WorldWideScience

Sample records for prejudice superstition witchcraft

  1. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  2. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  3. Superstition, witchcraft and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Gyimah, Stephen O; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Adjei, Jones

    2011-10-01

    Belief in superstition and witchcraft is central to many African conceptions of illness, disease causation and etiology. While a number of anthropological studies have alluded to a theoretical link between such beliefs and HIV prevention in particular, there is limited empirical assessment of the association. Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying random-effects logit models, we investigate whether the belief that AIDS can spread through witchcraft associates with the sexual decision making of never-married men and women. The results show that men who believed AIDS can spread through witchcraft and other supernatural means were less likely to have used condoms at last sexual intercourse, controlling for other socioeconomic and cultural variables. Women with similar beliefs were more likely to have experienced sexual intercourse but less likely to have used condoms at last sex. For women, however, the relationship between such superstitious beliefs and condom use was somewhat attenuated after controlling for ethnicity and region of residence. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that local beliefs regarding AIDS causation must be considered in designing HIV/AIDS programmes and interventions.

  4. Superstitions of George Bartisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2005-01-01

    George Bartisch was a 16th century German ophthalmologist who published the first ophthalmology textbook in the vernacular for laymen and non-university-trained practitioners. His treatments and understanding of diseases rested firmly on Greek tradition, but he also was very involved in the superstitions of the day. This essay looks at the man and his mores. Bartisch believed that much of the suffering of patients had to do with sins they had committed, and that the devil was the active force in the world inflicting this punishment. Often, he believed, witches would carry out the devil's hexes, in the form of either hot or cold witchcraft. Bartisch also felt that astrology played a major role in the outcome of surgery. Because of that he practiced only during certain astrological signs, and in the proper waxing and waning phases of the moon. He also linked many common problems to sins. For example, presbyopia was presented as due to excessive use of alcohol. Glasses were to be avoided because he felt they destroyed vision in themselves. Despite these superstitions and misconceptions, Bartisch was an honorable professional and his books give insight into the making of a good ophthalmologist.

  5. Superstitions among perioperative nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David L; Claypool, Margie L; Kay, David J

    2005-05-01

    A descriptive study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire to determine the prevalence of work-related superstitions among perioperative nurses. Data analysis included the two-sample t test for continuous data and the two-sided Fisher's exact test for binary data. Study results indicate that although only 23% of respondents view themselves as "generally superstitious," specific work-related superstitions are widespread. Belief in specific superstitions was not statistically related to age or number of years as a perioperative nurse. An analysis of the literature on medical workplace superstitions helps to elucidate possible underlying explanations for the phenomenon of nursing superstitions.

  6. Superstition in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, C. Jane; Petrie, Brian M.

    The introduction of this investigation into superstitions of athletes reviews past research on the subject. It is stated, though, that general research on superstitions mentions little directly related to sports; so, by necessity, recourse is made to sports stories and newspaper and magazine articles. The main body of this paper presents results…

  7. Witchcraft, genealogy, Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper is a genealogical reflection on both the historiography of European witchcraft and the dynamics of witchcraft trials. I argue that traditional scholarly assumptions about the 'unsophisticated' nature of early modern European mentalities result in inadequate representations of accused witches and of the social contexts and processes of the trials. Genealogy, by contrast, problematizes fundamental notions such as reason, order, power and progress in ways that not only provide a different range of effective tools for the analysis of belief in witchcraft, but also underline its crucial significance for social theory. In the final section, an analysis of a typical trial is undertaken employing key genealogical insights into confession, torture, truth, governmentality, power, pleasure and pain.

  8. Women, Wit, and Witchcraft: The Burden of Stereotypes. Working Paper No. 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barbara

    This paper examines the negative stereotypes so long foisted on witty women and the move of contemporary witty women writers into a comic vision beyond the imposed connection of female wit to sly cleverness and witchcraft. To illustrate how the woman writer had to cope with a prejudice against and a fear of her wit, the paper considers three…

  9. African witchcraft in theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.W.C. van Wyk

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theological contribution aimed at creating an understanding of the phenomenon of witchcraft in South Africa. Witchcraft still causes major social problems in this country. The article argues that the development of a culture of human rights and the improvement of the judicial process alone will not solve this problem. Witchcraft is a too deeply rooted religious phenomenon. The phenomenon is described in its religious complexity and diversity. Witchcraft is discussed within the framework of the African theodicy.

