail, represents new feedback. The results indicate that the probability uncertainty is the driving issue that determines the optimal decision with each methodology, and depending on the unknown probability handling, each methodology may lead to a different optimal decision. Thus, the proposed tool can help decision makers to examine and compare different scenarios using two different approaches before making a decision considering the cost of a hydrologic/hydraulic project and the varied economic charges that water table limit violations can cause inside an audit interval. In contrast to practices that assess the effect of each proposed action separately considering only current knowledge of the examined issue, this tool aids decision making by considering prior information and the sampling distribution of future successful audits.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the proliferation-associated protein Ebp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalinski, Eva; Bange, Gert; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard, E-mail: irmi.sinning@bzh.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center, INF 328, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-09-01

    Preliminary X-ray analysis of the proliferation-associated protein Ebp1 from Homo sapiens is provided. ErbB-3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1) is a member of the family of proliferation-associated 2G4 proteins (PA2G4s) and plays a role in cellular growth and differentiation. Ligand-induced activation of the transmembrane receptor ErbB3 leads to dissociation of Ebp1 from the receptor in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The non-associated protein is involved in transcriptional and translational regulation in the cell. Here, the overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of Ebp1 from Homo sapiens are reported. Initially observed crystals were improved by serial seeding to single crystals suitable for data collection. The optimized crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and diffracted to a resolution of 1.6 Å.

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Assessment of Ergonomic Interventions Effects: Case Study Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammad faam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: In Economic and competitive world today,cost-benefit analysis is one of the most important parameters for any intervention.The purpose of thisstudy was cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions effects in Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company. Methods:At first all workstations of the company assessed using QEC. Thenthose earned more than 70% in QEC assessed by OWAS. By analyzing the results of these two methods, the “Haarp welding” workstation selected as the critical one. After presentation of possible solutions in specialized committee, the final solution selected and cost-benefit analysis done by CyberManS tool. Finally after implementing the intervention workstation reassessed. Findings:The results of the survey showed that the final score of assessment using QEC, OWAS and NASA-TLX before the intervention was 84.7%, 3 and 75.4, respectively and after the intervention was 47.5%, 1 and 42.7 that witnesses a significant reduction in all three methods of assessment. Also the result of cost-benefit analysis by CyberManS showed that by spending 110 million rials after 1.5 years the investment returned and profitability initiated. Conclusion:In addition to reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic interventions have financial benefits by increasing the productivity and production, reducing the compensation and the lost work days can also cause financial benefits.

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Green Infrastructures on Community Stormwater Reduction and Utilization: A Case of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Weiping; Feng, Qi; Peng, Chi; Kang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is demanded for guiding the plan, design and construction of green infrastructure practices in rapidly urbanized regions. We developed a framework to calculate the costs and benefits of different green infrastructures on stormwater reduction and utilization. A typical community of 54,783 m2 in Beijing was selected for case study. For the four designed green infrastructure scenarios (green space depression, porous brick pavement, storage pond, and their combination), the average annual costs of green infrastructure facilities are ranged from 40.54 to 110.31 thousand yuan, and the average of the cost per m3 stormwater reduction and utilization is 4.61 yuan. The total average annual benefits of stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures of the community are ranged from 63.24 to 250.15 thousand yuan, and the benefit per m3 stormwater reduction and utilization is ranged from 5.78 to 11.14 yuan. The average ratio of average annual benefit to cost of four green infrastructure facilities is 1.91. The integrated facilities had the highest economic feasibility with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.27, and followed by the storage pond construction with a benefit to cost ratio of 2.14. The results suggested that while the stormwater reduction and utilization by green infrastructures had higher construction and maintenance costs, their comprehensive benefits including source water replacements benefits, environmental benefits and avoided cost benefits are potentially interesting. The green infrastructure practices should be promoted for sustainable management of urban stormwater.

  5. Multi-dimensional project evaluation: Combining cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis with the COSIMA software system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down a problem into its constituent parts in order to better understand the problem and consequently arrive at a decision. However, while MCA opens up for the possibility to include non-market impacts, it does not provide the decision makers with guidance combining the CBA with MCA. In the paper...... in a valuating all the criteria in monetary terms. Thus CBA does not meet the need for a comprehensive evaluation, for which reason MCA is introduced to overcome this problem. Not only does MCA provides an opportunity to include non-market impacts in the analysis, but MCA also provides a framework for breaking......, citizens in Nuuk and other citizens in Greenland) are examined and compared. The cost-benefit analysis of the three airport alternatives includes impacts like travel time (for business and local travellers), waiting time, drawback of shifts, regularity, out of pocket costs, operating costs...

  6. A Cost to Benefit Analysis of a Next Generation Electric Power Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Apurva

    This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast protection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs. Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this reflects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a

  7. The Impact of Outliers on Net-Benefit Regression Model in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Ordinary least square (OLS) in regression has been widely used to analyze patient-level data in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). However, the estimates, inference and decision making in the economic evaluation based on OLS estimation may be biased by the presence of outliers. Instead, robust estimation can remain unaffected and provide result which is resistant to outliers. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of outliers on net-benefit regression (NBR) in CEA using OLS and to propose a potential solution by using robust estimations, i.e. Huber M-estimation, Hampel M-estimation, Tukey's bisquare M-estimation, MM-estimation and least trimming square estimation. Simulations under different outlier-generating scenarios and an empirical example were used to obtain the regression estimates of NBR by OLS and five robust estimations. Empirical size and empirical power of both OLS and robust estimations were then compared in the context of hypothesis testing. Simulations showed that the five robust approaches compared with OLS estimation led to lower empirical sizes and achieved higher empirical powers in testing cost-effectiveness. Using real example of antiplatelet therapy, the estimated incremental net-benefit by OLS estimation was lower than those by robust approaches because of outliers in cost data. Robust estimations demonstrated higher probability of cost-effectiveness compared to OLS estimation. The presence of outliers can bias the results of NBR and its interpretations. It is recommended that the use of robust estimation in NBR can be an appropriate method to avoid such biased decision making.

  8. Determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation in Georgia: can the approach help inform benefit package design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsadze, George; Tang, Wenze; Shengelia, Natia; Zoidze, Akaki

    2017-05-02

    The healthcare financing reforms initiated by the Government of Georgia in 2007 have positively affected inpatient service utilisation and enhanced financial protection, especially for the poor, but they have failed to facilitate outpatient service use among chronic patients. Non-communicable diseases significantly affect Georgia's ageing population. Consequently, in this paper, we look at the evidence emerging from determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation and if the finding can help identify possible policy choices in Georgia, especially regarding benefit package design for individuals with chronic conditions. We used Andersen's behavioural model of health service utilisation to identify the critical determinants that affect outpatient service use. A multinomial logistic regression was carried out with complex survey design using the data from two nationally representative cross-sectional population-based health utilisation and expenditure surveys conducted in Georgia in 2007 and 2010, which allowed us to assess the relationship between the determinants and outpatient service use. The study revealed the determinants that significantly impede outpatient service use. Low income, 45- to 64-year-old Georgian males with low educational attainment and suffering from a chronic health problem have the lowest odds for service use compared to the rest of the population. Using Andersen's behavioural model and assessing the determinants of outpatient service use has the potential to inform possible policy responses, especially those driving services use among chronic patients. The possible policy responses include reducing financial access barriers with the help of public subsidies for sub-groups of the population with the lowest access to care; focusing/expanding state-funded benefits for the most prevalent chronic conditions, which are responsible for the greatest disease burden; or supporting chronic disease management programs for the most prevalent chronic

  9. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act. Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg.

