WorldWideScience

Sample records for preliminary assessment carried

  1. Assessing and Filing the Gap as a New Mode of Governance, lessons from a Preliminary Study carried out in the Cosenza's Public Prosecutors' Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Piana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries courts and public prosecutor offices have been undergoing a long and comprehensive process of reform, target several different components of their organization and management. This phenomenon can be explained as the outcome of two combined forces: an increase demand of justice and a pressure from the international and supranational institutions. Accordingly, innovation has become a major issue in the judicial sector. Despite the attention devoted to it, much less effort has been made to comprehend the mechanisms that make organizations innovative. To what extent is leadership important? How may different organizational cultures facilitate or create obstacles to innovation? And to what extent can innovation be implemented through a top down approach in a peculiar organization, such as a judicial office? This article tells the story of a case study on a public prosecutors’ office located in the South of Italy. The pilot study has been framed and conducted as both normative and empirical in its own nature. Moreover, it represents a case study with a certain number of policy effects, as it turned into a roadmap which was adopted by the judicial office to improve its own organization and human resource management. This is the first study carried out in Italy using such methods with the objective to:a describe the implementation of organizational innovation (in this respect there had already been a study of the General Registry Office,b map intra-organizational routines and inter-connections between administration and the General Registry Office and between the GRO and the criminal records Office etc;c Identify skills to adapt and learn skills from daily routines and execution of specific tasks, as they are done in all public sectors.- If you really want to understand something, try first to change it - Thomas Eliot

  2. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse;

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  3. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  4. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Large landslides in the Pyrenees: preliminary tasks carried out for a harmonized cross-border risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José; Grandjean, Gilles; Copons, Ramon; Vaunat, Jean; Buxó, Pere; Colas, Bastien; Darrozes, José; Gasc, Muriel; Guinau, Marta; Gutiérrez, Francisco; García, Juan Carlos; Virely, Didier; Crosetto, Michele; Mas, Raül

    2017-04-01

    Large landslides are recognised as one of the main erosional agents in mountain ranges, having a significant influence on landscape evolution. However, few efforts have been carried out to assess their geomorphological impact from a regional perspective. Regional-scale investigations are also necessary for the reliable evaluation of the associated risks (i.e. for land-use planning). Large landslides are common in the Pyrenees but: 1) their geographic distribution on a regional scale is not well known; 2) their geological and geomorphological controlling factors have been only studied preliminarily; and 3) their state of activity and stability conditions are unknown for most of the cases. Regional analyses of large landslides, as those carried out by Crosta et al. (2013) in the Alps, are rare worldwide. Jarman et al. (2014) conducted a very preliminary analysis in a sector of the Pyrenees. The construction of a cartographic inventory constitutes the basics for such type of studies, which are typically hindered by the lack of cross-border landslide data bases and methodologies. The aim of this contribution is to present the preliminary works carried out for constructing a harmonized inventory of large landslides in the Pyrenees, involving for the first time both sides of the cordillera and the main groups working in landslide risk in France, Spain and Andorra. Methods used for landslide hazard and risk analysis have been compiled and compared, showing a significant divergence, even as regards the terminology. A preliminary cross-border inventory sheet on risk of large landslides has been prepared. It includes specific fields for the assessment of landslide activity (by using complimentary methods such as morpho-stratigraphy, morphometric analysis and remote techniques) and indirect potential costs (that typically overcome direct ones), which usually are neglected in the existing data bases. Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. and Agliardi, F., 2013. Deep seated gravitational

  6. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  7. Fatigue assessment of load-carrying welded cruciform joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Petinov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available T-form and cruciform joints in which the stress flow is transferred via weld material are widely applied in welded structures. A special type of these joints is presented by fillet-welded joints with incomplete penetration used by economical and manufacturing reasons. At a certain width of the cavity it becomes an active notch which in current design rules is regarded as an initial crack. In that way, fatigue life of the joint is characterized by the crack extensions towards the outer surface of weld bead. Fatigue assessment of these joints requires reliable data on the stress intensity factors values along the crack path. The results of systematic FEA-based calculations of stress intensity factors and respective S-N curves for the considered welded joints are presented. Main results obtained during this investigation can be used in solution of engineering tasks in reference to the fatigue assessment of welded cruciform joints with incomplete penetration.

  8. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  9. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  10. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  11. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  12. Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary documentation and assessment of fish diversity in sub-Saharan ... upon their life histories and degree of association with estuarine environments. ... Estuarine fish communities in Africa are strongly influenced by the prevailing ...

  13. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  14. Preliminary assessment of a Ceres Polar Lander mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, Olivier; Martinot, V.; Gabriel, Gabriel

    2008-09-01

    The quest for water in all forms is a major challenge of planetary exploration. In the Inner System, beneath the Frost Line, H2O is relatively scarce: for it to survive in its solid form outside Earth's and Mars' atmospheres, H2O has to lie in areas exposed to little or no Sun. Three planetary bodies in the Inner System have a spin axis almost perpendicular to their orbital plane allowing temperatures below the sublimation limit in their polar areas: Mercury, our Moon and dwarf planet Ceres (fig. 1). Apart from the Moon's poles where the presence of water ice is not evidenced yet, the poles of Ceres are attractive and relatively easy targets for an in-situ mission. They will have been mapped by NASA's Dawn Orbiter by 2015. The successful landing of NASA's Phoenix on Mars has brought another evidence of the interest of modern precision landing techniques for planetary exploration. NASA's MSL and ESA's Moon-NEXT Lunar Lander missions will bring other examples of the relevance of such designs in the years to come. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary evaluation of a Ceres Polar Lander mission, so as to explore the possibilities offered by soft landing techniques on such a valuable and affordable scientific target. This poster presents this assessment. It illustrates the scientific interest of Ceres' poles and the challenges of this environment for a potential lander. It assesses the feasibility of the mission in a preliminary way, as well as the ability to benefit from previous lander designs.

  15. Measurement and assessment of carrying capacity of the environment in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R Z; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2011-08-01

    Carrying Capacity of the Environment (CCE) provides a useful measure of the sustainable development of a region. Approaches that use integrated assessment instead of measurement can lead to misinterpretation of sustainable development because of confusion between Environmental Stress (ES) indexes and CCE indexes, and the selection of over-simple linear plus models. The present paper proposes a comprehensive measurement system for CCE which comprises models of natural resources capacity, environmental assimilative capacity, ecosystem services capacity, and society supporting capacity. The corresponding measurable indexes are designed to assess CCE using a carrying capacity surplus ratio model and a vector of surplus ratio of carrying capacity model. The former aims at direct comparison of ES and CCE based on the values of basic indexes, and the latter uses a Euclidean vector to assess CCE states. The measurement and assessment approaches are applicable to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and environmental planning and management. A case study is presented for Ningbo, China, whereby all the basic indexes of ECC are measured and the CCE states assessed for 2005 and 2010.

  16. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  17. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  18. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  19. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Long

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93.1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134.0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.

  1. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    It is recognized that sediments play an important role in the pollution scheme of the ... effects in animals and humans. Studies on metal fractionation and ecological risk assessment in some tropical sediments ... Atlantic Ocean in West Africa.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  3. Preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity in carbonate storage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are used for a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 storage and reduction of the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. To identify a suitable depleted reservoir, it is essential to do a preliminary and comprehensive assessment of key storage factors such as storage capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment. However, there are a limited number of studies providing a preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity potential in depleted gas reservoirs prior to a CO2 storage operation. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary assessment of a gas field located in Malaysia for its storage potential based on subsurface characterization prior to injection. Evaluation of the reservoir interval based on the facies, cores, and wireline log data of a well located in the field indicated that the pore type and fabrics analysis is very beneficial to identify suitable locations for a successful storage practice. Although the results obtained are promising, it is recommended to combine this preliminary assessment with the fluid-mineral interactions analysis before making any judgment about reliability of storage sites.

  4. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Preliminary functional assessment of a multigrasp myoelectric prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Skyler A; Bennett, Daniel A; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The authors have previously described a multigrasp hand prosthesis prototype, and a two-site surface EMG based multigrasp control interface for its control. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the prosthesis and multigrasp controller in performing tasks requiring interaction and manipulation. The authors use as a performance measure the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), which entails manipulation of various objects designed to emulate activities of daily living, and provides a set of scores that indicate level of functionality in various types of hand function. In this preliminary assessment, a single non-amputee subject performed the SHAP while wearing the multigrasp prosthesis via an able-bodied adaptor. The results from this testing are presented, and compared to recently published SHAP results obtained with commercially available single-grasp and multigrasp prosthetic hands.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  7. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  8. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  9. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  10. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  11. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  12. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF TOOLS OF CARRYING OUT THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Manzhula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At a stage of preparation for the All-Russian population census of 2020 it is necessary to develop methodical and technological support of processes of carrying out census for increase of reliability of data collection and quality of information processing of population census of the Russian Federation with use of modern information and communication technologies, and also a technique of an assessment of efficiency of application of tools of carrying out census

  14. 76 FR 63628 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2011-0022] Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327... Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). DATES: Comments must be... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Please note that this proposed manual is not...

  15. EPA Releases the First of Four Preliminary Risk Assessments for Insecticides Potentially Harmful to Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON-- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a preliminary pollinator risk assessment for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, which shows a threat to some pollinators. EPA's assessment, prepared in collaboration wit

  16. Dynamic Model of a Structure Carrying Stationary Humans and Assessment of its Response to Walking Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    vibrations, but they will also interact dynamically with the floor in a passive sense, thus altering the dynamic system excited to vibration by the walking person. Consequently, the vibration level of the floor is likely to depend on the presence and size of the stationary crowd. It is also known......A flooring-system, e.g. a floor in a building, is excited dynamically when a person walks across the floor, and resonant excitation might bring structural vibrations to unacceptable levels. Stationary (non-moving) crowds of people might be present on the same floor and they will sense the floor...... that different techniques (different parameters calculated from structural response time series) are proposed for assessing floor serviceability. The paper looks into the influence of the stationary crowd of people on the floor response to walking excitation and into the influence of the crowd on different...

  17. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  18. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of the Interfacial Source Terms in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Won; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Su Hyong; Kim, Kyung Du [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development program for a nuclear reactor safety analysis code which will be used by utility bodies has been launched supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy. The code, named as SPACE, has been designed to solve the multi-dimensional 3-field 2 phase equations. The target power plant type is restricted to PWR's and does not include advanced reactor types, like gas cooled or liquid metal reactors. KAERI, KOPEC, KNF, KEPRI and KHNP are participated in the development project. KAERI has been assigned to develop the physical models and correlations which are required as the closure relationships. The assigned work can be divided into four parts, i.e, (i) the flow regime determination, (ii) the wall heat transfer, (iii) the wall and interfacial friction, and (iv) the interfacial heat and mass transfer. The interfacial heat and mass transfer correlations used in RELAP5, TRAC-M, CATHARE, etc. are reviewed with respect to the simplicity and the range of validity. The recent suggestions are also reviewed. The intellectual property ownerships are proved before an adaptation to the development of the SPACE code. The selected models and correlations are already represented by reference. This paper shows the preliminary assessment results obtained by using the SPACE code.

  20. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  1. Preliminary biogeochemical assessment of EPICA LGM and Holocene ice samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, S.; Alekhina, I.; Marie, D.; Wagenbach, D.; Raynaud, D.; Petit, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    weak signals were possible to generate which are now under cloning. The signals were hard to reproduce because of rather low volume of samples. More ice volume is needed to get the biosignal stronger and reproducible. Meantime we are adjusting PCR and in addition testing DNA repair-enzyme cocktail in case of DNA damage. As a preliminary conclusion we would like to highlight the following. Both Holocene and LGM ice samples (EDC99 and EDML) are very clean in terms of Ultra low biomass and Ultra low DOC content. The most basal ice of EDC and EDML ice cores could help in assessing microbial biomass and diversity if present under the glacier at the ice-bedrock boundary. * The present-day consortium includes S. Bulat, I. Alekhina, P. Normand, D. Prieur, J-R. Petit and D. Raynaud (France) and E. Willerslev and J.P. Steffensen (Denmark)

  2. Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial carried out with a fixed combination of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and betaine versus amitriptyline in patients with mild depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Settembre, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a safe, endogenous, pleiotropic methyl donor well known for its antidepressant role, has been assumed to have a possible role in increasing plasma levels of compounds known to be able to raise cardiovascular risk. Although the issue is still being debated, betaine (trimethylglycine), a specific methyl donor involved in the homocysteine circuit, may be able to reduce such a risk and/or, by determining a sparing effect on endogenous SAMe, may be able to improve the clinical efficiency of SAMe itself. Indeed, preliminary results have shown clinical improvement determined by an add-on therapy with betaine administered along with SAMe, versus SAMe alone, to patients affected by mild/moderate depression. Aim To evaluate the safety and antidepressant role played by the association of SAMe plus betaine versus amitriptyline administered in untreated individuals with a recent diagnosis of mild depression. Methods This small, open-label, randomized, observational study enrolled 64 individuals with a diagnosis of mild depression according to the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. After randomization, they were treated with either Laroxyl® (amitriptyline, 75 mg/day) or DDM Metile® (enteric-coated SAMe, 500 mg/day, plus betaine, 250 mg/day) for 12 months. Assessment of clinical scores and tolerability was performed at T=0 and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Results After 3 months, both treatments showed a small and not statistically significant improvement. After 6 and 12 months, both treated groups demonstrated a more noticeable improved response, although the group treated with SAMe plus betaine showed better results in terms of score, number of individuals in remission, and side effects. Compliance was overlapping in both treatments. Conclusion The association of SAMe plus betaine seems to be a safe and effective tool to counteract mild depression and also when used as monotherapy in subjects with a recent diagnosis. PMID:25678811

  3. Preliminary assessment of Eflows on Lucanian Rivers through IHA implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    According to the WFD, the ecological flow (Eflow) is assumed to be the hydrological regime consistent with the achievement of the environmental objectives of "good quality status" in natural surface water bodies. As well known, the hydrological regime of natural flow plays a primary and crucial role influencing the physical conditions of habitats, which in turn determines the biotic composition and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the simple assumption to supply a minimum instream during dry periods is not enough anymore in order to protect the river environment. The recent hydro-ecological knowledge provides that all flow components must be included as operational targets for water quantitative management from base flows (including low flows) to high and flood regimes in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change. Several conceptual and numerical codes have been developed and applied on different case studies in order to define common tools to be implemented for the Eflow assessment. In such a frame, the work deals with the application of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration methodology (IHA by TNC) to main Lucanian rivers to assess the ecological flow to be assumed in each monitoring cross section. The analyses have been carried on monthly discharge data derived through a simple rainfall-runoff applied at the basin scale and based on the precipitation measurements obtained by the regional rainfall gauge stations.

  4. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  5. Preliminary Assessment for Abnormal Amphibians on National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeast Region FY 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary screening assessments for abnormal amphibians were initiated on national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in the southeast region in 2000, with additional refuges...

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A summary of the preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of a SPS is given. Microwave health and ecological effects, other effects on health and the environment, effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are summarized. (WHK)

  7. [Assessment of ecosystem energy flow and carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement in the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Qun; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhong-yi; Wu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Stock enhancement is increasingly proved to be an important measure of the fishery resources conservation, and the assessment of carrying capacity is the decisive factor of the effects of stock enhancement. Meanwhile, the variations in the energy flow patterns of releasing species and ecosystem were the basis for assessing carrying capacity of stock enhancement. So, in the present study, based on the survey data collected from the Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters during 2012-2013, three Ecopath mass-balance models were established in June, August and October, and the variations in ecosystem energy flow in these months were analyzed, as well as the assessment of carrying capacity of swimming crab enhancement. The energy flow mainly concentrated on trophic level I-III in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, and was relatively less on trophic level IV or above. The system flow proportion on the trophic level I was the highest in June, and was the lowest in August. The highest system flow proportion on the trophic level II was found in August, and the lowest in June. The relative and absolute energy flow of swimming crab mainly concentrated on the trophic level III, and the mean trophic level of swimming crab among June, August and October were 3.28. Surplus production was relatively higher in Yellow River estuary and adjacent waters, the highest value was found in June, and the lowest value in August. The ratios of total primary production/total respiration (TPP/TR) were 5.49, 2.47 and 3.01 in June, August and October, respectively, and the ratios of total primary production/total biomass (TPP/B) were 47.61, 33.30 and 29.78, respectively. Combined with the low Finn' s cycling index (FCI: 0.03-0.06), these changes indicated that the Yellow River estuary ecosystem was at an early development stage with higher vulnerability. The energy conversion efficiency of system was from 7.3% to 11.5%, the mean trophic levels of the catch were 3.23, 2.97 and 2.82 in

  8. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  9. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  10. 43 CFR 11.38 - Assessment Plan-preliminary estimate of damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... damages. 11.38 Section 11.38 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Assessment Plan Phase § 11.38 Assessment Plan—preliminary estimate of damages... resources, if the authorized official intends to include compensable value in the damage claim....

  11. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  13. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  14. Ethical Values and Biological Diversity: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been five major extinction events over geological time. However, the current rate of extinction or reduction of species and their habitats is directly related to anthropomorphic causes. For seventh grade students, biodiversity and its ethical considerations were introduced in a life sciences curriculum, following lessons on evolution, natural selection, and decent from common ancestry. This paper takes a preliminary look at the approach used in this unit, the ethical survey developed, and improvements to be made in subsequent years.

  15. Using VISIR in a Large Undergraduate Course: Preliminary Assessment Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of remote labs in undergraduate courses has been reported in literature several times since the mid 90’s. Nevertheless, very few articles present results about the learning gains obtained by students using them, especially with a large number of students, thus suggesting a lack of data concerning their pedagogical effectiveness. This paper addresses such a gap by presenting some preliminary results concerning the use of a remote laboratory, known as VISIR, in a large undergraduate course on Applied Physics, with over 500 students enrolled.

  16. Review of the EU's Preliminary Assessment of China's Market Economy Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the European Union (EU) made a decision on its preliminary assessment of China's market economy status (MES). After seriously studying the EU's preliminary assessment report, the Institute of Economic and Resources Management of Beijing Normal University made a review. We hold that the decision on the assessment fails to be fair and objective and is undermined by incorrect understanding and logical contradictions. However, the decision has still left some leeway for China's improvement and China needs to speed up in improving its market economy regime.

  17. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  18. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  19. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison in Banff National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Steenweg

    Full Text Available Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff. We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  20. Assessing Potential Habitat and Carrying Capacity for Reintroduction of Plains Bison (Bison bison bison) in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gummer, David; Low, Brian; Hunt, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Interest in bison (Bison bison, B. bonasus) conservation and restoration continues to grow globally. In Canada, plains bison (B. b. bison) are threatened, occupying less than 0.5% of their former range. The largest threat to their recovery is the lack of habitat in which they are considered compatible with current land uses. Fences and direct management make range expansion by most bison impossible. Reintroduction of bison into previously occupied areas that remain suitable, therefore, is critical for bison recovery in North America. Banff National Park is recognized as historical range of plains bison and has been identified as a potential site for reintroduction of a wild population. To evaluate habitat quality and assess if there is sufficient habitat for a breeding population, we developed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the proposed reintroduction and surrounding areas in Banff National Park (Banff). We then synthesize previous studies on habitat relationships, forage availability, bison energetics and snowfall scenarios to estimate nutritional carrying capacity. Considering constraints on nutritional carrying capacity, the most realistic scenario that we evaluated resulted in an estimated maximum bison density of 0.48 bison/km2. This corresponds to sufficient habitat to support at least 600 to 1000 plains bison, which could be one of the largest 10 plains bison populations in North America. Within Banff, there is spatial variation in predicted bison habitat suitability and population size that suggests one potential reintroduction site as the most likely to be successful from a habitat perspective. The successful reintroduction of bison into Banff would represent a significant global step towards conserving this iconic species, and our approach provides a useful template for evaluating potential habitat for other endangered species reintroductions into their former range.

  1. Preliminary assessment of beam impact consequences on LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Bruce, R; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Mariani, N; Rossi, A; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2011-01-01

    The correct functioning of the LHC collimation system is crucial to attain the desired LHC luminosity performance. However, the requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, the robustness of the collimators plays an important role. An accident, which causes the proton beam to hit a collimator, might result in severe beam-induced damage and, in some cases, replacement of the collimator, with consequent downtime for the machine. In this paper, several case studies representing different realistic beam impact scenarios are shown. A preliminary analysis of the thermal response of tertiary collimators to beam impact is presented, from which the most critical cases can be identified. Such work will also help to give an initial insight on the operational constraints of the LHC by taking into account all relevant collimator damage limits.

  2. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  4. Preliminary study on assessment of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin based on SWAT modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Geying; YU; Ge; GUI; Feng

    2006-01-01

    With the Taihu Basin as a study area, using the spatially distributed and mechanism-based SWAT model, preliminary simulations of nutrient transport in the Taihu Basin during the period of 1995~2002 has been carried out. The topography, soil, meteorology and land use with industrial point pollution discharge, the loss of agricultural fertilizers, urban sewerage, and livestock drainages were all considered in the boundary conditions of the simulations. The model was calibrated and validated against water quality monitoring data from 2001 to 2002. The results show that the annual total productions of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) into Lake Taihu are 40000t and 2000t respectively. Nutrient from the Huxi Region is a major resource for Lake Taihu. The non-point source (surface source) pollution is the main form of catchment sources of nutrients into Lake Taihu,occupied TN 53% and TP 56% respectively. TN and TP nutrients from industrial point pollution discharge are 30% and 16%, and sewerage in both forms of point source and non-point source are TN 31% and TP 47%. Both the loss of agricultural fertilizers and livestock drainages from the catchment should be paid more attention as an important nutrient source. The results also show that SWAT is an effective model for the simulation of temporally and spatially nutrient changes and for the assessment of the trends in a catchment scale.

  5. Preliminary water-quality assessment of the upper White River near Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Eikenberry, S.E.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    The White River Park Commission is planning the development of park facilities along the White River through Indianapolis, Ind. A key element in the planning is the determination of whether water quality of the river is suitable for recreation. A preliminary water-quality assessment conducted August 4-5, 1980, indicated that, during low-flow steady-state conditions, the river is suitable for partial body contact recreation (any contact with water up to, but not including complete submergence). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations varied but were higher than the Indiana water-quality standards established to ensure conditions for the maintenance of a well-balanced, warm-water fish community. High fecal-coliform densities that have been observed in the White River during high streamflow are probably caused by stormwater runoff carried by combined storm and sanitary sewers. However, during the low-flow, steady-state conditions on August 4-5, 1980, fecal-coliform densities were within the Indiana standards for partial body contact recreation. Quantities of organic matter and concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in the White River were generally within the limits recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and were generally similar to values for other Indiana rivers. Chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and mercury are accumulating in bottom materials downstream from 30th Street. The phytoplankton concentrations in the White River were high. The dominant phytoplankton species were indicative of rivers moderately affected by organic wastes. (USGS)

  6. Preliminary assessment report for Kent National Guard Facility (Installation 53065), 24410 Military Road, Kent, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard property in Kent, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment.

  7. 44 CFR 206.33 - Preliminary damage assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requesting this support. (b) Damage assessment teams. Damage assessment teams will be composed of at least... possible. Other State and Federal agencies, and voluntary relief organizations may also be asked to... official will brief team members on damage criteria, the kind of information to be collected for...

  8. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report; Entrainement et redistribution des radionucleides sur le bassin versant de la Peyne. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F

    2006-07-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  9. The assessment of seismic hazard for Gori, (Georgia) and preliminary studies of seismic microzonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoladze, Z.; Moscatelli, M.; Giallini, S.; Avalle, A.; Gventsadze, A.; Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic risk is a crucial issue for South Caucasus, which is the main gateway between Asia and Europe. The goal of this work is to propose new methods and criteria for defining an overall approach aimed at assessing and mitigating seismic risk in Georgia. In this reguard seismic microzonation represents a highly useful tool for seismic risk assessmentin land management, for design of buildings or structures and for emergency planning.Seismic microzonation assessment of local seismic hazard,which is a component of seismicity resulting from specific local characteristics which cause local amplification and soil instability, through identification of zones with seismically homogeneous behavior. This paper presents the results of preliminary study of seismic microzonation of Gori, Georgia. Gori is and is located in the Shida Kartli region and on both sides of Liachvi and Mtkvari rivers, with area of about 135 km2around the Gori fortress. Gori is located in Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt, that is tectonically unstable. Half of all earthquakes in Gori area with magnitude M≥3.5 have happened along this fault zone and on basis of damage caused by previous earthquakes, this territory show the highest level of risk (the maximum value of direct losses) in central part of the town. The seismic microzonation map of level 1 for Gori was carried out using: 1) Already available data (i.e., topographic map and boreholes data), 2) Results of new geological surveys and 3) Geophysical measurements (i.e., MASW and noise measurements processed with HVSR technique). Our preliminary results highlight the presence of both stable zones susceptible to local amplifications and unstable zones susceptible to geological instability. Our results are directed to establish set of actions aimed at risk mitigation before initial onset of emergency, and to management of the emergency once the seismic event has occurred. The products obtained, will contain the basic elements of an integrated system

  10. Assessing the Carrying Capacity of Tourist Resorts: An Application of Tourists' Spatial Behavior Simulator Based on GIS and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of visitors' individual spatial behaviors, a tourists' spatial behavior simulator (TSBS) to assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts was developed, TSBS employs GIS (Geographic Information System) to manage the spatial data, and Multi-Agent system to simulate the actions of individual visitors. By utilizing TSBS, visitors' travel patterns such as location, cost, and state can be analyzed and predicted. Based on this analysis and prediction, the model of assessing the carrying capacity of resorts is built. Our results show that TSBS will be an effective tool to accurately assess the carrying capacity of tourist resorts.

  11. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  12. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  13. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  14. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  15. Synthesis of N11-anchoring biotinylated artemisinin derivatives and their preliminary biological assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Unique endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin and its derivatives has been considered the functionality exhibiting highly potent antimalarial and anticancer activities.To investigate the mechanisms of their biological actions,development of suitable molecular probes including biotinylated derivatives is of extreme significance.The synthesis and preliminary biological assessment of four new biotinylated artemisinin derivatives have been reported in this work.

  16. Developing an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Program in Communication: Values, Curriculum, and Preliminary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a case study of a Communication Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UTA) program and reports a limited, preliminary assessment of the teaching effectiveness of 25 UTAs. Concludes by identifying various benefits and drawbacks of such programs and offers recommendations for departments interested in developing similar programs. (RS)

  17. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylp

  18. Examining the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Four Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Chad E.; Kellum, Karen Kate; Wilson, Kelly G.; Luoma, Jason B.; Weinstein, Jonathan H.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a relatively new measure of implicit cognition that tests cognition as relational behavior instead of an associative activity and thus may provide a more specific measure of cognitive repertoires, including those for social biases, than better known implicit measures such as the Implicit…

  19. BIOCIDES (1) Preliminary environmental risk assessment of 93 biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; CSR

    1999-01-01

    A 1999 desk study assesses the environmental risks of 93 industrial or other non-agricultural pesticides. The risks for aquatic ecosystems are emphasised, and various data on use pattern, dosages, emissions, physicochemistry, environmental fate and ecotoxicity are listed. The biocides have not been

  20. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  1. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    of casualties within areas of different intensity is computed using an application developed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, taking advantage of the possibilities of such a system for the treatment of space-distributed data. The casualty rate, defined as the number of killed people divided...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...... for sites near important cities located in a seismically active zone of Spain, thus contributing to an easier taking of decisions in emergency preparedness planning, contemporary earthquake engineering and seismic risk prevention....

  2. Preliminary geothermal assessment surveys for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Lienert, B.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys in ten separate locations within the State of Hawaii in an effort to identify and assess potential geothermal areas throughout the state. The techniques applied include groundwater chemistry and temperatures, soil mercury surveys, ground radon emanometry, time-domain electromagnetic surveys and Schlumberger resistivity soundings. Although geochemical and geophysical anomalies were identified in nearly all the survey sites, those areas which show most promise, based on presently available data, for a geothermal resource are as follows: Puna, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii; Haiku-Paia and Olowalu-Ukumehame canyons on Maui; and Lualualei Valley on Oahu. Further surveys are planned for most of these areas in order to further define the nature of the thermal resource present.

  3. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  4. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-01-01

    While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP) introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance...

  5. Preliminary technology utilization assessment of the robotic fruit harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analysis whose purpose was to examine the history and progress of mechanical fruit harvesting, to determine the significance of a robotic fruit tree harvester and to assess the available market for such a product are summarized. Background information that can be used in determining the benefit of a proof of principle demonstration is provided. Such a demonstration could be a major step toward the transfer of this NASA technology.

  6. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) is summarized here. In this system, satellites would collect solar energy in space, convert it to microwaves, and transmit the microwaves to receiving antennas (rectennas) on earth. At the rectennas, the microwaves would be converted to electricity. The assessment considers microwave and nonmicrowave effects on the terrestrial environment and human health, atmospheric effects, and disruption of communications and other electromagnetic systems.

  8. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  9. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  10. Syringe exchange programs in Brazil: preliminary assessment of 45 programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Elize Massard da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the current operation of Brazilian syringe exchange programs (SEP. After consulting national and regional networks of people working in projects/ programs aiming to reduce drug-related harm, we identified 134 potential participant programs. Unfortunately, only 45 SEPs answered a survey, even after repeated attempts. The survey addressed: coverage, funding, procurement of basic supplies, managerial capacity, and the local political environment. Findings were triangulated with in-depth interviews with key informants. The main findings included: satisfactory adherence to the initiatives and adequate documentation, but deficiencies in terms of coverage and monitoring, and uneven procurement of resources. Program personnel work mostly on a provisional basis, despite the efforts of local coordinators. Most programs are funded by the National STDs/AIDS Program. A comprehensive agenda aiming to improve current operations should include: concerted efforts to improve local and regional databanks, incentives/sanctions toward full accountability of initiatives carried by the programs, and a genuine culture of monitoring and evaluation.

  11. Syringe exchange programs in Brazil: preliminary assessment of 45 programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize Massard da Fonseca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the current operation of Brazilian syringe exchange programs (SEP. After consulting national and regional networks of people working in projects/ programs aiming to reduce drug-related harm, we identified 134 potential participant programs. Unfortunately, only 45 SEPs answered a survey, even after repeated attempts. The survey addressed: coverage, funding, procurement of basic supplies, managerial capacity, and the local political environment. Findings were triangulated with in-depth interviews with key informants. The main findings included: satisfactory adherence to the initiatives and adequate documentation, but deficiencies in terms of coverage and monitoring, and uneven procurement of resources. Program personnel work mostly on a provisional basis, despite the efforts of local coordinators. Most programs are funded by the National STDs/AIDS Program. A comprehensive agenda aiming to improve current operations should include: concerted efforts to improve local and regional databanks, incentives/sanctions toward full accountability of initiatives carried by the programs, and a genuine culture of monitoring and evaluation.

  12. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  13. Preliminary statistical assessment towards characterization of biobotic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Tahmid; Meng Yang; Lobaton, Edgar; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-08-01

    Biobotic research involving neurostimulation of instrumented insects to control their locomotion is finding potential as an alternative solution towards development of centimeter-scale distributed swarm robotics. To improve the reliability of biobotic agents, their control mechanism needs to be precisely characterized. To achieve this goal, this paper presents our initial efforts for statistical assessment of the angular response of roach biobots to the applied bioelectrical stimulus. Subsequent findings can help to understand the effect of each stimulation parameter individually or collectively and eventually reach reliable and consistent biobotic control suitable for real life scenarios.

  14. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  15. The Preliminary Research on Cage Carrying Capability of Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana)%川金丝猴笼舍容纳量的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗秀莲; 苗秀珍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to utilize the space and resources of the cage reasonably in the domestication of golden monkey (Rkinopuhecus roxeUana). [ Method] The cage was divided into 9 areas,the activity frequency of the golden monkey was recorded by using instantaneous scanning sampling method and the carrying capability was estimated through accounting the cage rearing dense according to the maximum feeding number. [ Result] The most individuals in 1 # cage had the activity in 6 and 9 area; the activity range for the individuals in 5 # cage was mainly in 1 and 4 area,followed in 3 area; the individuals in 3 # cages had the activity in 1,3 and 7 area; the individuals in 4 # cage had the activity in 1,5 and 9 area; there were only 4 individuals in 2 # cage,so the activity area for each individual were more extensive. [ Conclusion ] In the cage with 4m×5ra×6m, the suitable cage carrying capability was 3-4 golden monkeys under the premise that there was a smaller conflict among the individuals of golden monkey. The fewer cage rearing amount could waste the space in cage and the more one could be easy to cause the space conflict among the individuals of golden monkey.%[目的] 在川金丝猴的驯养中合理利用笼舍空间和资源.[方法] 将笼舍划分为9个区域,采用瞬时扫描取样法记录其活动频次.通过极限茏养密度估算茏舍容纳量.[结果] 1#笼舍的个体大部分在6区和9区活动;5#茏舍内个体的活动覆盖区域主要是1区和4区,其次是3区;3#笼舍内的个体主要在1、3、7区内活动;4#丝舍内的个体主要在1、5、9区内活动;2#笼舍有4只个体,每个个体的活动区域都较广泛.[结论] 在4m×5m×6m的笼舍内,在金丝猴个体间冲突较小的前提下,茏养量为3~4只时较为合适,笼养量较少时造成空间的浪费.太大则易造成全丝猴个体之问的空问冲突.

  16. 入境可再生废物携带重金属监测初报%Preliminary study on heavy metal carried by immigration renewable waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慈颖; 文彦杰; 韩晓玲; 常林; 张顺合; 李金有; 王林; 陈春田

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate heavy metal stantus carried by immigration recyclable waste. Methods The pretreatment of samples were washed by ultrasonic, and the water samples were treated by microwae-assisted digestion. Heavy metal Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer in lab. Results In 116 immigration recyclable waste samples, the detection rate of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn was 44.83%,0%,34.48%,75.86%,100%,respectively. Conclusion There exists no industry standards or national standards to limit the degree of heavy metal in immigration recyclable waste. Evaluation of immigration recyclable waste against health of practitioners and environmental hazards needs futher study.%目的 调查研究入境可再生废物携带重金属状况.方法 按集装箱采样,采用超声波水洗的方法 对可再生废物进行前处理,对水样进行微波消解,用原子吸收光谱法对包括镉、铬、铅、镍、锌等重金属元素进行检测.结果 检测116份样本,其中镉检出率为44.83%;铬检出率0%;铅检出率34.48%;镍检出率75.86%;锌检出率为100%.结论 对于进口可再生废物重金属污染程度的限制,并没有国家或行业标准的依据可查,入境可再生废物对从业人员的身体健康和环境危害的评价,有待深入研究.