  10. SUPERSTITION WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.; Jinks, Jimmie E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with aligned magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  11. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  12. Superstitions between Usefulness and Strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilauca Monica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates one of the forms of expression and manifestation belonging to popular religiosity, the superstitions, practices through which people get into disagreement with their self and with the ideology advanced by institutions whose declared mission is to investigate and overcome man’s spiritual condition, the Church. There will be looked into, on the one hand, the major types of superstitions that the Romanians have according to a number of variables (ages, gender, education and, on the other hand, the categories of conflict generated by the superstitious behaviour.

  13. Witchcraft in the Anglo-American Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Mary Beth

    2003-01-01

    Explains that teachers should educate their students about images of witchcraft using sources other than those from popular culture. Reviews literature published on the topic of witchcraft including books on the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Includes a bibliography of resources. (CMK)

  14. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  15. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  16. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  17. Contrary to nature : Inuit conception of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Merkur

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution to the phenomenology of witchcraft will depend for its data on the traditional conceptions, rites, and folklore of witchcraft among the Inuit (Eskimo of Čanada and Greenland. A phenomenological definition of witchcraft may be obtained through recognition of its position within Inuit religion. Like many native North Americans, the Inuit epitomized their religion in the concept of balance. The Polar Inuit understood religion to have the function "to keep a right balance between mankind and the rest of the world". Without exception, the rites of Inuit witchcraft were rites of Inuit religion that were made unnatural, through the alteration of one or more features. Because counterclockwise ritual motions were specific to witchcraft, the expression "contrary to nature" may be understood to epitomize the Inuit's own appreciation of witchcraft. Whether witchcraft depended on deliberate violations of traditional observances, on malicious uses of magic formulae and songs, and/or on ritual motions, witchcraft proceeded "contrary to nature". Thus, witchcraft can be defined as special practices, which together with the beliefs and folklore surrounding them, are believed to be innately disruptive of the balance between mankind and the numina. Because it is contrary to nature, witchcraft is innately anti-social. The disruption of the balance of mankind with the numina is not the private act of the witch against a victim, but a danger for the entire community.

  18. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  19. The Superstitions of Today's College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Iu. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a study of superstitious notions and their role in the lives and activities of college students. The study was based on assumptions. On the whole, superstitions are widely prevalent among college students, but the superstitions that occur the most frequently are connected with final exams. The main motive for…

  20. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  1. Getting shot of elves: healing, witchcraft and fairies in the Scottish witchcraft trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Alaric

    2005-01-01

    This paper re-examines the evidence of the Scottish witchcraft trials for beliefs associated by scholars with "elf-shot." Some supposed evidence for elf-shot is dismissed, but other material illuminates the interplay between illness, healing and fairy-lore in early modern Scotland, and the relationship of these beliefs to witchcraft itself.

  2. Effects and impact of witchcraft on Sotho Reformed Churches and the Biblical view of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the effects and impact of witchcraft on members of the Basotho Reformed Church who ascribe to witchcraft. From the literature, it is clear that some members of the Basotho Reformed Church practise various forms of witchcraft. Some Christians do not directly involve themselves with practices linked to witchcraft but do participate in healing practices. This article highlights a number of such instances and provides a number of guidelines to churchgoers who are adhering to practices of witchcraft. These guidelines should be relevant to them when they are reflecting on their relationship with the Lord with the aim to live in obedience to God�s Word.

  3. The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft, and Western ethnocentrism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    between African witchcraft and the Greek evil eye from a sociology of religion .... psychology to explain human behaviour. .... Near East and Mediterranean regions. ..... preventative measure as well as a reversal of witchcraft (see Manala.

  4. Reversing the gaze: constructing European race discourse as modern witchcraft practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W

    2004-01-01

    In keeping with the challenge of (African American) historian of religions Charles Long to develop a mode of postcolonial encounter that is a process of mutual hermeneusis, I am proposing in this article to think "race" in terms of "indigenous ritual." At the very least it is an effort to relativize the western scientific paradigm and the universalizing humanities discourses that have nestled close to that paradigm. It is not an attempt to repudiate such an episteme but, rather-to borrow a jazz term-to "swing" it, to put it in antiphonal and improvisational circulation. More specifically, this article will trace a thought experiment, probing the historical emergence of white supremacist practice as a kind of modernist embodiment of "witchcraft discourse," which functions-in the institutional grammar it has left on deposit in contemporary social practice and the "intention to consume" (the substance of others) that it "rationalizes"-very much like the "primitive superstitions" it seeks to name and repudiate in positing its own rationalizing superiority. In such an enterprise, witchcraft, I am arguing, can be "good to think with" as a mode of communicative action, signifying with a kind of "boomerang effect" in the intercultural space of rupture between the West and the rest.