  10. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, M V; Leino, O; Kollanus, V; Tuomisto, J T; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Tijhuis, M J; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Environmental health assessment covers a broad area: virtually all systematic analysis to support decision making on issues relevant to environment and health. Consequently, various different approaches have been developed and applied for different needs within the broad field. In this paper we explore the plurality of approaches and attempt to reveal the state-of-the-art in environmental health assessment by characterizing and explicating the similarities and differences between them. A diverse, yet concise, set of approaches to environmental health assessment is analyzed in terms of nine attributes: purpose, problem owner, question, answer, process, use, interaction, performance and establishment. The conclusions of the analysis underline the multitude and complexity of issues in environmental health assessment as well as the variety of perspectives taken to address them. In response to the challenges, a tendency towards developing and applying more inclusive, pragmatic and integrative approaches can be identified. The most interesting aspects of environmental health assessment are found among these emerging approaches: (a) increasing engagement between assessment and management as well as stakeholders, (b) strive for framing assessments according to specific practical policy needs, (c) integration of multiple benefits and risks, as well as (d) explicit incorporation of both scientific facts and value statements in assessment. However, such approaches are yet to become established, and many contemporary mainstream environmental health assessment practices can still be characterized as relatively traditional risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Some remarks concerning the Cost/Benefit Analysis applied to LHC at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig

    2015-01-01

    The cost/benefit analysis originally developed for infrastructures in the economic sector has recently been extended by Florio et al to infrastructures of basic research. As a case study the large accelerator LHC at CERN and its experiments have been selected since as a paradigmatic example of frontier research they offer an excellent case to test the CBA model. It will be shown that in spite of this improved method the LHC poses serious difficulties for such an analysis. Some principle difficulties are due to the special character of scientific projects. Their main result is the production of new basic scientific knowledge whose net social value cannot be easily expressed in monetary terms. Other problems are related to the very strong integration of LHC into the general activities of CERN providing however, interesting observations concerning a new management style for global projects. Finally the mission of CERN (including LHC) is unique since it was founded with two tasks - promote science and bring natio...

  12. Preliminary Analysis on the Relative Solution Space Sizes for MTSP with Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junling

    It is well known that the chromosome design is pivotal to solve the multiple traveling salesman problems with genetic algorithm. A well-designed chromosome coding can eliminate or reduce the redundant solutions. One chromosome and two chromosome design methods and a recently proposed two-part chromosome design are firstly introduced in this paper. Then the preliminary quantitative comparison analysis of the solution spaces of three different chromosome design methods is presented when the number of cities is linear with the travelers. The concept of relative solution space is proposed in order to compare the relative size of the solution spaces. The solution space of two-part chromosome design is much smaller than those of the traditional chromosome design. The result given in this paper provides a good guideline for the possible algorithmic design and engineering applications.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of alginate importer from Sphingomonas sp. A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2012-03-01

    Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharides through a 'superchannel' comprising a pit on the cell surface, alginate-binding proteins in the periplasm and an ABC transporter (alginate importer) in the inner membrane. Alginate importer, consisting of four subunits, AlgM1, AlgM2 and two molecules of AlgS, was crystallized in the presence of the binding protein AlgQ2. Preliminary X-ray analysis showed that the crystal diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 72.5, b = 136.8, c = 273.3 Å, suggesting the presence of one complex in the asymmetric unit.

  14. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Rv1674c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Wang, Xudong; Gong, Weimin; Niu, Chunyan; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to hypoxia play an important role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. Rv0324, which contains an HTH DNA-binding domain and a rhodanese domain, is one of the key transcription regulators in response to hypoxia. M. tuberculosis Rv1674c is a homologue of Rv0324. To understand the interdomain interaction and regulation of the HTH domain and the rhodanese domain, recombinant Rv1674c protein was purified and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction analysis suggests that the crystals belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.8, c = 174.5 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.44 Å3 Da−1, assuming that the crystallographic asymmetric unit contains two protein molecules. PMID:25760714

  16. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MadhumithaG; SaralAM

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the phytochemical, antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activity of successive extracts of Crossandra infundibuliformis (Acanthaceae) leaves. Methods:Preliminary screening on the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, tannins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, oils and fats were carried out by phytochemical analysis. The antibacterial, antifungal and anticandidal activities were done by agar well diffusion technique. Results:The successive extracts have an array of chemical constituents and the MIC values of antibacterial activity ranges from 0.007 8 to 0.015 0μg/mL. In case of antifungal and anticandidal activities the MIC values were between 0.125 and 0.250μg/mL. Conclusions:These findings demonstrate that the leaf extracts of C. infundibuliformis presents excellent antimicrobial activities and thus have great potential as a source for natural health care products.

  17. Preliminary C3 Loading Analysis for Future High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yan-Shek; Gheorghisor, Izabela; Box, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary assessment and summary of the command, control, and communications (C(sup 3)) loading requirements of a generic future high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft (UA) operating at in the National Airspace System. Two principal types of C(sup 3) traffic are considered in our analysis: communications links providing air traffic services (ATS) to the UA and its human pilot, and the command and control data links enabling the pilot to operate the UA remotely. we have quantified the loading requirements of both types of traffic for two different assumed levels of UA autonomy. Our results indicate that the potential use of UA-borne relays for the ATS links, and the degree of autonomy exercised by the UA during the departure and arrival phases of its flight, will be among the key drivers of C(sup 3) loading and bandwidth requirements.

  18. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  19. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of components and of certain furnace zones. Physical interconnection of parallel thermal control subsystems through a common pump implies the description of the TCS by coupled nonlinear differential equations in pressure and flow. This report formulates the system equations and develops the controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to satisfy flow rate tracking requirements. Extensive digital simulation results are presented to show the flow rate tracking performance.

  20. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK: preliminary crystallographic analysis of the first viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeudy, Sandra; Coutard, Bruno; Lebrun, Régine; Abergel, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    The complete sequence of the largest known double-stranded DNA virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, has recently been determined [Raoult et al. (2004), Science, 306, 1344-1350] and revealed numerous genes not expected to be found in a virus. A comprehensive structural and functional study of these gene products was initiated [Abergel et al. (2005), Acta Cryst. F61, 212-215] both to better understand their role in the virus physiology and to obtain some clues to the origin of DNA viruses. Here, the preliminary crystallographic analysis of the viral nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein is reported. The crystal belongs to the cubic space group P2(1)3, with unit-cell parameter 99.425 A. The self-rotation function confirms that there are two monomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold non-crystallographic axis and that the unit cell thus contains four biological entities.