  17. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  18. A preliminary assessment of peat degradation in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Anshari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. Tropical peats have high values of Water Contents (WC, Organic Matters (OM and Total Organic Carbon (TOC, and low values of Total Nitrogen (TN and Total Sulphur (TS. Dry Bulk Density (DBD is commonly less than 0.1 g cm−3. Decline of concentration values of OM (<90% and TOC (<40% indicate peat degradation. In disturbed peats, TN concentration tends to decrease and the concentration of TS slightly increases. Changes in OM, TOC, TN and TS are potentially important indicators for assessing peat degradation in the tropics.

  19. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    anxiety or depression, drug and alcohol dependence, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and current level of functioning. The axis II disorder includes a semi-structured interview for personality disorders. Outcomes include global functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), substance use......, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...

  20. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  1. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  2. An integrated approach for assessing aquatic ecological carrying capacity: a case study of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Yanfang; Hu, Jiameng; Bai, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecological carrying capacity is an effective method for analyzing sustainable development in regional water management. In this paper, an integrated approach is employed for assessing the aquatic ecological carrying capacity of Wujin District in the Tai Lake Basin, China. An indicator system is established considering social and economic development as well as ecological resilience perspectives. While calculating the ecological index, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series images, followed by spatial and temporal analysis of vegetation cover. Finally, multi-index assessment of aquatic ecological carrying capacity is carried out for the period 2000 to 2008, including both static and dynamic variables. The results reveal that aquatic ecological carrying capacity presents a slight upward trend in the past decade and the intensity of human activities still exceeded the aquatic ecological carrying capacity in 2008. In terms of human activities, population has decreased, GDP has quadrupled, and fertilizer application and industrial wastewater discharge have declined greatly in the past decade. The indicators representing aquatic ecosystem conditions have the lowest scores, which are primarily attributed to the water eutrophication problem. Yet the terrestrial ecosystem is assessed to be in better condition since topographic backgrounds and landscape diversity are at higher levels. Based on the work carried out, it is suggested that pollutant emission be controlled to improve water quality and agricultural development around Ge Lake (the largest lake in Wujin District) be reduced.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of the Loss of Flow Accident for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moohoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TRACE code have being considered as a candidate tool for SFR audit calculation for licensing review since 2012. On the basis of modeling and precalculation experience for the Demonstration Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (DSFR-600), TRACE code model for PGSFR was developed this year. In this paper, one of representing Design Base Event (DBE), Loss of Flow (LOF) accident was pre-calculated and Locked Rotor (LR) case was compared with LOF case since it could be a possible limiting case for LOF representing DBE. Sensitivity calculation for the LR case was implemented for identifying major parameters for the scenario. For the preparation of the review of licensing application for PGSFR, TRACE model for the PGSFR was developed and the loss of flow accident was precalculated. The locked pump rotor case was also calculated as a possible bounding case for the loss of flow scenario. Pre-calculation showed that the locked rotor case was similar or worst case to the loss of flow accident. Therefore, the locked rotor case should take into account in design base accident assessment of PGSFR. Sensitivity calculations for the rocked rotor case also studied for identification of unfixed design parameters influencing to estimation of inner surface temperature. Sensitivity result showed that the first temperature peak was largely influenced by reactor trip delay and second peak mostly influenced by pump coast down characteristic.

  4. Malaysia’s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noore Alam Siddiquee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While Malaysia has always seen major reform and modernisation programmes, the Government Transformation Programme (GTP introduced by the current Prime Minister in 2009 has drawn much attention as a new model of public service reform. Touted as a major innovation in public service reform it is also claimed to have made impressive progress in areas where previous reforms have failed. This paper reviews the experience of the GTP as a reform model and assesses its impacts and policy significance. Drawing on the findings of in-depth interviews and review of available literature the paper argues that while the GTP is unique in many respects and has already made a promising start, it is not without limitations and controversies. The paper highlights some of the accomplishments of the GTP as well as prevailing criticisms and concerns surrounding it. The paper also identifies the key factors that explain the early success of the GTP and comments on major lessons and policy implications that could be of value to other developing countries with similar circumstances.

  5. A Preliminary Assessment of HTST Processing on Donkey Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Giribaldi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing attention from consumers on non-bovine milk types, and to the increase in the number of small dairy donkey farms in Italy, farmers require more advanced and reliable processing devices, in order to guarantee a safe product of high quality. To this aim, a new small-scale High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST pasteurizer (72 °C for 15 s, prototyped by the authors, was tested on donkey milk. The efficacy of the HTST device was tested on raw donkey milk microflora by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus cereus. The biochemical quality was assessed by determining the protein profile by monodimensional electrophoresis and by measuring lysozyme activity. The HTST apparatus was able to reduce the total bacteria count, and to completely eradicate Enterobacteriaceae. Bacillus cereus, when present, was decreased with low efficiency. Changes in the protein profile were observed in milk pasteurized in accordance with both processes, although HTST seemed to limit casein degradation. Lysozyme activity was not substantially affected in comparison to raw donkey milk. In conclusion, a tailored small-volume HTST device could be safely applied to pasteurize donkey milk in on-farm pasteurization processes on small dairy donkey farms.

  6. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  7. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  8. A Preliminary Assessment of Peat Degradation in West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshari, G. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government clears closed peat forests into open and drained peatlands for agricultural uses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the change of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) from various peatland uses, and to analyze major factors that direct peat degradation. Data were collected from undrained peat forest, drained and logged peat forest, drained peats from oil palm plantations at different ages (< 5 yrs; 5-10 yrs; and 15-20 yrs), and drained peat for community agriculture. I analyzed a total of 331 subsamples for TOC and TN with elemental analyzer. I classified these data based on peat occurrences (i.e. coastal and inland peats), and peat layers (i.e. acrotelm and catotelm). I used SPSS version 17.0 in data analyses in order to compare means of TOC, TN, and atomic ratio between TOC and TN (Atomic C/N ratio). Results of analysis show that values of TOC are insignificantly different, and values of TN and Atomic C/N ratio are significantly different between coastal and inland peats, and between acrotelm and catotelm. Between land use groups, TOC values have smaller variability than TN values, which shows an increasing trend in drained peats. Hence, Atomic C/N ratio values are significantly lower in drained than undrained peats, comparing between 28.6 and 68.6, respectively. This study presently reckons that drainage is a major factor that enhances the rate of peat decomposition.

  9. A Preliminary Assessment of a Deep Borehole disposal of Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Younmyoung; Jeon, Jongtae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of such radioactive waste as spent nuclear fuels (SFs) and other waste forms has been investigating mainly at Sandia National Labs for the US DOE as an alternative option. DBD can give advantages over less deep geological disposal since the disposal of wastes at a great depth where a low degree of permeability in the potentially steady rock condition will be beneficial for nuclide movement. Groundwater in the deep basement rock can even have salinity and less chance to mix with groundwater above. The DBD concept is quite straightforward and even simple: Waste canisters are simply emplaced in the lower 2 km part of the borehole down to 5 km deep. Through this study, a conceptual DBD is assessed for a similar case as the US DOE's approach, in which 400 SF canisters are to be emplaced at a deep bottom between 3km and 5km depths, upon which an additional 1km-thick compacted bentonite is overbuffered, and the remaining upper part of the borehole is backfilled again with a mixture of crushed rock and bentonite. Then, the total 5km-deep borehole has three zones: a disposal zone at the bottom 2km, a buffer zone at the next 1km, and backfill zone at the rest top 2km, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 1. To demonstrate the feasibility in view of long-term radiological safety, a rough model for a safety assessment of this conceptual deep borehole repository system, providing detailed models for nuclide transport in and around the geosphere and biosphere under normal nuclide release scenarios that can occur after a closure of the repository, has been developed using GoldSim. A simple preliminary result in terms of the dose exposure rate from a safety assessment of the DBD is also presented and compared to the case of direct disposal of SFs in a KBS-3V vertical type repository, carried out in previous studies. For different types and shapes of repositories at each different depth, direct comparison between a DBD and a KBS-3 type disposal of

  10. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis; Dasiou Despina; Filioussis George; Avramidis Nicholaos; Papagianni Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried o...

  11. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  12. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  13. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  14. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-05-15

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research. (author)

  15. Paving the Way for Warehouse Centralization in Healthcare: A Preliminary Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaldi, Sabrina; Cagliano, Anna Corinna; Rafele, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Centralized logistics management is currently one interesting option for healthcare systems facing an increasing need to improve responsiveness and service quality while reducing costs. This work focuses on one aspect of centralized logistics, namely warehouse centralization and proposes a preliminary approach to assess material management in healthcare institutions as a first step towards decisions about the implementation of such a strategy. A list of variables and relationships between the...

  16. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 2. South Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-29

    Classification) Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation, Toefle Army Depot., Utah; Volume ’fl-South Area Q2 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Andris Lapins CPG, Li 3a...Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CES Civil Engineering Squadron CGW Chemistry Groundwater File CRL...area around s rEAD . 2-12 Low humidity is a characteristic of the valley climate and visibility is generally good. During winter months, however, storm

  18. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G. W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (Journal ...

  19. Assessing Internet addiction using the parsimonious Internet addiction components model - a preliminary study [forthcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Shorter, GW; Van Rooij, AJ; Griffiths, MD; Schoenmakers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence estimations difficult. To overcome the present problems a preliminary study was conducted testing a parsimonious Internet addiction components model based on Griffiths’ addiction components (2005), i...

  20. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  1. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  2. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  3. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  4. A preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential repository site Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockerey, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a preliminary performance assessment of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., as a potential site for a radioactive-waste repository. Models and results are discussed for four basic categories of processes and events: groundwater flow and aqueous transport, gas flow and gaseous transport, human intrusion, and basaltic volcanism. Calculated releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The preliminary results show releases from human intrusion and volcanisms to fall well below the regulatory limits, though not all aspects of those categories have yet been considered. Calculated releases for nominal gaseous transport (of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}) are closest to the limits, indicating that models and data relating to gaseous releases may need to receive higher priority. (author) 15 figs., 33 refs.

  5. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Variable Speed Power Turbine Technology on Civil Tiltrotor Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Acree, Cecil W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper performs a preliminary assessment of variable-speed power turbine technology on LCTR2 sizing, while maintaining the same, advanced technology engine core. Six concepts were studied; an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE) using a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox. There were five variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) engine concepts, comprising a matrix of either three or four turbine stages, and fixed or variable guide vanes; plus a minimum weight, twostage, fixed-geometry VSPT. The ACE is the lightest engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox to maximize its fuel efficiency, whereas the VSPT concepts use a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle gross and empty weight, propulsion system weight and mission fuel burn for the civil mission. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. Major study assumptions are presented and discussed. Impressive engine power-to-weight and fuel efficiency reduced vehicle sensitivity to propulsion system choice

  7. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and 70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.

  8. Impaired motor unit control in paretic muscle post stroke assessed using surface electromyography: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K; Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Suresh, Nina L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the possible contribution of disordered control of motor unit (MU) recruitment and firing patterns in muscle weakness post-stroke. A novel surface EMG (sEMG) recording and decomposition system was used to record sEMG signals and extract single MU activities from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of two hemiparetic stroke survivors. To characterize MU reorganization, an estimate of the motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitude was derived using spike triggered averaging of the sEMG signal. The MUs suitable for further analysis were selected using a set of statistical tests that assessed the variability of the morphological characteristics of the MUAPs. Our preliminary results suggest a disrupted orderly recruitment based on MUAP size, a compressed recruitment range, and reduced firing rates evident in the paretic muscle compared with the contralateral muscle of one subject with moderate impairment. In contrast, the MU organization was largely similar bilaterally for the subject with minor impairment. The preliminary results suggest that MU organizational changes with respect to recruitment and rate modulation can contribute to muscle weakness post-stroke. The contrasting results of the two subjects indicate that the degree of MU reorganization may be associated with the degree of the functional impairment, which reveals the differential diagnostic capability of the sEMG decomposition system.

  9. A model to assess fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island ecosystem: A case study in the southern Miaodao Archipelago of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; LI Fen; WANG Xiaoli; CHI Yuan; GUO Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Research on carrying capacity, aiming at maintaining the limited ability of the Earth's life supporting system to sustain human development, requires a comprehensive and ecosystem-based approach to monitor and assess the localized sustainability of coupled social and ecological systems. A definition termed the ecosystem-based carrying capacity of island (EBCCI) was developed in this paper of which the indices of fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island (FCCI and RCCI) were highlighted to emphasize the inter-dependencies between social systems and ecological systems. In order to avoid the difficulties and uncertainties of direct assessment, the related assessment model was established on the basis of synthetic evaluation of inherent and external factors affecting the EBCCI. The southern Miaodao Archipelago (SMA) located in the intersection of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China, was taken as a typical example to acquire integrated recognition of the island ecosystem and its carrying capacity so as to discuss its sustainable development. The index scores of FCCI and RCCI in the SMA were 0.818 5 and 0.712 9 out of 1.0, respectively, with acceptable uncertainties. The results showed a relatively well capacity to sustain progress and relatively well realization of the carrying capacity of island ecosystem, owing to a well capacity of ecologically regulating, general performance of both ecologically supporting and resource provisioning, and a relatively high level of social supporting system. The study implied that it was critical to optimize the inter-dependencies and to sustain the relative balance between social systems and ecological systems so as to improve the RCCI and further facilitate the sustainability of SMA. The approach proposed in this paper provides a powerful tool which is well applicative to the regional level of an oceanic island or archipelago to study the sustainable development and can be further popularized to the coastal zone.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  11. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M

    2000-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.

  12. Stock assessment of Haliporoides triarthrus (Fam. Solenoceridae) off Mozambique: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torstensen, E.; Pacule, H.

    1992-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Haliporoides triarthrus, is an important species in the deep-water shrimp fishery in Mozambique. Total catches are in the range of 1,500 to 2,700 tons, with the pink shrimp accounting for 70-90%. Estimates of growth parameters and of natural mortality are used for a preliminary assessment of the fishery, based on length-structured virtual population analysis and yield-per-recruit analyses. With an arbitrarily chosen terminal fishing mortality F, the results indicate a situati...

  13. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  14. Preliminary results of mental workload and task engagement assessment using electroencephalogram in a space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Zony, Abongwa N; de Leon, Pablo; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of subject's mental workload and task engagement assessment in an experimental space suit. We have quantified the mental workload and task engagement based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG signals were collected from subjects scalp using a commercial wireless EEG device in two experimental conditions - when subjects did not wear space suit (control condition) and when subjects wore space suit. Brain state changes were estimated and compared with the direct responses for different tasks and different conditions. We found that the spacesuit experiment introduced a greater mental workload where subject's stress levels were higher than control experiment.

  15. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  16. Continuous Assessment: A Preliminary Study of Student Engagement in the Assessment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Edmund; Mageean, Eileen; Llorens, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an objective analysis of student engagement with continuous assessment over a three year period. The results of two groups of students from different stages of a modularised level seven engineering programme were examined. As both groups had taken modules where they studied numerical differentiation, this topic was selected and the corresponding assessment results and attendance of both groups were analysed. Two assessment methods were used to evaluate student engagemen...

  17. Preliminary feasibility assessment for Earth-to-space electromagnetic (Railgun) launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Earhart, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An Earth to space electromagnetic (railgun) launcher (ESRL) for launching material into space was studied. Potential ESRL applications were identified and initially assessed to formulate preliminary system requirements. The potential applications included nuclear waste disposal in space, Earth orbital applications, deep space probe launchers, atmospheric research, and boost of chemical rockets. The ESRL system concept consisted of two separate railgun launcher tubes (one at 20 deg from the horizontal for Earth orbital missions, the other vertical for solar system escape disposal missions) powered by a common power plant. Each 2040 m launcher tube is surrounded by 10,200 homopolar generator/inductor units to transmit the power to the walls. Projectile masses are 6500 kg for Earth orbital missions and 2055 kg for nuclear waste disposal missions. For the Earth orbital missions, the projectile requires a propulsion system, leaving an estimated payload mass of 650 kg. For the nuclear waste disposal in space mission, the high level waste mass was estimated at 250 kg. This preliminary assessment included technical, environmental, and economic analyses.

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Redmond Army National Guard Facility, Installation 53120, Redmond, Washington. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketels, P.; Aggarwal, P.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Washington Army National Guard (WAARNG) property in Redmond, Washington. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Redmond ARNG property, Phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. The environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) supply/storage of hazardous materials, (2) weapons cleaning, (3) the underground storage tanks (USTs), and (4) the use of herbicides. These ESOs are no longer active because of the closure of OMS 10 activities in 1988.

  19. Euler Technology Assessment program for preliminary aircraft design employing SPLITFLOW code with Cartesian unstructured grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  1. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  2. Development and preliminary results of the Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Margaret M; Croft, Jason R; French, Michael T; Dugosh, Karen L; Festinger, David S

    2012-07-01

    Financial incentives are often used in research, yet no measure exists to determine whether they lead to perceptions of coercion in subjects. We present a preliminary evaluation of a recently developed Financial Incentive Coercion Assessment (FICA) questionnaire. FICA measures perceived coercion specifically related to payment for participation in a research study. Two hundred sixty-six subjects were recruited from a large randomized controlled trial; 152 returned for a 6-month follow-up and completed the FICA. Approximately 30% of participants reported the major reason for participating was "for the money," but less than 5% felt that the financial incentives were coercive. FICA results are consistent with levels of perceived coercion using an alternative measure. Initial assessment of responses on the FICA suggests that it may provide a novel approach to measuring perceived coercion from financial incentives in research. Future work will refine the FICA and analyze its psychometric properties.

  3. Preliminary assessments of spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales region of the US-Mexican border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A. [ManTech Environmental Technology Inc., P.O. Box 12313, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mukerjee, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, MD-47, 27711 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Monroy, G.J. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 400 West Congress St., Suite 433, 85701 Tucson, AZ (United States); Keene, F.E. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 3033 North Central Ave., 85012 Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and particulate matter (PM) species were used from four sites, two on either side of the border. An examination of median levels and principal component analysis indicated the dominance of soil dusts and mobile sources. Pairwise comparisons of sites for VOCs associated with mobile sources revealed statistically significant differences between sites in the central Nogales area vs. the two sites furthest from the border. Particulate lead at Mexican sites was higher and significantly different vs. US sites. Although further analyses are necessary, findings suggest that local and immediate mobile/other anthropogenic and soil dust influences are present throughout Nogales, with particulate lead from leaded motor vehicle exhaust or soldering operations being a possible influence on the Mexican side.

  4. Assessment of water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies in Tieling City on the basis of the integrated system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Xu, Ling; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, He

    2014-02-15

    Considering the limitation of the traditional method to assess the ecological carrying capacity and the complexity of the water ecological system, we used system dynamics, ANN, and CA-Markov to model a water ecological system. The social component was modeled according to Granger causality test by system dynamics. The natural component consists of the water resource and water environmental capacity, which were forecasted through the prediction of precipitation and change in land use cover. The interaction of the social component and the natural component mainly reflected environmental policies, such as the imposition of an environmental fee and environmental tax based on their values. Simulation results showed the different assessments on water ecological carrying capacity under the two policies. The population grew (2.9 million), and less pollution (86,632.37 t COD and 2854.5 t NH4N) was observed with the imposition of environmental tax compared with the imposition of an environmental fee (2.85 million population, 10,8381 t COD and 3543 t NH4N) at the same GDP level of 585 billion CNY in 2030. According to the causality loop, we discussed the different states under the policies and the reasons that caused the differences in water ecological carrying capacity state. According to game theory, we explained the limitation of the environmental fee policy on the basis of marginal benefit and cost. The externality was cleared up by the environmental tax policy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vulnerability Assessments and Resilience Planning at Federal Facilities. Preliminary Synthesis of Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, R. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Blohm, A. J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Delgado, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.; Henriques, J. J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Malone, E L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL)/Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.

    2015-08-15

    U.S. government agencies are now directed to assess the vulnerability of their operations and facilities to climate change and to develop adaptation plans to increase their resilience. Specific guidance on methods is still evolving based on the many different available frameworks. Agencies have been experimenting with these frameworks and approaches. This technical paper synthesizes lessons and insights from a series of research case studies conducted by the investigators at facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Defense. The purpose of the paper is to solicit comments and feedback from interested program managers and analysts before final conclusions are published. The paper describes the characteristics of a systematic process for prioritizing needs for adaptation planning at individual facilities and examines requirements and methods needed. It then suggests a framework of steps for vulnerability assessments at Federal facilities and elaborates on three sets of methods required for assessments, regardless of the detailed framework used. In a concluding section, the paper suggests a roadmap to further develop methods to support agencies in preparing for climate change. The case studies point to several preliminary conclusions; (1) Vulnerability assessments are needed to translate potential changes in climate exposure to estimates of impacts and evaluation of their significance for operations and mission attainment, in other words into information that is related to and useful in ongoing planning, management, and decision-making processes; (2) To increase the relevance and utility of vulnerability assessments to site personnel, the assessment process needs to emphasize the characteristics of the site infrastructure, not just climate change; (3) A multi-tiered framework that includes screening, vulnerability assessments at the most vulnerable installations, and adaptation design will efficiently target high-risk sites and infrastructure

  6. Self-assessed efficacy of a clinical musculoskeletal anatomy workshop: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José E; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Canoso, Juan J; Kalish, Robert A; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To survey the efficacy of a practical workshop on clinical musculoskeletal anatomy held in five American countries. A self-assessment competence questionnaire sent to participants 1-3 months after the workshop. Results were compared to the results of a practical, instructor-assessed, pre-workshop test. The response rate of participants was 76.4%. The overall, self-assessed competence score for anatomical items that had been included in the pre-test was 76.9 (scale 0-100) as compared to an overall score of 48.1 in the practical, pre-workshop test (p<0.001). For items that were addressed in the workshop, but not included in the pre-test, self-assessed competence was rated at 62.9. Differences in anatomical knowledge between individuals from different countries and professional groups noted in the practical pre-test were no longer present in the post-test self-assessment. From this preliminary data and supporting evidence from the literature we believe that our anatomy workshop provides an effective didactic tool for increasing competence in musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary data on a new opioid risk assessment measure: the Brief Risk Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment and stratification have become a central issue in prescribing opioids to patients with chronic pain. Research to date on various risk screening measures has shown that a clinical interview by an experienced clinician offers superior predictive ability in identifying patients who are more likely to engage in future medication aberrant behavior. The current study represents a pilot study of an interview rating scale that is designed to replicate this clinical assessment. This study compares the predictions of medication aberrant behavior made by the Opioid Risk Tool, the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised, and the new interview rating scale, the Brief Risk Interview (BRI). A sample of 196 patients was assessed by each of the three risk measures and then follow-up data were gathered at 6 months post interview to determine which patients had engaged in medication aberrant behavior and had been discharged from the practice. The BRI shows superior predictive ability in identifying patients who later engage in medication aberrant behavior. Although more study in other settings is needed, these preliminary data suggest that the Brief Risk Interview could be a useful tool for any pain clinician in assessing risk through the use of information gathered in a brief interview.

  8. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  9. Relationships between vocalization forms and functions in infancy: preliminary implications for early communicative assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Ertmer, David J

    2014-11-01

    This preliminary study explored relationships between form and function in prelinguistic vocalizations to increase our understanding of early communicative development and to provide potential clinical implications for early communicative assessment and intervention. Twenty typically developing infants-5 infants in each of 4 age groups, from 3 to 20 months of age-were included. Vocalizations from these infants had previously been categorized for their form (Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, 2006) and function (Stark, Bernstein, & Demorest, 1993) characteristics. In the present study, cross-classification tabulations between form and function were conducted to examine relationships between vocalization types and their apparent uses. As anticipated, earlier developing forms were mostly associated with earlier developing functions, and later developing forms were mostly associated with later developing functions. However, there were some exceptions such that some forms were associated with a variety of functions, and vice versa. The results suggest that some forms are more tightly coupled to function than others in the prelinguistic and early linguistic period. Preliminary implications for developmental theory, future research, and clinical applications are discussed. Larger, longitudinal studies with typical and atypical populations and stricter methodological controls are needed to validate these findings.

  10. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-02-13

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for α-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and venlafaxine bioaccessibility in steamed mussels and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.

  11. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  12. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part II. High Temperature Structural Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A high temperature structural integrity assessment belongs to the Part II of a whole preliminary guideline for the high temperature structure. The main contents of this guideline are the evaluation procedures of the creep-fatigue crack initiation and growth in high temperature condition, the high temperature LBB evaluation procedure, and the inelastic evaluations of the welded joints in SFR structures. The methodologies for the proper inelastic analysis of an SFR structures in high temperatures are explained and the guidelines of inelastic analysis options using ANSYS and ABAQUS are suggested. In addition, user guidelines for the developed NONSTA code are included. This guidelines need to be continuously revised to improve the applicability to the design and analysis of the SFR structures.

  13. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  14. System of tactical assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT: Development and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to report the development and preliminary validation of tactical assessment system in Soccer and highlight its advantages. The validation process followed five perspectives of the concept of validity that consider the value of heuristic methods and the importance of the description of behavior performed in playing situations. Thus, the process of validation was focused on four points: i acceptability and reasonableness of the test perceived by players; ii analysis of content of assessment tool through a panel of experts; iii potential of the assessment tool to discriminate the quality of the performance of players; iv observation reliability. The results displayed values higher than 0.63 for correlation between the evaluations of coaches and the system. It shows the potential of this system to distinguish the performances of players based on the evaluations of coaches. The players who performed the field test agreed with its physical demands and spatial and normative configurations. All experts endorsed the categories and variables of this system. The reliabilities showed values higher than 0.79 for intra and inter-observers. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the system is valid and reliable for the assessment of the tactical behavior of soccer players.

  15. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses.

  16. Preliminary shielding assessment for the 100 MeV proton linac (KOMAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Cho, Y S; Chang, J

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project is building the Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex facilities from 2002 to 2012, which consists of a high-current 100 MeV proton linear accelerator and various beam-lines. This paper provides a preliminary estimate of the shielding required for the 20 mA proton linac and the beam-dump. For an accurate information on secondary neutron production from the guiding magnet and primary heat sink of the beam dump, proton-induced 63Cu and 65Cu cross section data were evaluated and applied to shielding calculations. The required thickness of the concrete was assessed by a simple line-of-sight model for the lateral shielding of the beam-line and the full shielding of the beam dump. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed using the MCNPX code to obtain the source term and attenuation coefficients for the three-dimensional lateral shielding model of the beam-line.

  17. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  18. Preliminary assessment of the ATHENA/WFI non-X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Emanuele; Barbera, Marco; Diebold, Sebastian; Guzman, Alejandro; Santangelo, Andrea; Tenzer, Chris

    2017-06-01

    We present a preliminary assessment of the non-X-ray background for the WFI on board ATHENA conducted at IAAT in the context of the collaborative background and radiation damage working group activities. Our main result is that in the baseline configuration originally assumed for the camera the requirement on the level of non-X-ray background could not be met. In light of the results of Geant4 simulations we propose and discuss a possible optimization of the camera design and pinpoint some open issues to be addressed in the next phase of investigation. One of these concerns the possible contribution to the non-X-ray background from soft protons and ions funneled to the focal plane through the optics. This is not quantified at this stage, here we just briefly report on our ongoing activities aimed at validating the mechanisms of proton scattering at grazing incidence.

  19. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  1. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the behavioral activation model in Japanese undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okajima, Isa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Shun; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sakano, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that behavioral activation is an effective intervention for depression. The behavioral activation model is based on several formulations. For example, depressive mood leads to avoidant behaviors, avoidance negatively affects social contacts, decreased socialization lessens opportunities for positive reinforcement, and a decrease in positive reinforcement results in more depressive mood. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among avoidant behavior, social contact, frequency of positive reinforcement, and depressive mood by using structural equation modeling to assess support for aspects of this behavioral activation model. Participants were 630 Japanese undergraduate students and vocational school students. Results provided preliminary support for the model. Treating both avoidance and activating behavior might contribute to decreased impairment.

  3. PORFLOW MODELING FOR A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEW SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT DESIGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2012-08-06

    At the request of Savannah River Remediation (SRR), SRNL has analyzed the expected performance obtained from using seven 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs) in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) to store future saltstone grout. The analysis was based on preliminary SDU final design specifications. The analysis used PORFLOW modeling to calculate the release of 20 radionuclides from an SDU and transport of the radionuclides and daughters through the vadose zone. Results from this vadose zone analysis were combined with previously calculated releases from existing saltstone vaults and FDCs and a second PORFLOW model run to calculate aquifer transport to assessment points located along a boundary 100 m from the nearest edge of the SDF sources. Peak concentrations within 12 sectors spaced along the 100 m boundary were determined over a period of evaluation extending 20,000 years after SDF closure cap placement. These peak concentrations were provided to SRR to use as input for dose calculations.

  4. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  5. Assessing the relative importance of environmental effects, carry-over effects and species differences in thermal stress resistance: a comparison of Drosophilids across field and laboratory generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Michele; Hangartner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-10-15

    There is increasing interest in comparing species of related organisms for their susceptibility to thermal extremes in order to evaluate potential vulnerability to climate change. Comparisons are typically undertaken on individuals collected from the field with or without a period of acclimation. However, this approach does not allow the potential contributions of environmental and carry-over effects across generations to be separated from inherent species differences in susceptibility. To assess the importance of these different sources of variation, we here considered heat and cold resistance in Drosophilid species from tropical and temperate sites in the field and across two laboratory generations. Resistance in field-collected individuals tended to be lower when compared with F1 and F2 laboratory generations, and species differences in field flies were only weakly correlated to differences established under controlled rearing conditions, unlike in F1-F2 comparisons. This reflected large environmental effects on resistance associated with different sites and conditions experienced within sites. For the 8 h cold recovery assay there was no strong evidence of carry-over effects, whereas for the heat knockdown and 2 h cold recovery assays there was some evidence for such effects. However, for heat these were species specific in direction. Variance components for inherent species differences were substantial for resistance to heat and 8 h cold stress, but small for 2 h cold stress, though this may be a reflection of the species being considered in the comparisons. These findings highlight that inherent differences among species are difficult to characterise accurately without controlling for environmental sources of variation and carry-over effects. Moreover, they also emphasise the complex nature of carry-over effects that vary depending on the nature of stress traits and the species being evaluated.

  6. A Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Preservation and Restoration of Fujian Hakka Tulou Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Ueda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2009, research trips were taken, mainly in the Fujian province of China, to investigate the construction materials, methods, structures and floor plans of Hakka Tulou. Researchers lived in several Tulou, interviewed residents and experienced traditional Hakka lifestyle. Typically, Tulou are located in remote regions at relatively high elevations in climatic conditions characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and with high incidents of typhoons and earthquakes. The extent of damage and level of preservation were examined with respect to the age of many of these structures, the relatively harsh environment, and changing demographics in the region. The majority of occupants are now elderly. They maintain a traditional and efficient lifestyle utilizing minimum electricity, water, and energy. This study discusses the findings from these two field trips and assesses environmental load and sustainability within the context of current environmental standards using the Japanese Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE from data collected at Cheng Qi Lou. The goal was: firstly to undertake a preliminary environmental assessment to determine sustainable elements of Hakka Tulou construction methods; secondly, to identify potential sustainable solutions to preserve existing structure; and finally, to identify appropriate sustainable solutions to repair and retrofit damaged and underutilized structures to modern living standards, while retaining traditional building techniques and lifestyle.

  7. Preliminary assessment of a hysteroscopic fallopian tube heat and biomaterial technology for permanent female sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, Prajan; Trembly, B. Stuart; Moodie, Karen L.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2017-02-01

    Recent failures in hysteroscopic female sterilization procedures have brought into question the implantation of nonresorbable metal devices into the fallopian tubes due to long-term risks such as migration, fragmentation, and tubal perforation. The goal of this study is to assess whether a porous, biodegradable implant can be deposited into the fallopian tube lumen with or without a local mild heat treatment to generate a safe and permanent fallopian tube occlusion/sterilization event. The technologies investigated included freeze-cast collagen-based scaffolds and magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based scaffolds. In vitro assessment of iron oxide MNP-based scaffolds was performed to determine the absorption rate density (ARD); subsequent computational modeling quantified the thermal in vivo steady state temperature as a function of tubal radius for treatment planning. For collagen-based scaffolds, in vivo testing was performed to study the biocompatibility in a mouse flank model, followed by implantation into an in vivo anestrus feline uterine horn (animal model for the fallopian tube). Biological responses were studied histopathologically. Uterine horn patency was assessed via radiographic imaging. Preliminary studies suggest the MNP-impregnated scaffold and a safe, noninvasive AMF excitation field have potential to generate a sufficient focal fallopian tube thermal dose to create a fibrotic healing event and ultimately, permanent tubal occlusion.

  8. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2. The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44 was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890 and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980. Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness.

  9. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago Maia Fernandes; Claudino, Lígia Vieira; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2). The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44) was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890) and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980). Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness. PMID:27901233

  10. The Effects of September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on Public and Private Information Infrastructures: A Preliminary Assessment of Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of the September 11 attacks on public and private information infrastructures. Topics include the role of information technology in future homeland security initiatives; continuity and recovery plans; decentralization of operations; and the development of system redundancies to eliminate single…

  11. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  12. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of preliminary school students toward smoking in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jabbar Sahib

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early smoking considered as a major challenge for health promoters, as well it is socially not acceptable, thus interventions must tackle childhood starts of smoking.Aim: Assessing the knowledge and attitude of preliminary students towards tobacco use. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 2195, 5th grade students from 30 preliminary schools in Baghdad (15 from each side Karkh & Rusafa during November 2014. They were selected by multistage sampling technique.Results:  Participated students age ranged between (10-13 years and (51.9% of them were girls, (54.3% of their parents were nonsmoker while the rest reported that both or one of them are smokers, direct and indirect risks of cigarette  smoking were known by (82.4% and (66.2% respectively, and (70.8% of students’ families were found to wear their kids from smoking hazards, while more than (50% of them have received health education massages from their teachers. Sitting near smoker person was not in favor of (86.2% of the participants, as (51.4% considered it religiously inconvenient and (34.6% considered smoking as a sign of no self-confidence. At last, (73.7% of the surveyed students agreed with smoking prohibition in public places while (25.8% opposed that.Conclusion: In spite of the high percentage of students’ parents were smokers; nevertheless, risks of smoking are well known by the surveyed students and they showed positive attitudes toward smoking prohibition in public places. Parental advising for quit smoking and urging teachers to educate their students about smoking hazards are thought to be the right action.