  5. The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon.

  6. SUPERSTITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANTS IN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Tapan; Aulakh, Gian Singh

    1983-01-01

    In this article, superstitions prevailing in India. attached to medicinal plants have been compiled. The author opines that there must be some rationale behind each of these superstitious practices which merits painstaking study to understand thm in the proper perspective. PMID:22557377

  7. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    -causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against our common...

  8. Construction and behavioral validation of superstition scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to create an instrument for assessing tendency towards superstition-related beliefs and behavior and validate it in real life situations. Superstition was considered and analyzed as an attitude toward specific objects of the superstition. In the first part of the study, a sample of superstitious beliefs and behaviors was collected, after which the former list was reduced to 44 descriptions, based on the average familiarity. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 266 participants. The factor analysis suggested a presence of one main factor and three highly correlated sub-factors. In the last part of the study, in order to validate the instrument through behavioral variables, the final version of the instrument was administered to a different sample and subjects were put in two situations that challenged their potential superstitious behavior (passing below or going around a ladder in a computer laboratory; forward a chain e-mail for good luck. Group of participants that exhibited at least one superstitious behavior and the group of participants that did not, differed significantly in the average superstition score.

  9. Research into witchcraft in psychoanalysis and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alf

    2011-01-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunting have been a topic for numerous historical and psychoanalytical research projects. But until now, most of these projects have remained rather isolated from one from the other, each in their own context. In this article I shall attempt to set up a dialogue between psychoanalysis and history by way of the example of research into witchcraft. However, I make no claim to covering the different psychoanalytical and historical approaches in full. As a historical 'layman', my interest lies in picking out some of the approaches that seem to me particularly well suited to contribute to reciprocal enhancement.

  10. Witchcraft, intimacy and trust: Africa in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Dante’s Inferno, the lowest circle of Hell is reserved for traitors, those who betrayed their closest companions. In a wide range of literatures and mythologies such intimate aggression is a source of ultimate terror, and in Witchcraft, Intimacy, and Trust, Peter Geschiere masterfully sketches it

  11. Witchcraft, intimacy and trust: Africa in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Dante’s Inferno, the lowest circle of Hell is reserved for traitors, those who betrayed their closest companions. In a wide range of literatures and mythologies such intimate aggression is a source of ultimate terror, and in Witchcraft, Intimacy, and Trust, Peter Geschiere masterfully sketches it

  12. Pride and prejudice in Pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董在媛

    2011-01-01

    Darcy and Elizabeth are the representative characters in Pride and Prejudice who filled with pride and prejudice.Jane Austen who was a British famous novelist,she had created the representative characters(Darcy and Elizabeth);what's more,she had something

  13. Probing the neural basis of superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Despite much evidence questioning its validity, superstitious belief continues to be rooted in the human mind. We used functional MRI to directly compare participants' neural responses to monetary attractiveness with their responses to the value of an auspicious date. We found that the right middle/superior frontal gyrus showed greater deactivation whenever an auspicious-based choice was made and that the contrast between the auspicious-based and economics-based choices was negatively correlated with the participants' rated wedding date-related superstitious belief, suggesting that a specific brain region carries decision signals which contribute to making decisions based on superstition and may be able to account for individual differences in superstitious behavior. The present investigation helps to reveal how the brain handles superstition.

  14. Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damisch, Lysann; Stoberock, Barbara; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Superstitions are typically seen as inconsequential creations of irrational minds. Nevertheless, many people rely on superstitious thoughts and practices in their daily routines in order to gain good luck. To date, little is known about the consequences and potential benefits of such superstitions. The present research closes this gap by demonstrating performance benefits of superstitions and identifying their underlying psychological mechanisms. Specifically, Experiments 1 through 4 show that activating good-luck-related superstitions via a common saying or action (e.g., "break a leg," keeping one's fingers crossed) or a lucky charm improves subsequent performance in golfing, motor dexterity, memory, and anagram games. Furthermore, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that these performance benefits are produced by changes in perceived self-efficacy. Activating a superstition boosts participants' confidence in mastering upcoming tasks, which in turn improves performance. Finally, Experiment 4 shows that increased task persistence constitutes one means by which self-efficacy, enhanced by superstition, improves performance.