  1. Preliminary analysis of habitat utilization by woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Hillis

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Locational data collected over a one year period from 10 female woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, collared with Argos satellite collars in northwestern Ontario, Canada were superimposed on supervised Landsat images using Geographical Information System (GIS technology. Landscape parameters, land cover classifications, and drainage were utilized to create the basemap. Using ARCVIEW software, all digital fixes from collared caribou with information of date, time, and activity status were overlain on the basemap to facilitate a preliminary analysis of habitat use in this species. Results supported the conclusions (1 that woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario select habitats containing high to moderate conifer cover and avoided disturbed areas and shrub-rich habitats, (2 that seasonal changes in habitat utilization occurs in females of this species, and (3 that satellite telemetry technology can be employed in the boreal forest ecosystem to assess habitat utilization by large ungulate species.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Leishmania major glyoxalase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza, Antonio; Vickers, Tim J.; Greig, Neil; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Bond, Charles S., E-mail: c.s.bond@dundee.ac.uk [Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The detoxification enzyme glyoxalase I from L. major has been crystallized. Preliminary molecular-replacement calculations indicate the presence of three glyoxalase I dimers in the asymmetric unit. Glyoxalase I (GLO1) is a putative drug target for trypanosomatids, which are pathogenic protozoa that include the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Significant sequence and functional differences between Leishmania major and human GLO1 suggest that it may make a suitable template for rational inhibitor design. L. major GLO1 was crystallized in two forms: the first is extremely disordered and does not diffract, while the second, an orthorhombic form, produces diffraction to 2.0 Å. Molecular-replacement calculations indicate that there are three GLO1 dimers in the asymmetric unit, which take up a helical arrangement with their molecular dyads arranged approximately perpendicular to the c axis. Further analysis of these data are under way.

  3. Cognitive Work Analysis: Preliminary Data for a Model of Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmayer, Mark; Blue, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Investigations into problem solving strategies are part of the field of physics education research where investigators seek to improve physics instruction by conducting basic research of problem solving abilities among students, differences in knowledge representations between experts and novices, and how to transfer knowledge structures more effectively onto novices. We developed a new conceptual research tool in our laboratory, where we could potentially map the step by step flow of problem solving strategies among experts and novices. This model is derived from the theory of Cognitive Work Analysis, which is grounded in ecological psychology, and as far as we know it has never been applied to a knowledge domain like physics. We collected survey data from 140 undergraduates enrolled in an algebra based introductory physics course at Miami University as part of a larger study aimed to test the validity of the model. Preliminary data will be presented and discussed.

  4. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E; Schlatter, J

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. As yet, there is no human screening test and no effective treatment. This disease is invariably fatal. General preventive measures are therefore essential. The objective of this study is to analyze and address on a prioritized basis the risks relating to the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during surgical operations by means of a preliminary risk analysis (PRA). The PRA produces 63 scenarios with maximum risk relating to operational and legal dangers. The study recommends a number of courses of action, such as training and internal controls, in order to reduce the risks identified. A procedure has been drawn up and assessed for each action. This PRA makes it possible to target and significantly reduce the potential dangers for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease through the use of medical instruments.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uridine phosphorylase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsova, Mariya V; Savochkina, Yulia A; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G; Baidakov, Sergey N; Lyashenko, Andrey V; Zolotukhina, Maria; Errais Lopes, Liubov; Garber, Mariya B; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu; Nikonov, Stanislav V; Mironov, Alexandr S; Ealick, Steven E; Mikhailov, Al 'Bert M

    2004-04-01

    The structural udp gene encoding uridine phosphorylase (UPh) was cloned from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. S. typhimurium UPh (StUPh) was purified to apparent homogeneity and crystallized. The primary structure of StUPh has high homology to the UPh from E. coli, but the enzymes differ substantially in substrate specificity and sensitivity to the polarity of the medium. Single crystals of StUPh were grown using hanging-drop vapor diffusion with PEG 8000 as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 A resolution. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicated that the crystal belonged to space group P6(1(5)), with unit-cell parameters a = 92.3, c = 267.5 A. The solvent content is 37.7% assuming the presence of one StUPh hexamer per asymmetric unit.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of West Nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Barbel; Plevka, Pavel; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue)

    2010-05-25

    West Nile virus, a human pathogen, is closely related to other medically important flaviviruses of global impact such as dengue virus. The infectious virus was purified from cell culture using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and density-gradient centrifugation. Thin amorphously shaped crystals of the lipid-enveloped virus were grown in quartz capillaries equilibrated by vapor diffusion. Crystal diffraction extended at best to a resolution of about 25 {angstrom} using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis of the diffraction images indicated that the crystals had unit-cell parameters a {approx_equal} b {approx_equal} 480 {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, suggesting a tight hexagonal packing of one virus particle per unit cell.

  7. Preliminary performance analysis of the advanced pulse compression noise radar waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Mark A.; Moyer, Lee R.

    2012-06-01

    Noise radar systems encounter target fluctuation behavior similar to that of conventional systems. For noise radar systems, however, the fluctuations are not only dictated by target composition and geometry, but also by the non-uniform power envelope of their random transmit signals. This third dependency is of interest and serves as the basis for the preliminary analysis conducted in this manuscript. General conclusions are drawn on the implications of having a random power envelope and the impacts it could have on both the transmit and receive processes. Using an advanced pulse compression noise (APCN) radar waveform as the constituent signal, a computer simulation aids in quantifying potential losses and the impacts they might have on the detection performance of a real radar system.

  8. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Aircraft Loss of Control Accidents: Worst Case Precursor Combinations and Temporal Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Groff, Loren; Newman, Richard L.; Foster, John V.; Crider, Dennis H.; Klyde, David H.; Huston, A. McCall

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft loss of control (LOC) is a leading cause of fatal accidents across all transport airplane and operational classes, and can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of conditions and uncertainties, including multiple hazards, and their validation must provide a means of assessing system effectiveness and coverage of these hazards. This requires the definition of a comprehensive set of LOC test scenarios based on accident and incident data as well as future risks. This paper defines a comprehensive set of accidents and incidents over a recent 15 year period, and presents preliminary analysis results to identify worst-case combinations of causal and contributing factors (i.e., accident precursors) and how they sequence in time. Such analyses can provide insight in developing effective solutions for LOC, and form the basis for developing test scenarios that can be used in evaluating them. Preliminary findings based on the results of this paper indicate that system failures or malfunctions, crew actions or inactions, vehicle impairment conditions, and vehicle upsets contributed the most to accidents and fatalities, followed by inclement weather or atmospheric disturbances and poor visibility. Follow-on research will include finalizing the analysis through a team consensus process, defining future risks, and developing a comprehensive set of test scenarios with correlation to the accidents, incidents, and future risks. Since enhanced engineering simulations are required for batch and piloted evaluations under realistic LOC precursor conditions, these test scenarios can also serve as a high-level requirement for defining the engineering simulation enhancements needed for generating them.

  10. The Benefit Risk Assessment of Consumption of Marine Species Based on Benefit-Risk Analysis for Foods (BRAFO)-tiered Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi Xiong; ZHANG Hong Xia; LI Jing Guang; ZHANG Lei; YU Xin Wei; HE Jia Lu; SHANG Xiao Hong; ZHAO Yun Feng; WU Yong Ning

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the net health effect caused by the consumption of specific marine species based on Benefit-Risk Analysis for Foods (BRAFO)-tiered approach. Methods Twenty species were collected from the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. Concentrations of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, methyl mercury (MeHg), and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in the samples were analyzed for benefit risk assessment based on BRAFO-tiered approach. Results Based on the BRAFO-tiered approach, reference scenario (no intake) and alternative scenario (intake of specific species of 200 g/week) were determined. The exposure to MeHg/DLCs via alternative scenario of all studied species did not exceed provisional tolerable weekly/monthly intake. However, the adult population with high DLCs exposure in China would significantly exceed the upper limit of DLCs via an additional alternative scenario of some species such as Auxis thazard. The results of deterministic computation showed that alternative scenario of all studied species generated clear net beneficial effects on death prevention and child IQ gain. Conclusion The alternative scenario of all studied species could be recommended to population with average DLCs exposure, and the reference scenario of species with relatively high DLCs concentration could be recommended to population exposed to high DLCs.