  13. Problem in application carrying capacity approach for land allocation assessment in Indonesian municipal spatial planning: A case of Kutai Kartanegara Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. N. S.; Rahadi, B.; Lusiana, N.; Maulidina, I.

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization in many countries, such as Indonesia, is commonly appeared as a dynamic population of developed areas. It is followed with reducing rural uses of land for improving urban land uses such as housing, industry, infrastructure, etc. in response to the growth of population. One may not be sufficiently considered by the urban planners and the decision makers, urbanization also means escalation of natural resources consumption that should be supported by the natural capacity of the area. In this situation, balancing approach as carrying capacity calculation in spatial planning is needed for sustainability. Indonesian Spatial Planning Law 26/2007 has already expressed about the balance approach in the system. Moreover, it strictly regulates the assessment and the permission system in controlling land development, especially for the conversion. However, the reductions over the rural uses of land, especially agriculture, are continuously occurred. Concerning the planning approach, this paper aims to disclose common insufficiency of carrying capacity considerations in Indonesian spatial planning practice. This paper describes common calculation weaknesses in projecting area for the urban development by recalculating the actual gap between supply and demand of agriculture land areas. Here, municipal spatial plan of Kutai Kartanegara Regency is utilized as single sample case to discuss. As the result, the recalculation shows that: 1) there are serious deficit status of agriculture land areas in order to fulfil the demanded agriculture production for the existed population, 2) some calculation of agriculture production may be miss-interpreted because of insufficient explanation toward the productivity of each agriculture commodity.

  14. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment to evaluate concussions: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W; Elbin, R J; Furman, Joseph M; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-10-01

    Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P VMS (OR, 3.37; P VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach to the assessment of concussions. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  16. GIS-based preliminary wind-hydrogen energy assessment: A case study for Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Hopper, Miles; Lefvert, Adrian; Mentis, Dimitris; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Lopez De Briñas Gorosabel, Oier; Varela González, Cristina; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    While the world is making progress on incorporating renewables in the electricity grid, the transport sector is still widely locked into using gasoline and diesel fuels. Simultaneously, wind energy is encountering resistance due to its intermittent nature. Wind to hydrogen energy conversion poses a solution to this problem, using wind powered electrolysis to produce hydrogen which can fuel the transport sector. In this report a preliminary assessment for wind to hydrogen energy conversion potential of Pakistan was made considering two different turbines; Vestas V82 and V112. Using available wind speed data, processed in ArcGIS, the hydrogen potential was calculated. Finally, the economic feasibility and potential environmental savings were assessed. From the results it was concluded that Pakistan has a good potential for wind to hydrogen conversion, with 63,807 and 80,232 ktons of hydrogen per year from the V82 and V112 turbines. This corresponds to 2,105 and 2,647 TWh of energy per year respectively. Only using 2% of that potential could give emissions savings of up to 11.43 and 14.37 MtCO2-eq, which would give good reason for more in-depth studies to evaluate the feasibility of a project in Pakistan.

  17. A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Konishi, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hudi Hastowo [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta (Indonesia)]. E-mail: hastowo@cbn.net.id

    2005-07-01

    A joint study between KAERI and BATAN, which is entitled 'A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island', is being conducted under the framework of the Interregional Technical Cooperation Project of IAEA, signed on Oct. 10, 2001 at IAEA. The duration of the project is January 2002 to December 2004. An economic feasibility of nuclear desalination using system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), which will provide Madura Island with electricity and potable water and also support industrialisation and tourism, will be assessed during the project. The scope of this joint study includes the analyses for the short- and long-term energy and water demand as well as the supply plan for Madura Island, evaluation of the site characteristics, environmental impacts and health aspects, technical and economic evaluation of SMART and its desalination system, including the feasibility of its being identified on the Madura Island. KAERI and BATAN are cooperating in conducting a joint study, and IAEA provides technical support and a review of the study products. This paper presents the interim results of the joint study by focussing on the technical and economic aspects of nuclear desalination using SMART in Madura Island. (author)

  18. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  19. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...

  20. Assessment of long-term radon concentration measurement precision in field conditions (Serbian Schools) for a survey carried out by an international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, C; Zunic, Z S; Carelli, V; Cordedda, C; Ferrigno, G; Veselinovic, N; Bossew, P; Tollefsen, T; Cuknic, O; Vojinovic, Z; Bochicchio, F

    2011-05-01

    In an international collaboration, a long-term radon concentration survey was carried out in schools of Southern Serbia with radon detectors prepared, etched and read-out in Italy. In such surveys it is necessary to evaluate measurement precision in field conditions, and to check whether quality assurance protocols were effective in keeping uncertainties under control, despite the complex organisation of measurements. In the first stage of the survey, which involves only some of the total number of municipalities, paired detectors were exposed in each monitored room in order to experimentally assess measurement precision. Paired passive devices (containing CR-39 detectors) were exposed for two consecutive 6-month periods. Two different measurement systems were used to read out CR-39s of the first and second period, respectively. The median of the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured exposures was 8 % for 232 paired devices of the first 6-month period and 4 % for 242 paired devices of the second 6-month period, respectively. This difference was mainly due to a different track count repeatability of the two read-out systems, which was 4 and 1 %, respectively, as the median value of CV of repeated countings. The in-field measured precision results are very similar to the precision assessed in calibration conditions and are much lower than the room-to-room variation of radon concentration in the monitored schools. Moreover, a quality assurance protocol was followed to reduce extra-exposures during detector transport from Rome to schools measured and back.

  1. Preliminary assessment of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties of Pistacia integerrima fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Nazir, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    Present study was focused on the evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties in hydrophilic and lipophilic solvents extracts of Pistacia integerrima fruit, collected from Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Standard analytical methods were followed to estimate the proximate composition of nutrients, trace metals and phytochemical contents including phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and ascorbic acid. The free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and acetone extracts were carried out against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferrous ion chelation, ferric ion reduction, and phosphomolybdenium complex assay. Comparatively highest value of cultural importance index was determined for Margalla hills than other study sites. Crude fibers contents (33.65%) were found highest among nutrients, while in minerals utmost level was measured for K (947.3 mg/kg, FW), followed by Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Acetone extract exhibited highest total phenolics contents (113.7 mg GAE/100g, FW) and antioxidant potential for ferric ion reduction (107.3 μM GAE/100g, FW), phosphomolybdenum complex assay (99.32 μM AAE/100g, FW) and DPPH radical scavenging (91.89%). Fruit of P. integerrima was found an excellent source of nutrients, minerals and antioxidants. Crude extracts exhibited noteworthy potential against free radicals and could be of immense significance in the prevention of different diseases related to free radicals. Present data could be an effectual tool for propagation programs intended to enhance the antioxidant and other phytochemical components in foods.

  2. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm(3), respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm(3), respectively (pmethodology is novel, objective and safe, helping on follow-up of pectus excavatum patients. Moreover, the preliminary study suggests that the time the bar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary assessment of metal toxicity in the middle Tisza river (Hungary) flood plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, M.C.; Williams, P.L. [Dept. of Environmental Health Science, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Cyanide and heavy metals were accidentally released from a mine waste lagoon in Romania into tributaries ultimately draining into the Tisza River. Within two months of the cyanide accident two subsequent heavy metal waste spills further contaminated the Tisza River, followed by severe spring flooding, which potentially spread the contamination to soils adjacent to the river. Flood plain soils and shoreline sediments were sampled from two locations on the middle Tisza River and a reference site to conduct a preliminary assessment of metal content and toxicity. Ten-day sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca and 24 h soil toxicity tests were conducted with the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). High concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and arsenic were detected in soil and sediment samples. However, no mortality was observed in Hyalella exposed to Tisza River sediments and only up to 27% mortality of C. elegans was observed in flood plain soils. Low mortalities are attributed to reduced metal bioavailability caused by high soil cation exchange capacities and possible interactions with sediment organic matter or sulfides. Future studies should focus on factors that alter metal bioavailability and their relationship to potential toxicity of organisms exposed to Tisza River sediments and flood plain soils. (orig.)

  4. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  5. Euler technology assessment for preliminary aircraft design employing OVERFLOW code with multiblock structured-grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, David A.; Muilenburg, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    The viability of applying a state-of-the-art Euler code to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments through maximum lift coefficient for a generic sharp-edge configuration is assessed. The OVERFLOW code, a method employing overset (Chimera) grids, was used to conduct mesh refinement studies, a wind-tunnel wall sensitivity study, and a 22-run computational matrix of flow conditions, including sideslip runs and geometry variations. The subject configuration was a generic wing-body-tail geometry with chined forebody, swept wing leading-edge, and deflected part-span leading-edge flap. The analysis showed that the Euler method is adequate for capturing some of the non-linear aerodynamic effects resulting from leading-edge and forebody vortices produced at high angle-of-attack through C(sub Lmax). Computed forces and moments, as well as surface pressures, match well enough useful preliminary design information to be extracted. Vortex burst effects and vortex interactions with the configuration are also investigated.

  6. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  8. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley Clinton

    2017-02-01

    The Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85 presentation and supplementary report from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory examine how the spacing of E85 fueling stations impacts E85 retail pricing. The analysis finds an inverse correlation between station density and E85 prices, with local competition putting downward pressure on E85 prices. A gas station with E85 whose nearest competitor is within a 0.5 mile radius is associated with a lower E85 price per gallon than an otherwise identical station with E85 whose nearest competitor is farther away. The analysis also finds a higher level of correlation between E85 and both E10 and wholesale gasoline prices than with ethanol costs. This indicates that E85 may, in fact, be priced with respect to its substitute fuel, and not based on the cost of its inputs. These findings help identify key trends and barriers in E85 markets and highlight data gaps that, if addressed, could help enable competitive E85 markets. The analysis was released in February 2017 and uses national and Minnesota-specific price data.

  10. [Using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for preliminary assessment of cognitive impairment in subjects exposed to air pollution with particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Grella, Rodolfo; Lamberti, Monica; Bergamasco, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have linked elevated concentrations of particulate matter to adverse health effects. In particular, has been demonstrated an association between UFPs exposure and occurrence of acute respiratory infections, lung cancer, chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to cognitive decline. In this work, we used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a preliminary assessment of cognitive function in individuals who have lived and carried out work in heavily urbanized areas, where ambient levels of particulate air pollution were frequently above the standard of the law. The results showed the presence of mild-moderate cognitive impairment in 39.4% of the subjects examined compared to the control group.

  11. Weaving versus blending: a quantitative assessment of the information carrying capacities of two alternative methods for conveying multivariate data with color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh-Shenas, Haleh; Kim, Sunghee; Interrante, Victoria; Healey, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In many applications, it is important to understand the individual values of, and relationships between, multiple related scalar variables defined across a common domain. Several approaches have been proposed for representing data in these situations. In this paper we focus on strategies for the visualization of multivariate data that rely on color mixing. In particular, through a series of controlled observer experiments, we seek to establish a fundamental understanding of the information-carrying capacities of two alternative methods for encoding multivariate information using color: color blending and color weaving. We begin with a baseline experiment in which we assess participants' abilities to accurately read numerical data encoded in six different basic color scales defined in the L*a*b* color space. We then assess participants' abilities to read combinations of 2, 3, 4 and 6 different data values represented in a common region of the domain, encoded using either color blending or color weaving. In color blending a single mixed color is formed via linear combination of the individual values in L*a*b* space, and in color weaving the original individual colors are displayed side-by-side in a high frequency texture that fills the region. A third experiment was conducted to clarify some of the trends regarding the color contrast and its effect on the magnitude of the error that was observed in the second experiment. The results indicate that when the component colors are represented side-by-side in a high frequency texture, most participants' abilities to infer the values of individual components are significantly improved, relative to when the colors are blended. Participants' performance was significantly better with color weaving particularly when more than 2 colors were used, and even when the individual colors subtended only 3 minutes of visual angle in the texture. However, the information-carrying capacity of the color weaving approach has its limits. We

  12. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime(®) manufactured by Revlon(®) consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I' (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I' (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database.

  13. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A. G.; Tedder, D. W.; Drago, J. P.; Blomeke, J. O.; Perona, J. J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures.

  14. Assessment of cheiloscopy in sex determination using lysochrome - A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was undertaken with the objective of ascertaining whether latent lip prints generated by persistent lipsticks and developed using lysochrome dyes have the potential of use in sex determination and personal identification. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) whose latent lip prints were obtained by applying the persistent lipstick Revlon ColorStay Overtime® manufactured by Revlon® consumer products corporation, NewYork, USA, and lifting the prints with cellophane sheets. The prints were then developed using lysochrome dyes, and all the samples were blinded and then graded based on defined patterns from the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. Results: No two lip prints were found to be alike. Type I was found to be the most prevalent type. In the female population, Type I (61%) was most prevalent, followed by Type I’ (28%), Type II (9%), Type III (2%), Type IV (1%), and Type V (1%); in the male population, Type I (33%) was most prevalent, followed by Type II (23%), Type III (18%), Type IV (14%), Type I’ (10%), and Type V (3%). Two examiners were able to determine the correct sexes from the given sample sizes. Their interobserver agreement was assessed using the kappa coefficient for males (κ =0.870) and females (κ = 0.870). Their accuracy was assessed with a confidence interval (CI) of 91.48-99.38. Conclusion: Lysochrome dyes are very efficacious in developing latent lip prints. This preliminary study has conclusively proved that latent lip prints developed with lysochrome dyes hold the potential for use in sex determination and can be maintained in a digital database. PMID:26816459

  15. Organization and results of a pilot scheme for external quality assessment in clinical chemistry carried out in the Latium region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisi, G; Leonetti, G; Palombella, D; Patriarca, M; Menditto, A

    1995-01-01

    The results of an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS), carried out in the Latium region between October 1987 and December 1988, are reported. Ninety-four laboratories, both public and private, took part in the scheme. Aim of the scheme was to estimate the reliability of the clinical chemistry services in this region. The participating laboratories received eight control samples for EQA, every two months. The analytes to be determined in each sample were: glucose (GLU), urea (UR), total protein (TP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (CR), bilirubin (BIL), cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TRI), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CPK), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Global laboratory performances were evaluated in terms of interlaboratory precision, accuracy--as deviation per cent from the target values and coefficient of variation (CV)--and percentage of results within pre-set acceptability limits. The deviations were reasonably low, whereas the CVs were rather high. The percentage of acceptable results was lower than 50% for the analytes urea, calcium, uric acid, creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. The performance of the examined laboratories was worse than those obtained in other regional and national EQAS, both in terms of CVs and percentage of acceptable results.

  16. A Preliminary Assessment of Social Vulnerability in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Sugata; Islam, Nabiul

    2017-04-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta has a high population density and is exposed to rapid environmental changes making it one of the most stressed deltas in the world. The low-lying coastal areas of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta comprise 19 coastal districts of Bangladesh and two districts in India with significant land areas within 5 meters of sea level has a population of more than 50 million people at an average population density of 1100 people/km2. This population is exposed to a range of hazards such as severe cyclones, coastal erosion, and salinization, exacerbated by climate change and subsidence which imply severe stress on the resource dependent community of this region. This situation is further complicated by poverty and limited social well-being such as poor access to education/ health/ drinking water/ sanitation facilities, and lack of food and energy security. Thus assessing social vulnerability can help to understand which communities are susceptible to environmental change and guide adaptation actions to address these threats. This preliminary study aims to construct a socio-economic index by assessing the social vulnerability of coastal communities of GBM Delta taking consistent and common secondary data from the Census of India and the Bangladesh Bureau of Statisticsand applyinga Principle Component Analysis(PCA) methodology. Several statistical tests like Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) have also been used to assess the appropriateness of using PCA. Among the selected common indicators, five major components are found to explain majority of the total variation of social vulnerability across the delta: (1) poverty, (2) dependency ratio, (3) agriculture dependency, (4) lack of sanitation and (5) existence of mud houses. The most important observation is the existence of a social vulnerability gradient across the coast. In other words, socially marginalised and vulnerable communities are found on the Delta margin in both India and

  17. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  18. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the first year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  20. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  1. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  2. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration with Biochar: A Preliminary Assessment of its Global Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, J.; Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S.

    2007-12-01

    Biochar technology involves the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its ultimate conversion to biochar by pyrolysis. Energy is obtained during the pyrolysis process and the charcoal, or biochar, which is considerably more stable than biomass, may then be incorporated into agricultural lands where it serves to increase the nutrient- and water-holding capacity of soil. With an estimated half-life in soil on the order of centuries to millenia, biochar offers a way of safely storing C for long periods of time while enhancing the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, biochar technology, like other biomass conversion approaches that include C sequestration options, offers a way to decrease the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. That is, biochar technology is one of the few inherently "carbon-negative" sources of energy. These positive attributes are of little consequence, however, if the total contribution to sequestration is small compared to the need. In this paper, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential contribution of biochar technology to the mitigation of climate change, and identify some research needs. Currently, the atmospheric C levels are increasing by about 4.1 Gt/yr, with 7.2 Gt/yr being put into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion and cement production, and 3.1 Gt/yr being removed from the atmosphere by the ocean (2.2 Gt/yr) and terrestrial processes (0.9 Gt/yr). The uptake by terrestrial processes can be increased significantly by management of the 60.6 Gt/yr of biomass C that is fixed by photosynthesis (i.e., net primary productivity), of which 59 Gt/yr is decomposed and 1.6 Gt/yr combusted. Biomass pyrolysis converts about 50% of the biomass C to char. Of the other 50% that is converted to bio-oil and bio-gas, the net energy production is about 62% efficient. Thus, pyrolysis of 1 Gt of biomass C would provide energy equivalent to about 0.3 Gt of fossil C and could be used to offset that amount of fossil C

  3. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  4. The orodental status of a group of elderly in-patients: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L; Gosney, M A; Doherty, U; Field, E A

    1999-12-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the orodental status and dental treatment requirements of a group of elderly in-patients. Cross-sectional. Acute Care of the Elderly and Stroke Rehabilitation units at teaching hospitals in Merseyside. 150 patients aged 58 to 94 years, in which a history could be validated at interview. Questionnaire administered by dentist and clinical examination. Registration with a dentist, prosthetic status and difficulties with dentures, denture hygiene and identification marking, dental treatment needs and evidence of mucosal pathology. Only 27% of patients claimed registration with a dentist. Three quarters of the patients were edentulous and 66 patients wore full dentures; 18 had no prostheses. Difficulties were experienced by one quarter of patients with upper dentures, compared with a half of lower denture wearers. Of the dentures available for inspection, 61% had removable soft debris, 66% were left out at night and 75% were cleaned by the patient, whilst on the ward. No dentures had evidence of identification marking. Of the 39 partially dentate patients, 75% required interventive dental treatment. Denture stomatitis was diagnosed in 29% of patients and 19 had evidence of benign mucosal pathology. The orodental status of this group of elderly in-patients was poor, with a high proportion being edentulous. Few were registered with a dentist and denture hygiene was inadequate. Lack of identification marking is a matter of concern. Closer liaison between hospital staff responsible for elderly in-patients is required, to improve the orodental health and quality of life of this medically compromised group of patients.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of mud crab Scylla olivacea (Portunidae) in Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, Hurul Adila-Aida Mohamad; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd; Yahya, Khairun; Naim, Darlina Md

    2013-11-01

    A primary factor in population management and wildlife conservation is the delineation of population units derived from descriptions of population genetic structure. Yet, predicting factors that influence the patterns of gene flow in a population particularly at landscape scales remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we report a population genetic study of the mud crab Scylla olivacea examined based on a 542 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I gene among 91 individuals from six localities in the west and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In total 55 unique haplotypes were distinguished with 45 private haplotypes and a single common haplotype shared among all populations studied. The other ten haplotypes were shared among various populations. The sharing of this haplotype reflects the connection of the mangrove areas between east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. High haplotype diversity (h = 0.968 ± 0.021; mean ± SD) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.120 ± 0.015; mean ± SD) were displayed, which may be indicative of genetic bottleneck events. No significant phylogenetic lineages were recognized using neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis indicated that 99.33 % of the genetic variation was contained within populations and 0.67 % occurred among populations, suggesting no geographical patterning among populations studied, supported by F st test. Mismatch distribution analysis showed that the observed distribution of the pairwise mutation differences among haplotypes was multimodal, which is not concordant with a sudden range expansion scenario. However, neutrality tests showed non-significant negative values suggesting that the populations studied may have experienced past population growth, but the expansion may have been restricted to separate local areas that resulted in the non-significant negative Fu's Fs and Tajima's D value. Overall, this present preliminary study was

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Wind and Wave Retrieval from Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weizeng; Sheng, Yexin; Sun, Jian

    2017-07-25

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0.5 m to 3 m. In this study, winds were retrieved using the geophysical model function (GMF) together with the polarization ratio (PR) model and waves were retrieved using a new empirical algorithm based on SAR cutoff wavelength in satellite flight direction, herein called CSAR_WAVE. Validation against buoy measurements shows a 1.4/1.9 m/s root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed and a 24/23% scatter index (SI) of SWH for VV/HH polarization. In addition, wind and wave retrieval results from 166 GF-3 images were compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis winds, as well as the SWH from the WaveWatch-III model, respectively. Comparisons show a 2.0 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 36% SI of SWH for VV-polarization and a 2.2 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 37% SI of SWH for HH-polarization. Our work gives a preliminary assessment of the wind and wave retrieval results from GF-3 SAR images for the first time and will provide guidance for marine applications of GF-3 SAR.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of the Interior Noise Environment in the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    The second-generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) serves as a representative vehicle under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project with a design goal to transport 90 passengers over a distance of 1800 km at a speed of 550 km/hr. The tiltrotor combines the vertical lift capability of a helicopter with the speed, altitude, and range of a turboprop airplane. The blade-passage frequency of the four-bladed rotor is as low as 6.9 Hz during cruise conditions. The resulting low-frequency acoustic excitation and its harmonics, combined with the anticipated use of lightweight composite and sandwich materials for the fuselage sidewall, may pose a challenge to achieving acceptable interior noise levels. The objective of the present study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the expected interior noise environment in the LCTR2 cabin. The approach includes a combination of semi-empirical, analytical, and statistical energy analysis methods. Because the LCTR2 is a notional vehicle, the prediction approach was also applied to the XV-15 tiltrotor and Bombardier Q400 turobprop aircraft to compare predictions with publicly available experimental data. Guidance for the expected interior noise levels in the LCTR2 was obtained by considering both the predicted exterior noise levels and the transmission loss of a basic fuselage sidewall consisting of a skin, porous layer and a trim panel. Structural and acoustic resonances are expected to coincide with low order harmonics of the blade passage frequency. The estimated sound pressure levels in the LCTR2 may not be acceptable when evaluated against known characteristics of human response to low frequency sound.

  8. Preliminary zoning for risk assessment and remediation purposes in Portman Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel; Molina, Jose; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Portman bay is a singular point of mining impact in the Mediterranean area. The site is located in the province of Murcia, south-eastern Spain, and was completely inundated with more than 63 million tonnes of mining waste discharged through a huge washing plant. Wastes from mining activities mainly consisted of ore materials (galena, pyrite and sphalerite), phyllosilicates, in addition to siderite, iron oxides and sometimes alteration products such as jarosite, alunite, kaolinite and greenalite. These materials were submitted to a concentration process by floatation with sea water and as a result of the discharge, the whole of the bay was filled up with wastes which also extended into the Mediterranean Sea. In the last years of activity, wastes were even poured alternatively in the sea or over the sediments filling the bay. These actions have produced a very high heterogeneity in the sediments. Although after the end of the discharges it has been possible to reach a certain degree of balance, the sediments, especially those closest to the sea, are subjected to marine dynamics and the effects of rainfall and runoffs. In 2007, a recuperation pilot project was developed and financed by the Spanish Government. In the first step of this project, the complete physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of sediments, both in surface and at depth was carried out. Twenty surface samples were collected (metal leached, Acid-volatile sulphide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) were also obtained. The results allowed two types of materials to be differentiated. The first one with a fine particle size, is related with the direct discharge of wastes and contains jarosite and other minerals resulting of supergenic alteration. The pH is low and both the level of heavy metals and chemical reactivity are high. The second, different material is black sand, a sediment of coarse texture in which stable minerals, phylosilicates, iron oxides and hydroxides, siderite

  9. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  10. Preliminary assessment report for Army Aviation Support Facility No. 3, Installation 13307, Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Smith, K.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Georgia Army National Guard property located on Hunter Army Airfield (HAA) near Savannah, Georgia, known as Army Aviation Support Facility (AASF) No. 3. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances utilized, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the AASF No. 3 property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The scope of this assessment is limited to the facilities and past activities contained within the area now occupied by AASF No. 3. However, this assessment report is intended to be read in conjunction with a previous IRP assessment of HAA completed in 1992 (USATHAMA 1992) and to provide comprehensive information on AASF No. 3 for incorporation with information contained in that previous assessment for the entirety of HAA.

  11. Dynamical ice sheet model coupling with the GEOS-5 AGCM: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Zhao, B.; Nowicki, S.; Suarez, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamical ice sheet models (ISMs) have been developed to address well-known limitations in eustatic change prediction capabilities. Coupling ISMs to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is not straightforward, due in part to the extreme difference in spatial scales between the ISM mesh and AGCM grid. In given locations, ISM element edge lengths may be a few km or less, while the AGCM typically has grid spacings on the order of 10s to 100s of km. The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) is a finite-volume AGCM and employs a cube-sphere atmospheric grid (nominally 1° resolution) and a catchment-based land surface scheme that operates on sub-grid scale areas, or tiles, that describe surface characteristics. The land surface component communicates with the atmosphere on a semi-implicit time step via the exchange grid. In this study, coupling between the AGCM and the ISM is facilitated through sub-grid scale land surface tiles that are defined for each element of the ISM. The ISM used here is the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Univ. California at Irvine, which has been adapted for the Greenland Ice Sheet using the 72,320-element Schlagel mesh and using a shallow ice approximation. In the AGCM, land surface tiles are uniquely characterized through a simple downscaling parameterization of surface temperature within each AGCM grid box using a defined lapse rate. On each land surface tile, GEOS-5 employs an advanced snow hydrology model for improved representation of the ice sheet surface mass balance. This preliminary assessment focuses on the differences in the AGCM surface mass balance and surface temperature fields resulting from the downscaling measures employed in the context of an exchange grid, semi-implicit coupling with the atmosphere, and the response of the ISM. Differences in AGCM computational performance with the addition of Greenland tiles is examined, and comparative advantages of

  12. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  13. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  14. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  15. Analysis of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    Chapter Ⅰ Introduction  Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.  ……

  16. Preliminary assessment of bioengineered fringing shoreline reefs in Grand Isle and Breton Sound, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Schwarting, Lindsay; Miller, Shea

    2013-01-01

    postconstruction data are available. Data for the latter two sites thus reflect only the 2012 spring/summer seasons, which were further impacted by a direct hit by Hurricane Isaac in August 2012, which resulted in shoreward movement of approximately 14 percent of the bioengineered structures at Lake Fortuna. Given the shortened monitoring timeframe and significant differences in construction schedules, we were not able to provide a full postconstruction assessment of the sites or a full comparison of site success based on local site characteristics. Because many of the impacts that were identified for monitoring reflect long-term processes, results and data presented should be interpreted cautiously. Sustainable oyster reefs require recruitment, growth, and survival at a rate that keeps pace with mortality and shell disarticulation. Although one site failed to recruit (establishment plus survival > 50 millimeters [mm]) over two spawning seasons, two sites only had 6 months postconstruction data available for assessment. Although there are good data on the requirements for oyster growth, there is limited explicit information on the site-specific water quality, hydrodynamic, and biological interaction effects that may determine successful reef establishment. Furthermore, interannual variability can significantly affect reef establishment, and our shortened timeframe of sampling (less than one spawning season for two of the reefs; two spawning seasons for one reef), combined with a lack of prerestoration monitoring data, limit our ability to draw any conclusions about long-term reef sustainability. Bioengineered reefs are thought to provide some benefits to shoreline stabilization through their structure by immediately attenuating wave energies and directly reducing erosion rates at shorelines sheltered by the reefs but also by increasing sediment deposition behind the reefs. Preliminary data indicate differences in reef impact by site; given the short timeframe of postconstruction

  17. The reliability and validity of questionnaire for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is one of the most important consequences of occupational heat exposure in worldwide. Current heat stress indices are not suitable for heat strain screening in developing countries due to their inherent and applied limitations. The Aim of this study was design, validity and reliability of a questionnaire method entitled "Heat Strain Score Index" or HSSI for preliminary assessment of heat stress at workplace. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. This research included seven stages (i Item generation (ii Evaluation of content validity by 9 subjects of occupational health specialists and 30 occupational health providers (iii Reliability analysis was performed on 98 workers (iv Structure validity was conducted on 150 workers (v Test of the measurement model (vi Criteria validity on 122 worker and (vii classification of level thermal risk with ROC curves. Data were analyzed with SPSS-18 and AMOS-16 software. Results: In stage of item generation 40 items were identified. In Content Validity evaluation in the level of occupational health specialists, 27 items modified, 3 items were removed and 3 items added in evaluation by occupational health providers, 19 items modified. Internal consistency (α of items was 0.91. Exploratory factor analysis on items HSSI scale identified four subscales which explained 71.6% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence of model fits (GFI=0.991, RMSEA=0.036. Correlation between the HSSI score with aural temperature was 0.73.Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for upper green zone (no thermal strain were 13.5, 91% and 50%.whereas Cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity for lower red zone (thermal strain were 18, 86% and 73%. Conclusion: This study revealed HSSI scale includes 18 of measurable variables that high overlapped with WBGT index and others questionnaires. This scale demonstrated high reliability and validity

  18. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  19. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  20. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  1. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  2. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  3. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  4. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongerslev Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS WITHIN THE REMARCA STUDY: PRELIMINARY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a high or very high cardiovascular risk (CVR before therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Objective: to evaluate the impact of antirheumatic therapy performed in accordance with the Treat-to-Target strategy on the progression of atherosclerosis and CVR in patients with early RA. Subjects and methods. This investigation enrolled 74 patients (72% women; median age, 56 years with early RA having moderate to high activity (median DAS28, 5.6 who had not previously received DMARDs and glucocorticoids (GCs. All patients were anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive and 87% of the patients were rheumatoid factor-positive. All patients received methotrexate (MT subcutaneously with dose escalation up to 25–30 mg/week, in case of its inefficiency at 3 months a biological agent (BA was added. After 6 months, 39% of the patients achieved remission; 19% had low; 35 and 7% had moderate and high disease activity, respectively. The majority (n = 20 (69% who achieved remission received MT monotherapy; 9 (31% – MT + BA whereas among the patients who did not achieve remission 15 (33% and 30 (67% respectively. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, traditional CVR factors were assessed in all patients, by determining the total coronary risk by the SCORE scale, including that modified by EULAR (mSCORE, carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA by duplex scanning data, coronary calcification (CC by multislice spiral computed tomography and by estimating the degree of CVR.Results and discussion. The rates of hypertension, overweight, abdominal obesity, low activity, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus did not change significantly after 6 months. There were increases in the levels of total cholesterol by 7% (p < 0.05, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9% (p<0.01, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 26% (p < 0.005, and body mass index (BMI by 1% (p < 0.01 and a decrease

  7. CNG 加气站初步设计及安全风险评价%Preliminary Design and Safety Risk Assessment of a CNG Filling Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐倩

    2015-01-01

    CNG(压缩天然气)作为当今汽车能源的重要组成部分,凭借其污染小、经济性好、成本低等优势得到迅速推广,CNG 汽车市场占有率越来越大,CNG 加气站的需求量也日益增加。根据《汽车加油加气站设计与施工规范》,对某 CNG 加气站进行初步设计,并结合国内外 CNG 加气站安全风险评价技术,采取科学、系统、完善的方针,对该 CNG 加气站进行安全风险评价。%CNG (compressed natural gas) as an important part of today's automotive energy, has many advantages, such as low pollution, good economy, low cost and so on, so it has gained rapid promotion, and CNG vehicle market share is growing, the demand of CNG filling station is increasing. In this paper, based on the " Specification for design and construction of automobile gasoline and gas filling station" ,preliminary design of a CNG filling station was carried out, the CNG gas station security risk was assessed by safety risk assessment techniques.

  8. Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -1. Removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, acute/chronic toxicity for aquatic organisms, and effects on medaka gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikako; Hirata, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yudai; Kitani, Chise; Sekizawa, Jun; Uchida, Masaya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Koshio, Masaaki; Hirai, Narisato; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2007-01-01

    Butylparaben and benzylparaben, used as preservatives mainly in cosmetic products, have recently been found to be weakly estrogenic. Batch activated-sludge treatment and batch chlorination were carried out to roughly determine the removal efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant. Combining the removal efficiency with the estimated annual consumption and the unaltered excretion ratio, the maximum predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) for n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Medaka vitellogenin assays were also conducted for the three compounds and DNA microarray analysis was carried out to examine the effects of benzylparaben on gene expression. The plasma vitellogenin concentration of male medaka increased for concentrations of 200, 100, and 100 microg L(-1) n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben for 14 days, respectively, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as p53, cytochrome P450 3A40, and choriogenin-L increased for concentrations higher than 4 microg L(-1) of benzylparaben. Furthermore, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using the lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. The maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent (MEC eff) were used to carry out preliminary environmental risk assessment. The calculated MEC/PNEC ratio suggests the necessity of further study such as a more detailed large-scale monitoring and chronic toxicity tests including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption.