  11. Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-04-05

    A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market

  12. Perpetuating Puffery: An Analysis of the Composition of OMB's Reported Benefits of Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Susan E Dudley

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget reports that the benefits of regulations issued over the last decade exceed the costs by an order of magnitude. But how accurate are those estimates? Over 80 percent of total reported regulatory benefits derive from three sources: (1) reductions of fine particles in the air as a direct result of regulation, (2) the co-benefits achieved from ancillary reductions in these particles as an indirect result of regulation, and (3) private savings for which agencie...

  13. Development of default uncertainties for the value/benefit attributes in the regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V., E-mail: Ray.Gallucci@nrc.gov

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Uncertainties for values/benefits. • Upper bound four times higher than mean. • Distributional histograms. - Abstract: NUREG/BR-0184, Regulatory Analysis Technical Evaluation (RATE) Handbook, was produced in 1997 as an update to the original NUREG/CR-3568, A Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (1983). Both documents, especially the later RATE Handbook, have been used extensively by the USNRC and its contractors not only for regulatory analyses to support backfit considerations but also for similar applications, such as Severe Accident Management Alternative (SAMA) analyses as part of license renewals. While both provided high-level guidance on the performance of uncertainty analyses for the various value/benefit attributes, detailed quantification was not of prime interest at the times of the Handbooks’ development, defaulting only to best estimates with low and high bounds on these attributes. As the USNRC examines the possibility of updating the RATE Handbook, renewed interest in a more quantitative approach to uncertainty analyses for the attributes has surfaced. As the result of an effort to enhance the RATE Handbook to permit at least default uncertainty analyses for the value/benefit attributes, it has proven feasible to assign default uncertainties in terms of 95th %ile upper bounds (and absolute lower bounds) on the five dominant value/benefit attributes, and their sum, when performing a regulatory analysis via the RATE Handbook. Appropriate default lower bounds of zero (no value/benefit) and an upper bound (95th %ile) that is four times higher than the mean (for individual value/benefit attributes) or three times higher (for their summation) can be recommended. Distributions in the form of histograms on the summed value/benefit attributes are also provided which could be combined, after appropriate scaling and most likely via simulation, with their counterpart(s) from the impact/cost analysis to yield a final distribution on the net

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of climate change dynamics. Uncertainties and the value of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rable, A. [Centre Energetique et Procedes, Ecole des Mines, Paris (France); Van der Zwaan, B.C.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    damage costs are three times larger or smaller than the estimate, the total social cost of global climate change increases by less than 20% above its minimum at the true optimal emission level. Because of the enormous magnitude of the total costs involved with climate change (mitigation), however, even a small relative error implies large additional expenses in absolute terms. To evaluate the benefit of reducing cost uncertainties, we plot the cost penalty as function of the uncertainty in relative damage and abatement costs, expressed as geometric standard deviation and standard deviation respectively. If continued externality analysis reduces the geometric standard deviation of relative damage cost estimates from 5 to 4, the benefit is 0.05% of the present value G{sub tot} of total gross word product over 150 years (about USD 3.9 x 10{sup 15}), and if further research reduces the standard deviation of relative abatement costs from 1 to 0.5, the benefit is 0.03% of G{sub tot}.

  15. Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-04-05

    A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market

  16. Risks and Benefits of Multimodal Esophageal Cancer Treatments: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhao, Fen; Zeng, Yan; Yi, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer has traditionally been associated with very poor outcomes. A number of therapies are available for the treatment and palliation of esophageal cancer, but little systematic evidence compares the efficacy of different treatment strategies. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether treatments in addition to radiotherapy could provide better efficacy and safety. Material/Methods We identified a total of 12 eligible studies with 18 study arms by searching PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials.gov without time or language restrictions. The final search was conducted on 17 August 2016. We calculated mean differences (MD) and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous and dichotomous data, respectively. Heterogeneity was calculated and reported using Tau2, Chi2, and I2 analyses. Results Twelve studies with 18 study arms were included in the analysis. Addition of surgery to chemo-radiotherapy resulted in improved median survival time (p=0.009) compared with chemo-radiotherapy alone, but all other outcomes were unaffected. Strikingly, and in contrast with patients with squamous cell carcinomas, the subset of patients with adenocarcinoma who received therapies in addition to radiotherapy showed a significant improvement in median survival time (p<0.0001), disease-free survival (p=0.007), 2-year survival rates (p=0.002), and 3-year survival rates (p=0.01). The incidence of adverse effects increased substantially with additional therapies. Conclusions This meta-analysis reveals stark differences in outcomes in patients depending on the type of carcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma should be educated about the risks and benefits of undergoing multiple therapies. PMID:28214903

  17. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  18. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  19. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  20. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  1. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  2. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  3. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  4. 21 CFR 312.84 - Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing applications for drugs to treat life-threatening and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.84 Risk-benefit analysis in review of marketing applications for... statutory standards for marketing approval shall recognize the need for a medical risk-benefit judgment...

  5. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters.

  6. A preliminary assessment of using a white light confocal imaging profiler for cut mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher W; Moore, Christopher R; Leifheit, Randell

    2012-01-01

    White light confocal microscopy creates detailed 3D representations of microsurfaces that can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The study describes its application to the analysis of cut marks on bone, particularly when discerning cuts made by steel tools from those made by stone. The process described comes from a study where cuts were manually made on a cow rib with seven cutting tools, four stone (an unmodified chert flake, a chert biface, a bifacially ground slate fragment, and an unsharpened piece of slate), and three steel (a Swiss Army Knife, a serrate steak knife, and a serrate saw). Kerfs were magnified ×20 and 3D data clouds were generated using a Sensofar(®) White Light Confocal Profiler (WLCP). Kerf profiles and surface areas, volumes, mean depths, and maximum depths were calculated with proprietary software (SensoScan(®) and SolarMap(®)). For the most part, the stone tools make shallower and wider cuts. Kerf floors can be studied at higher magnifications; they were viewed at ×100. When comparing the kerf floors of the unsharpened slate and the serrate steak knife it was found that the slate floor was more uneven, but the serrate steak knife generated more overall relief. Although preliminary, the approach described here successfully distinguishes stone and steel tools; the authors conclude that the WLCP is a promising technology for cut mark analysis because of the very detailed 3D representations it creates and the numerous avenues of analysis it provides.