  9. Performance assessment methodology as applied to the Greater Confinement Disposal site: Preliminary results of the third performance iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baer, T.A. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has contracted Sandia National Laboratories to conduct a performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Nevada. The performance assessment is an iterative process in which transport models are used to prioritize site characterization data collection. Then the data are used to refine the conceptual and performance assessment models. The results of the first two performance assessment iterations indicate that the site is likely to comply with the performance standards under the existing hydrologic conditions. The third performance iteration expands the conceptual model of the existing transport system to include possible future events and incorporates these processes in the performance assessment models. The processes included in the third performance assessment are climate change, bioturbation, plant uptake, erosion, upward advection, human intrusion and subsidence. The work completed to date incorporates the effects of bioturbation, erosion and subsidence in the performance assessment model. Preliminary analyses indicate that the development of relatively deep-rooting plant species at the site, which could occur due to climate change, irrigated farming or subsidence, poses the greatest threat to the site`s performance.

  10. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  11. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  12. Assessing the effect of interventions on the risk of cattle and sheep carrying Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the abattoir using a stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, K F; Parsons, D J; Christiansen, K H; Burton, C H

    2007-04-16

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 persists in being a threat to food safety. The mechanisms behind the spread of E. coli O157:H7 on the farm are complex and poorly understood. The objective of this study was to apply a Monte Carlo model, constructed to simulate the propagation of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and sheep on the farm, to both test the effect of different interventions on the risk of animals carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir and to develop understanding of the underlying processes, including the identification of areas that could benefit from further research. An overview of the model including key assumptions is given. The output statistics from batches of 100 runs of the model were collected. From the model output, a cumulative frequency distribution of the prevalence and specific shedding level for the groups of cattle or sheep being sent to the abattoir were generated. Stochastic dominance was used to compare the results of the model outputs. Using the shorthand that "risk" means the likelihood of carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir, key conclusions from the study included: mixing sheep and cattle increases the risk in both groups; merging groups of animals of the same species into larger groups increases the risk substantially; increasing stocking density increases the risk independently of group size; decreasing the group size decreases the E. coli O157:H7 prevalence independently of stocking density; a very high level of barn hygiene reduces the risk; a shorter time between spreading farmyard manure and grazing and an increased background level of E. coli O157:H7 in the model increases the risk. The background level could be influenced by the presence of wild animals carrying the organism. The parameters to which the model is most sensitive are those related to transmission from grass and enclosures to animals, pathogen survival on grass, in slurry and in barns and contact between animals.

  13. Fuzzy assessment of water resources carrying capacity in Taihu Basin%太湖流域水资源承载能力模糊综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远斌; 高怡; 石亚东; 徐枫

    2011-01-01

    Based on fully considering the status of water resources development and utilization and the socio-economic development in the Taihu Basin, a comprehensive evaluation index system of the water resources carrying capacity was established by using Driving forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model, which put emphasis on the ecological environment impact factors and met the characteristics of the Taihu Basin.The indexes were classified according to water resources status, water resources and socio-economic and water resources and ecological environment.The AHP method was used to calculate the weights of each index and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of water resource carrying capacity in the Taihu Basin was carried out from 2000 to 2006.The evaluation results indicated that the overall level of the water resources carrying capacity in the Taihu Basin was contained in a critical state with the fitness and the overload, and its enhancement room was limited.%在充分考虑太湖流域水资源开发利用现状及社会经济发展状况的基础上,采用驱动力-压力-状态-影响-反应模型,突出生态环境影响因子,建立符合太湖流域自身特点的水资源承载能力综合评价指标体系,并按照水资源状态、水资源与社会经济、水资源与生态环境3个方面对指标进行分类,运用层次分析法计算各指标权重,对太湖流域2000-2006年水资源承载能力进行模糊综合评价.评价结果表明,太湖流域水资源承载能力总体水平处于适载与超载的临界状态,提升空间有限.

  14. Preliminary assessment of night vision goggles in airborne forest fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Erdos, Rob; Filiter, Don; Crowell, Bob; Macuda, Todd

    2007-04-01

    Helicopters are widely used in daytime forest fire suppression, conducting diverse tasks such as spotting, re-supply, medical evacuation and airborne delivery. However, they are not used at night for forest fire suppression operations. There would be many challenges when operating in the vicinity of forest fires at night, including scene obscuration from smoke and dynamic changes in lighting conditions. There is little data on the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) for airborne forest fire suppression. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), performed a preliminary flight test to examine the use of NVGs while operating near forest fires. The study also simulated limited aspects of night time water bucketing. The preliminary observations from this study suggest that NVGs have potential to improve the safety and efficiency of airborne forest fire suppression, including forest fire perimeter mapping and take-off and landing in the vicinity of open fires. NVG operations at some distance from the fire pose minimal risk to flight, and provide an enhanced capability to identify areas of combustion at greater distances and accuracy. Closer to the fire, NVG flight becomes more risk intensive as a consequence of a reduction in visibility attributable to the adverse effects on NVG performance of the excess radiation and smoke emitted by the fire. The preliminary results of this study suggest that water bucketing at night is a difficult operation with elevated risk. Further research is necessary to clarify the operational limitations and implementation of these devices in forest fire suppression.

  15. Nuclear Reactor Component Code CUPID-I: Numerical Scheme and Preliminary Assessment Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Jeong, Jae Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Tae; Yoon, Han Young

    2007-12-15

    A component scale thermal hydraulic analysis code, CUPID (Component Unstructured Program for Interfacial Dynamics), is being developed for the analysis of components of a nuclear reactor, such as reactor vessel, steam generator, containment, etc. It adopted three-dimensional, transient, two phase and three-field model. In order to develop the numerical schemes for the three-field model, various numerical schemes have been examined including the SMAC, semi-implicit ICE, SIMPLE, Row Scheme and so on. Among them, the ICE scheme for the three-field model was presented in the present report. The CUPID code is utilizing unstructured mesh for the simulation of complicated geometries of the nuclear reactor components. The conventional ICE scheme that was applied to RELAP5 and COBRA-TF, therefore, were modified for the application to the unstructured mesh. Preliminary calculations for the unstructured semi-implicit ICE scheme have been conducted for a verification of the numerical method from a qualitative point of view. The preliminary calculation results showed that the present numerical scheme is robust and efficient for the prediction of phase changes and flow transitions due to a boiling and a flashing. These calculation results also showed the strong coupling between the pressure and void fraction changes. Thus, it is believed that the semi-implicit ICE scheme can be utilized for transient two-phase flows in a component of a nuclear reactor.

  16. Preliminary structural assessment of DEMO vacuum vessel against a vertical displacement event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.mozzillo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Tarallo, Andrea; Marzullo, Domenico [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion PMU, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, Giuseppe [Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel. • The Vacuum Vessel was checked against the VDE in combinations with the weight force of all components that the vessel shall bear. • Different configurations for the vacuum vessel supports are considered, showing that the best solution is VV supported at the lower port. • The analyses evaluated the “P damage” according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a preliminary structural analysis of the current concept design of DEMO vacuum vessel (VV). The VV structure is checked against a vertical load due to a Vertical Displacement Event in combination with the weight force of all components that the main vessel shall bear. Different configurations for the supports are considered. Results show that the greatest safety margins are reached when the tokamak is supported through the lower ports rather than the equatorial ports, though all analyzed configurations are compliant with RCC-MRx design rules.

  17. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and [sup 137]Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  18. Development and preliminary evaluation of a music-based attention assessment for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Lesiuk, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in attention are commonly seen in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). While visual attention assessment measurements have been rigorously developed and frequently used in cognitive neurorehabilitation, there is a paucity of auditory attention assessment measurements for patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to field test a researcher-developed Music-based Attention Assessment (MAA), a melodic contour identification test designed to assess three different types of attention (i.e., sustained attention, selective attention, and divided attention), for patients with TBI. Additionally, this study aimed to evaluate the readability and comprehensibility of the test items and to examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the scale and test items. Fifteen patients diagnosed with TBI completed 3 different series of tasks in which they were required to identify melodic contours. The resulting data showed that (a) test items in each of the 3 subtests were found to have an easy to moderate level of item difficulty and an acceptable to high level of item discrimination, and (b) the musical characteristics (i.e., contour, congruence, and pitch interference) were found to be associated with the level of item difficulty, and (c) the internal consistency of the MAA as computed by Cronbach's alpha was .95. Subsequent studies using a larger sample of typical participants, along with individuals with TBI, are needed to confirm construct validity and internal consistency of the MAA. In addition, the authors recommend examination of criterion validity of the MAA as correlated with current neuropsychological attention assessment measurements.

  19. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  20. Self-Assessment of Word Knowledge with Graded Readers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how second language (L2) learners self-assessed word knowledge on a page of text taken from a graded reader. The case study subjects were five Thai high school learners of English. They were asked to assess their word knowledge using a page of continuous text. Data gained through observation, interviews, self-assessment and…

  1. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.

  2. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Caserta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  3. Tsunami hazard assessment at Port Alberni, BC, Canada: preliminary model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, S. T.; Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Douglas, K. L.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.

    2016-12-01

    Located in the heart of Vancouver Island, BC, Port Alberni has a well-known history of tsunamis. Many of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth First Nations share oral stories about a strong fight between a thunderbird and a whale that caused big waves in a winter night, a story that is compatible with the recently recognized great Cascadia tsunami in January, 1700. Port Alberni, with a total population of approximately 20,000 people, lies beside the Somass River, at the very end of Barkley Sound Inlet. The narrow canal connecting this town to the Pacific Ocean runs for more than 64 km ( 40 miles) between steep mountains, providing an ideal setting for the amplification of tsunami waves through funnelling effects. The devastating effects of tsunamis are still fresh in residents' memories from the impact of the 1964 Alaska tsunami that caused serious damage to the city. In June 2016, Emergency Management BC ran a coastal exercise in Port Alberni, simulating the response to an earthquake and a tsunami. During three days, the emergency teams in the City of Port Alberni practiced and learned from the experience. Ocean Networks Canada contributed to this exercise with the development of preliminary simulations of tsunami impact on the city from a buried rupture of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, including the Explorer segment. Wave propagation was simulated with the long-wave model FUNWAVE-TVD. Preliminary results indicate a strong amplification of tsunami waves in the Port Alberni area. The inundation zone in Port Alberni had a footprint similar to that of the 1700 Cascadia and 1964 Alaska tsunamis, inundating the area surrounding the Somass river and preferentially following the Kitsuksis and Roger Creek river margins into the city. Several other tsunami source scenarios, including splay faulting and trench-breaching ruptures are currently being modeled for the city of Port Alberni following a similar approach. These results will be presented at the conference.

  4. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  5. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  6. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  7. The application of conductivity measurements for preliminary assessments of chlorhexidine and lidocaine hydrochloride release from methylcellulose gel at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2009-01-01

    For the evaluation of conductivity measurements in the control and monitoring of release process, high number of conductivity measurements was performed. The measurements were done for the compositions of chlorhexidine with methylcellulose, and lidocaine hydrochloride with methylcellulose. Chlorhexidine, a very slightly soluble substance is released from the methylcellulose bead in the amounts ca. 30%-70%, and it depends of temperature of the release process. The lidocaine hydrochloride at the same time is released from methylcellulose formulation in 70-100%. The conductivity in the donor compartment at the start point, and in the acceptor compartment at the termination point, reflect the released amounts of the drug. This study confirms the possibility of application of conductivity measurements for the preliminary assessments of the kinetics of release of soluble and practically insoluble substances from the nonionic polymeric matrix.

  8. An assistive controller for a lower-limb exoskeleton for rehabilitation after stroke, and preliminary assessment thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Spencer A; Ha, Kevin H; Goldfarb, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel controller, intended for use in a lower-limb exoskeleton, to aid gait rehabilitation in patients with hemiparesis after stroke. The controller makes use of gravity compensation, feedforward movement assistance, and reinforcement of isometric joint torques to achieve assistance without dictating the spatiotemporal nature of joint movement. The patient is allowed to self-select walking speed and is able to make trajectory adaptations to maintain balance without interference from the controller. The governing equations and the finite state machine which comprise the system are described herein. The control architecture was implemented in a lower-limb exoskeleton and a preliminary experimental assessment was conducted in which a patient with hemiparesis resulting from stroke walked with assistance from the exoskeleton. The patient exhibited improvements in fast gait speed, step length asymmetry, and stride length in each session, as measured before and after exoskeleton training, presumably as a result of using the exoskeleton.

  9. A Preliminary Watershed Scale Soil Quality Assessment in North Central Iowa USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil quality assessment has been recognized as an important step toward understanding the long-term effects of tillage, cropping system, landscape position, and conservation practices within agricultural watersheds. Our objective is to provide an initial assessment of various soil quality indicators...

  10. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  11. A preliminary assessment of legged mobility provided by a lower limb exoskeleton for persons with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J; Quintero, Hugo A; Murray, Spencer A; Ha, Kevin H; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject's ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions.

  12. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: The HEIghten™ Approach and Preliminary Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Mao, Liyang; Frankel, Lois; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a learning outcome highly valued by higher education institutions and the workforce. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) has designed a next generation assessment, the HEIghten™ critical thinking assessment, to measure students' critical thinking skills in analytical and synthetic dimensions. This paper introduces the…

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of Legged Mobility Provided by a Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Persons With Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Murray, Spencer A.; Ha, Kevin H.; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee–ankle–foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject’s ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions. PMID:23797285

  14. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  15. "Christian carrying goomies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Passingan Usurup tells critics of his pragmatic approach on condom promotion that he is a Christian carrying condoms for Christ. He is head of the University of Papua New Guinea Medical Center and is credited with developing an AIDS/HIV policy for the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. The condoms were named Goomy and promoted at launching in 1992 in a blue packet under the slogan "The bond that guards." Goomy was chosen as the name because it is pidgin for rubber, chewing gum, and anything associated with rubber. Blue packets were chosen over the calls of most soldiers for a camouflage design because of its universal appeal as the color of the sea and sky and because it was the preference of women in the airlines. Once firmly ensconced in his role at the University, Usurup plans to develop a policy for students and staff and help to conduct AIDS prevention and education activities on campus. He will encourage students to test for HIV rather than highlighting the gloom and doom of infection and disease.

  16. Clinical assessment, neuroimaging and immunomarkers in Chagas disease study (CLINICS: rationale, study design and preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamary Oliveira-Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chagas disease (CD is an important cause of cardiomyopathy and stroke in Brazil. Brain infarcts and atrophy seem to occur independently of cardiomyopathy severity and cognitive impairment is understudied. Objective: Compare the prevalence of brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities between patients with or without CD; determine if inflammatory biomarkers are increased in CD; and determine the efficacy of aspirin in reducing the rate of microembolization in these patients. Methods: 500 consecutive patients with heart failure will undergo a structured cognitive evaluation, biomarker collection and search for microembolic signals on transcranial Doppler. The first 90 patients are described, evaluated with cognitive tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI and creatine (Cr. Results: Mean age was 55±11 years, 51% female, 38 (42% with CD. Mean NAA/Cr ratio was lower in patients with CD as compared to other cardiomyopathies. Long-term memory and clock-drawing test were also significantly worse in CD patients. In the multivariable analysis correcting for ejection fraction, age, sex and educational level, reduced NAA/Cr (p=0.006 and cognitive dysfunction (long-term memory, p=0.023; clock-drawing test, p=0.015 remained associated with CD. Conclusion: In this preliminary sample, CD was associated with cognitive impairment and decreased NAA/Cr independently of cardiac function or educational level.

  17. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  18. Non destructive examination of UN / U-Si fuel pellets using neutrons (preliminary assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Voit, Stewart Lancaster [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Losko, Adrian S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tremsin, Anton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Tomographic imaging and diffraction measurements were performed on nine pellets; four UN/ U Si composite formulations (two enrichment levels), three pure U3Si5 reference formulations (two enrichment levels) and two reject pellets with visible flaws (to qualify the technique). The U-235 enrichments ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 wt.%. The nitride/silicide composites are candidate compositions for use as Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF). The monophase U3Si5 material was included as a reference. Pellets from the same fabrication batches will be inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho during 2016. The goal of the Advanced Non-destructive Fuel Examination work package is the development and application of non-destructive neutron imaging and scattering techniques to ceramic and metallic nuclear fuels. Data reported in this report were collected in the LANSCE run cycle that started in September 2015 and ended in March 2016. Data analysis is ongoing; thus, this report provides a preliminary review of the measurements and provides an overview of the characterized samples.

  19. A preliminary assessment of using a white light confocal imaging profiler for cut mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher W; Moore, Christopher R; Leifheit, Randell

    2012-01-01

    White light confocal microscopy creates detailed 3D representations of microsurfaces that can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The study describes its application to the analysis of cut marks on bone, particularly when discerning cuts made by steel tools from those made by stone. The process described comes from a study where cuts were manually made on a cow rib with seven cutting tools, four stone (an unmodified chert flake, a chert biface, a bifacially ground slate fragment, and an unsharpened piece of slate), and three steel (a Swiss Army Knife, a serrate steak knife, and a serrate saw). Kerfs were magnified ×20 and 3D data clouds were generated using a Sensofar(®) White Light Confocal Profiler (WLCP). Kerf profiles and surface areas, volumes, mean depths, and maximum depths were calculated with proprietary software (SensoScan(®) and SolarMap(®)). For the most part, the stone tools make shallower and wider cuts. Kerf floors can be studied at higher magnifications; they were viewed at ×100. When comparing the kerf floors of the unsharpened slate and the serrate steak knife it was found that the slate floor was more uneven, but the serrate steak knife generated more overall relief. Although preliminary, the approach described here successfully distinguishes stone and steel tools; the authors conclude that the WLCP is a promising technology for cut mark analysis because of the very detailed 3D representations it creates and the numerous avenues of analysis it provides.

  20. Fish, fishers and fisheries of the Western Indian Ocean: their diversity and status. A preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, Rudy; Everett, Bernadine; Jiddawi, Narriman; Mwatha, Gerald; Afonso, Paula Santana; Boulle, David

    2005-01-15

    The Western Indian Ocean represents ca. 8% of the world's oceans but generates only 4% of the global industrial catch. This region is also home to a great proportion of the world's population, living in developing countries with a high dependence on marine resources. Trends in the declared landings of marine resources from the Western Indian Ocean suggest that this ocean may be approaching its maximum harvest potential of ca. 4 Mt per annum, but underreported artisanal catches complicate more-detailed analyses. There is a growing demand for 'new resources' to make up for declining stocks, while several large fluctuations are linked to changes in market demand and over exploitation. Artisanal fisheries in the region are highly diversified. Preliminary results are presented of a project that evaluates the conservation status and sustainable management practices in 168 different fishery types. It is concluded that the majority of the region's artisanal fisheries are not adequately supported by scientific information and that management strategies need to be improved if the enormous development challenges of East African countries are to be met.

  1. Preliminary assessment of landslide-induced wave hazards, Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Jakob, Matthias; Motyka, Roman J.; Zirnheld, Sandra L.; Craw, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    A large potential rock avalanche above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, was investigated to determine hazards and risks of landslide-induced waves to cruise ships and other park visitors. Field and photographic examination revealed that the 5 to 10 million cubic meter landslide moved between AD 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet by AD 1890. The timing of landslide movement and the glacial history suggest that glacial debuttressing caused weakening of the slope and that the landslide could have been triggered by large earthquakes of 1899-1900 in Yakutat Bay. Evidence of recent movement includes fresh scarps, back-rotated blocks, and smaller secondary landslide movements. However, until there is evidence of current movement, the mass is classified as a dormant rock slump. An earthquake on the nearby active Fairweather fault system could reactivate the landslide and trigger a massive rock slump and debris avalanche into Tidal Inlet. Preliminary analyses show that waves induced by such a landslide could travel at speeds of 45 to 50 m/s and reach heights up to 76 m with wave runups of 200 m on the opposite shore of Tidal Inlet. Such waves would not only threaten vessels in Tidal Inlet, but would also travel into the western arm of Glacier Bay endangering large cruise ships and their passengers.

  2. myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment: preliminary psychometric analysis of a new self-concept assessment for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Johnston, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the preliminary validity and reliability of the myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 8 to 12 years. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment includes 26 items divided into eight domains, assessed across three Performance Perspectives (Personal, Social, and Perceived) and an additional Importance Rating. Face and content validity was assessed by semi-structured interviews with seven expert professionals regarding the assessment construct, content, and clinical utility. Reliability was assessed with 50 children aged 8 to 12 years with CP (29 males, 21 females; mean age 10y 2mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level I=35, II=8, III=5, IV=1; mean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition [WISC-IV]=104), whose data was used to calculate internal consistency of the scale, and a subset of 35 children (20 males, 15 females; mean age 10y 5mo; GMFCS level I=26, II=4, III=4, IV=1; mean WISC-IV=103) who participated in test-retest reliability within 14 to 28 days. Face and content validity was supported by positive expert feedback, with only minor adjustments suggested to clarify the wording of some items. After these amendments, strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.84-0.91) and moderate to good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.64-0.75) was found for each component. The myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment is a valid and reliable assessment of self-concept for children with CP aged 8 to 12 years. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence

  4. A preliminary biological assessment of Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents an initial biological assessment of wetland conditions on Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Slade NWR, and Florence Lake NWR that was...

  5. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  6. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  8. Establishing Normative Values for the Barnett Balance Assessment Tool: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Cercone MSOTS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the Barnett Balance Assessment (BBA for individuals ages 18-70+ years. The BBA is a newly developed assessment tool that may address limitations present in other assessments currently used to detect balance deficits. The BBA was administered to 141 participants who had no history of medical issues that could impact balance. A review of the normative data collected indicated little variation in total assessment scores in the age categories of 18-29, 30-39, and 40-49, due to the presence of a ceiling effect. Variations existed in scores among participants in the remaining age categories (50-59, 60-69, and 70+. These findings may imply that the BBA has its greatest discriminative power in assessing individuals with impaired balance, and/or that the BBA is not sensitive enough to detect differences in individuals with mild balance impairments. The researchers suggest future studies be conducted with the BBA to establish norms with populations with known orthopedic or neurological conditions that may impair balance. Results of these studies could then be compared with the baseline data gathered in this study to determine the BBA’s usefulness in detecting balance impairments with clinical populations.

  9. Dental students' self-assessment of operative preparations using CAD/CAM: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Levine, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA)'s accreditation standards for dental schools state that "graduates must demonstrate the ability to self-assess." Therefore, dental schools have developed preclinical and clinical self-assessment (SA) protocols aimed at fostering a reflective process. This study comparing students' visual SA with students' digital SA and with faculty assessment was designed to test the hypothesis that higher agreement would occur when utilizing a digital evaluation. Twenty-five first-year dental students at one dental school participated by preparing a mesial occlusal preparation on tooth #30 and performing both types of SAs. A faculty evaluation was then performed both visually and digitally using the same evaluation criteria. The Kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between evaluators. The results showed statistically significant moderate agreement between the faculty visual and faculty digital modes of evaluation for occlusal shape (K=0.507, p=0.002), proximal shape (K=0.564, p=0.001), orientation (K=0.425, p=0.001), and definition (K=0.480, p=0.001). There was slight to poor agreement between the student visual and faculty visual assessment, except for preparation orientation occlusal shape (K=0.164, p=0.022), proximal shape (K=-0.227, p=0.032), orientation (K=0.253, p=0.041), and definition (K=-0.027, p=0.824). This study showed that the students had challenges in self-assessing even when using CAD/CAM and the digital assessment did not improve the amount of student/faculty agreement.

  10. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes.

  11. Preliminary assessment of interactions between the FMIT deuteron beam and liquid-lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassberger, J A

    1983-03-01

    Scoping calculations were performed to assess the limit of response of the FMIT lithium target to the deuteron-beam interactions. Results indicate that most response modes have acceptably minor impacts on the lithium-target behavior. Individual modes of response were studied separately to assess sensitivity of the target to various phenomena and to identify those needing detailed evaluation. A few responses are of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. Potential for several different responses combining additively is identified as the major area requiring further consideration.

  12. Licensing assessment of the Candu Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Preliminary safety information document. Volume II. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    ERDA has requested United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) to evaluate the design of the Canadian natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated (CANDU) nuclear reactor power plant to assess its conformance with the licensing criteria and guidelines of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for light water reactors. This assessment was used to identify cost significant items of nonconformance and to provide a basis for developing a detailed cost estimate for a 1140 MWe, 3-loop Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Middletown, USA Site.

  13. Techno-economic assessment and comparison of CO2 capture technologies for industrial processes: Preliminary results for the iron and steel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the preliminary results of a techno-economic assessment of CCS implementation on the iron and steel sector. The results show that for the short-mid term, a CO2 avoidance cost of less than 50 €/tonne at a CO2 avoidance rate of around 50% are possible by convert

  14. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  16. A preliminary examination of offender needs assessment: are all those questions really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; Zhang, Sheldon; Yang, Joy

    2011-09-01

    Criminologists generally agree that offender recidivism can be reduced by addressing the criminogenic needs of this population. Two prominent assessments of offender risks and needs are the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) and the Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS). Both predict recidivism, but they are largely based on data from records. In contrast, the determination of inmates' service needs is based on lengthy (and costly) offender interviews. In light of evidence that many correctional systems have not adopted standardized assessments of service needs-and that time burden and costs are typically cited as barriers, the present study examined whether interviews involving complex scales improve the accuracy of offender needs assessment relative to a few single-item measures. To test this, 75 California prison inmates were administered the LSI-R, COMPAS, and a set of four yes/no items asking if they needed help with substance abuse, vocational training, housing, and education. Approximately 70% to 90% of inmates identified as needing these services according to the LSI-R or COMPAS could have been identified using these four supplemental items, though specificity rates were low for the financial and housing domains. The results suggest that simpler, less costly approaches to offender needs assessment might be achievable.

  17. 77 FR 43606 - Preliminary Damage Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Operations Manual (9327.2-PR) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Assessment for Individual Assistance Operations Manual (9327.2-PR). The Federal Emergency Management Agency..., 2011. DATES: This manual is effective July 18, 2012. ADDRESSES: This final manual is available...

  18. Preliminary Assessment/Investigation Final Summary Report: "Dead Zone" Site, Laysan Island, Hawaiian Island NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to assess the risks that the "Laysan Dead Zone" poses to the health of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) personnel and natural...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 2: Human, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2014, EPA released the second part of draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA w...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 1: Experimental Animal Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in...

  1. NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND COMMUNITY METABOLISM IN STREAMS DRAINING HARVESTED AND OLD GROWTH WATERSHEDS: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of timber harvesting on streams is assessed using two measures of ecosystem function: nutrient ad community metabolism. This research is being conducted in streams of the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, the Cascad...

  2. Brief Antecedent Assessment and Treatment of Tics in the General Education Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T.; Dufrene, Brad; Weaver, Adam; Butler, Tonya; Meeks, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if specific classroom antecedents were associated with motor and vocal tics in two males diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome. A functional assessment consisting of teacher and student interviews, direct observations, brief functional analysis, and confirmatory naturalistic observations indicated that…

  3. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence es

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for ETBE to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in ...

  5. Preliminary assessment of arsenic concentration in a spring water area, iron quadrangle, Minas Gerais Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Magalhaes, Camila Lucia M.R., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Laboratorio de Ativacao Neutronica; Uemura, George, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Meio Ambiente; Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Group for Radiochemistry and Radioecology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Deschamps, Maria Eleonora, E-mail: leonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.br [FEAM, Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente. Universidade FUMEC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Isaias, Rosy Mary; Salino, Alexandre, E-mail: rosy@icb.ufmg.br, E-mail: salino@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botanica, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Fernando, E-mail: camila@bonsaimorrovelho.com.br [Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Curso Superior de Ciencias Biologicas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The attention to environmental exposure to arsenic is increasing in the worldwide. In this scenario, a project is being developed in Santana do Morro, Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, region well known due to natural and anthropogenic occurrence of arsenic. This proposal has several objectives; one of them is to start a procedure of phyto remediation in laboratory aiming at future riparian forests restoration. The main concern is the preservation of water resource and consequently the health of the inhabitants. The study place is close to a water spring. One sampling was carried out, collecting plants, soil and sediment. The Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method, was applied to determine the elemental concentration, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 reactor, located at CDTN/CNEN. In this paper, the results are discussed. (author)

  6. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  7. A novel device for grasping assessment during functional tasks: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolinne Portela Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and first results obtained in a study with a novel device that allows the analysis of grasping quality. Such a device is able to acquire motion information of upper limbs allowing kinetic of manipulation analysis as well. A pilot experiment was carried out with six groups of typically developing children aged between 5 and 10 years old, with 7-8 children in each one. The device, designed to emulate a glass, has an optical system composed by one digital camera and a special convex mirror that together allow image acquisition of grasping hand posture when it is grasped and manipulated. It also carries an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that captures motion data as acceleration, orientation, and angular velocities. The novel instrumented object is used in our approach to evaluate functional tasks performance in quantitative terms. During tests each child was invited to grasp the cylindrical part of the device that was placed on the top of a table, simulating the task of drinking a glass of water. In the sequence the child was oriented to transport the device back to the starting position and release it. The task was repeated 3 times for each child. A grasping hand posture evaluation is presented as an example to evaluate grasping quality. Additionally, motion patterns obtained with the triasl performed with the different groups are presented and discussed. This device is attractive due to its portable characteristics, the small size and its ability to evaluate grasping form. The results may be also useful to analyze the evolution of the rehabilitation process through reach-to-grasping movement and the grasping images analysis.

  8. Preliminary hazard assessment and site characterization of Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge of ground conditions, such as geotechnical parameters, is one of the main causes of foundation failure. Unknown ground conditions can also cause additional burden costs. Due to lack of geotechnical parameters in foundation soil, some problems can be observed during and after the construction.

    In this study, a comprehensive field study was conducted to make a preliminary hazard assessment on the Meşelik campus area, Eskişehir, Turkey. In this context, the experimental studies were performed in two stages. In the first stage, boreholes were drilled in the field; a standard penetration test (SPT was performed and disturbed/undisturbed samples were collected from certain levels. In the second stage, laboratory tests were performed in order to identify and classify the samples. Unconfined compression strength and triaxial compression tests were conducted on undisturbed samples for determining the engineering characteristics. XRD (X-ray diffraction tests were performed and the swelling potential of the samples were evaluated. The liquefaction potential of the area was also assessed on a SPT-based method. Thus, the geotechnical parameters and the liquefaction potential of the sub-surface in the study area were thoroughly analyzed and presented to be used for further studies.

  9. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  11. Environmental Carrying Capacity and Its Application in Environmental Impact Assessment of Industrial Park Planning%环境承载力及其在工业园区规划环境影响评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路忠贤; 唐永顺

    2011-01-01

    环境承载力是可持续发展的理论基础,将环境承栽力理论应用到工业园区规划环境影响评价中,对协调区域社会经济发展和资源环境开发利用具有重要的意义。本文基于环境承载力的概念及内涵,在对环境承载力量化分析的基础上,建立一个专门针对工业园区的指标体系,以某工业园区规划环境影响评价为例,分析工业园区各规划期阶段的环境承载力的利用强度,以期为园区的可持续发展提供科学依据。%Environmental carrying capacity is the theoretical tbundation of sustainable development, and applying the theory of environmental carrying capacity to environmental impact assessment of industrial park planning is of great significance in coordinating regional socio - economic development and exploitation and utilization of resources. Based on the concept and connotation of environmental carrying capacity, a specific index system for industrial park is established on the basis of quantitative analysis of environmental carrying capacity. Then, an exmnple for industrial park planning environmental impact assessment was made, and environmental carrying capacity utilizing intensity of industrial park in each planning' stage is analyzed so as to provide scientific basis for sustainable development of industrial parks.

  12. Assessment of quality of life in patients treated for low-grade glioma: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taphoorn, M J; Heimans, J J; Snoek, F J; Lindeboom, J; Oosterink, B; Wolbers, J G; Karim, A B

    1992-01-01

    In this pilot study quality of life was assessed in fourteen adult patients who were treated for a low-grade glioma with surgery and radiotherapy at least one year previously. Apart from widely used parameters, such as the neurological and functional status, the patients' cognitive functioning and actual affective status were determined. In addition the patients were interviewed to evaluate various aspects of quality of life. Generally no serious focal neurological deficits were found, although psychological examination showed serious cognitive and affective disturbances in most cases. Self report measures concerning cognitive functioning were not in all cases in accordance with objective test results. When the results of treatment in glioma patients are evaluated assessment of quality of life, including neuropsychological functioning, should be performed, especially as new therapeutic strategies are being developed. PMID:1602310

  13. Assessing abnormal illness behavior in post-stroke patients: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal illness behavior (AIB can contribute poor functioning in an individual along with significant increase in health care utilization. It has been studied in various disorders. This study examined the feasibility of assessing abnormal illness behavior in individuals with stroke who were undergoing treatment in a psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were admitted to the department of psychiatric and neurological rehabilitation ward for post-stroke rehabilitation treatment were assessed using screening version of Illness Behavior Questionnaire (SIBQ. Results: The total number of subjects who were screened was eight. The mean score of SIBQ was 6.125 ± 1.35. With the cut off score of 7, five subjects had abnormal illness behavior. Conclusions: The above study highlights that it is feasible to screen individuals with stroke undergoing rehabilitation for possibility of abnormal illness behavior.

  14. A preliminary assessment of renewable energy capacity in Prince George, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanders, D.; Salter, J.; Tatebe, K.; Pond, E.; Sheppard, R.J.