  7. Preliminary Drop Time Analysis of a Control Rod Using CFD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hong [SEST Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is a reactor regulating system, which can insert and withdraw a control rod containing a neutron absorbing material to control the reactivity of the reactor core. The latch type CRDM for the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is going to be used. The drop time of the control rod in the design stage is one of important parameters for a safety analysis of the reactor. When the control rod is falling down into the core, it is retarded by various forces acting on it such as fluid resistance buoyancy and mechanical friction caused by contacting the inner surface of the guide thimble, etc.. However, complicated coupling of the various forces makes it difficult to predict the drop behavior. This paper describes the development of the 3D CFD analysis model using a FLUENT code. The single control rod of the Westinghouse 17x17 type optimized fuel assembly (W-OFA) was considered for the verification of the CFD model. A preliminary drop time analysis for the SMART with the simulated control rod was performed

  8. Analysis of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR) with the AHP+ANP : A critical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that the usual multiplicative synthesis of alternative priorities for benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, obtained from separate Analytic Hierarchy or Network models, can be ambiguous. The ratio of benefit and opportunity priorities to cost and risk priorities can be misleadin

  9. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  10. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  11. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force (ADF has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies.

  12. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug's use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies.

  13. Computing what the public wants: some issues in road safety cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    2011-01-01

    In road safety, as in other fields, cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is used to justify the investment of public money and to establish priority between projects. It amounts to a computation by which 'few' - the CB analysts - aim to determine what the 'many' - those on behalf of which the choice is to be made - would choose. The question is whether there are grounds to believe that the tool fits the aim. I argue that the CBA tool is deficient. First, because estimates of the value of statistical life and injury on which the CBA computation rests are all over the place, inconsistent with the value of time estimates, and government guidance on the matter appears to be arbitrary. Second, because the premises of New Welfare Economics on which the CBA is founded apply only in circumstances which, in road safety, are rare. Third, because the CBA requires the computation of present values which must be questioned when the discounting is of future lives and of time. Because time savings are valued too highly when compared to life and because discounting tends to unjustifiably diminish the value of lives saved in the future, the CBA tends to bias decisions against investment in road safety.

  14. Adaption to extreme rainfall with open urban drainage system: an integrated hydrological cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken.

  15. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  16. Present Situation and Benefit Analysis of the Straw Recycling in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Currently,sustainable agricultural development in China is facing some big challenges of how to promote the present developing pattern,to lengthen material transformation chain,to increase the utilization rate of material and energy in agricultural system and to form a healthy agricultural ecological circulation system.China is a major country producing crops and straws.Both high-efficient utilizing pattern of straw and technological system are needed urgently.According to the field survey,we point out the status of straw utilization and the main recycling pattern in typical farming areas in Sichuan,China through the literature review and data collection.Based on the statistical analysis,the economic,environmental and social benefits of each utilization way are analyzed,and the methods and measures are proposed in order to promote recycling utilization of the straw in Sichuan farming area,and to offer theoretical guidance for energy saving,food safety,and pollution control.

  17. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projectionsfor State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-06-05

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to almost 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of twenty-six distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998 (see Figure 1 and Appendix for a complete list of the studies). Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in seventeen different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of the intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Benedetta; Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Tofani, Lorenzo; Skalamera, Ileana; Fiorenza, Giulia; Qirici, Eva; Cianchi, Fabio; Perigli, Giuliano

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the routine intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) assay, the role of unilateral and bilateral cervical exploration and of preoperative imaging, and to do a cost-benefit analysis in parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Two hundred sixty-four patients who underwent operations between January 2000 and March 2015 were retrospectively divided into 2 groups. Group A (IOPTH) was composed of 64 patients. Ultrasonography and technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) identified the adenoma in 38 cases. Bilateral exploration was performed in 43 patients; of which 2 failures occurred. The IOPTH false-negative rate was 18.4%. The average cost was €1297.30. Group B (without IOPTH) was composed of 200 patients. Ultrasonography and MIBI identified the adenoma in 113 cases. Bilateral exploration was performed in 129 patients; of which 2 failures occurred. The average cost was €618.75. The IOPTH assay should be used only in few selected cases because of its high cost. The experience of the team is essential to obtain a high cure rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 241-246, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Benefits of heat treatment to the protease packed neutrophil for proteome analysis: halting protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan A; Scaife, Caitríona; Dunn, Michael J; Wood, Alfred E; Watson, R William G

    2011-06-01

    Neutrophils, cells of the innate immune system, contain an array of proteases and reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes that assist in controlling the invasion of bacteria and pathogens. The high content of intracellular proteolytic enzymes makes them difficult cells to work with as they can degrade proteins of potential interest. Here, we describe the benefits of heat treatment of neutrophils in reducing protein degradation for subsequent proteome analysis. Neutrophils isolated from four healthy volunteers were each divided into three aliquots and subjected to different preparation methods for 2-DE: (i) Heat treatment, (ii) resuspension in NP40 lysis buffer and (iii) resuspension in standard 2-DE lysis buffer. Representative spots found to be statistically significant between groups (pHeat-treated samples contained proteins in the high-molecular-weight range that were absent from NP40-treated samples. Moreover, NP40-treated samples showed an increase in spot number and volume at lower molecular weights suggestive of protein degradation. Incorporating heat treatment into sample preparation resulted in the identification of proteins that may not have previously been detected due to sample degradation, thus leading to a more comprehensive 2-DE map of the human neutrophil proteome.

  20. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in south Mexico: cost/benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovilla-Hernández, C; Espino de la Lanza, G; Orihuela-Belmonte, D E

    2001-06-01

    Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha) and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day). A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2,555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD). Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented). After logging, temperatures increased 13 degrees C in the soil and 11 degrees C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3,000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246:1). There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  1. Time to benefit for colorectal cancer screening: survival meta-analysis of flexible sigmoidoscopy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Victoria; Boscardin, W John; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Lee, Sei J

    2015-04-16

    To determine the time to benefit of using flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Survival meta-analysis. A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review published in 2013, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials comparing screening flexible sigmoidoscopy with no screening. Trials with fewer than 100 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings were excluded. Four studies were eligible (total n = 459,814). They were similar for patients' age (50-74 years), length of follow-up (11.2-11.9 years), and relative risk for colorectal cancer related mortality (0.69-0.78 with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening). For every 1000 people screened at five and 10 years, 0.3 and 1.2 colorectal cancer related deaths, respectively, were prevented. It took 4.3 years (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 5.8) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.0002 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 5000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). It took 9.4 years (7.6 to 11.3) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.001 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 1000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). Our findings suggest that screening flexible sigmoidoscopy is most appropriate for older adults with a life expectancy greater than approximately 10 years. © Tang et al 2015.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Precipitation Properties and Processes during NASA GPM IFloodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence; Gatlin, Patrick; Petersen, Walt; Wingo, Matt; Lang, Timothy; Wolff, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) is a NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground measurement campaign, which took place in eastern Iowa from May 1 to June 15, 2013. The goals of the field campaign were to collect detailed measurements of surface precipitation using ground instruments and advanced weather radars while simultaneously collecting data from satellites passing overhead. Data collected by the radars and other ground instruments, such as disdrometers and rain gauges, will be used to characterize precipitation properties throughout the vertical column, including the precipitation type (e.g., rain, graupel, hail, aggregates, ice crystals), precipitation amounts (e.g., rain rate), and the size and shape of raindrops. The impact of physical processes, such as aggregation, melting, breakup and coalescence on the measured liquid and ice precipitation properties will be investigated. These ground observations will ultimately be used to improve rainfall estimates from satellites and in particular the algorithms that interpret raw data for the upcoming GPM mission's Core Observatory satellite, which launches in 2014. The various precipitation data collected will eventually be used as input to flood forecasting models in an effort to improve capabilities and test the utility and limitations of satellite precipitation data for flood forecasting. In this preliminary study, the focus will be on analysis of NASA NPOL (S-band, polarimetric) radar (e.g., radar reflectivity, differential reflectivity, differential phase, correlation coefficient) and NASA 2D Video Disdrometers (2DVDs) measurements. Quality control and processing of the radar and disdrometer data sets will be outlined. In analyzing preliminary cases, particular emphasis will be placed on 1) documenting the evolution of the rain drop size distribution (DSD) as a function of column melting processes and 2) assessing the impact of range on ground-based polarimetric radar estimates of DSD properties.

  3. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Ø; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit and risk perception with respect to food consumption, have been a part of human daily life from beginning of time. In today's society the food chain is long with many different types of actors and low degree of transparency. Making informed food choices where knowledge of benefits and risks is part of the decision making process are therefore complicated for consumers. Thus, to understand how consumers perceive benefits and risks of foods, their importance in relation to quality evaluations are aspects that need to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to discuss state of the art in understanding consumer perceptions of benefits and risks of foods in order to improve understanding of consumer behaviour in the food domain. Risks may be associated with both acute and long term consequences, some of which may have serious effects. Perceived risks are connected to morbidity and mortality along two dimensions relating to unknown risk, and to which extent the risk is dreaded by the consumer. Unfamiliar, uncertain, unknown, uncontrollable, and severe consequences are some factors associated with risk perception. Novel food processing techniques, for instance, score high on several of these parameters and are consequently regarded with suspicion and perceived as risky by consumers. On a daily basis, benefits of foods and food consumption are more important in most consumers' minds than risks. Benefits are often associated with food's ability to assuage hunger, and to provide pleasure through eating and socialising. In addition, two main categories of benefits that are important for acceptance of product innovations are health and environmental benefits. Benefit and risk perception of foods seem to be inversely correlated, so when something is perceived as being highly beneficial, it is correspondingly perceived as having low risk. However, slightly different paths are used in the formation of these perceptions; benefit perception is based on heuristics and

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. CURRENT CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS ANDABSORPTION OF THE STRUCTURAL AND COHESION FUNDS USED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to point out the poor absorption problem not only in Romania but also in other Member States of the European Union in terms of Structural and Cohesion Funds At the same time I will point out that the use of the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has big flaws when it comes to funding public investment decisions in the EU cohesion policy. In terms of the Cost Benefit Analysis when dealing with the purpose of using ex-ante (that is a priority of any public commitment to ...

  6. Two approaches to incorporate clinical data uncertainty into multiple criteria decision analysis for benefit-risk assessment of medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihua; Zhang, Lanju; Yang, Bo

    2014-07-01

    The Problem formulation, Objectives, Alternatives, Consequences, Trade-offs, Uncertainties, Risk attitude, and Linked decisions (PrOACT-URL) framework and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) have been recommended by the European Medicines Agency for structured benefit-risk assessment of medicinal products undergoing regulatory review. The objective of this article was to provide solutions to incorporate the uncertainty from clinical data into the MCDA model when evaluating the overall benefit-risk profiles among different treatment options. Two statistical approaches, the δ-method approach and the Monte-Carlo approach, were proposed to construct the confidence interval of the overall benefit-risk score from the MCDA model as well as other probabilistic measures for comparing the benefit-risk profiles between treatment options. Both approaches can incorporate the correlation structure between clinical parameters (criteria) in the MCDA model and are straightforward to implement. The two proposed approaches were applied to a case study to evaluate the benefit-risk profile of an add-on therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (drug X) relative to placebo. It demonstrated a straightforward way to quantify the impact of the uncertainty from clinical data to the benefit-risk assessment and enabled statistical inference on evaluating the overall benefit-risk profiles among different treatment options. The δ-method approach provides a closed form to quantify the variability of the overall benefit-risk score in the MCDA model, whereas the Monte-Carlo approach is more computationally intensive but can yield its true sampling distribution for statistical inference. The obtained confidence intervals and other probabilistic measures from the two approaches enhance the benefit-risk decision making of medicinal products. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  8. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2001-01-01

    Three connected sub-projects were conducted under reported project. Partially, these sub-projects are directed to solving the problems conducted by the HU/FM&AL under two other NASA grants. The fundamental idea uniting these projects is to use untraditional 3D corrugated nozzle designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust lost and even with thrust augmentation. Such additional approaches are: (1) to add some solid, fluid, or gas mass at discrete locations to the main supersonic gas stream to minimize the negative influence of strong shock waves forming in propulsion systems; this mass addition may be accompanied by heat addition to the main stream as a result of the fuel combustion or by cooling of this stream as a result of the liquid mass evaporation and boiling; (2) to use porous or permeable nozzles and additional shells at the nozzle exit for preliminary cooling of exhaust hot jet and pressure compensation for non-design conditions (so-called continuous ejector with small mass flow rate; and (3) to propose and analyze new effective methods fuel injection into flow stream in air-breathing engines. Note that all these problems were formulated based on detailed descriptions of the main experimental facts observed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of finding theoretical explanations for experimental facts and the creation of the accurate numerical simulation technique and prediction theory for solutions for current problems in propulsion systems solved by NASA and Navy agencies. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analysis for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The F&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations, and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. We will present some management activity

  9. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  10. An analysis of the benefits of ethnography design methods for product modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    application of ethnography design methodology in product design and to analyse the benefits of its use. The analysis is based on effects of its application with the support of product design from various industries, along with a discussion of the method's limitations. Among benefits of ethnography design, the greatest proved to be providing knowledge of nonspecific user behaviour previously unknown to designers, which when rendered by models allowed to develop innovative solutions.

  11. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  13. A retrospective analysis of benefits and impacts of U.S. renewable portfolio standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  14. A Retrospective Analysis of Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  15. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  16. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  17. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Castiglioni, Isabella; Salvatore, Christian; Funaro, Angela; Martino, Iolanda; Alfano, Stefania; Donzuso, Giulia; Perrotta, Paolo; Gioia, Maria Cecilia; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Quattrone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED). The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa) were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC). Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  18. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC. Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  19. The 6 April 2009 earthquake at L'Aquila: a preliminary analysis of magnetic field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations reported the possible identification of anomalous geomagnetic field signals prior to earthquake occurrence. In the ULF frequency range, candidates for precursory signatures have been proposed in the increase in the noise background and polarization parameter (i.e. the ratio between the amplitude/power of the vertical component and that one of the horizontal component, in the changing characteristics of the slope of the power spectrum and fractal dimension, in the possible occurrence of short duration pulses. We conducted, with conventional techniques of data processing, a preliminary analysis of the magnetic field observations performed at L'Aquila during three months preceding the 6 April 2009 earthquake, focusing attention on the possible occurrence of features similar to those identified in previous events. Within the limits of this analysis, we do not find compelling evidence for any of the features which have been proposed as earthquake precursors: indeed, most of aspects of our observations (which, in some cases, appear consistent with previous findings might be interpreted in terms of the general magnetospheric conditions and/or of different sources.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.S.; Natchiar, S.K.; Gritton, L.; Mullen, T.-M.; Stewart, P.L.; Nemerow, G.R. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-07-22

    Replication-defective and conditionally replicating adenovirus (AdV) vectors are currently being utilized in {approx}25% of human gene transfer clinical trials. Unfortunately, progress in vector development has been hindered by a lack of accurate structural information. Here we describe the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a HAdV5 vector that displays a short flexible fiber derived from HAdV35. Crystals of Ad35F were grown in 100 mM HEPES pH 7.0, 200 mM Ca(OAc){sub 2}, 14% PEG 550 MME, 15% glycerol in 100 mM Tris-HCl 8.5. Freshly grown crystals diffracted well to 4.5 {angstrom} resolution and weakly to 3.5 {angstrom} at synchrotron sources. HAdV crystals belong to space group P1 with unit cell parameters a = 854.03 {angstrom}, b = 855.17 {angstrom}, c = 865.24 {angstrom}, {alpha} = 119.57{sup o}, {beta} = 91.71{sup o}, {gamma} = 118.08{sup o} with a single particle in the unit cell. Self-rotation and locked-rotation function analysis allowed the determination of the particle orientation. Molecular replacement, density modification and phase-extension procedures are being employed for structure determination.