    2009-03-31

    This report examined the potential local energy capacity from biomass and solar thermal energy in the City of Prince George, British Columbia (BC). The aim of the study was to develop a framework for mapping renewable energy capacity. Opportunities for adopting a sustainable fibre-based energy system were identified. A community energy mapping methodology for solar thermal energy was developed to assess potential spatial capacity. The framework was developed to help communities to assess local renewable energy options. Further studies are needed to couple demand analyses with capacity studies in order to determine the degree of energy self-sufficiency that is possible for communities, as well as to provide a method of helping communities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 97 refs., 6 tabs., 20 figs., 6 appendices.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  16. Preliminary Assessment McGhee - Tyson ANGB, McGhee - Tyson Municipal Airport, Knoxville, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Marketing Service EPA U. S. Environmental Protection Agency FTA Fire Training Area HARM U. S. Air Force Hazard Assessment Rating Methology HAS Hazard...and/or JP-4 fuel. Site No. 3 - Oil/Water Separator at 110/119th TCF Vehicle Maintenance Area. Building 100 (HAS - 56) Stress vegetation was observed ...Building 126 (HAS -56) Oil stained soil and stress vegetation was observed in a drainage swale directly adjacent to the twin oil/water (o/w)separators. In

  17. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE LOW-TEMPERATURE WASTE FORM TECHNOLOGY COUPLED WITH TECHNETIUM REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2014-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing low-temperature waste forms for immobilization of DOE aqueous waste streams, including technetium removal as an implementing technology. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the Cast Stone waste immobilization projects at Hanford. Science and technology needs were identified for work associated with 1) conducting performance assessments and risk assessments of waste form and disposal system performance, and 2) technetium chemistry in tank wastes and separations of technetium from waste processing streams. Technical approaches to address the science and technology needs were identified and an initial sequencing priority was suggested. The following table summarizes the most significant science and technology needs and associated approaches to address those needs. These approaches and priorities will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Implementation of a science and technology program that addresses these needs by pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with near-term decisions regarding supplemental immobilization at Hanford. Longer term, the work has the potential for cost savings and for providing a strong technical foundation for future

  18. Nuclear Hardness Evaluation Procedures for the Preliminary Assessment of the FLEETSATCOM Attitude and Velocity Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    attitude and velocity control subsystem of the FLSATCOM satellite to various nuclear weapon effects. DD1473 E ITION OF INOV 6 IS OBSOLETE...thermomechanical damage and material degradation. These procedures are presented in Section 3. 3) the so-called top-level screen of the AVCS assessment which ETI...bays with cat-a-lac paint, a low Z material , to minimize cavity field coupling. 44 0 use of terminal protection, mostly in the form of zener diodes or

  19. A Preliminary Assessment of the S-3A SRAL Performances in SAR Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Scharroo, Remko; Bonekamp, Hans; Lucas, Bruno; Loddo, Carolina; Benveniste, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    The present work aims to assess and characterize the S3-A SRAL Altimeter performance in closed-loop tracking mode and in open ocean conditions. We have processed the Sentinel-3 SAR data products from L0 until L2 using an adaptation of the ESRIN GPOD CryoSat-2 Processor SARvatore.During the Delay-Doppler processing, we have chosen to activate the range zero-padding option.The L2 altimetric geophysical parameters, that are to be validated, are the sea surface height above the ellipsoid (SSH), sea level anomaly (SLA), the significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed (U10), all estimated at 20 Hz.The orbit files are the POD MOE, while the geo- corrections are extracted from the RADS database.In order to assess the accuracy of the wave&wind products, we have been using an ocean wave&wind speed model output (wind speed at 10 meter high above the sea surface) from the ECMWF.We have made a first order approximation of the sea state bias as -4.7% of the SWH.In order to assess the precision performance of SRAL SAR mode, we compute the level of instrumental noise (range, wave height and wind speed) for different conditions of sea state.

  20. EMG assessment of analgesia in treatment of posttonsillectomy pain: random allocation, preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Krakovski, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Surface electromyographic (sEMG) study of posttonsillectomy swallow-evoked muscular reactions was performed to assess validity of EMG in evaluation of analgesic drugs. Sixty randomly chosen operated adults were divided into group 1 (n=30) treated with oxycodone, and group 2 (n=30) treated with placebo. Pain assessment included visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and EMG data: the timing, electric amplitude, and graphic patterns of muscular activity. We investigated masseter, infrahyoid, and submental-submandibular muscles. Records from trapezius muscle were used for control. The results were compared with previously established normative database. The sEMG data were compared with VAS score. Oxycodone significantly reduced VAS pain score and changed muscle reactions to analgesia (amplitude) as was recorded by sEMG, whereas placebo reduced VAS pain score nonsignificantly and changed the reaction of the trapezius muscle only. Analgesia smoothes the recorded swallow peaks and increases time of deglutition. Statistically significant difference in muscle reactions was detected between the 2 groups. sEMG might be used for quantitative evaluation of analgesic drugs by assessment of muscular reactions to pain and to analgesia. This method might add quantitative justification to the information obtained by VAS pain testing and clinical data.

  1. Assessment of Behavioural Markers of Autonoetic Consciousness during Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval: A Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding episodic memory and how it can be accurately measured, in particular if the focus should be content-based recall of episodic details or something more experiential involving the subjective capacity to mentally travel back in time and “re-live” aspects of the original event. The autonoetic subscale of the Episodic Autobiographical Memory Interview (EAMI is presented here as a new test instrument that attempts to redress theoretical and methodological shortcomings in autobiographical memory assessment. The EAMI merges a phenomenological detail-based approach with an assessment of autonoetic consciousness, departing considerably from traditional Remember/Know paradigms used within this field. We present findings from an initial pilot study investigating the potential markers of autonoetic consciousness that may accompany episodic retrieval. Key behavioural indices of autonoetic consciousness, notably those of viewer perspective, visual imagery, and emotional re-experiencing, emerged as being inextricably bound with the level of phenomenological detail recalled and the overall re-living judgment. The autonoetic subscale of the EAMI permits conceptually refined assessment of episodic personal memories and the accompanying subjective experience of mental re-living, characteristic of episodic memory.

  2. Preliminary results of assessing the mixing of wave transport flux residualin the upper ocean with ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongfang; Wu, Kejian; Yang, Yongzeng

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the mixing of wave transport flux residual (Bvl) on the upper ocean is studied through carrying out the control run (CR) and a series of sensitive runs (SR) with ROMS model. In this study, the important role of Bvl is revealed by comparing the ocean temperature, statistical analysis of errors and evaluating the mixed layer depth. It is shown that the overestimated SST is improved effectively when the wave-induced mixing is incorporated to the vertical mixing scheme. As can be seen from the vertical structure of temperature 28°C isotherm changes from 20 min CR to 35 m in SR3, which is more close to the observation. Statistic analysis shows that the root-mean-square errors of the temperature in 10 m are reduced and the correlation between model results and observation data are increased after considering the effect of Bvl. The numerical results of the ocean temperature show improvement in summer and in tropical zones in winter, especially in the strong current regions in summer. In August the mixed layer depth (MLD) which is defined as the depth that the temperature has changed 0.5°C from the reference depth of 10 m is further analyzed. The simulation results have a close relationship with undetermined coefficient of Bvl, sensitivity studies show that a coefficient about 0.1 is reasonable value in the model.

  3. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  4. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment; Djupfoervar for laanglivat laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Preliminaer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  5. Bilateral mammographic density asymmetry and breast cancer risk: A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sumkin, Jules H., E-mail: jsumkin@mail.magee.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zuley, Margarita L., E-mail: zuleyml@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Magee Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xingwei, E-mail: wangx6@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Klym, Amy H., E-mail: klymah@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gur, David, E-mail: gurd@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, 3362 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    To improve efficacy of breast cancer screening and prevention programs, it requires a risk assessment model with high discriminatory power. This study aimed to assess classification performance of using computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry to predict risk of individual women developing breast cancer in near-term. The database includes 451 cases with multiple screening mammography examinations. The first (baseline) examinations of all case were interpreted negative. In the next sequential examinations, 187 cases developed cancer or surgically excised high-risk lesions, 155 remained negative (not-recalled), and 109 were recalled benign cases. From each of two bilateral cranio-caudal view images acquired from the baseline examination, we computed two features of average pixel value and local pixel value fluctuation. We then computed mean and difference of each feature computed from two images. When applying the computed features and other two risk factors (woman's age and subjectively rated mammographic density) to predict risk of cancer development, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were computed to evaluate the discriminatory/classification performance. The AUCs are 0.633 {+-} 0.030, 0.535 {+-} 0.036, 0.567 {+-} 0.031, and 0.719 {+-} 0.027 when using woman's age, subjectively rated, computed mean and asymmetry of mammographic density, to classify between two groups of cancer-verified and negative cases, respectively. When using an equal-weighted fusion method to combine woman's age and computed density asymmetry, AUC increased to 0.761 {+-} 0.025 (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated that bilateral mammographic density asymmetry could be a significantly stronger risk factor associated to the risk of women developing breast cancer in near-term than woman's age and assessed mean mammographic density.

  6. Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

    2015-02-01

    This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.

  7. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  8. Preliminary assessment of risk of ozone impacts to maize (Zea mays) in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available to ozone episodes early in the growth season (Novak et al., 2005). Such responses should ideally be measured under experimental condi- tions in greenhouses or open-top chambers. The regional scale ozone maps (Figs. 3 and 5) identify central and southern.... The critical loads/levels approach to gaseous pollut- ant emission control. Environmental Pollution 69, 105e123. Bussotti, M., Schaub, M., Cozzi, A., Krauchi, N., Ferretti, M., Novak, K., Skelly, J.M., 2003. Assessment of ozone visible symp- toms in the field...

  9. Summary on the preliminary assessment of the T91 window performance in the MEGAPIE conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Fazio, C. [Program Nuclear Safety Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: concetta.fazio@nuklear.fzk.de; Gorse, D. [CNRS - CECM, 15 Rue G. Urbain, Vitry sur Seine cedex (France); Groeschel, F. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Terlain, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Vogt, J.-B. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Universite de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Auger, T. [CNRS - CECM, 15 Rue G. Urbain, Vitry sur Seine cedex (France); Gessi, A. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie l' Energia e l' Ambiente, CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano Bologna (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) target is a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic neutron spallation target, which is considered as a key experiment for the development of accelerator driven systems to transmute high level nuclear waste. The target has been designed in the frame of an international collaboration and it will be installed and irradiated at the SINQ facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. This paper summarises the experiments done to assess the performance of the MEGAPIE window material, which is made of martensitic steel T91.

  10. Preliminary assessment of injection, storage, and recovery of freshwater in the lower Hawthorn aquifer, Cape Coral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of subsurface injection, storage and recovery of fresh canal water was made in the naturally brackish lower Hawthorn aquifer in Cape Coral, southwestern Florida. A digital modeling approach was used for this preliminary assessment, incorporating available data on hydrologic conditions, aquifer properties, and water quality to simulate density-dependent ground-water flow and advective-dispersive transport of a conservative ground-water solute (chloride ion). A baseline simulation was used as reference to compare the effects of changing various operational factors on the recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 64 percent was estimated for the baseline simulation. Based on the model, the recovery efficiency increases if the injection rate and recovery rates are increased and if the ratio of recovery rate to injection rate is increased. Recovery efficiency decreases if the amount of water injected is increased; slightly decreases if the storage time is increased; is not changed significantly if the water is injected to a specific flow zone; increases with successive cycles of injection, storage, and recovery; and decreases if the chloride concentrations in either the injection water or native aquifer water are increased. In everal hypothetical tests, the recovery efficiency fluctuated between 22 and about 100 percent. Two successive cycles could bring the recovery efficiency from 60 to about 80 percent. Interlayer solute mass movement across the upper and lower boundaries seems to be the most important factor affecting the recovery efficiency. A sensitivity analysis was performed applying a technique in which the change in the various factors and the corresponding model responses are normalized so that meaningful comparisons among the responses could be made. The general results from the sensitivity analysis indicated that the permeabilities of the upper and lower flow zones were the most important factors that produced the greatest

  11. Development of a novel location-based assessment of sensory symptoms in cancer patients: preliminary reliability and validity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Adam R; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a novel location-based assessment of sensory symptoms in cancer (L-BASIC) instrument, and its initial estimates of reliability and validity. L-BASIC is structured so that patients provide a numeric score and an adjectival description for any sensory symptom, including both pain and neuropathic sensations, present in each of the 10 predefined body areas. Ninety-seven patients completed the baseline questionnaire; 39 completed the questionnaire on two occasions. A mean of 3.5 body parts was scored per patient. On average, 2.7 (of 11) descriptor categories were used per body part. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.74) for a four-item scale that combined location-specific metrics. Temporal stability was adequate (kappa>0.50 and r>0.60 for categorical and continuous variables, respectively) among patients without observed or reported subjective change in clinical status between L-BASIC administrations. We compared our four-item scale against scores obtained from validated pain and quality-of-life (QOL) scales, and as expected, correlations were higher for pain-related items than for QOL-related items. We detected differences in L-BASIC responses among patients with cancer-related head or neck pain, chemotherapy-related neuropathy and breast cancer-related lymphedema. We conclude that L-BASIC provides internally consistent and temporally stable responses, while acknowledging that further refinement and testing of this novel instrument are necessary. We anticipate that future versions of L-BASIC will provide reliable and valid syndrome-specific measurement of defined clinical pain and symptom constructs in the cancer population, which may be of particular value in assessing treatment response in patients with such multiple complaints.

  12. National Coal Utilization Assessment: a preliminary assessment of coal utilizaton in the South. [Southern USA to 2020; forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L. B.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Boercker, F. D.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the major problems and issues related to coal development and use in the South are identified and assessed assuming a base-case energy scenario for the next 45 years. This scenario assumes a midrange of coal use and a relatively high rate of nuclear use over the forecast period. The potential impacts from coal development and use are significant, particularly in the 1990-2020 time period. Practically all available sites suitable for power plant development in the assessment will be utilized by 2020. Overall, sulfur dioxide will be well below the annual primary standard; however, several local hot-spot areas were identified. In addition, sulfate concentrations will be increased significantly, particularly over Virginia, West Virginia, and northern Kentucky. Coal mining is expected to affect 6 of the 12 major ecological regions. Coal mining will lead to increased average suspended sediment concentrations in some river basins, and special measures will be required to control acid discharges from active mines in pyritic regions. The increased mining of coal and subsequent sulfur dioxide increases from its combustion may also give rise to a land-use confrontation with food and fiber production. Potential health effects from exposure to sulfur dioxide and sulfates are expected to increase rapidly in several areas, particularly in parts of Kentucky, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Georgia. Regional social costs should be relatively low, although some site-specific costs are expected to be very high. Alternative energy technologies, careful siting selection, and deployment of environmental control technologies and operating policies will be required to reduce or mitigate these potential impacts.

  13. Preliminary Assessment of JERS-1 SAR to Discriminating Boreal Landscape Features for the Boreal Forest Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Williams, Cynthia; Podest, Erika; Chapman, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project and a preliminary assessment of JERS-1 SAR imagery for application to discriminating features applicable to boreal landscape processes. The present focus of the JERS-1 North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project is the production of continental scale wintertime and summertime SAR mosaics of the North American boreal forest for distribution to the science community. As part of this effort, JERS-1 imagery has been collected over much of Alaska and Canada during the 1997-98 winter and 1998 summer seasons. To complete the mosaics, these data will be augmented with data collected during previous years. These data will be made available to the scientific community via CD ROM containing these and similar data sets compiled from companion studies of Asia and Europe. Regional landscape classification with SAR is important for the baseline information it will provide about distribution of woodlands, positions of treeline, current forest biomass, distribution of wetlands, and extent of major rivercourses. As well as setting the stage for longer term change detection, comparisons across several years provides additional baseline information about short-term landscape change. Rapid changes, including those driven by fire, permafrost heat balance, flooding, and insect outbreaks can dominate boreal systems. We examine JERS-1 imagery covering selected sites in Alaska and Canada to assess quality and applicability to such relevant ecological and hydrological issues. The data are generally of high quality and illustrate many potential applications. A texture-based classification scheme is applied to selected regions to assess the applicability of these data for distinguishing distribution of such landcover types as wetland, tundra, woodland and forested landscapes.

  14. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Eberlein, Susan J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  15. Preliminary study towards the development of copying skill assessment on dyslexic children in Jawi handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Kartini Abdul; Kahar, Rosmila Abdul; Khalid, Halimi Mohd.; Salleh, Rohayu Mohd; Hashim, Rathiah

    2015-05-01

    Recognition of Arabic handwritten and its variants such as Farsi (Persian) and Urdu had been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Being contrast to Arabic handwritten, Jawi, as a second method of Malay handwritten, has not been studied yet, but if any, there were a few references on it. The recent transformation in Malaysian education, the Special Education is one of the priorities in the Malaysia Blueprint. One of the special needs quoted in Malaysia education is dyslexia. A dyslexic student is considered as student with learning disability. Concluding a student is truly dyslexia might be incorrect for they were only assessed through Roman alphabet, without considering assessment via Jawi handwriting. A study was conducted on dyslexic students attending a special class for dyslexia in Malay Language to determine whether they are also dyslexia in Jawi handwriting. The focus of the study is to test the copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Malay Language with and without dyslexia through both characters. A total of 10 dyslexic children and 10 normal children were recruited. In conclusion for future study, dyslexic students have less difficulty in performing Jawi handwriting in Malay Language through statistical analysis.

  16. Hurricanes and anchors: preliminary results from the National Park Service regional reef assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    1994-01-01

    The U .S . National Park Service NPS began a Regional Assessment Program for coral reefs in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Florida in 1988. Scientists from NPS and six other institutions have now established longterm monitoring sites at Virgin Islands National Park St. John, USVI, Buck Island Reef National Monument St. Croix, USVI, Biscayne National Park Florida and Fort Jefferson National Monument Florida. Hurricane Hugo passed through the USVI in 1989, causing severe destruction in some reef areas while leaving others untouched. Patchy damage to reefs in Florida was also noted after Hurricane Andrew; damage from this August 1992 storm is still being assessed. Fort Jefferson National Monument escaped the onslaught of Andrew. No significant recovery in live coral cover has been evident at the Buck Island or Virgin Islands National Park VINP study sites 3.5 years after Hurricane Hugo. Similarly, no recovery was evident at another site in St. John which was destroyed by a large anchor 4.5 years ago.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Mercury Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Parameterizations for Incorporation into Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.; Selin, N. E.; Urban, N. R.; Wu, S.; Perlinger, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate representation of process-based mechanisms of exchange behavior of elemental mercury (Hg0) and decoupled treatment of deposition and emission are two major limitations of parameterizations of atmosphere-surface exchange flux commonly incorporated into chemical transport models (CTMs). Of nineteen CTMs for Hg0 exchange we reviewed (ten global, nine regional), eight global and seven regional models have decoupled treatment of Hg0 deposition and emission, two global models include no parameterization to account for emission, and the remaining two regional models include coupled deposition and emission parameterizations (i.e., net atmosphere-surface exchange). The performance of atmosphere-surface exchange parameterizations in CTMs depends on parameterization uncertainty (in terms of both accuracy and precision) and feasibility of implementation. We provide a comparison of the performance of three available parameterizations of net atmosphere-surface exchange. To evaluate parameterization accuracy, we compare predicted exchange fluxes to field measurements conducted over a variety of surfaces compiled in a recently developed global database of terrestrial Hg0 surface-atmosphere exchange flux measurements. To assess precision, we estimate the sensitivity of predicted fluxes to the imprecision in parameter input values, and compare this sensitivity to that derived from analysis of the global Hg0 flux database. Feasibility of implementation is evaluated according to the availability of input parameters, computational requirements, and the adequacy of uncertainty representation. Based on this assessment, we provide suggestions for improved treatment of Hg0 net exchange processes in CTMs.

  18. Assessment of health policy in Costa Rica--some preliminary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C G; Mohs, E; Eriksson, B

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica is one of the world's success stories in primary health care. During the past 20 years the country has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition. However, during the 80's the economic recession severely affected the country. The social, economic, political and geographic contexts are important for the assessment of health policy. The longstanding democracy, investments in public education and health all contribute to the peace and stability. Assessment of health policy needs both a quantitative and qualitative approach. The policy-making process--how policies are made, translated into action and evaluated--is a research challenge. The national health policy 1986-1990 includes commitment to Health for All strategy; development of the National Health Care System; strengthening of the health care infrastructure; consolidation of health achievements and undertaking of new problems and approaches on integral care for the population; community participation in all health care system activities; and health care priorities. Important research issues are the relationship between the needs of the population and health policy development and the impacts of health policy on the health of the population. A comprehensive study of policy-making includes studies of policy content, process, output and evaluation of impacts (including economy of health policy), and analysis for policy, i.e. information for policy making, process and policy advocacy. Recent successful health policy issues are child health and HIV/AIDS, while water pollution and traffic accidents have been more problematic policy issues.

  19. Preliminary performance assessment of biotoxin detection for UWS applications using a MicroChemLab device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2010-03-01

    In a multiyear research agreement with Tenix Investments Pty. Ltd., Sandia has been developing field deployable technologies for detection of biotoxins in water supply systems. The unattended water sensor or UWS employs microfluidic chip based gel electrophoresis for monitoring biological analytes in a small integrated sensor platform. This instrument collects, prepares, and analyzes water samples in an automated manner. Sample analysis is done using the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} analysis module. This report uses analysis results of two datasets collected using the UWS to estimate performance of the device. The first dataset is made up of samples containing ricin at varying concentrations and is used for assessing instrument response and detection probability. The second dataset is comprised of analyses of water samples collected at a water utility which are used to assess the false positive probability. The analyses of the two sets are used to estimate the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC curves for the device at one set of operational and detection algorithm parameters. For these parameters and based on a statistical estimate, the ricin probability of detection is about 0.9 at a concentration of 5 nM for a false positive probability of 1 x 10{sup -6}.

  20. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Competency Assessment of Organ Donation Coordinators in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Xie, W; Luo, J; Deng, X

    The organ donation coordinator is indispensable in the process of organ donation and transplantation. The competency of coordinators is closely related to the organ donation rate. 1) To construct a competency assessment system for organ donation coordinators; and 2) to evaluate the competency level of coordinators in Hunan province. We constructed the competency model framework for coordinators based on the McClelland competency model and then extracted and screened the competency indicators by interview and Delphi methods. Next, we determined the weight of the indicators by an analytic hierarchy process method. Finally, we evaluated the competency level of 42 coordinators in Hunan province with the use of our assessment system. 1) We constructed the competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators, which included 6 dimensions and 21 competency indicators. 2) The average competency score of 42 coordinators was 79.43 ± 8.51. Five coordinators were at qualified level (11.9%), 18 at moderate level (42.9%), 12 at good level (25.6%), and 7 at excellent level (16.7%). 1) This competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators will provide scientific evidence for human resource management in health institutions. 2) The organ donation coordinators in Hunan were qualified, but their number was insufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary re-evaluation of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in Chile: from Arica to Taitao Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Leyton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile is one of the most seismically active countries in the world; indeed, having witnessed very large earthquakes associated with high horizontal peak ground accelerations, the use of probabilistic hazard assessment is an important tool in any decision-making. In the present study, we review all the available information to improve the estimation of the probabilistic seismic hazard caused by two main sources: shallow interplate, thrust earthquakes and intermediate depth, intraplate earthquakes. Using previously defined seismic zones, we compute Gutenberg-Richter laws and, along with appropriate attenuation laws, revaluate the probabilistic seismic hazard assessments in Chile. We obtain expected horizontal peak ground acceleration with a 10% of probability of being exceeded in 50 years, reaching from 0.6 g up 1.0 g in the coast and between 0.4 g and 0.6 g towards the Andes Mountains, with larger values in Northern part of the country. The present study improves our knowledge of geological hazards in Chile, enabling the mitigation of important human and material losses due to large earthquakes in the future.

  3. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  4. Clinical utility of the Multiple Errands Test in schizophrenia: A preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, Ewa; Delourme, Gwenaëlle; Hutin, Valérie; Burban, Nathalie; Méary, Alexandre; Lajnef, Mohamed; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-06-30

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic, severe disease, which results in misperception of reality, major social withdrawal, and cognitive disturbances. One type of cognitive disturbance, known as executive dysfunction, is widely considered as a primary determinant of functional outcome. However, classic neuropsychological measures of executive functioning (EF) poorly represent patients' functional outcome, and thus seem inappropriate for evaluating the real-world functional impact of diseases such as SZ. We hypothesized that the Multiple Errands Test (MET), an ecological assessment of executive function would show greater ability to measure everyday adaptive functioning SZ, compared to conventional EF assessment methods. 100 clinically stable SZ patients were administered the MET, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test - 64 and a paper version of MET. Correlation analyses were performed between each EF measure and functional outcome, as measured by the Social Autonomy Scale (SAS). After adjusting for age, education, IQ and illness duration, SAS was significantly predicted by MET global score. No other EF measure correlated with SAS. Results from this study suggest that MET offers a valuable prediction of daily life functional outcome in this large sample of SZ patients. Therefore, it could be used as a complementary measure to improve the identification of executive dysfunctions prior to psychosocial interventions.

  5. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Motaghipisheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Re­cently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemi­ology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a com­mercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be consid­ered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. 

  6. Charophytes of the lake Garda (Northern Italy: a preliminary assessment of diversity and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Bolpagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes (stoneworts and bassweeds are a typical macrophytic component of inland water ecosystems. Well-developed submerged meadows of charophytes are expression of clear water and rather low phytoplankton concentrations. Consequently, among aquatic macroscopic primary producers, charophytes are one of the most threatened groups being very sensitive to phosphorous availability, turbidity and water level perturbations. Accordingly, charophytes have been suffering a massive diversity loss worldwide over the last century, mainly because of human-induced pressures. During summer 2011, detailed field surveys were carried out with the main purpose of filling knowledge gaps concerning aquatic flora and vegetation of the lake Garda – the largest lake in Italy and one of the deepest in Europe. Along randomly selected transects, floristic data were collected following standard procedures, as imposed by the Water Framework Directive. Overall, 12 different species of charophytes were recorded, which accounts for 36% of total Italian charophytes and 19% of European species. The most diffuse species were Chara globularis and C. intermedia; whereas, the most interesting taxa were Chara polyacantha and Nitella hyalina, two species with narrow distribution in Italy. Overall in the lake Garda, dense stands of charophytes covered almost homogeneously the littoral sectors at a water depth between 3 and 12 m. The deepest species was C. globularis, which reached a maximum depth of colonisation of about 17.5 m. Charophytes represent a major element among the primary producers in the lake Garda. The high local charophyte diversity and the rather wide most colonised areas (~1000-1200 ha confirm that the lake Garda is an important reserve for many rare and threatened charophytes. For the first time, these results highlight the key role of the lake Garda for charophyte diversity at a national and European level.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of a Debris Bed Cooling Performance for Demonstration Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Park, Chang Gyu; Song, Hoon; Kim, Young Gyun; Jeong, Hae Yong; Chang, Jin Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the sodium-cooled fast reactor such as KALIMER-600, Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA) attributed from mass nuclear fuel melting is unlikely to occur due to defense in depth concepts to meet requirements of redundancy and diversity. Multiple faults such as loss of flow, loss of heat sink, or transient overpower without scram are to lead rising the power level until cladding failure as reactivity increasing. The fact that metallic fuel melts at a lower temperature than the cladding allows significant in-pin- fuel motion to occur prior to cladding failure. Also, the combination of Doppler and axial expansion feedback and negative feedback associated with the in-pin fuel relocation prevents the reactivity from reaching prompt critical. Finally, the resulting reactivity and power reductions help prevent fuel temperatures from rising more than the fuel melting temperature. It is more difficult to occur HCDA in a metallic fueled core because reactor power and heat removal capability is maintained in balance by inherent safety characteristics However, for the future design of sodium-cooled fast reactor, the evaluation of the safety performance and the determination of containment requirements may be worth considering due to the triple-fault accident sequences of extremely low probability of occurrence that leads to core melting. For any postulated accident sequence which leads to core melting, in-vessel retention of the core debris will be required as a design requirement for the future design of sodium cooled fast reactor. Also, proof of the capacity of the debris bed cooling is an essential condition to solve the problem of in-vessel retention of the core debris. Accordingly, evaluation of a packed debris bed cooling performance with single phase flow for demonstration sodium-cooled fast reactor was carried out for proof of the in-vessel retention of the core debris

  8. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  9. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  10. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  11. Preliminary indoor radon risk assessment at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, MG - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, L.H.S. E-mail: Iene@ird.gov.br; Koifman, S.; Melo, V.P.; Sachet, I.; Amaral, E.C.S

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to present an assessment of the environmental radiological exposure at a Brazilian area of high natural radiation and discusses the indoor radon exposure risk. A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of radon progeny and external gamma exposure was conducted in urban and rural areas of the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, which is recognized worldwide as a high natural radiation region. The results of this survey indicated that highest radiation exposure was restricted to the rural area of Pocos de Caldas. The radiation exposure in urban locations was quite similar to the values observed in normal background areas in some Brazilian counties. By the application of a constant relative risk model, an additional 20% in the lifetime risk of lung cancer mortality due to the exposure to radon progeny was estimated at Pocos de Caldas. It was also estimated that 16% of all lung cancer deaths at Pocos de Caldas county could be attributable to radon exposure.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85: Presentation Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E85 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This technical report elaborates on a related presentation.

  13. Ecotoxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Nonivamide as a Promising Marine Antifoulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unclear environmental performance of nonivamide limits its application as a marine antifoulant. In this study, the natural degradation of nonivamide was studied in seawater and tap water. The half-life was 5.8 d, 8.8 d, 12.2 d, and 14.7 d in seawater and tap water in photolysis and biolysis, respectively. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of nonivamide was assessed using marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp.; EC50,  6 d values on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp. were 16.9 mg L−1 and 19.21 mg L−1, respectively. The toxicity and environmental risk of nonivamide on microalgae were significantly decreased due to the natural degradation in seawater.

  14. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  15. Assessment of the microbiological quality of fresh produce on sale in Sicily, Italy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Cinzia; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Di Noto, Anna Maria

    2015-12-01

    Fresh produce occupies an increasingly important place in the human food supply because of its health-promoting nutritional properties. Most fresh produce is eaten raw or after minimal processing and, consequently, pathogen contamination can represent a serious health risk. There has been an increase in foodborne outbreaks and cases associated with fresh produce, but literature data about the prevalence of pathogen contamination are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to assess the hygienic quality and the prevalence of the most common bacterial pathogens in fresh produce sold in retail markets in Sicily. A total of 125 samples of different types of vegetables were examined by standardized microbiological methods. The aerobic mesophilic count ranged between 2 log and 7 log cfu g(-1) and the Enterobacteriaceae counts between increase microbial safety of fresh produce.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Spatial Competition in the Market for E85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, Bentley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests retail E85 prices may track retail gasoline prices rather than wholesale costs. This indicates E85 prices may be higher than they would be if priced on a cost basis hence limiting adoption by some price-sensitive consumers. Using publicly available and proprietary E83 and regular gasoline price data, we examine pricing behavior in the market for E85. Specifically, we assess the extent to which local retail competition in E85 markets decreases E85 retail prices. Results of econometric analysis suggest that higher levels of retail competition (measured in terms of station density) are associated with lower E85 prices at the pump. While more precise causal estimates may be produced from more comprehensive data, this study is the first to our knowledge that estimates the spatial competition dimension of E85 pricing behavior by firms. This is an initial presentation; a related technical report is also available.

  17. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 1: Preliminary steps and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Woody plants are an important component of rangeland habitat, providing food and shelter for animals that range in size from moose to warblers to insects. Because of this importance, land managers are paying increased attention to browse trends. In this two-part article, we describe how browse trend is assessed at the Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Montana. Willows are currently heavily browsed, but there is evidence that browsing pressure was lower in the past. Heavily-browsed 14-inch-tall plants grow in close proximity to 16-foot-tall plants, the tallest stems of which are unbrowsed. The 16-foot-tall stems are older than the 14-inch-tall stems, and apparently grew through the browse zone when browsing pressure was lower than its current level. An increase in browsing pressure would be consistent with the increase in the moose population that occurred over the past 3 decades.

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Yan, Fuhua, E-mail: zemylife@163.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ{sup 2} = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up.

  19. Preliminary aquatic risk assessment of imidacloprid after application in an experimental rice plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daam, Michiel A; Santos Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Emília; Caetano, Lia; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-11-01

    The potential aquatic risk of application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid for aphid control in rice was assessed. To this end, imidacloprid was applied as Confidor(®) 200 SC at the recommended field dose of 100g a.i./ha to a Portuguese rice plot. Subsequently, fate of the test compound in water and potential effects of water samples on a battery of test species were determined. As compared to the first-tier predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) calculated using MED-Rice (around 30µg/L depending on the scenario used) and US-EPA (78µg/L) simulations, the actual peak concentration measured in the paddy water (52µg/L) was higher and lower, respectively. As was anticipated based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50 values) for Daphnia magna published in the open literature and that calculated in the present study (48h-EC50 immobility=84mg/L), no effects were observed of field water samples on daphnids. The sediment-dwelling ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, however, appeared relatively sensitive towards imidacloprid (6d-EC50 growth inhibition=0.01-0.015mg/L) and a slight effect was indeed noted in field samples taken the first week after application. Species sensitivity distributions based on published EC50 and NOEC values also revealed that other species are likely to be affected at the peak and time-weighted average imidacloprid concentrations, respectively. By applying the relative tolerance approach (i.e. by dividing the EC50 value of a certain species with that of Daphnia magna), ostracods appear to contain the most sensitive taxa to imidacloprid, followed by EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera) taxa. Future field studies into (higher-tier) fate modelling of pesticides in rice paddies and effect assessment on field communities are required to ensure protection of aquatic life and wildlife (e.g. birds) from pesticide stress.

  20. Preliminary assessment of one-dimensional MR elastography for use in monitoring focused ultrasound therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Le [Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Glaser, Kevin J [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Rouviere, Olivier [Department of GenitoUrinary Radiology, Hopital E Herriot, 5, place d' Arsonval, 69003 Lyon (France); Gorny, Krzysztof R [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Chen, Shigao [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Manduca, Armando [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ehman, Richard L [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Felmlee, Joel P [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Foundation, 200 1st St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    The purpose of this work is to assess a fast technique that measures tissue stiffness and temperature during focused ultrasound thermal therapy (FUS). A one-dimensional (1D) MR elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was evaluated for the purpose of obtaining rapid measurements of thermally induced changes in tissue stiffness and temperature for monitoring FUS treatments. The accuracy of the 1D measurement was studied by comparing tissue displacements measured by 1D MRE with those measured by the well-established 2D MRE pulse sequence. The reproducibility of the 1D MRE measurement was assessed, in gel phantoms and ex vivo porcine tissue, for varied FUS intensity levels (31.5-199.9 W cm{sup -2}) and over a range of displacements at the focus (0.1-1 {mu}m). Temperature elevations in agarose gel phantoms were measured using 1D MRE and calibrated using fiberoptic-thermometer-based measurements. The 1D MRE displacement measurements are highly correlated with those obtained with the 2D technique (R{sup 2} = 0.88-0.93), indicating that 1D MRE can successfully measure tissue displacement. Ten repeated trials at each FUS power level yielded a minimum detectable displacement change of 0.2 {mu}m in phantoms and 0.4 {mu}m in tissue (at 95% confidence level). The 1D MRE temperature measurements correlated well with temperature changes measured simultaneously with fiberoptic thermometers (R{sup 2} = 0.97). The 1D MRE technique is capable of detecting tissue displacements as low as 0.4 {mu}m, which is an order of magnitude smaller than 5 {mu}m displacements expected during FUS therapy (Le et al 2005 AIP Conf. Proc.: Ther. Ultrasound 829 186-90). Additionally, 1D MRE was shown to provide adequate measurements of temperature elevations in tissue. These findings indicate that 1D MRE may be an effective tool for monitoring FUS treatments.

  1. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  2. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  3. Health Risk Assessment using in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal in rice: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N A; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.

  4. A preliminary regional assessment of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for Vrancea Seismic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Mihai; Balteanu, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Havenith, Hans; Radulian, Mircea; van Westen, Cees; Damen, Michiel; Jurchescu, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In seismically-active regions, earthquakes may trigger landslides enhancing the short-to-long term slope denudation and sediment delivery and conditioning the general landscape evolution. Co-seismic slope failures present in general a low frequency - high magnitude pattern which should be addressed accordingly by landslide hazard assessment, with respect to the generally more frequent precipitation-triggered landslides. The Vrancea Seismic Region, corresponding to the curvature sector of the Eastern Romanian Carpathians, represents the most active sub-crustal (focal depth > 50 km) earthquake province of Europe. It represents the main seismic energy source throughout Romania with significant transboundary effects recorded as far as Ukraine and Bulgaria. During the last 300 years, the region featured 14 earthquakes with M>7, among which seven events with magnitude above 7.5 and three between 7.7 and 7.9. Apart from the direct damages, the Vrancea earthquakes are also responsible for causing numerous other geohazards, such as ground fracturing, groundwater level disturbances and possible deep-seated landslide occurrences (rock slumps, rock-block slides, rock falls, rock avalanches). The older deep-seated landslides (assumed to have been) triggered by earthquakes usually affect the entire slope profile. They often formed landslide dams strongly influencing the river morphology and representing potential threats (through flash-floods) in case of lake outburst. Despite the large potential of this research issue, the correlation between the region's seismotectonic context and landslide predisposing factors has not yet been entirely understood. Presently, there is a lack of information provided by the geohazards databases of Vrancea that does not allow us to outline the seismic influence on the triggering of slope failures in this region. We only know that the morphology of numerous large, deep-seated and dormant landslides (which can possibly be reactivated in future

  5. Preliminary assessment of water chemistry related to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Water-quality samples collected in an area prone to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, were analyzed and assessed to better understand the hydrologic system and to aid in the assessment of contributing water sources. Above average rainfall over the past decade, and the presence of a pressurized water tunnel that passes about 700 feet beneath Wawarsing, could both contribute to groundwater flooding. Water samples were collected from surface-water bodies, springs, and wells and analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents, dissolved gases, age tracers, and stable isotopes. Distinct differences in chemistry exist between tunnel water and groundwater in unconsolidated deposits and in bedrock, and among groundwater samples collected from some bedrock wells during high head pressure and low head pressure of the Rondout-West Branch Tunnel. Samples from bedrock wells generally had relatively higher concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and lower concentrations of calcium (Ca) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), as compared to unconsolidated wells. Differences in stable-isotope ratios among oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 (δ18O), hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 (δ2H), sulfur-34 to sulfur-32(δ34S) of SO42-, Sr-87 to Sr-86 (87Sr/86Sr), and C-13 to C-12 (δ13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicate a potential for distinguishing water in the Delaware-West Branch Tunnel from native groundwater. For example, 87Sr/86Sr ratios were more depleted in groundwater samples from most bedrock wells, as compared to samples from surface-water sources, springs, and wells screened in unconsolidated deposits in the study area. Age-tracer data provided useful information on pathways of the groundwater-flow system, but were limited by inherent problems with dissolved gases in bedrock wells. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and (or) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) apparent recharge years of most water samples from wells screened in unconsolidated deposits and springs ranged

  6. Nomothetic outcome assessment in counseling and psychotherapy: Development and preliminary psychometric analyses of the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Meier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative affect (NA plays a significant role in the initiation, persistence, and response to psychotherapy of many client problems (Moses & Barlow, 2006. This report describes the development of a brief NA measure, the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA scale, and preliminary analyses of its psychometric properties. An initial pool of DANA items was selected on the basis of a review of relevant literature about emotion science and counseling outcomes, related tests, and feedback from psychotherapists as part of a pilot test. The DANA was evaluated in two representative clinical samples where psychotherapists produced a total of 363 session ratings with 81 clients. DANA scores evidenced adequate internal consistency, evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to change over the course of psychotherapy. Effect sizes (ES of DANA scores consistently equaled or exceeded the average ES of .68 found for scales assessing the outcomes of counseling and psychotherapy in meta-analytic studies (Smith & Glass, 1977. ESs greater than 1 were found on DANA variables for clients whose therapists rated them as experiencing, rather than avoiding, NA.

  7. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design: Compressibility Predictions by Employing the Cartesian Unstructured Grid SPLITFLOW Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Dennis B.; Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the second phase of the Euler Technology Assessment program was to evaluate the ability of Euler computational fluid dynamics codes to predict compressible flow effects over a generic fighter wind tunnel model. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, using an in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaption of the volume grid during the solution to resolve high-gradient regions. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles-of-attack. The transonic pressure prediction capabilities of SPLITFLOW are shown to be improved over subsonic comparisons. The time required to generate the results from initial surface data is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.

  8. Quantitative assessment of age-related macular degeneration using parametric modeling of the leakage transfer function: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Safaa M; Abdelmoula, Walid M; Shah, Syed M; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults. The wet form of the disease is characterized by abnormal blood vessels forming a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV), that result in destruction of normal architecture of the retina. Current evaluation and follow up of wet AMD include subjective evaluation of Fluorescein Angiograms (FA) to determine the activity of the lesion and monitor the progression or regression of the disease. However, this subjective evaluation prevents accurate monitoring of the disease progression or regression in response to a pharmacologic agent. In this work, we present a method that allows objective assessment of the activity of a CNV lesion which can be statistically compared across different patient and time points. The method is based on a hypothesis that the discrepancy in the time-intensity signals among the diseased and normal retinal areas are due to an implicit transfer function whose parameters can be used to characterize the retina. The method begins with parametric modeling of the temporal variation of the lesion and background intensities. Then, the values of the model parameters are used to evaluate the change in the activity of the disease. Preliminary results on five datasets show that the calculated parameters are highly correlated with the Visual Acuity (VA) of the patients.

  9. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  10. Preliminary radiological assessment of age-related change in the trabecular structure of the human os pubis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew; Nelson, Andrew; Garvin, Greg; Holdsworth, David W

    2011-03-01

    This preliminary study examines correlations between age-at-death and changes in the trabecular architecture of the human os pubis, utilizing continuous, quantitative data from plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT), and micro-CT scans of 65 male innominates. Radiography provides nondestructive options for assessment, digital preservation, and presentation of human skeletal remains; important for forensic and culturally sensitive archaeological materials, which must remain unmodified for opposing experts, future researchers, or repatriation and reburial. Radiographic techniques permit analysis of remains that cannot be disarticulated (e.g., religious proscription, mummies), and trabecular measures provide data where traditional surface indicators are obscured or damaged. Potentially, robust predictive models derived herein achieve R-values of 0.522, 0.447, and 0.731, respectively. Further testing of these methods may validate these techniques as further lines of evidence in age estimation, with the potential to improve on the accuracy of traditional qualitative techniques by providing quantitative, continuous variables in predicting skeletal age-at-death.

  11. Preliminary assessment of post-Haiyan mangrove damage and short-term recovery in Eastern Samar, central Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, J H; Dela Cruz, M; Montilijao, C; Consunji, H; Dela Paz, M; Rollon, R N; Maranan, K; Samson, M S; Blanco, A

    2016-08-30

    Strong winds and storm surges from Typhoon Haiyan caused damage of US$12-15billion and >10,000 human casualties in central Philippines in November 2013. To validate a proposed government US$22million mangrove replanting program, mangrove damage and short-term recovery were surveyed in seven natural and planted mangrove sites in Eastern Samar province at 2.5month and 4.5month post-Haiyan. The preliminary assessment showed that natural mangroves (except for those directly hit by the storm) were recovering by means of tree sprouts and surviving seedlings and saplings compared to the devastated plantation. Likewise, tree mortality was higher in the plantation and natural forests hit by the storm surge, compared to more undamaged and partially damaged trees in natural mangroves. Hence the main recommendations to government are (1) to protect recovering mangroves by not releasing rehabilitation funds (that will inadvertently pay for clearing of live trees and for removal of seedlings), (2) to only plant in totally damaged sites (e.g., plantations), and (3) to only plant naturally dominant species, e.g., Sonneratia alba and Avicennia marina (instead of the popular Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa).

  12. Microbial fuel cell with an algae-assisted cathode: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González del Campo, Araceli; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Fernández, Francisco J.; Lobato, Justo

    2013-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an algae-assisted cathode, i.e., a system where the oxygen required by the cathode is not provided by aeration but by the photosynthetic process of the algae (Chlorella vulgaris), has been studied. The cathode was illuminated for 12 h each day (from 8:00 h to 20:00 h). 25 days was necessary to achieve steady state conditions. The time evolution of dissolved oxygen and cell voltage were assessed over the course of each day. As expected, the dissolved oxygen values were not constant throughout the day, reaching maximum values between 14:00 h and 20:00 h when dark phase reactions began and the algae started to consume oxygen. Cell voltage (Rext 120 Ω) followed the same trend as the oxygen profile. The supply of CO2 in the cathode was also studied, and half an hour was enough time to get the system working properly. During the acclimation stage, power density increased up to 13.5 mW m-2 at steady state conditions. However, impedance analysis showed that polarization resistance was higher at the cathode than at the anode. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that the studied system is a feasible method to treat wastewater in a self-sustainable way.

  13. Electrical impedance myography for the assessment of children with muscular dystrophy: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkove, S. B.; Darras, B. T.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) provides a non-invasive approach for quantifying the severity of neuromuscular disease. Here we determine how well EIM data correlates to functional and ultrasound (US) measures of disease in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy boys, aged 2-12 years and 14 boys with DMD aged 4-12 years underwent both EIM and US measurements of deltoid, biceps, wrist flexors, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. EIM measurements were performed with a custom-designed probe using a commercial multifrequency bioimpedance device. US luminosity data were quantified using a gray-scale analysis approach. Children also underwent the 6-minute walk test, timed tests and strength measurements. EIM and US data were combined across muscles. EIM 50 kHz phase was able to discriminate DMD children from healthy subjects with 98% accuracy. In the DMD patients, average EIM phase measurements also correlated well with standard functional measures. For example the 50 kHz phase correlated with the Northstar Ambulatory Assessment test (R = 0.83, p = 0.02). EIM 50 kHz phase and US correlated as well, with R = -0.79 (p muscular dystrophy severity.

  14. Preliminary gully assessment using photo-reconstruction from own-manufactured UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Castro, Vicente; Castillo, Carlos; Gomez, Jose A.; Perez, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are becoming increasingly useful in several professional and research fields, among other, in geomorphology applications. UAV helicopters (with one or more rotors) present some advantages compared to fixed wing drones such as the possibility of stationary fly. On the other hand, 3D-photoreconstruction has been successfully applied for gully assessment at the reach scale. The combination of both approaches can result in a substantial reduction of time requirements at the gully network scale. The purpose of this communication is to describe the construction of an UAV with carbor-fiber frame and its fitting for capturing air images. Routes controlled by GPS were programmed in advance using Google Earth. Although an improved design with 8 rotors is in progress, currently the design is equipped with 4 rotors. This new design will allow the use of heavier and more precise cameras. In addition, the isolation of the inner electronic equipment will increase the possibility of use in bad weather. The images obtained by the UAV were processed using 3D-photoreconstruction to derive a digital elevation model of a several-hundred meters gully. References Castillo, C., R. Perez, M.R. James, J.N. Quinton, E.V. Taguas, J.A. Gómez. 2012. Comparing the Accuracy of Several Field Methods for Measuring Gully Erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76: 1319-1332.

  15. Assessment of trabecular bone changes around endosseous implants using image analysis techniques: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuki, Mervet El [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Benghazi University College of Dentistry, Benghazi (Libya); Omami, Galal [Oral Diagnosis and Polyclinics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Horner, Keith [Dept. of Oral Radiology, University Dental Hospital of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the trabecular bone changes that occurred around functional endosseous dental implants by means of radiographic image analysis techniques. Immediate preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs of de-identified implant patients at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester were retrieved, screened for specific inclusion criteria, digitized, and quantified for structural elements of the trabecular bone around the endosseous implants, by using image analysis techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 12 implants from 11 patients were selected for the study, and 26 regions of interest were obtained. There was a significant increase in the bone area in terms of the mean distance between nodes (p=0.006) and a significant decrease in the marrow area in terms of the bone area (p=0.006) and the length of marrow spaces (p=0.032). It appeared that the bone around the implant underwent remodeling that resulted in a net increase in bone after implant placement.

  16. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  17. Determination of furan levels in commercial samples of baby food from Brazil and preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi Arisseto, A; Vicente, E; De Figueiredo Toledo, M C

    2010-08-01

    Commercial baby food samples available on the Brazilian market (n = 31) were analysed for furan content using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by solid-phase microextraction. A limit of detection of 0.7 microg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 2.4 microg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 80% to 107%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5.6% to 9.4% for repeatability and from 7.4% to 12.4% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during an in-house validation. The levels of furan found in the samples were from not detected to 95.5 microg kg(-1). Samples containing vegetables and meat showed higher furan levels as compared with those containing only fruits. An exposure assessment showed furan intakes up to 2.4 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (99th percentile) for babies fed exclusively with commercial baby foods. Margins of exposure obtained from intakes estimated in this work indicated a potential public health concern.

  18. Preliminary CFD Assessment of an Experimental Test Facility Operating with Heavy Liquid Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Lizzoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CFD analysis of a Venturi nozzle operating in LBE (key component of the CIRCE facility, owned by ENEA is presented in this paper. CIRCE is a facility developed to investigate in detail the fluid-dynamic behavior of ADS and/or LFR reactor plants. The initial CFD simulations have been developed hand in hand with the comparison with experimental data: the test results were used to confirm the reliability of the CFD model, which, in turn, was used to improve the interpretation of the experimental data. The Venturi nozzle is modeled with a 3D CFD code (STAR-CCM+. Later on, the CFD model has been used to assess the performance of the component in conditions different from the ones tested in CIRCE: the performance of the Venturi is presented, in terms of pressure drops, for various operating conditions. Finally, the CFD analysis has been focused on the evaluation of the effects of the injection of an inert gas in the flow of the liquid coolant on the performance of the Venturi nozzle.

  19. Small cages with insect couples provide a simple method for a preliminary assessment of mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Françoise; Guerin, Patrick M; Charmillot, Pierre-Joseph; Kehrli, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density). The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  20. Small Cages with Insect Couples Provide a Simple Method for a Preliminary Assessment of Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Briand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption by sex pheromones is a sustainable, effective and widely used pest management scheme. A drawback of this technique is its challenging assessment of effectiveness in the field (e.g., spatial scale, pest density. The aim of this work was to facilitate the evaluation of field-deployed pheromone dispensers. We tested the suitability of small insect field cages for a pre-evaluation of the impact of sex pheromones on mating using the grape moths Eupoecilia ambiguella and Lobesia botrana, two major pests in vineyards. Cages consisted of a cubic metal frame of 35 cm sides, which was covered with a mosquito net of 1500 μm mesh size. Cages were installed in the centre of pheromone-treated and untreated vineyards. In several trials, 1 to 20 couples of grape moths per cage were released for one to three nights. The proportion of mated females was between 15 to 70% lower in pheromone-treated compared to untreated vineyards. Overall, the exposure of eight couples for one night was adequate for comparing different control schemes. Small cages may therefore provide a fast and cheap method to compare the effectiveness of pheromone dispensers under standardised semi-field conditions and may help predict the value of setting-up large-scale field trials.

  1. CT perfusion technique for assessment of early kidney allograft dysfunction: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helck, A.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Schoen, F.; Nikolaou, K.; Clevert, D.A.; Reiser, M.; Becker, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Wessely, M.; Schoenermarck, U.; Fischereder, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology, University Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Klotz, E. [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    To assess the benefit of quantitative computed tomography (CT) perfusion for differentiating acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and acute rejection (AR) in kidney allografts. Twenty-two patients with acute kidney allograft dysfunction caused by either AR (n = 6) or ATN (n = 16) were retrospectively included in the study. All patients initially underwent a multiphase CT angiography (CTA) protocol (12 phases, one phase every 3.5 s) covering the whole graft to exclude acute postoperative complications. Multiphase CT dataset and dedicated software were used to calculate renal blood flow. Renal biopsy or clinical course of disease served as the standard of reference. Mean effective radiation dose and mean amount of contrast media were calculated. Renal blood flow values were significantly lower (P = 0.001) in allografts undergoing AR (48.3 {+-} 21 ml/100 ml/min) compared with those with ATN (77.5 {+-} 21 ml/100 ml/min). No significant difference (P = 0.71) was observed regarding creatinine level with 5.65 {+-} 3.1 mg/dl in AR and 5.3 {+-} 1.9 mg/dl in ATN. The mean effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 13.6 {+-} 5.2 mSv; the mean amount of contrast media applied was 34.5 {+-} 5.1 ml. All examinations were performed without complications. CT perfusion of kidney allografts may help to differentiate between ATN and rejection. (orig.)

  2. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  3. Supporting fingerprint identification assessments using a skin stretch model - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca; Comber, Bruce; Abraham, Joshua; Wagner, Michael; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2017-03-01

    To support fingerprint expert opinion, this research proposes an approach that combines subjective human analysis (as currently applied by fingerprint practitioners) with a statistical test of the result. This approach relies on the hypothesis that there are limits to the distortion caused by skin stretch. Such limits can be modelled by applying a multivariate normal probability density function to the distances and angle formed by a marked ridge characteristic and the two closest neighbouring minutiae. This study presents a model tested on 5 donors in total. The "expected range" of distortion in a within-source comparison using 10 minutiae was determined and compared to between-source comparisons. The expected range of log probability densities for within-source comparisons marked with 10 minutiae was determined to be from -33.4 to -60.0, with all between-source data falling outside this range, between -83 and -305. These results suggest that the proposed generated metric could be a powerful tool for the assessment of fingerprint expert opinion in operational casework.

  4. Preliminary assessment of anatomical variability of nervus peroneus superficialis in the foetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagała, Zygmunt; Gworys, Bohdan; Porwolik, Krystian

    2003-11-01

    An assessment of the variability of the course and ramifications of the superficial peroneal nerve within the crus was made on a material of 33 foetuses of both sexes miscarried in the 6th month of foetal life. Particular attention was paid to the relation of the nerve under examination to the anterior intermuscular septum. To facilitate the analysis the material investigated was grouped into several types. The post mortem examination revealed that the nerve referred to followed a typical course within the shank in 54% of cases. At the same time in 15% of cases the examined nerve was split into two terminal branches within the fascial compartment of fibular muscles, leaving the fascia independently. In 19% of cases n. peroneus superficialis passes through the intermuscular septum to the anterior fascial compartment of the shank. Moreover, in 12% of cases the presence was demonstrated of n. peroneus superficialis accessorius passing together with n. peroneus profundus to the extensors chamber and further on into the medial cutaneous nerve of the foot.

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana, A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ewusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality of the Obuasi municipality was assessed to understand the contamination processes due to the presence of various contaminant sources and complicated geochemical processes and the suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose for a sustainable agriculture and basic human needs. Water samples were collected during the raining season when a rise in water table was expected and during the dry season. They were analyzed for major cations and anions. Parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total dissolve solutes and stoechiometric relations were calculated on the basis of chemical data. A questionnaire was also used to investigate perception of consumers on taste and odour. Comparison of the concentration of the chemical constituents with World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standards of 2004 and various classifications show that present status of groundwater in Obuasi is good for drinking and irrigation purposes. Concentrations of major cations and anions in the groundwater systems vary spatially and temporally. Abundance of these anions is in the following order: Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+>K+ = HCO3->Cl-> SO24->H2SiO4Br->PO24->F-. In terms of rainy season impact, Obuasi groundwater shows dilution and flushing, however, samples show excessive leaching of different chemical components into the groundwater system leading to the enrichment of different anions and cations and this indicate pollution from extraneous sources. No clear correlation between the quality parameters and perceived quality in terms of satisfactory taste response were obtained at electrical conductivity values lower than the threshold minimum acceptable value.

  6. A new Fourier transform based CBIR scheme for mammographic mass classification: a preliminary invariance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Tan, Maxine; Qui, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new content-based image retrieval (CBIR) scheme that enables to achieve higher reproducibility when it is implemented in an interactive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system without significantly reducing lesion classification performance. This is a new Fourier transform based CBIR algorithm that determines image similarity of two regions of interest (ROI) based on the difference of average regional image pixel value distribution in two Fourier transform mapped images under comparison. A reference image database involving 227 ROIs depicting the verified soft-tissue breast lesions was used. For each testing ROI, the queried lesion center was systematically shifted from 10 to 50 pixels to simulate inter-user variation of querying suspicious lesion center when using an interactive CAD system. The lesion classification performance and reproducibility as the queried lesion center shift were assessed and compared among the three CBIR schemes based on Fourier transform, mutual information and Pearson correlation. Each CBIR scheme retrieved 10 most similar reference ROIs and computed a likelihood score of the queried ROI depicting a malignant lesion. The experimental results shown that three CBIR schemes yielded very comparable lesion classification performance as measured by the areas under ROC curves with the p-value greater than 0.498. However, the CBIR scheme using Fourier transform yielded the highest invariance to both queried lesion center shift and lesion size change. This study demonstrated the feasibility of improving robustness of the interactive CAD systems by adding a new Fourier transform based image feature to CBIR schemes.

  7. The plutonium isotopic composition of marine biota on Enewetak Atoll: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry F; Martinelli, Roger E; Kehl, Steven R; McAninch, Jeffrey E

    2008-10-01

    We have determined the level and distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium activity concentrations, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in tissue samples of giant clam (Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus), a top snail (Trochus nilaticas) and sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) collected from different locations around Enewetak Atoll. The plutonium isotopic measurements were performed using ultra-high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated levels of plutonium were observed in the stomachs (includes the stomach lining) of Tridacna clam (0.62 to 2.98 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.), in the soft parts (edible portion) of top snails (0.25 to 1.7 Bq kg(-1)), wet wt.) and, to a lesser extent, in sea cucumber (0.015 to 0.22 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) relative to muscle tissue concentrations in clam (0.006 to 0.021 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) and in comparison with previous measurements of plutonium in fish. These data and information provide a basis for re-evaluating the relative significance of dietary intakes of plutonium from marine foods on Enewetak Atoll and, perhaps most importantly, demonstrate that discrete 240Pu239Pu isotope signatures might well provide a useful investigative tool to monitor source-term attribution and consequences on Enewetak Atoll. One potential application of immediate interest is to monitor and assess the health and ecological impacts of leakage of plutonium (as well as other radionuclides) from a low-level radioactive waste repository on Runit Island relative to background levels of fallout contamination in Enewetak Atoll lagoon.

  8. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in assessing disease severity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Hu, Houchun Harry [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramos-Platt, Leigh [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wren, Tishya Anne Leong; Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Perkins, Thomas Gardner; Chia, Jonathan Mawlin [Philips Healthcare North America, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    There is currently a lack of suitable objective endpoints to measure disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Emerging research suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has potential as an outcome measure for the evaluation of skeletal muscle injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of DTI as quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of disease severity in DMD. Thirteen consecutive boys (8.9 years ± 3.0 years) with DMD were evaluated using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were compared with clinical outcome measures of manual muscle testing and MRI determinations of muscle fat fraction (MFF) in the right lower extremity. Both MRI measures of FA and ADC strongly correlated with age and muscle strength. Values for FA positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with muscle strength (r = 0.78 and -0.96; both P ≤ 0.002) while measures of ADC negatively correlated age, but positively correlated with muscle strength (r = -0.87 and 0.83; both P ≤ 0.0004). Additionally, ADC and FA strongly correlated with MFF (r = -0.891 and 0.894, respectively; both P ≤ 0.0001). Mean MMF was negatively correlated with muscle strength (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001). DTI measures of muscle structure strongly correlated with muscle strength and adiposity in boys with DMD in this pilot study, although these markers may be more reflective of fat replacement rather than muscle damage in later stages of the disease. Further studies in presymptomatic younger children are needed to assess the ability of DTI to detect early changes in DMD. (orig.)

  9. Cell compatible arginine containing cationic polymer: one-pot synthesis and preliminary biological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavradashvili, Nino; Memanishvili, Tamar; Kupatadze, Nino; Baldi, Lucia; Shen, Xiao; Tugushi, David; Wandrey, Christine; Katsarava, Ramaz

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic cationic polymers are of interest as both nonviral vectors for intracellular gene delivery and antimicrobial agents. For both applications synthetic polymers containing guanidine groups are of special interest since such kind of organic compounds/polymers show a high transfection potential along with antibacterial activity. It is important that the delocalization of the positive charge of the cationic group in guanidine significantly decreases the toxicity compared to the ammonium functionality. One of the most convenient ways for incorporating guanidine groups is the synthesis of polymers composed of the amino acid arginine (Arg) via either application of Arg-based monomers or chemical modification of polymers with derivatives of Arg. It is also important to have biodegradable cationic polymers that will be cleared from the body after their function as transfection or antimicrobial agent is fulfilled. This chapter deals with a two-step/one-pot synthesis of a new biodegradable cationic polymer-poly(ethylene malamide) containing L-arginine methyl ester covalently attached to the macrochains in β-position of the malamide residue via the α-amino group. The goal cationic polymer was synthesized by in situ interaction of arginine methyl ester dihydrochloride with intermediary poly(ethylene epoxy succinimide) formed by polycondensation of di-p-nitrophenyl-trans-epoxy succinate with ethylenediamine. The cell compatibility study with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and insect Schneider 2 cells (S2) within the concentration range of 0.02-500 mg/mL revealed that the new polymer is not cytotoxic. It formed nanocomplexes with pDNA (120-180 nm in size) at low polymer/DNA weight ratios (WR = 5-10). A preliminarily transfection efficiency of the Arg-containing new cationic polymer was assessed using CHO, S2, H5, and Sf9 cells.

  10. Preliminary Reactor Physics Assessment of the HTR Module with 14% Enriched UCO Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Strydom; Hans D. Gougar

    2013-03-01

    The high temperature reactor (HTR) Module (Lohnert, 1990) is a graphite-moderated, helium cooled pebble bed design that has been extensively used as a reference template for the former South African (Matzner, 2004) and current Chinese (Zhang et al., 2009) HTR programs. This design utilizes spherical fuel elements packed into a dynamic pebble bed, consisting of tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) coated uranium oxide (UO2) 500 µm fuel kernels with a U-235 enrichment of 7.8% and a heavy metal loading of 7 g per pebble. This fuel type was previously qualified for use in Germany for pebble bed HTRs, as well as undergoing re-qualification in South Africa for the PBMR project. It is also the fuel type being tested for use in the high temperature reactor (HTR-PM) under construction in China. In the United States, however, a different TRISO fuel form is the subject of a qualification program. The U.S. experience with HTRs has been focused upon the batch-fueled prismatic reactor in which TRISO particles are embedded in cylindrical compacts and stacked inside the graphite blocks which comprise the core. Under this type of operating regime, a smaller TRISO with a different composition and enrichment performs better than the fuel historically used in PBRs. Fuel kernels and compacting techniques more suited to prismatic core duty are currently being developed and qualified under the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development program and in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant project. Interest in the pebble bed concept remains high, however, and a study was undertaken by the authors to assess the viability of using AGR fuel in a pebble bed reactor. Using the German HTR Module as the reference plant, key neutronic and thermal-hydraulic parameters were compared between the nominal design and one fueled with the fuel that is the focus of the AGR program.

  11. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination approaches for inspecting butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for lack of fusion (LOF). The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and need for volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques and high-speed tensile impact testing for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch IPS DR-11 material by varying the fusion parameters in attempts to provide good joints and joints containing LOF. These butt joints were visually examined and volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) and phased-array (PA) ultrasound. A limited subset of pipe joint material was destructively analyzed by either slicing through the joint and visually examining the surface or by employing a standard high-speed tensile impact test. Initial correlation of the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluations have shown that areas with gross LOF were detected with both TOFD and PA ultrasound and that the tensile impact test showed a brittle failure at the joint. There is still some ambiguity in results from the less obvious LOF conditions. Current work is targeted on assessing the sensitivity of the ultrasonic volumetric examinations and validating the results with a destructive analysis. It is expected that on-going and future work will lead to quantifying the ultrasonic responses in terms of joint integrity.

  12. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  13. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    maximizing the use of existing and flight proven liquid rocket and stage hardware (e.g., from the RL10-B2 engine and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage) to further ensure affordability. This paper provides a preliminary NASA, DOE and industry assessment of what is required - the key DDT&E activities, development options, and the associated schedule - to affordably build, ground test and fly a small NTR engine and stage within a 10-year timeframe.

  14. Marine Carrying Capacity Assessment and Spatio-temporal Analysis in the Bohai Sea Ring Area, China%环渤海地区海域承载力测度与时空分异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙才志; 于广华; 王泽宇; 刘锴; 刘桂春

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is an important strategic resource in coastal countries and regions. The coastal area has the largest population, the biggest population density, and is the most developed area in China as in other coastal countries. Bohai Sea Ring Area and the Changjiang River Delta, Zhujiang River Delta are the three economic growth poles in China coastal area. With the great growth of economy and society, the contradiction between supply and demand of land resources has become increasingly prominent, marine resources have been predato-ry exploited, marine environment has been seriously polluted. Carrying capacity is an important study on coor-dinating development of resources, environment, and economy. Marine carrying capacity is generally be de-fined as the capacity or limit of the harmonious development of population, environment, and socio-economic that the ocean can carry in a certain period without damaging the sustainable development of marine resource and environment, and ensuring a certain living standard. Marine carrying capacity assessment is of great signif-icance for the sustainable exploitation of marine resources, the environment protection and the coordinated de-velopment of regional economy and society in coastal areas. In this context, evaluation on carrying capacity of Bohai Sea Ring Area is of great significance to the sustainable development of the Bohai Sea economic circle. Since marine resources system has mobility, renewability and other characteristics, marine carrying capacity has openness, dynamics and complexity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the population, environment and socio-economic development or limits that marine carrying capacity can support. But by constructing indicator system, we can measure the dynamic change trend and relative marine carrying capacity then guide the devel-opment of marine economic activities. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is based on the fuzzy math-ematics principle, to analyze and evaluate

  15. Risk Assessment in the Recovery of Food for Social Solidarity Purposes: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Vesna; Colavita, Giampaolo; Castrica, Marta; Ratti, Sabrina; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia M

    2016-09-20

    of surplus from catering service and their reuse at COs should be planned with correct procedures, and the volunteer's knowledge on the hygienic aspects appears to be a critical point. The recovery and the charitable activities require an appropriate assessment and careful risk analysis, in order to manage the complexity of no profit organization.

  16. Risk Assessment in the Recovery of Food for Social Solidarity Purposes: Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Vesna; Colavita, Giampaolo; Castrica, Marta; Ratti, Sabrina; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    recovery of surplus from catering service and their reuse at COs should be planned with correct procedures, and the volunteer’s knowledge on the hygienic aspects appears to be a critical point. The recovery and the charitable activities require an appropriate assessment and careful risk analysis, in order to manage the complexity of no profit organization. PMID:28058252

  17. Risk assessment in the recovery of food for social solidarity purposes: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Milicevic

    2016-11-01

    that the recovery of surplus from catering service and their reuse at COs should be planned with correct procedures, and the volunteer’s knowledge on the hygienic aspects appears to be a critical point. The recovery and the charitable activities require an appropriate assessment and careful risk analysis, in order to manage the complexity of no profit organization.

  18. Preliminary safety assessment of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J E P S; Pereda, M C V; Nogueira, C; Dieamant, G; Cesar, C K M; Assanome, K M; Silva, M S; Torello, C O; Queiroz, M L S; Eberlin, S

    2016-02-01

    Most of the cosmetic compounds with preservative properties available in the market pose some risks concerning safety, such as the possibility of causing sensitization. Due to the fact that there are few options, the proper development of new molecules with this purpose is needed. Xylitol is a natural sugar, and the antimicrobial properties of xylitol-derived compounds have already been described in the literature. C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters may be useful for the development of skincare products. As an initial screen for safety of chemicals, the combination of in silico methods and in vitro testing can aid in prioritizing resources in toxicological investigations while reducing the ethical and monetary costs that are related to animal and human testing. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of C-8 xylitol monoester and xylitol phosphate esters regarding carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization through alternative methods. For the initial safety assessment, quantitative structure-activity relationship methodology was used. The prediction of the parameters carcinogenicity/mutagenicity, skin and eye irritation/corrosion and sensitization was generated from the chemical structure. The analysis also comprised physical-chemical properties, Cramer rules, threshold of toxicological concern and Michael reaction. In silico results of candidate molecules were compared to 19 compounds with preservative properties that are available in the market. Additionally, in vitro tests (Ames test for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phototoxicity tests and hen's egg test--chorioallantoic membrane for irritation) were performed to complement the evaluation. In silico evaluation of both molecules presented no structural alerts related to eye and skin irritation, corrosion and sensitization, but some alerts for micronucleus and carcinogenicity were detected. However, by comparison, C-8 xylitol monoester, xylitol

  19. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Grubbs/Kyle Training Center, Smyrna/Rutherford County Regional Airport, Installation 47340, Smyrna, Tennessee. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, C.; Stefano, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Tennessee Army National Guard (TNARNG) property near Smyrna, Tennessee. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Grubbs/Kyle Training Center property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  1. Analysis on Environmental Carrying Capacity in Planning Environmental Impact Assessment of Qunli%群力新区规划环境影响评价中的环境承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 付宁

    2012-01-01

    As the core element of planning environmental impact assessment,environmental carrying capacity analysis can characterize the environmental comprehensive impacts of projects from the view of whole system based on the environmental carrying capacity threshold.Its fundamental purpose is to determine whether the project planning suits the bearing capacity of the region's resources.Ultimately,it is to solve the coordinated development of regional socio-economic and environmental resource development issues.Taking the environmental impact assessment of Qunli District as example,this study establishes a comprehensive environmental indicator system and provides detailed description of general content,methods and other aspects of environmental carrying capacity analysis.%环境承载力分析作为规划环境影响评价中核心内容之一,可以在环境承载能力阈值的基础上真实地度量并以系统的观点表达一项规划对环境的综合影响程度,其根本目的在于确定规划开发强度能否与该地区资源环境承载力相协调,归根结底是解决区域社会经济与资源环境协调发展的问题。以群力新区规划环境影响评价为研究实例,建立群力新区的综合环境承载力指标体系,详细地阐述了环境承载力分析的一般内容、方法等方面的内容。

  2. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Environmental contaminants background survey: Second year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the second year of the multiyear study, The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex) Environmental...