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The successful performance of the CWP is of crucial importance to the overall OTEC system; the pipe itself is considered the most critical part of the entire operation. Because of the importance the CWP, a project for the analysis and design of CWP's was begun in the fall of 1978. The goals of this project were to study a variety of concepts for delivering cold water to an OTEC plant, to analyze and rank these concepts based on their relative cost and risk, and to develop preliminary design for those concepts which seemed most promising. Two representative platforms and sites were chosen: a spar buoy of a Gibbs and Cox design to be moored at a site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, and a barge designed by APL/Johns Hopkins University, grazing about a site approximately 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil. The approach was to concentrate on the most promising concepts and on those which were either of general interest or espoused by others (e.g., steel and concrete concepts). Much of the overall attention, therefore, focused on analyzing rigid and compliant wall design, while stockade (except for the special case of the FRP stockade) and bottom-mounted concepts received less attention. A total of 67 CWP concepts were initially generated and subjected to a screening process. Of these, 16 were carried through design analysis, costing, and ranking. Study results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  2. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L.; Prescott, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. PMID:25823812

  3. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system.

  4. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants a...

  5. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk,

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), both retrospectively and prospectively. This report focuses on the benefits and impacts of all state RPS programs, in aggregate, for the year 2013 (the most-recent year for which the requisite data were available). Relying on a well-vetted set of methods, the study evaluates a number of important benefits and impacts in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, and characterizes key uncertainties. The prior study in this series focused on historical RPS compliance costs, and future work will evaluate costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS policies prospectively.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of supplemented very low-protein diet versus dialysis in elderly CKD5 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Luciana; Borghetti, Francesca; Brunori, Giuliano; Viola, Battista Fabio; Brancati, Barbara; Sottini, Laura; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Dialysis increases patient life expectancy but is associated with clinically severe and costly complications. Health and economic benefits could derive from postponing dialysis with a supplemented very low-protein diet (sVLPD). An economic evaluation was conducted to compare benefits and costs of sVLPD versus dialysis in elderly CKD5 patients. Data from 57 patients aged >or=70 years, with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 5-7 mL/min, previously participating in a clinical trial demonstrating non-inferior mortality and morbidity of starting sVLPD compared to dialysis treatment, were analysed: 30 patients were randomized to dialysis and 27 to sVLPD. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted, in the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS). Direct medical and non-medical benefits and costs occurring in 3.2 mean years of follow-up were quantified: time free from dialysis, cost of dialysis treatment, hospitalization, drugs, laboratory/instrumental tests, medical visits and travel and energy consumption to receive dialysis. Prices/tariffs valid in 2007 were used, with an annual discount rate of 5% applied to benefits and costs occurring after the first year. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify how estimates could vary in different contexts of applications. Results are reported as net benefit, expressed as mean euro/patient (patient-year). The opportunity to safely postpone initiation of dialysis of 1 year/patient on average translated into an economic benefit to the NHS, corresponding to 21 180 euro/patient in the first, 6500 euro/patient in the second and 682 euro/patient in the third year of treatment, with a significant net benefit in favour of sVLPD even in a worst-case hypothesis. The initiation of sVLPD in elderly CKD5 subjects is a safe and beneficial strategy for these patients and allows them to gain economic resources that can be allocated to further health care investments.

  8. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a), the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic ...

  9. Options for Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Guiyang, China: A Cost-Ancillary Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cao

    2004-01-01

    This study provides information on the additional "ancillary" benefits that China would experience by reducing emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. It investigates a number of options for mitigating CO2 emissions in the power and industrial sectors of Guiyang City. It calculates the impact these options would have on the city's overall air pollution and effects these changes in air quality would have on the health improvements and looks at the overall cost and benefit that each of ...

  10. Mass balance re-analysis of Findelengletscher, Switzerland; benefits of extensive snow accumulation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eSold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A re-analysis is presented here of a 10-year mass balance series at Findelengletscher, a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. Calculating glacier-wide mass balance from the set of glaciological point balance observations using conventional approaches, such as the profile or contour method, resulted in significant deviations from the reference value given by the geodetic mass change over a five-year period. This is attributed to the sparsity of observations at high elevations and to the inability of the evaluation schemes to adequately estimate accumulation in unmeasured areas. However, measurements of winter mass balance were available for large parts of the study period from snow probings and density pits. Complementary surveys by helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR were conducted in three consecutive years. The complete set of seasonal observations was assimilated using a distributed mass balance model. This model-based extrapolation revealed a substantial mass loss at Findelengletscher of -0.43m w.e. a^-1 between 2004 and 2014, while the loss was less pronounced for its former tributary, Adlergletscher (-0.30m w.e. a^-1. For both glaciers, the resulting time series were within the uncertainty bounds of the geodetic mass change. We show that the model benefited strongly from the ability to integrate seasonal observations. If no winter mass balance measurements were available and snow cover was represented by a linear precipitation gradient, the geodetic mass balance was not matched. If winter balance measurements by snow probings and snow density pits were taken into account, the model performance was substantially improved but still showed a significant bias relative to the geodetic mass change. Thus the excellent agreement of the model-based extrapolation with the geodetic mass change was owed to an adequate representation of winter accumulation distribution by means of extensive GPR measurements.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of copper recovery in remediation projects: A case study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Karlfeldt Fedje, Karin