  3. Preliminary assessment of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex environmental contaminants background study: Fifth year results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents the preliminary results of the fifth year of the multiyear study entitled, "The Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex)...

  4. A Preliminary Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Architectural and Archeological Resources in the Historic Strawbery Banke District of Portsmouth, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier, M.; Curran, B.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Jefferson, M.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the last 100 years the global (eustatic) mean sea level has increased at an average rate of 1 to 3 millimeters per year and is expected to further rise by at least 0.9m to 1.6m from 1990 to 2100 due to the effects of climate change. This fact will have profound impact on coastal communities because much of the world's population currently lives within Low Elevation Coastal Zones accounting for only 2% of continental land mass. This trend of populations to establish communities around coastal areas is not just a modern phenomenon. Throughout history people have created communities around coastal areas because they provided easy access to transportation, trade, and sustenance. Numerous historic sites around the world today can be identified as being coastal and thus susceptible to the effects of sea level rise. This is an important fact because these sites are linked to our cultural heritage, a legacy of cultural artifacts and knowledge which tie us to our past. To better understand the vulnerability of our coastal cultural heritage relative to the effects of climate change induced sea-level rise, we are in the process of developing a set of assessment protocols that will provide preservationists, archeologists, and policy-makers with the necessary information to begin developing adaption strategies for coastal sites of cultural significance locally, nationally, and internationally. With funding through the National Geographic Society Waitt Foundation, our preliminary research has focused on the historic Strawbery Banke area of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, a settlement which dates back to the 1600s. Through the use of historical research, topographic and hydrologic surveys, in conjunction with modern data, tools, analysis techniques, and 3D geographic information system models, a "proof of concept" assessment is being established. This assessment, that includes the dynamic interactions between tidal movements and storm surges relative to the additive

  5. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  6. On fast carry select adders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  7. Assessment of the effect of oral corticosteroids on bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: a preliminary study with dual energy x ray absorptiometry.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Dual energy x ray absorptiometry and a wide range of blood and urine tests were used to assess the propensity of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to develop an impairment of bone mineral density. Surprisingly, in this preliminary study no significant differences in bone mineral density were found when patients taking 10 mg or more of prednisolone for six months or longer were compared with those who had never taken prednisolone.

  8. Assessment of the effect of oral corticosteroids on bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: a preliminary study with dual energy x ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, V B; Davies, M C; Hall, M L; Round, J M; Ell, P J; Jacobs, H S; Snaith, M L; Isenberg, D A

    1990-08-01

    Dual energy x ray absorptiometry and a wide range of blood and urine tests were used to assess the propensity of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to develop an impairment of bone mineral density. Surprisingly, in this preliminary study no significant differences in bone mineral density were found when patients taking 10 mg or more of prednisolone for six months or longer were compared with those who had never taken prednisolone.

  9. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the American peregrine falcon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (version 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory require protection of the American peregrine falcon. A preliminary risk assessment of the peregrine was performed using a custom FORTRAN model and a geographical information system. Estimated doses to the falcon were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices. Hazard index results indicated no unacceptable risk to the falcon from the soil ingestion pathway, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. Scaling home ranges on the basis of maximizing falcon height for viewing prey decreased estimated risk by 69% in a canyons-based home range and increased estimated risk by 40% in a river-based home range. Improving model realism by weighting simulated falcon foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased risk by 93% in one exposure unit and by 82% in a second exposure unit. It was demonstrated that choice of toxicity reference values can have a substantial impact on risk estimates. Adding bioaccumulation factors for several organics increased partial hazard quotients by a factor of 110, but increased the mean hazard index by only 0.02 units. Adding a food consumption exposure pathway in the form of biomagnification factors for 15 contaminants of potential ecological concern increased the mean hazard index to 1.16 ({+-} 1.0), which is above the level of acceptability (1.0). Aroclor-1254, dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethelyne (DDE) accounted for 81% of the estimated risk that includes soil ingestion and food consumption Contaminant pathways and a biomagnification component. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, falcon habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations. 123 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fenton process on single and mixture components of phenothiazine pharmaceuticals: Assessment of intermediaries, fate, and preliminary ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Marcelo L; Schneider, Mandy; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals do not occur isolated in the environment but in multi-component mixtures and may exhibit antagonist, synergistic or additive behavior. Knowledge on this is still scarce. The situation is even more complicated if effluents or potable water is treated by oxidative processes or such transformations occur in the environment. Thus, determining the fate and effects of parent compounds, metabolites and transformation products (TPs) formed by transformation and degradation processes in the environment is needed. This study investigated the fate and preliminary ecotoxicity of the phenothiazine pharmaceuticals, Promazine (PRO), Promethazine (PRM), Chlorpromazine (CPR), and Thioridazine (THI) as single and as components of the resulting mixtures obtained from their treatment by Fenton process. The Fenton process was carried out at pH7 and by using 0.5-2mgL(-1) of [Fe(2+)]0 and 1-12.5mgL(-1) of [H2O2]0 at the fixed ratio [Fe(2+)]0:[H2O2]0 of 1:10 (w:w). No complete mineralization was achieved. Constitutional isomers and some metabolite-like TPs formed were suggested based on their UHPLC-HRMS(n) data. A degradation pathway was proposed considering interconnected mechanisms such as sulfoxidation, hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, and dechlorination steps. Aerobic biodegradation tests (OECD 301 D and OECD 301 F) were applied to the parent compounds separately, to the mixture of parent compounds, and for the cocktail of TPs present after the treatment by Fenton process. The samples were not readily biodegradable. However, LC-MS analysis revealed that abiotic transformations, such hydrolysis, and autocatalytic transformations occurred. The initial ecotoxicity tested towards Vibrio fischeri as individual compounds featured a reduction in toxicity of PRM and CPR by the treatment process, whereas PRO showed an increase in acute luminescence inhibition and THI a stable luminescence inhibition. Concerning effects of the mixture components, reduction in toxicity by the

  11. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    In 1953 and 1954, the Benjamin Harrison Village Corporation built 300 apartment buildings on the southwest side of the post, which FBH purchased in... Corporal . 1991. Interview with Stacie Popp, Roy F. Weston, Inc. 18 October 1991. NRMP (Fort Benjamin Harrison Natural Resources Management Plan). 1983...the SSI Phase II. ImAolxT: MO enharpa~pp C-24 12A" SITE INSPECION (SI) PHASE U DOCUMENTATION CHECKLIST Record this information in as much detail as

  12. Preliminary assessment of the eutrophication status of selected areas in the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea according to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łysiak-Pastuszak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directiverequired a number of tasks to be fulfilled: classifying the variouswater bodies into different types, defining reference conditionsfor each of the types and assessing their ecological qualitystatus - this last is based on biological, hydromorphologicaland physicochemical quality elements of the ecosystem.The paper presents an attempt to estimate reference values inselected areas of Polish coastal and transitional watersas well as in an open sea area following WFD principles.The preliminary eutrophication assessment showed all the assessedareas to be eutrophication problem areas.

  13. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  14. Using respiratory rate and thoracic movement to assess respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siirala Waltteri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and non-invasive ventilation (NIV can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis to assess the severity of the hypoventilation. We examined whether the respiratory rate and thoracic movement were reliable preliminary clinical signs in the development of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. Methods We measured the respiratory rate and thoracic movement, performed respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis, and recorded subjective hypoventilation symptoms in 42 ALS patients over a 7-year period. We recommended NIV if the patient presented with hypoventilation matching the current guidelines. We divided patients retrospectively into two groups: those to whom NIV was recommended within 6 months of the diagnosis (Group 1 and those to whom NIV was recommended 6 months after the diagnosis (Group 2. We used the Mann Whitney U test for comparisons between the two groups. Results The mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in the morning in Group 1 was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 5.6–6.9 kPa and in Group 2 5.3 (5.0–5.6 kPa (p = 0.007. The mean respiratory rate at the time of diagnosis in Group 1 was 21 (18–24 breaths per minute and 16 (14–18 breaths per minute in Group 2 (p = 0.005. The mean thoracic movement was 2.9 (2.2–3.6 cm in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.4–4.8 cm in Group 2 (p = 0.01. We observed no other differences between the groups. Conclusions Patients who received NIV within six months of the diagnosis of ALS had higher respiratory rates and smaller thoracic movement compared with patients who received NIV later. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish if these measurements can be used as a marker of hypoventilation

  15. Three-dimensional dynamic in vivo motion of the cervical spine: assessment of measurement accuracy and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colin P; Bachison, Casey C; Chang, Victor; Bartol, Stephen W; Bey, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Previous research has quantified cervical spine motion with conventional measurement techniques (eg, cadaveric studies, motion capture systems, and fluoroscopy), but these techniques were not designed to accurately measure three-dimensional (3D) dynamic cervical spine motion under in vivo conditions. The purposes of this study were to characterize the accuracy of model-based tracking for measuring 3D dynamic cervical spine kinematics and to demonstrate its in vivo application. Through accuracy assessment and application of technique, in vivo cervical spine motion was measured. The accuracy of model-based tracking for measuring cervical spine motion was determined in an in vitro experiment. Tantalum beads were implanted into the vertebrae of an ovine specimen, and biplane X-ray images were acquired as the specimen's neck was manually moved through neck extension and axial neck rotation. The 3D position and orientation of each cervical vertebra were determined from the biplane X-ray images using model-based tracking. For comparison, the position and orientation of each vertebra were also determined by tracking the position of the implanted beads with dynamic radiostereometric analysis. To demonstrate in vivo application of this technique, biplane X-ray images were acquired as a human subject performed two motion tasks: neck extension and axial neck rotation. The positions and orientations of each cervical vertebra were determined with model-based tracking. Cervical spine motion was reported with standard kinematic descriptions of translation and rotation. The in vitro validation demonstrated that model-based tracking is accurate to within +/-0.6 mm and +/-0.6 degrees for measuring cervical spine motion. For the in vivo application, there were significant rotations about all three anatomical axes for both the neck extension and axial neck rotation motion tasks. Model-based tracking is an accurate technique for measuring in vivo, 3D, dynamic cervical spine motion

  16. An Analysis of English Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑珍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chapter Ⅰ Introduction Sitting in the rocking chair,Carrie dreams her future.This is the deep impression the novel"Sister Carrie"gives us,which is written by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945),the great American realism writer.

  17. Treatment Integrity Assessment of a Daily Report Card Intervention: A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Methods and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although intuitively appealing, teacher self-report of treatment integrity is not currently recommended as a method for collecting treatment integrity data. Education researchers have not, however, evaluated features of a treatment integrity self-reporting system that may facilitate accurate self-report. In this preliminary investigation, four…

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Organotins in Textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Veen MP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; LBM

    2000-01-01

    In January 1998 RIVM was asked to carry out a preliminary risk assessment on organic tin compounds (organotins) in textiles. Measurements carried out by the Dutch Health Protection Inspectorate had shown these potentially toxic compounds to be present in several consumer products, including items of

  19. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  20. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the coasts of Italy: preliminary results in the frame of the RITMARE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Bressan, Lidia

    2013-04-01

    The five-year project called RITMARE ("La Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE") is a very ambitious national research and innovation program focussed on all aspects relevant to marine and coastal research, technology and management, with emphasis on networking and international cooperation. The program objectives fit into the overall European Commission vision documents and strategic programs and cover five major themes, one of which deals with technologies for the sustainable management of the coastal areas. The theme is further articulated in work-packages and specific actions, including the systematic and quantitative tsunami hazard assessment for the whole Italian coastlines. The University of Bologna takes part in the project RITMARE, being a member of the University Consortium Conisma, that is a direct partner in the project. We present here some preliminary results obtained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna (TRT-UNIBO) by applying a modified version of a hybrid statistical-deterministic approach to the southern Tyrrhenian, Ionian and Adriatic coasts. A widely adopted approach formulates the problem of the tsunami hazard assessment in terms of the probability of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes, which is appropriate in basins where the number of known historical tsunamis is too scarce to be used in reliable statistical analyses, and where the largest part of tsunamis have tectonic origin. The TRT-UNIBO approach starts by building a single homogeneous earthquake catalogue covering the whole national territory, as well as the adjacent areas that are believed to have the potential to produce tsunamis with relevant far-field effects along the Italian coasts. A proper statistical analysis of the catalogue allows retrieving the earthquake occurrence rate at a regional scale as well as in a set of cells in which the studied geographical domain is divided into. The final result of the statistical analysis is the computation for each cell of the

  1. 基于开发区规划环评的土地资源承载力评价%Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅世锋; 张平; 蒋金龙

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93. 1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134. 0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.%土地资源承载力评价是规划环境影响评价的重点,是决定规划是否可以实施的重要依据.基于地理信息系统技术的空间分析功能,选取高程、坡度、土地利用现状、距居民点距离、距主要交通道路距离和距环境敏感区距离作为敏感因子,综合评价了漳州招商局经济技术开发区生态敏感性程度及其

  2. Carrying Capacity:An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shaofeng

    2004-01-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is derived from ecology, with widespread contentions of its theoretical connotations and applications in the international academic community, especially the impact of human activities on the environment.Disputes on carrying capacity have been occurring not only among biologists and ecologists, but also among mainstream economists. Based on their efforts,the author makes an attempt to describe its origin,connotations, problems, measurement, and at the same time note the latest international progress in this field.

  3. Fusion of intravenous contrast-enhanced C-arm CT and pretreatment imaging for ablation margin assessment of liver tumors: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Iwazawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the feasibility of assessing ablation margins after radiofrequency ablation (RFA of liver tumors from fusion images of post-treatment C-arm computed tomography (CT images fused to pretreatment images. Five patients with liver tumors underwent RFA. Intravenous contrast-enhanced C-arm CT images were obtained for all patients immediately after RFA, and multi-detector CT (MDCT images were obtained 3-7 days later. The C-arm CT and MDCT images were fused to pretreatment images using a multimodality image fusion software. The minimum ablation margins were assessed in the C-arm CT and MDCT fusion images. Ablation margins after RFA of liver tumors can be measured using intravenous contrast-enhanced C-arm CT images fused with pretreatment images. This technique has the potential for use in the intra-procedural assessment of liver tumor ablation.

  4. A preliminary assessment of the Nactus pelagicus species group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in New Guinea and a new species from the Admiralty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    The Slender-toed Geckos (Nactus) currently have four recognized species in New Guinea, and these species divide into two sister clades: a pelagicus clade and a vankampeni clade (Heinicke et al. 2010). The latter contains three dwarf species. The former consists of five bisexual populations, of which numerous New Guinea populations are uncharacterized nomenclaturally and lumped under the epithet ‘pelagicus.’ This report and description of a new species of the pelagicus group from Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands encourages us to offer a preliminary assessment of morphology and diversity in New Guinea ‘pelagicus’ populations.

  5. Second generation antihistamines: assessment of the efficacy of treatment and tolerance of some preparations of this group (preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata A. Czarny-Działak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Second generation antihistamines are key medicines in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Aim of the research: To compare the effectiveness of selected antihistamines and frequency of side effects in the course of their therapy in the patient opinion. Material and methods : The study was conducted on a group of 40 patients taking rupatadine, bilastine, levocetirizine and fexofenadine. The method of diagnostic survey was used, having the character of a preliminary examination in view of the small number of people involved in the study. Results: Among the 40 patients, side effects of the medicines only appeared in 3 respondents, which is 1.2%. Conclusions : The new generation antihistamines in light of our studies appear to be safe and associated with few side effects. Due to the small number of surveyed people we treat these tests as preliminary to further analysis of the effectiveness of selected antihistamines.

  6. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  7. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  8. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  9. Naturalistic Elements in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳晖

    2007-01-01

    @@ Theodore Dreiser is considered to be a controversial writer.His first novel.Sister Carrie makes a new way of presenting re-ality.This paper discusses the naturalistic elements from the de-tailed description of the environment in that society.

  10. Preliminary assessment report for Bee Caves Armory (former Nike BG-80 Fire Control Facility), Installation 48055, Austin, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard (ARNG) property in Austin, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing, preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining, site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Bee Caves Armory property, the requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program. Of concern is the potential for hazardous waste to be present on the property as a result of the former Nike Missile Base operations or in the form of original construction materials. Environmentally sensitive operations associated with the property from that period include (1) underground fuel storage, (2) hazardous materials storage/use, (3) disposal of hazardous waste and (4) release of hazardous waste water.

  11. Self and Peer Assessment in Professional Education: A Preliminary Study in Law. TERC Research and Development Paper No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boud, D. J.; Tyree, A. L.

    A study of the role of self, peer, and instructor assessment in the self-concept of undergraduate law students focuses specifically on the assessment of students' class participation. The procedure described can be used for the assessment of class participation in any subject. The criteria for assessment generated by students are given, a…

  12. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  13. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  14. Properties of Carry Value Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry Value Transformation (CVT is a model of discrete deterministic dynamical system. In the present study, it has been proved that (1 the sum of any two nonnegative integers is the same as the sum of their CVT and XOR values. (2 the number of iterations leading to either CVT=0 or XOR=0 does not exceed the maximum of the lengths of the two addenda expressed as binary strings. A similar process of addition of modified Carry Value Transformation (MCVT and XOR requires a maximum of two iterations for MCVT to be zero. (3 an equivalence relation is shown to exist on Z×Z which divides the CV table into disjoint equivalence classes.

  15. Using video games for volcanic hazard education and communication: an assessment of the method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.

  16. Accuracy of Intravascular Ultrasound Evaluation for the Assessment of Native Valve Measures in Patients Undergoing TAVI: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cillis, Emanuela; Dachille, Annamaria; Giardinelli, Francesco; Acquaviva, Tommaso; Bortone, Alessandro Santo

    2016-10-26

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique represents a real revolution in the field of interventional cardiology and medicine, in particular for the treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis in elderly patients or in patients when the periprocedural risk for the traditional surgical option is considered too high, as an alternative to the traditional aortic valve replacement. Although experience on the valves of the last generation is still limited in terms of time, the data currently available are definitely moving in the direction of a minimum hospital mortality (1%) as well as a drastic reduction in the incidence of complications when compared to the devices of the previous generation. Finally, the evolution of specified materials of the newest generation have greatly enhanced safety and efficacy of TAVI procedures in the last years. In order to ensure the selection of the most appropriate valve and the success of the procedure, the role of cardiac imaging (computed tomography scan evaluation and angiography) is crucial. These examinations require the use of contrast medium in patients suffering from renal dysfunction at the baseline. The need for fluoroscopy and angiography using contrast agents to aid positioning of the valve may lead to contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) as one form or one etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the accuracy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-a technique which does not need contrast) for the assessment of native valve measures in patients undergoing TAVI by comparing values obtained with IVUS to those ones previously obtained in the same patients with computed tomography (CT) scans. We enrolled 25 consecutive patients (10 males, average age 81.3±5,1 years) who underwent TAVI with femoral access in our Cardiac Surgery Cath-Lab (University of Bari) from January to October 2015 (Logistic EuroSCORE 21.6±15.4%; STS

  17. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  18. A preliminary score for the assessment of disease activity in hereditary recurrent fevers: results from the AIDAI (Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index) Consensus Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piram, Maryam; Frenkel, Joost; Gattorno, Marco; Ozen, Seza; Lachmann, Helen J; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Hentgen, Véronique; Neven, Bénédicte; Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Simon, Anna; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Hoffman, Hal; Stojanov, Silvia; Duquesne, Agnès; Pillet, Pascal; Martini, Alberto; Pouchot, Jacques; Koné-Paut, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Background The systemic autoinflammatory disorders (SAID) share many clinical manifestations, albeit with variable patterns, intensity and frequency. A common definition of disease activity would be rational and useful in the management of these lifelong diseases. Moreover, standardised disease activity scores are required for the assessment of new therapies in constant development. The aim of this study was to develop preliminary activity scores for familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, tumour necrosis factor receptor-1-associated periodic syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Methods The study was conducted using two well-recognised consensus formation methods: the Delphi technique and the nominal group technique. The results from a two-step survey and data from parent/patient interviews were used as preliminary data to develop the agenda for a consensus conference to build a provisional scoring system. Results 24 of 65 experts in SAID from 20 countries answered the web questionnaire and 16 attended the consensus conference. There was consensus agreement to develop separate activity scores for each disease but with a common format based on patient diaries. Fever and disease-specific clinical variables were scored according to their severity. A final score was generated by summing the score of all the variables divided by the number of days over which the diary was completed. Scores varied from 0 to 16 (0–13 in CAPS). These scores were developed for the purpose of clinical studies but could be used in clinical practice. Conclusion Using widely recognised consensus formation techniques, preliminary scores were obtained to measure disease activity in four main SAID. Further prospective validation study of this instrument will follow. PMID:21081528

  19. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  20. Carrying capacity of coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    The sustainable yield of a commercially exploited fishery is assessed by the biological and environmental factors (including fishing effort). These parameters with a reef are vastly diverse-size, location, species diversity, productivity type...

  1. The use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and structure-activity modeling for screening and preliminary risk assessment of organic contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira Bastos, Patricia; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    for further transport and fate modeling, complementary measurements, and more advanced risk assessments. Conclusions: The advantage of using of GC x GC-TofMS for preliminary screenings of contaminated areas was evaluated at a polluted area in northern Sweden. The area was found to carry organic pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic compounds, and many chlorinated pesticides. Preliminary risk assessments indicate which compounds to use for subsequent remediation experiments based on their availability on the site or toxicity. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary parametric performance assessment of potential final waste forms for alpha low-level waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Sussman, M.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; DeBiase, T.A.; Goodrich, M.T.; DeWitt, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents a preliminary parametric performance assessment (PA) of potential waste disposal systems for alpha-contaminated, mixed, low-level waste (ALLW) currently stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of INEL. The ALLW, which contains from 10 to 100 nCi/g of transuranic (TRU) radionuclides, is awaiting treatment and disposal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of several parameters on the radiological-confinement performance of potential disposal systems for the ALLW. The principal emphasis was on the performance of final waste forms (FWFs). Three categories of FWF (cement, glass, and ceramic) were addressed by evaluating the performance of two limiting FWFs for each category. Performance at five conceptual disposal sites was evaluated to illustrate the effects of site characteristics on the performance of the total disposal system. Other parameters investigated for effects on receptor dose included inventory assumptions, TRU radionuclide concentration, FWF fracture, disposal depth, water infiltration rates, subsurface-transport modeling assumptions, receptor well location, intrusion scenario assumptions, and the absence of waste immobilization. These and other factors were varied singly and in some combinations. The results indicate that compliance of the treated and disposed ALLW with the performance objectives depends on the assumptions made, as well as on the FWF and the disposal site. Some combinations result in compliance, while others do not. The implications of these results for decision making relative to treatment and disposal of the INEL ALLW are discussed. The report compares the degree of conservatism in this preliminary parametric PA against that in four other PAs and one risk assessment. All of the assessments addressed the same disposal site, but different wastes. The report also presents a qualitative evaluation of the uncertainties in the PA and makes recommendations for further study.

  3. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  4. Euler Technology Assessment for Preliminary Aircraft Design-Unstructured/Structured Grid NASTD Application for Aerodynamic Analysis of an Advanced Fighter/Tailless Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Todd R.

    1998-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Langley sponsored project aimed at determining the viability of using Euler technology for preliminary design use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the Boeing, St. Louis unstructured grid flow field analysis system, consisting of the MACGS grid generation and NASTD flow solver codes. Euler solutions about the Aero Configuration/Weapons Fighter Technology (ACWFT) 1204 aircraft configuration were generated. Several variations of the geometry were investigated including a standard wing, cambered wing, deflected elevon, and deflected body flap. A wide range of flow conditions, most of which were in the non-linear regimes of the flight envelope, including variations in speed (subsonic, transonic, supersonic), angles of attack, and sideslip were investigated. Several flowfield non-linearities were present in these solutions including shock waves, vortical flows and the resulting interactions. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparing solutions with test data and Navier-Stokes solutions. The ability to accurately predict lateral-directional characteristics and control effectiveness was investigated by computing solutions with sideslip, and with deflected control surfaces. Problem set up times and computational resource requirements were documented and used to evaluate the efficiency of this approach for use in the fast paced preliminary design environment.

  5. 基于TZS法分析天然气管道运输的个人风险%Assessment of individual risk for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas based on TZS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆妮; 邓顺熙; 江鸿宾; 邱兆文

    2012-01-01

    采用TZS法,对天然气管道运输潜在的个人风险进行定量评估,分析过程中引入致死长度来表征天然气管道运输对位于某一特定点的人造成的危险程度,评估结果用风险廓线来表达.以靖边-西安天然气输送工程为实例进行风险计算,结果表明:靖西线的安边到赵家口段,距天然气管道60m处的个人风险值在1.37×10-5-3.38×10-51/a之间,处于风险合理可接受区域.其中,由外部干扰导致的个人风险值在7.10×10-6-1.80×10-5 1/a之间,约占总个人风险值的1/2,说明外部干扰是引发该段天然气管道运输风险的主要原因.研究结果为靖西线的安全管理及现有管线的调整提供科学依据.%A quantitative assessment of potential individual risk for transmission pipeline carrying natural gas was conducted by TZS method. Fatal length was introduced to describe the individual risk at a specified location along a pipeline. The individual risk was usually expressed with a risk contour plot. The individual risk for Jingbian-Xian natural gas pipeline was analyzed. The calculation result showed; The individual risk is 1. 37 × 10-5 -3. 38 × 10-5 I/a for the people who located 60 meters away from the Anbian-Zhao Jiakou natural gas pipeline, which is acceptable for most people reasonably. Also, the risk caused by external interference is 7. 10 × 10-6 - 1. 80 × 10-51/a, accounting for half of the total risk. It means that external interference is the dominate factor of the risk for natural gas pipeline transmission. The result can be useful for safety management of Jing-Xi natural gas transmission pipeline and the modification of a buried pipeline.

  6. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model dev...... of the building portfolio remains unchanged. Based on these results, the assumptions and inputs to the assessment are critically reviewed. Thereby, the needs of further research efforts toward more credible and comprehensive assessment are addressed.......This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...

  7. Evaluation of the multiaxial system of ICD-10 (preliminary praft): correlations between multiaxial assessment and clinical judgements of aetiology, treatment indication and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R; Siebel, U; Freyberger, H J; Schönell, H; Dilling, H

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five raters in 7 German centres took part in a multicentric field trial of the multiaxial system of ICD-10, delivering a total of 488 multiaxial assessments of 12 written case summaries. In addition to the multi-axial ratings (including main and subsidiary psychiatry diagnoses, level of social dysfunctioning and psychosocial stressors), assessments were made by the raters of the aetiology, treatment indications and prognosis of the main psychiatric disorder. There were significant correlations between these judgements and the measures of the multiaxial ratings: 62% of the cases diagnosed as endogenous were assessed as having a high level of social dysfunctioning (the proportion for all cases being 50.4%) and 63.4% as having a low number of stressors (vs. 52.8% in all cases). In contrast, cases diagnosed as reactive were assessed as having a lower level of social dysfunctioning and more social stressors. Cases whose prognosis was poor showed a higher rate of comorbidity and a high level of social dysfunctioning. The results demonstrate that the multiaxial approach reflects factors important to the process of clinical treatment and decision making and delivers preliminary evidence of this system's treatment and prognostic validity.

  8. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS) is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment off...

  9. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  10. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2 - 3 Ma; 4 - 5 Ma; 7 - 11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9-12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Bish, D.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2--3 Ma; 4--5 Ma; 7--11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9--12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. Internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars.

  12. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Agreement among undergraduate and graduate veterinary students and veterinary anesthesiologists on pain assessment in cats and dogs: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doodnaught, Graeme M; Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Beauchamp, Guy; Grasso, Stefania C; Steagall, Paulo V

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated agreement among undergraduate and graduate veterinary students and veterinary anesthesiologists on video pain assessment at the University of Montreal. Pain assessment in dogs and cats appeared to be affected by gender, previous experience, and degree of training despite a small population of observers.

  14. Preliminary seismic hazard assessment, shallow seismic refraction and resistivity sounding studies for future urban planning at the Gebel Umm Baraqa area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2008-12-01

    Gebel Umm Baraqa Fan, west Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, is one of the most important tourism areas in Egypt. However, it is located on the active Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba Levant transform fault system. Geophysical studies, including fresh water aquifer delineation, shallow seismic refraction, soil characterization and preliminary seismic hazard assessment, were conducted to help in future city planning. A total of 11 vertical electrical soundings (1000-3000 m maximum AB/2) and three bore-holes were drilled in the site for the analysis of ground water, total dissolved solids (TDS) and fresh water aquifer properties. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the resistivity data delineated the fresh water aquifer and determined its hydro-geologic parameters. Eleven shallow seismic refraction profiles (125 m in length) have been collected and interpreted using the generalized reciprocal method, and the resulting depth-velocity models were verified using an advanced finite difference (FD) technique. Shallow seismic refraction effectively delineates two subsurface layers (VP ~ 450 m s-1 and VP ~ 1000 m s-1). A preliminary seismic hazard assessment in Umm Baraqa has produced an estimate of the probabilistic peak ground acceleration hazard in the study area. A recent and historical earthquake catalog for the time period 2200 BC to 2006 has been compiled for the area. New accurate seismic source zoning is considered because such details affect the degree of hazard in the city. The estimated amount of PGA reveals values ranging from 250 to 260 cm s-2 in the bedrock of the Umm Baraqa area during a 100 year interval (a suitable time window for buildings). Recommendations as to suitable types of buildings, considering the amount of shaking and the aquifer properties given in this study, are expected to be helpful for the Umm Baraqa area.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Habitat Composites' Durability when Exposed to a Long-Term Radiation Environment and Micrometeoroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Graves, Russell; Golden, John; Atwell, William; O'Rouke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Alred, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals include extending human presence beyond low earth orbit (LEO). As a result, habitation for crew is a critical requirement for meeting this goal. However, habitats are very large structures that contain a multitude of subsystems to sustain human life over long-durations in space, and one of the key challenges has been keeping weight to a minimum in order to reduce costs. Thus, light-weight and multifunctional structural materials are of great interest for habitation. NASA has started studying polymeric composite materials as potential lightweight and multifunctional structural materials for use in long-duration spaceflight. However, little is known about the survivability of these materials when exposed to the space environment outside of LEO for long durations. Thus, a study has been undertaken to investigate the durability of composite materials when exposed to long-duration radiation. Furthermore, as an addition to the primary study, a secondary preliminary investigation has been started on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) susceptibility of these materials after radiation exposure. The combined effects of radiation and MMOD impacts are the focus of this paper.

  16. Skin surface microscopy of port-wine stains: preliminary data on classification and assessment of laser therapy results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteleur, Guy; Huan, P.; Mordon, Serge R.; Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1994-12-01

    In order to characterize port-wine stains (PWS) before and after laser-therapy, a study using epiluminescence microscopy is achieved. The technique consists in placing a thin layer of mineral oil on the skin surface and inspecting the PWS with a Delta 10 dermatoscope (HEINE). A contact microphotography is then performed in a similar manner by means of a Dermaphot optical module (HEINE). One hundred and sixteen patients have been explored prior to laser treatment. Twenty eight have been explored at the same place three months after the first treatment and four three months after two treatments. The preliminary results are compared with Jones, Shakespeare, and Carruth's studies on transcutaneous microscopy. It is possible to classify PWS according to their epiluminescence microscopic aspect. The classification proposed by the English authors is not ideal and some adaptations are desirable, regarding particularly the background condition. Some correlation can be established between the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of PWS. It is far too early to correlate epiluminescence aspect before treatment and long term results of laser-therapy.

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuredin I. Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO. However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association was present with short-term exposure to NO in the environment. RSV-related admission data between November 2011 and February 2012 were obtained from Sheffield Children’s Hospital. The dates of admission were linked to contemporaneous ambient NO derived from sentinel air monitors. The case-crossover design was used to study the relationship between daily RSV admissions and NO, controlling for temperature and relative humidity. We found little evidence of association between daily RSV admission rates and exposure to ambient NO at different lags or average exposure across several lags. The findings should, however, be viewed with caution due to the low number of events observed during the time frame. It is possible that the apparent lack of association may be accounted for by the timing of the seasonal RSV epidemic in relation to peaks in NO concentrations. A larger study incorporating a wider range of RSV and NO peaks would determine whether said peaks enhanced the number of RSV hospitalizations in children.

  18. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  19. A preliminary validity study of the cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery for the assessment of executive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo; Shin, Min-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings.

  20. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a

  1. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2016-05-31

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17 years and above, 15 to normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.