    2017-12-15

    Contamination resulting from past industrial activity is a problem throughout the world and many sites are severely contaminated by metals. Advances in research in recent years have resulted in the development of technologies for recovering metal from metal-rich materials within the framework of remediation projects. Using cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and explicitly taking uncertainties into account, this paper evaluates the potential social profitability of copper recovery as part of four remediation alternatives at a Swedish site. One alternative involves delivery of copper-rich ash to a metal production company for refining. The other three alternatives involve metal leaching from materials and sale of the resulting metal sludge for its further processing at a metal production company using metallurgical methods. All the alternatives are evaluated relative to the conventional excavation and disposal method. Metal recovery from the ash, metal sludge sale, and disposal of the contaminated soil and the ash residue at the local landfill site, was found to be the best remediation alternative. However, given the present conditions, its economic potential is low relative to the conventional excavation and disposal method but higher than direct disposal of the copper-rich ash for refining. Volatile copper prices, the high cost of processing equipment, the highly uncertain cost of the metal leaching and washing process, coupled with the substantial project risks, contribute most to the uncertainties in the CBA results for the alternatives involving metal leaching prior to refining. However, investment in processing equipment within the framework of a long-term investment project, production of safe, reusable soil residue, and higher copper prices on the metal market, can make metal recovery technology socially profitable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Benefit or burden? A sociotechnical analysis of diagnostic computer kiosks in four California hospital emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L; Tebb, Kathleen; Stein, John C; Frazee, Bradley W; Hendey, Gregory W; Schmidt, Laura A; Gonzales, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    High expectations for new technologies coexist with wide variability in the actual adoption and impact of information technology (IT) projects in clinical settings, and the frequent failure to incorporate otherwise "successful" projects into routine practice. This paper draws on actor-network theory to present an in-depth, sociotechnical analysis of one such project--a computer kiosk designed to diagnose and expedite treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in adult women. Research at a hospital urgent care clinic demonstrated the kiosk program's effectiveness at diagnosing UTI and reducing patient wait times, and the kiosk was subsequently adopted by the clinic for routine patient care. However, a study promoting the adoption of the device at emergency departments (ED) was characterized by persistent staff resistance and lower-than-expected patient eligibility for kiosk-assisted care. The device was ultimately abandoned at all but one of the new sites. Observations and interviews with ED staff and the design/research team were conducted at four California EDs between April and July 2011 and point to conflicting understandings of evidence for the device's usefulness and reasons for its (non)adoption. The kiosk program's designers had attempted to "rationalize" medical work by embedding a formal representation of triage practices in the kiosk's software. However, the kiosk's "network" failed to stabilize as it encountered different patient populations, institutional politics, and the complex, pragmatic aspects of ED work at each site. The results of this evaluation challenge the persistent myth that a priori qualities and meanings inhere in technology regardless of context. The design and deployment of new IT projects in complex medical settings would benefit from empirically informed understandings of, and responses to, the contingent properties of human-technology relations.

  13. A critical benefit analysis of artificial gravity as a microgravity countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderka, Justin; Young, Laurence R.; Paloski, William H.

    2010-11-01

    Deconditioning of astronauts during long duration spaceflight, especially with regard to the cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, and neurological systems, is a well-recognized problem that has stimulated significant investments in countermeasure research over the past five decades. Because of its potential salutary effects on all of these systems, artificial gravity via centrifugation has been one of the most persistently discussed countermeasures; however, to date, few studies have tested its efficacy, particularly in comparison to other, system-specific countermeasures. This paper reports results of a meta-analysis we performed to compare previously published results from artificial gravity studies with those from studies utilizing traditional countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, aerobic exercise, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), or some variation of these countermeasures. Published and non-published literature involving human bed rest and immersion studies, human non-bed rest studies, and flight data were examined. Our analyses were confounded by differences in research design from study to study, including subject selection criteria, deconditioning paradigm, physiological systems assessed, and dependent measures employed. Nevertheless we were able to draw comparisons between studies that had some consistency across these variables. Results indicate that for prolonged spaceflight an artificial gravity-based countermeasure may provide benefits equivalent to traditional countermeasures for the cardiovascular system. Too few comparable studies have been performed to draw any conclusions for the musculo-skeletal system. Gaps in the current knowledge of artificial gravity are identified and provide the basis for a discussion of future topics for ground-based research using this countermeasure.

  14. Strategies for diagnosis and treatment of suspected leptospirosis: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupin Suputtamongkol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are non-specific. Several diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are available and in some instances are being used prior to treatment of leptospirosis-suspected patients. There is therefore a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment strategies in order to avoid misuse of scarce resources and ensure best possible health outcomes for patients. METHODS: The study population was adult patients, presented with uncomplicated acute febrile illness, without an obvious focus of infection or malaria or typical dengue infection. We compared the cost and effectiveness of 5 management strategies: 1 no patients tested or given antibiotic treatment; 2 all patients given empirical doxycycline treatment; patients given doxycycline when a patient is tested positive for leptospirosis using: 3 lateral flow; 4 MCAT; 5 latex test. The framework used is a cost-benefit analysis, accounting for all direct medical costs in diagnosing and treating patients suspected of leptospirosis. Outcomes are measured in length of fever after treatment which is then converted to productivity losses to capture the full economic costs. FINDINGS: Empirical doxycycline treatment was the most efficient strategy, being both the least costly alternative and the one that resulted in the shortest duration of fever. The limited sensitivity of all three diagnostic tests implied that their use to guide treatment was not cost-effective. The most influential parameter driving these results was the cost of treating patients with complications for patients who did not receive adequate treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis or a strategy of no-antibiotic-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should continue treating suspected cases of leptospirosis on an empirical basis. This conclusion holds true as long as policy makers are not prioritizing the reduction of use of antibiotics, in which case the use of the latex test would be

  15. Strategies for Diagnosis and Treatment of Suspected Leptospirosis: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Lubell, Yoel; Suttinont, Chuanpit; Hoontrakul, Siriwan; Phimda, Kriangsak; Losuwanaluk, Kitti; Suwancharoen, Duangjai; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Day, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are non-specific. Several diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are available and in some instances are being used prior to treatment of leptospirosis-suspected patients. There is therefore a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment strategies in order to avoid misuse of scarce resources and ensure best possible health outcomes for patients. Methods The study population was adult patients, presented with uncomplicated acute febrile illness, without an obvious focus of infection or malaria or typical dengue infection. We compared the cost and effectiveness of 5 management strategies: 1) no patients tested or given antibiotic treatment; 2) all patients given empirical doxycycline treatment; patients given doxycycline when a patient is tested positive for leptospirosis using: 3) lateral flow; 4) MCAT; 5) latex test. The framework used is a cost-benefit analysis, accounting for all direct medical costs in diagnosing and treating patients suspected of leptospirosis. Outcomes are measured in length of fever after treatment which is then converted to productivity losses to capture the full economic costs. Findings Empirical doxycycline treatment was the most efficient strategy, being both the least costly alternative and the one that resulted in the shortest duration of fever. The limited sensitivity of all three diagnostic tests implied that their use to guide treatment was not cost-effective. The most influential parameter driving these results was the cost of treating patients with complications for patients who did not receive adequate treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis or a strategy of no-antibiotic-treatment. Conclusions Clinicians should continue treating suspected cases of leptospirosis on an empirical basis. This conclusion holds true as long as policy makers are not prioritizing the reduction of use of antibiotics, in which case the use of the latex test would be the most efficient

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  17. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final state 2 report. Cost benefit analysis, operating costs and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    A grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) with a coal-burning power plant located on the University of Minnesota campus is planned. The cost benefit analysis performed for this ICES, the cost accounting methods used, and a computer simulation of the operation of the power plant are described. (LCL)

  18. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Long-Term Intervention on Social and Emotional Learning in Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli; Belfield, Clive; Bowden, Brooks; Levin, Henry; Shand, Robert; Zander, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social and emotional skills can be taught to students in school and teaching these skills can have a positive effect on later outcomes, such as better mental health and less drug use. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of a longitudinal social and emotional learning intervention in Sweden, using data for 663…

  19. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ =…

  20. Quality of Malaysian Teachers Based on Education and Training: A Benefit and Earnings Returns Analysis Using Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ramlee; Awang, Marinah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the quality of teachers based on education and training provided under new reform policies in Malaysia affects their earnings outcomes. The study conducted a benefit and returns analysis guided by human capital theory. Design/methodology/approach: The study used survey research methods to…