  2. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  3. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, b

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Techniques to High-Energy Laser Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    that scintillation gain exceeds a given level (g) ............... 19 Figure 8. Typical dose - response curve for laser-induced ocular damage...23 Figure 9. Probit transformation of the dose - response curve for laser-induced ocular dam age...Protection Criteria An important element in the probabilistic risk assessment is the biological damage model (or dose response curve ). This describes

  5. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.; Blok, K.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply aquick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early- stage sustainability assessment method that compares abioetha- nol-base d conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method

  6. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: Preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337615993; Patel, A.D.; Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines,

  7. Assessing Gains in Language Proficiency, Cross-Cultural Competence, and Regional Awareness during Study Abroad: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Siska, Peter; Wolfel, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    As a critical part of the internationalization movement in college curricula, study abroad initiatives are becoming more and more popular and the need to assess their outcomes more and more evident. While numerous studies have investigated the language gain associated with study abroad, researchers are also beginning to look at potential gains in…

  8. Intraoperative assessment of STA-MCA bypass patency using near-infrared indocyanine green video-angiography: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Sudheer; Babu, Arun; Pandey, Paritosh; Devi, Indira B

    2012-01-01

    Bypass patency is critical for patients undergoing superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Near-infrared indocyanine green video-angiography (ICGA) is an excellent method to assess vessels during cerebrovascular surgery. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effectiveness of ICGA in patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis for moyamoya disease. This study was a retrospective review of case records and operation records of patients who underwent STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease at our institute. Concordance of ICGA with intraoperative micro-Doppler and postoperative angiography, whenever available, was assessed. In all, 22 STA-MCA anastomoses were performed in 13 patients. ICGA was used to assess patency in 14 surgeries (10 patients). No patient required revision of anastomosis following ICGA. Postoperative angiography was done in five anastomoses (three patients) at three months follow-up and correlated well with ICGA findings in all cases. ICGA is an effective technique to assess bypass patency during cerebrovascular surgery. Routine use of ICGA in cerebral bypass surgery improves graft patency and minimizes complications due to graft occlusion.

  9. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for RDX to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in c...

  11. How Are Spoken Skills Assessed in Proficiency Tests of General English as a Foreign Language? A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…

  12. Using Organization Development Concept to Conduct Administrative Assessment of Health Promoting Schools in Taiwan--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Jen; Yeh, Gwo-Liang; Tseng, Chie-Chien; Chen, Wei William; Hwu, Yin-Jinn; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    The Health Promoting School (HPS) programs in Taiwan were initiated and implemented with funding from Department of Health and Ministry of Education during the initial phase. The purpose of this article was to describe the application of organization development (OD) concept in the administrative assessment of HPS programs and to present results…

  13. Intraoperative assessment of STA-MCA bypass patency using near-infrared indocyanine green video-angiography: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Ambekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bypass patency is critical for patients undergoing superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA anastomosis. Near-infrared indocyanine green video-angiography (ICGA is an excellent method to assess vessels during cerebrovascular surgery. Objective: The aim of the present study is to analyze the effectiveness of ICGA in patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis for moyamoya disease. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of case records and operation records of patients who underwent STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease at our institute. Concordance of ICGA with intraoperative micro-Doppler and postoperative angiography, whenever available, was assessed. Results: In all, 22 STA-MCA anastomoses were performed in 13 patients. ICGA was used to assess patency in 14 surgeries (10 patients. No patient required revision of anastomosis following ICGA. Postoperative angiography was done in five anastomoses (three patients at three months follow-up and correlated well with ICGA findings in all cases. Conclusion: ICGA is an effective technique to assess bypass patency during cerebrovascular surgery. Routine use of ICGA in cerebral bypass surgery improves graft patency and minimizes complications due to graft occlusion.

  14. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast…

  15. Preliminary assessment of a mixture of capric and lauric acids for low-temperature thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimaano, M.N.R. [University of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines). Research Center for the Natural Sciences; Escoto, A.D. [University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    A mixture of capric and lauric acids was evaluated as a possible phase-change media suitable for Philippine low-temperature thermal-energy storage systems. The properties of different combinations of acids were verified against existing literature data with the use of a differential scanning calorimeter. Classical evaluation techniques were employed to determine the required thermodynamic, kinetic, and other physical properties. The accuracy of the set-up was determined and phase transitions were observed by performing a series of thermal cycles. To authenticate the long-term stability and reproducibility of the combination, 120 thermal cycles were carried out using a fabricated equilibrium cell. The observed lowest temperature averaged 11.63{sup o}C. The material remained physically stable. (author)

  16. New insights into systemic sclerosis related microcirculatory dysfunction by assessment of sublingual micr\\ocirculation and vascular glycocalyx layer. Results from a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, S; Armengol, G; Le Besnerais, M; Lévesque, H; Benhamou, Y

    2015-05-01

    Initial morphological and functional markers of systemic sclerosis (SSc) are evidenced in microvascular structural damage. However, nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) explores only morphological abnormalities. Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging of sublingual microcirculation enables assessment of both morphological and functional capillary impairment and allows measurement of the glycocalyx layer, which is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction. To describe and validate sublingual abnormalities assessed by SDF device in comparison with NVC findings and to measure the thickness of the glycocalyx layer. From February to May 2014, 26 subjects (16 SSc patients and 10 healthy controls) underwent standardised NVC and SDF imaging of sublingual microcirculation. Glycocalyx thickness was also measured. Capillary density and percentage of perfused vessels were significantly reduced in patients with SSc (n = 13) compared to controls. Correlation between nailfold capillary density assessed by NVC and sublingual capillary density assessed by SDF was observed (r(2) = 0.59; P = 0.023). According to the NVC pattern, patients with "active" disease experienced greater reduction in capillary density than patients with "late" disease as suggested by the de Backer score (9.17 ± 0.81 vs 10.86 ± 1.19; P = 0.03). Additionally, the decrease in glycocalyx thickness was measured in SSc patients (n = 13) compared to controls (n = 10) (0.41 ± 0.03 versus 0.76 ± 0.29 P = 0.003). Our results suggest for the first time in SSc, that sublingual microcirculation and glycocalyx are impaired and that SDF imaging findings correlate with those of NVC. Nevertheless, further studies are required for the validation of our preliminary results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin.

  18. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Chuangneng [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Nie, Yaguang [Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Emslie, Steven D. [Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation. - Highlights: • Residual As holds a dominant position in ornithogenic sediments. • Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions. • Exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in ornithogenic sediments. • TOC is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd in studied sediments.

  19. Preliminary Development of an Informational Media Use Measure for Patients with Implanted Defibrillators: Toward a Model of Social-Ecological Assessment of Patient Education and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepke, Christopher E; Matlock, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Social work interventions in health care, particularly those that involve working with people being treated for chronic and life-threatening conditions, frequently involve efforts to educate patients about their disease, treatment options, safety planning, medical adherence, and other associated issues. Despite an intuitive notion that patients access information about all of these issues through a variety of media-both inside and outside the clinical encounter, created by professionals and by others-there currently exists no validated means of assessing patients' use of these forms of information. To address this gap, authors first created candidate item measures with input from both physicians and a small group of diverse patients who currently have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), a sophisticated cardiac device for which a trajectory model of social work intervention was recently outlined. Authors then surveyed a group of 205 individuals who have these devices, assessing their use of various media to learn about ICDs. They then conducted factor and item analysis to refine and remove poorly performing items while delineating forms of media use by type. The resultant preliminary measure of informational media use can be further refined and adapted for use with any clinical population. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Lila, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals' and victims' responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents' attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents' acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence.

  1. EPA Releases the First of Four Preliminary Risk Assessments for Insecticides Potentially Harmful to Bees/First-of-its-kind assessment delivers on President Obamas National Pollinator Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivering on the President's National Pollinator Strategy means EPA is committed not only to protecting bees and reversing bee loss, but for the first time assessing the health of the colony for the neonicotinoid pesticides, said Jim Jones Assista

  2. A Preliminary Application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Quantitatively Assessing Hepatic Fat and the Efficacy of Anti-obesity Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseung Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases cause insulin resistance and may develop into metabolic diseases such as steatohepatitis or type II diabetes. Standard histopathological examinations are routinely used to measure hepatic fat in order to assess and treat liver diseases, but this method is invasive, complicated, and time-consuming. Here, we present a noninvasive technique, localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, for quantitatively measuring hepatic fat in vivo and in situ. This method allowed us to create a relatively high-resolution time series from the same mouse. Further, it enabled us to examine the efficacy of cryptotanshinone (Ct treatment in male mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; MRS clearly showed that mice treated with Ct experienced a dramatic reduction in hepatic fat content compared with control mice. Thus, the localized MRS technique shows promise as a tool for in vivo assessments of drug efficacy against liver fat diseases and for early-stage disease prevention

  3. A simple tool for preliminary hazard identification and quick assessment in craftwork and small/medium enterprises (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G

    2012-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded aimed at developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" within IEA and in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO). Possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees, health and safety representatives, line supervisors; labor inspectors; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists.According to ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, a computer software ( in Excel®) was create dealing with hazard "mapping" in handicraft The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazard identification and risk estimation. Thus it makes possible to decide for which professional hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which professional consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  4. Proposal of a Video-recording System for the Assessment of Bell's Palsy: Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, Simonetta; Marinozzi, Franco; Atturo, Francesca; Bini, Fabiano; Marchelletta, Silvia; Barbara, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    To propose a new objective video-recording procedure to assess and monitor over time the severity of facial nerve palsy. No objective methods for facial palsy (FP) assessment are universally accepted. The face of subjects presenting with different degrees of facial nerve deficit, as measured by the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system, was videotaped after positioning, at specific points, 10 gray circular markers made of a retroreflective material. Video-recording included the resting position and six ordered facial movements. Editing and data elaboration was performed using a software instructed to assess marker distances. From the differences of the marker distances between the two sides was then extracted a score. The higher the FP degree, the higher the score registered during each movement. The statistical significance differed during the various movements between the different FP degrees, being uniform when closing the eyes gently; whereas when wrinkling the nose, there was no difference between the HB grade III and IV groups and, when smiling, no difference was evidenced between the HB grade IV and V groups.The global range index, which represents the overall degree of FP, was between 6.2 and 7.9 in the normal subjects (HB grade I); between 10.6 and 18.91 in HB grade II; between 22.19 and 33.06 in HB grade III; between 38.61 and 49.75 in HB grade IV; and between 50.97 and 66.88 in HB grade V. The proposed objective methodology could provide numerical data that correspond to the different degrees of FP, as assessed by the subjective HB grading system. These data can in addition be used singularly to score selected areas of the paralyzed face when recovery occurs with a different timing in the different face regions.

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: Gulfport Air National Guard Field Training Site Gulfport - Biloxi Regional Airport, Gulfport, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Mississippi. The study was conducted under the Air National Guard’s iInstallation Restoration Program. 14. -UBJEC- 7 RMWS 115. NUMBER UF PAGES Installation...B-i APPNDIX C - USAF Hazard Assesinnt Rating Metodology . . . . . . . C-i APPENDIX D - Site Hazardous Assessent Rating Forms and Factor Rating...raemval of fuel sludge fran the storage tanks durir periodic tank cleaning activities. In both cases , wates were discarded within the benlmd areas of the

  6. Self-assessed intelligence, personality, and psychometric intelligence: preliminary validation of a model with a selected student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Novikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, self-assessed intelligence (SAI is presented as a multidimensionalconstruct related both to personality and to psychometric intelligence. Onthe basis of data obtained from a Russian student sample (N = 496, the authorsvalidate a structural model in which SAI acts as a mediating variable between latentvariables of measured IQ and the trait of acceptance of uncertainty. Evidencefor signifi cant gender diff erences in SAI in favor of men is also given.

  7. Application of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score to predict outcome in critically ill dogs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripanti, D; Dino, G; Piovano, G; Farca, A

    2012-08-01

    In human medicine the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is one of the most commonly organ dysfunction scoring systems used to assess critically ill patients and to predict the outcome in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). It is composed of scores from six organ systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, coagulation, renal, and neurological) graded according to the degree of the dysfunction. The aim of the current study was to describe the applicability of the SOFA score in assessing the outcome of critically ill dogs. A total of 45 dogs admitted to the ICU was enrolled. Among these, 40 dogs completed the study: 50 % survived and left the veterinary clinic. The SOFA score was computed for each dog every 24 hours for the first 3 days of ICU stay, starting on the day of admission. A statistically significant correlation between SOFA score and death or survival was found. Most of the dogs showing an increase of the SOFA score in the first 3 days of hospitalization died, whereas the dogs with a decrease of the score survived. These results suggest that the SOFA score system could be considered a useful indicator of prognosis in ICUs hospitalized dogs.

  8. EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit (EDAT): A modeling, simulation and visualization support to the preliminary radiological assessment of RIB projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, D.; Vamanu, B.; Acasandrei, V.; Maceika, E.; Plukis, A.

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes an approach taken within the EURISOL-DS project (European Isotope Separation Online Radioactive Ion Beam Facility) to a number of safety and radioprotection issues raised by the advent of radioactive ion beam facilities in the cutting edge area of particle accelerators. The ensuing solution emerged from a collaborative effort of the investigating team-in-charge, affiliated with the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, with expert colleagues at the Physics Institute in Vilnius, and at CERN, within the participation in the EURISOL-DS project, Sub-Task B: Radiation, Activation, Shielding and Doses of the Safety and Radioprotection, Task 5. The work was primarily geared towards the identification of knowledge and data in line with validated, accepted and nationally/internationally recommended methods and models of radiological assessment applied within the nuclear power fuel cycle, deemed to be suitable for assessing health and environmental impact of accelerator operations as well. As a result, a computer software platform code-named “EURISOL Desktop Assistant Toolkit” was developed. The software is, inter alia, capable to assess radiation doses from pure or isotopically mixed open or shielded point sources; emergency response-relevant doses; critical group doses via complex pathways, including the air, the water, and the food chain and derived release limits for the normal, routine operations of nuclear facilities. Dedicated data libraries and GIS (Geographic Information System) facilities assist the input/output operations.

  9. Wastewater canal Vojlovica, industrial complex Pančevo, Serbia – preliminary ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA PLANOJEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effluents collected from the industrial complex of Pančevo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory, are discharged into a wastewater canal entering the Danube River. In this study, which was focused on sediment assessment, a complex triad approach consisting of chemical analysis, sediment toxicity tests and macrozoobenthos community analysis was applied. In toxicity tests on sediment elutriates, the following responses were registered – stimulatory effect in algal bioassay, no effect in acute test with Daphnia magna, and low to moderate toxicity in the conventional Vibrio fischeri test. Moderate to high toxicities were recorded in solid phase tests on Myriophyllum aquaticum and V. fischeri. High content of Hg, certain PAHs and non-characterised sediment contaminants accumulated over years contribute not only to the registered toxicity, but also to the complete absence of macrozoobenthos. The obtained results proved that regularly measured conventional and priority pollutants are hardly ever the only toxic contaminants present in sediments. Toxicity tests, in particular the contact test, might guide towards a better selection of parameters to be regularly or occasionally monitored. In addition, complete sediment toxicity tests proved to be an appropriate method for assessing the bioavailability of the chemically detected contaminants. The analysis of the macrozoobenthos composition and structure as inevitable part of sediment risk assessment procedures integrates the effects of multiple stressors and gives a realistic insight into not only sediment contamination by toxic pollutants, but also the sediment status in general.

  10. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally.

  11. The western Greenland Sea. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS East area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate 11 that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  12. The eastern Baffin Bay. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS West area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  13. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  14. A preliminary study to assess the construct validity of a cultural intelligence measure on a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Cultural intelligence is an essential social competence for effective individual interaction in a cross-cultural context. The cultural intelligence scale (CQS is used extensively for assessing cultural intelligence; nevertheless, its reliability and validity on a South African sample are yet to be ascertained.Research purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess the construct validity of the CQS on a South African sample. The results of the psychometric assessment offer some important insights into the factor structure of the cultural intelligence construct.Motivation for the study: The current study sought to provide some practical validity confirmation of the CQS for the effective management of cultural diversity in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: The CQS was administered on a non-probability sample of 229 young adults in South Africa. Item analysis was performed to ascertain reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test the unidimensionality of CQS subscales. The first-order and second-order factor structures underlying contemporary models of cultural intelligence were tested using confirmatory factor analysis.Main findings: Results indicated that the CQS is a reliable and valid measure of cultural intelligence as evidenced by the high internal consistency coefficients in all the subscales. Good construct validity for both the first-order and second-order models was obtained via confirmatory factor analysis.Practical/managerial implications: The study finds good measurement properties of the CQS in a South African context. The CQS can be confidently used for applications such as selecting, training and developing a more culturally competent workforce.Contribution: The study extends the body of knowledge on the reliability and construct validity of the CQS in the South African milieu. It further indicates that cultural intelligence can be represented by a general cultural

  15. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Infections That Pets Carry KidsHealth > For Parents > Infections That Pets Carry ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . ...

  16. The McGill ingestive skills assessment predicts time to death in an elderly population with neurogenic dysphagia: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Groher, Michael; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Gisel, Erika G

    2005-01-01

    The McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA) is a new assessment tool which quantifies the ingestive process by scoring a meal observation. The reliability and the construct validity of the MISA have been documented. However, establishment of the ability of the MISA to predict health outcomes related to feeding difficulties would support its applicability in research and in clinical settings. Seventy-three participants of a large-scale reliability and validity study were followed for up to 563 days following evaluation with the MISA. The date of the first pulmonary infection and the date and cause of death where applicable were obtained from medical records. Individuals with no incident of pulmonary infection and who were not deceased were "censored" at the date of followup. Survival analyses revealed that the MISA scores are predictive of death using a Cox proportional hazards model, and of time to pulmonary infection using a flexible model. Scores on the Solid Ingestion and Self-feeding scales are predictive of death using the Cox model, and the Texture Management scale is predictive of death using the flexible model. This effect remains statistically significant even when MISA scores are adjusted for the participant's age. These findings support the validity of the MISA for use with elderly individuals with neurogenic ingestive skill loss residing in long-term care facilities.

  17. ULTRASOUND ASSESSMENT OF THE DIAPHRAGM: PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A CANINE MODEL OF X-LINKED MYOTUBULAR MYOPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwal, Aarti; Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Mitchell, Erin; Buj-Bello, Anna; Beggs, Alan H.; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We tested the feasibility of using neuromuscular ultrasound for non-invasive real time assessment of diaphragmatic structure and function in a canine model of X-Linked Myotubular Myopathy (XLMTM). Methods Ultrasound images in 3 dogs (Wild Type WT, n=1; XLMTM untreated, n=1; XLMTM post AAV8-mediated MTM1 gene replacement, n=1) were analyzed for diaphragm thickness, change in thickness with respiration, muscle echogenicity, and diaphragm excursion amplitude during spontaneous breathing. Results Quantitative parameters of diaphragm structure were different among the animals. WT diaphragm was thicker and less echogenic than the XLMTM control, whereas the diaphragm measurements of the MTM1-treated XLMTM dog were comparable to the WT dog. Discussion This pilot demonstrates the feasibility of using ultrasound for quantitative assessment of the diaphragm in a canine model. Ultrasonography may potentially replace invasive measures of diaphragm function in canine models and in humans in the future, for non-invasive respiratory monitoring and evaluation of neuromuscular disease. PMID:24861988

  18. Trace metals and organometals in selected marine species and preliminary risk assessment to human beings in Thane Creek area, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Bhalke, S; Saradhi, I V; Suseela, B; Tripathi, R M; Pandit, G G; Puranik, V D

    2007-10-01

    Trace metals and organometals were estimated in different types of marine organisms (fish, bivalve, crab and prawn) collected from the Trans-Thane Creek area, Mumbai. Thane Creek area is considered as most polluted area due to industrial discharges. Potential risks associated with consumption of marine organisms collected from this particular area to human beings were assessed. Concentrations of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the edible part of marine organisms were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer and differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric technique. Methyl mercury and tributyl tin were estimated using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in combination with solid phase micro extraction (SPME). An assessment of the risk on human beings due to consumption of marine organism was undertaken using toxic reference benchmark, namely the reference dose (RfD). The hazard index (HI), sum of hazard quotients calculated for all the pollutant showed that the risks from consumption of fish and marine organisms as a whole were generally low and are within safe limits.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  20. A preliminary approach to quantifying the overall environmental risks posed by development projects during environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to quantify the likelihood and consequence of non-compliance of new projects based on the occurrence probabilities of a set of expert-defined features. The BBN incorporates expert knowledge and continually improves its predictions based on new data as it is collected. We use simulation to explore the trade-off between the number of data points and the prediction accuracy of the BBN, and find that the BBN could predict risk with 90% accuracy using approximately 1000 data points. Although a further pilot test with real project data is required, our results suggest that a BBN is a promising method to monitor overall risks posed by development within an existing EIA process given a modest investment in data collection.

  1. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.

  2. Preliminary Assessments of the Relation: Precipitations – Water – Sediments with Regard to some Anthropic Accumulations in the River Basin of Bahlui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Minea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the statistical assessment of the correlation between precipitations - water and sediments is the way these parameters are assessed by means of statistical correlations of the type Q=f(Pp, R=f(Q or R=f(Pp. Following the analysis of the three types of correlations the conclusion that water and sediment flows depend much on the quantity of water that falls may be reached. The accumulations however introduce some modifications of the water run-offs depending on the intended use. In order to carry out detailed analyses of some processes related to the evolution of channel bed or reservoirs silting, the equations may be extrapolated to the entire river basin

  3. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  4. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  5. Preliminary assessment of existing experimental data for validation ofreactor physics codes and data for NGNP design and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, W. K.; Jewell, J. K.; Briggs, J. B.; Taiwo, T. A.; Park, W.S.; Khalil, H. S.

    2005-10-25

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a demonstration reactor and hydrogen production facility proposed for construction at the INEEL, is expected to be a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Computer codes used in design and safety analysis for the NGNP must be benchmarked against experimental data. The INEEL and ANL have examined information about several past and present experimental and prototypical facilities based on HTGR concepts to assess the potential of these facilities for use in this benchmarking effort. Both reactors and critical facilities applicable to pebble-bed and prismatic block-type cores have been considered. Four facilities--HTR-PROTEUS, HTR-10, ASTRA, and AVR--appear to have the greatest potential for use in benchmarking codes for pebble-bed reactors. Similarly, for the prismatic block-type reactor design, two experiments have been ranked as having the highest priority--HTTR and VHTRC.

  6. Development of screening assays for nanoparticle toxicity assessment in human blood: preliminary studies with charged Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Thompson, John W; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-09-01

    As nanoparticles have found increased use in both consumer and medical applications, corresponding increases in possible exposure to humans necessitate studies examining the impacts of these nanomaterials in biological systems. This article examines the effects of approximately 30-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles, with positively and negatively charged surface coatings in human blood. Here, we study the exposure effects, with up to 72 h of exposure to 5, 15, 25 and 50 µg/ml nanoparticles on hemolysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and platelet aggregation in subsets of cells from human blood. Assessing viability with hemolysis, results show significant changes in a concentration-dependent fashion. Rates of ROS generation were investigated using the dichlorofluorscein diacetate-based assay as ROS generation is a commonly suspected mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity; herein, ROS was not a significant factor. Optical monitoring of platelet aggregation revealed that none of the examined nanoparticles induced aggregation upon short-term exposure.

  7. Potential of bioethanol as a chemical building block for biorefineries: preliminary sustainability assessment of 12 bioethanol-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Patel, Akshay D; Roes, Alexander; Blok, Kornelis; Faaij, André P C; Patel, Martin K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present and apply a quick screening method and to identify the most promising bioethanol derivatives using an early-stage sustainability assessment method that compares a bioethanol-based conversion route to its respective petrochemical counterpart. The method combines, by means of a multi-criteria approach, quantitative and qualitative proxy indicators describing economic, environmental, health and safety and operational aspects. Of twelve derivatives considered, five were categorized as favorable (diethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, ethyl acetate, propylene and ethylene), two as promising (acetaldehyde and ethylene oxide) and five as unfavorable derivatives (acetic acid, n-butanol, isobutylene, hydrogen and acetone) for an integrated biorefinery concept.

  8. Species distribution modeling techniques as a tool in preliminary assessment of special nature reserve ,,Goč-Gvozdac’’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubrić, T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation actions such as defining new nature reserve require accurate estimates of the spatial distributions of the target species. Species distribution models provide habitat suitability maps for studied species. In this paper we used Maxent software to estimate the distribution and extent of potential suitable habitat of five amphibian and reptilian species (Mesotriton alpestris, Bombina variegata, Testudo hermanni, Lacerta viridis and Vipera ammodytes in the special nature reserve “Goč-Gvozdac” (Central Serbia in order to assess how much of the potential habitats is included in this reserve. Comparing produced suitable habitat maps of the species with a map of the special nature reserve “Goč – Gvozdac” we concluded that the reserve boundaries do not coincide with the proposed distribution of suitable habitats for M. alpestris, T. hermanni, L. viridis and V. ammodytes, and therefore this reserve does not contribute much to the protection of local populations of these species.

  9. Preliminary assessment of facial soft tissue thickness utilizing three-dimensional computed tomography models of living individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2014-04-01

    Facial approximation is the technique of developing a representation of the face from the skull of an unknown individual. Facial approximation relies heavily on average craniofacial soft tissue depths. For more than a century, researchers have employed a broad array of tissue depth collection methodologies, a practice which has resulted in a lack of standardization in craniofacial soft tissue depth research. To combat such methodological inconsistencies, Stephan and Simpson 2008 [15] examined and synthesized a large number of previously published soft tissue depth studies. Their comprehensive meta-analysis produced a pooled dataset of averaged tissue depths and a simplified methodology, which the researchers suggest be utilized as a minimum standard protocol for future craniofacial soft tissue depth research. The authors of the present paper collected craniofacial soft tissue depths using three-dimensional models generated from computed tomography scans of living males and females of four self-identified ancestry groups from the United States ranging in age from 18 to 62 years. This paper assesses the differences between: (i) the pooled mean tissue depth values from the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Stephan 2012 [21] and (ii) the mean tissue depth values of two demographically similar subsets of the sample utilized in this paper and those published by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16]. Statistical test results indicate that the tissue depths collected from the sample evaluated in this paper are significantly and consistently larger than those published by Stephan 2012 [21]. Although a lack of published variance data by Rhine and Moore 1984 [16] precluded a direct statistical assessment, a substantive difference was also concluded. Further, the dataset presented in this study is representative of modern American adults and is, therefore, appropriate for use in constructing contemporary facial approximations.

  10. Sleep stage assessment using power spectral indices of heart rate variability with a simple algorithm: limitations clarified from preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Keiko; Shibata, Masashi; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2013-07-01

    Clinical researchers do not typically assess sleep with polysomnography (PSG) but rather with observation. However, methods relying on observation have limited reliability and are not suitable for assessing sleep depth and cycles. The purpose of this methodological study was to compare a sleep analysis method based on power spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) data to PSG. PSG and electrocardiography data were collected synchronously from 10 healthy women (ages 20-61 years) over 23 nights in a laboratory setting. HRV was analyzed for each 60-s epoch and calculated at 3 frequency band powers (very low frequency [VLF]-hi: 0.016-0.04 Hz; low frequency [LF]: 0.04-0.15 Hz; and high frequency [HF]: 0.15-0.4 Hz). Using HF/(VLF-hi + LF + HF) value, VLF-hi, and heart rate (HR) as indices, an algorithm to categorize sleep into 3 states (shallow sleep corresponding to Stages 1 & 2, deep sleep corresponding to Stages 3 & 4, and rapid eye movement [REM] sleep) was created. Movement epochs and time of sleep onset and wake-up were determined using VLF-hi and HR. The minute-by-minute agreement rate with the sleep stages as identified by PSG and HRV data ranged from 32 to 72% with an average of 56%. Longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) resulted in lower agreement rates. The mean differences between the 2 methods were 2 min for the time of sleep onset and 6 min for the time of wake-up. These results indicate that distinguishing WASO from shallow sleep segments is difficult using this HRV method. The algorithm's usefulness is thus limited in its current form, and it requires additional modification.

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  14. Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions in a small mountain stream and its potential implication for two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar – stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharge and temperature in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, were characterised over ten hydrological years (1994/1995–2003/2004. Attention was focussed on assessing variations during particular ecologically 'sensitive' time periods when selected life-stages of salmon behaviour may be especially influenced by hydrological and thermal conditions. Empirical discharge data were used to derive hydraulic parameters to predict the Critical Displacement Velocity (CDV of juvenile salmon. This is the velocity above which fish may no longer be able to hold station in the water column and thus can be used as an index of time periods where feeding behaviour might be constrained. In the Girnock Burn, strong inter- and intra-annual variability in hydrological and thermal conditions may have important implications for feeding opportunities for juvenile fish; both during important growth periods in late winter and early spring, and the emergence of fry in the late spring. Time periods when foraging behaviour of juvenile salmon may be constrained by hydraulic conditions were assessed as the percentage time when CDV for 0+ and 1+ fish were exceeded by mean daily stream velocities. Clear seasonal patterns of CDV were apparent, with higher summer values driven by higher stream temperatures and fish length. Inter-annual variability in the time when mean stream velocity exceeded CDV for 0+ fish ranged between 29.3% (1997/1998 and 44.7% (2000/2001. For 1+ fish mean stream velocity exceeded CDV between 14.5% (1997/1998 and 30.7% (2000/2001 of the time. The movement of adult spawners into the Girnock Burn in preparation for autumn spawning (late October to mid-November exhibited a complex

  15. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  16. Infection surveillance and control programs in the Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home care units: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Linda; Hojlo, Christa; Kearns, Martha A; Davis, Chester; Langberg, Robert; Claggett, Maurice; Coughlin, Nancy; Miller, Michael; Gaynes, Robert; Gibert, Cynthia; Montgomery, Ona; Richards, Chesley; Danko, Linda; Roselle, Gary

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the capacity and current practices of the infection surveillance and control programs at the Department of Veterans Affairs' 130 nursing home care units (VA NHCUs) covering a total of 15,006 beds in 2003. All 130 VA NHCUs responded to the survey, although not all NHCUs answered every question. The majority of the VA NHCUs provided specialized services that might pose increased risks of infection. For every 8 to 10 VA NHCU beds, there was 1 regular-pressure or negative-pressure infection control room available. Each VA NHCU had an active ongoing infection surveillance and control program managed by highly educated infection control personnel (ICP), of which 96% had a minimum of a bachelor degree. A median of 12 hours per week of these ICP efforts was devoted to the infection surveillance and control activities. The most frequently used surveillance methods were targeted surveillance for specific infections and for specific organisms. Most VA NHCUs conducted surveillance for antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, VA NHCUs did not use a uniform set of definitions for nosocomial infections for their infection surveillance and control purposes. We conclude that VA NHCUs have a considerable infrastructure and capacity for infection surveillance and control. This information can be used to develop a nationwide VA NHCU nosocomial infection surveillance system.

  17. Radiometric investigations of Kara Sea sediments and preliminary radiological assessment related to dumping of radioactive wastes in the Arctic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Ballestra, S.; Baxter, M.S.; Gastaud, J.; Osvath, I.; Parsi, P.; Povinec, P.P. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.); Scott, E.M. (Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Statistics)

    1994-01-01

    There has been world-wide concern over the possible health and environmental impacts of the dumping of radioactive wastes in shallow waters of the Kara and Barents Seas. During 1992, IAEA-MEL participated in a joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the region and collected a suite of sediment cores for characterization of downcore radioactivity distribution patterns and inventories with the aim of assessing past and present inputs of radionuclides. The [sup 137]Cs, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239,240]Pu, and [sup 241]Am contents of the 0-1 cm sections range from 17 to 32, 0.01 to 0.06, 0.4 to 1.3 and 0.2 to 0.5 Bq kg[sup -1] (dry wt), respectively. The [sup 238]Pu/[sup 239,240]Pu and [sup 241]Am/[sup 239,240]Pu activity ratios are consistent with those reported for global fallout. Detailed information on downcore radionuclide distribution patterns and inventories, as well as an account of sedimentation parameters, are presented. (author).

  18. Preliminary assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments from Honghu Lake,East Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HU; Shihua QI; Chenxi WU; Yanping KE; Jing CHEN; Wei CHEN; Xiangyi GONG

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and sediments collected from Honghu Lake in Hubei Province,China were analyzed,and ecological risks were evaluated according to the sediment quality guidelines.The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were ranked as:As > Zn >Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg.In comparison with results reported in other rivers and the background values,The Honghu Lake was polluted by As,Cr,Pb,Cu and Ni.Most of metals might be mainly from fertilizers,industrial effluent and domestic wastewater around the lake.Heavy metals concentrations were relatively higher in the inlet area than in other areas.Negative correlations were observed between most heavy metals and pH,while a significant positive correlation was present between Zn,Cd and Pb.In the sediment core,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni showed a decreasing trend while Cd present an increasing trend.The decrease of As,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni in the 1990s might due to the flood event in 1998.The analysis of ecological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines suggested that heavy metals in most sediments from the Honghu Lake had moderate toxicity,with Cr being the highest priority pollutant.

  19. Bone density assessment in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis: A preliminary report from patients with MPS II and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ellen B; Johnson, Jo Ann; Madden, Jacqueline; Kim, Tiffany; Harmatz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy has been successful in alleviating morbidity and improving endurance in Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I, II, and VI, however little attention has been paid to the effects on bone mineralization. Brief case reports in MPS type III and IV suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) is diminished, but did not account for patient size. In this report, BMD was evaluated by quantitative computed tomography and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in separate studies involving 10 patients with MPS type VI (7 Female; 7.0 to 21.0 y) and 4 male patients with MPS II (8.1 to 35.5 y). Vitamin D intake met the current RDA (200 IU) for most, though 25-OH vitamin D was insufficient (MPS VI. Spine and whole body BMD Z-scores by DXA were considered normal for chronological age in all MPS II, and after correction for Ht Z-score, in all but one subject with MPS VI. These results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is quite common in MPS. BMD by DXA is within normal range for most, particularly after correction for short stature. A review of bone health assessment is provided as well as a discussion of these results.

  20. Effect of personal music system use on sacculocollic reflex assessed by cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sasidharan, Chithra Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Listening to music through a portable personal music system (PMS) is a growing trend, especially among the youth. The preferred listening level in such kinds of PMS has been reported to cross the safe levels and its impact on the auditory system was demonstrated in several previous investigations. Owing to the commonality in several aspects between the auditory and the vestibular systems, it appears likely that the deleterious effects of PMS use could also be impinging on the vestibular system, which has never been investigated. The present study therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of PMS use on the sacculocollic reflex assessed by the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) technique. Thirty-two regular PMS users and 32 nonregular PMS users underwent cVEMP testing using alternating polarity 500 Hz tone bursts. The results revealed no significant group difference in latencies and interaural asymmetry ratio. However, the cVEMP was significantly reduced in the group of individuals in whom the diffused field equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were above the damage risk criteria (DRC) compared to those with diffused field equivalent SPLs below it (P< 0.01). Therefore, the use of PMS at high levels of volume controls could be deleterious to the vestibular well-being of an individual.