  15. Witchcraft accusations and economic tension in precolonial old Calabar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, A J

    1972-01-01

    Relevant anthropological studies have offered insight into the way in which witchcraft and witchcraft accusations may have operated in Old Calabar society (Africa) in pre-colonial times, and it is hoped that this discussion of witchcraft accusations and economic tension in pre-colonial Calabar will be of value to other historians of pre-colonial African societies. M. G. Marwick has suggested that witchcraft accusations reveal where the tensions lie in the societies in which they occur, and he intimates that in Africa witchcraft accusations only occur between persons in close social contact. Analysis of the cases of Efik witchcraft - for which there is evidence in the 18th and 19th centuries - support this claim. Their witchcraft accusations for the most part involved relations by blood or marriage. G.I. Jones has suggested that the underlying tensions which provoked witchcraft accusations in the eastern areas of Nigeria today arise from a contracting economic situation, but this was not true of old Calabar. In fact its economy was expanding under the stimulus of overseas trade. The expansion was responsible for the tension. Successful business men acquired wealth and slaves, and, consequently, status, which contradicted their position in the traditional status system, based on age and place in lineage instead of wealth. At the highest political level these tensions manifested themselves in election disputes; witchcraft accusations were made against candidates in order that they take the poison ordeal and be eliminated from the election. In the neighboring states of the Oil Rivers, where participation in the international economy was as great as old Calabar, witchcraft accusations were rare. For there the traditional descent groups had already broken up, and because of this there was no great need for covert forms of aggression, such as witchcraft.

  16. The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    'The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs' is a note drawing attention to a group of early medieval texts relevant to the history of European witchcraft, and the reasons why they have been overlooked. The main texts are the Life of St Samson, the Old English medical text Wið færstice and the Life of St Swithun.

  17. Pride and Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    A tour de force of wit and sparkling dialogue, Pride and Prejudice shows how the headstrong Elizabeth Bennett and the aristocratic Mr Darcy must have their pride humbled and their prejudices dissolved before they can acknowledge their love for each other.

  18. Pride and Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    A tour de force of wit and sparkling dialogue, Pride and Prejudice shows how the headstrong Elizabeth Bennett and the aristocratic Mr Darcy must have their pride humbled and their prejudices dissolved before they can acknowledge their love for each other.

  19. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  20. Deconstructing the Pyramid of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2014-01-01

    While subdued forms of everyday prejudice may seem harmless, appearances can be deceiving. Such commonplace prejudices form the foundation upon which more extreme acts of prejudice build. And they also leave us vulnerable to costly errors of judgment that can have tragic consequences. That is why addressing prejudice in the classroom is as crucial…

  1. Interest in sports and belief in sports superstitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, Duane G

    2004-06-01

    51 nonathletes, students (45 women) at a medium-sized southern university, were administered a survey containing three scales: an Interest in Sports Scale, a Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, and Tobacyk and Milford's Paranormal Belief Scale (1983). Scores on the Interest in Sports Scale were significantly correlated with scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, which measured adherence specifically to sports superstitions, but not with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale, which measured a wide variety of irrational beliefs. Thus, participants with high interest in sports showed a tendency to subscribe to the type of irrational belief associated specifically with sports. Scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale were positively correlated with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale.

  2. Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in… 113. The Malawian .... not yet been placed in a specific genre, quite a number of Nigerian films also deal with the ..... O. Okome (Eds.), Global Nollywood: The Transnational Dimensions.

  3. Predicting Ideological Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans (N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models’ predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors. PMID:28394693

  4. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, John D; Cox, Charles F; Akimoto, Naotake; Meada, Nobuko; Momoi, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries-holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  5. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Ruby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries—holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  6. WITCHCRAFT IN WEST AFRICAN BELIEF SYSTEM – MEDICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. OKECHUKWU NWAFOR

    Department of Philosophy. Nnamdi ... Witchcraft is defined as the use of magic powers, especially evil ones. It is the ... There was this story told by a certain university undergraduate from Igala in the Benue State ..... Governance in Africa.

  7. Abracadabra-Sorcery and Witchcraft in European History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The history of witchcraft offers an interesting avenue to the study and teaching of important historical and social phenomena. Valuable research contributions by historians is discussed and listed in the bibliography. (JB)

  8. Differentiating Contemporary Racial Prejudice from Old-Fashioned Racial Prejudice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony N.; Akiyama, Mark K.; White, Ismail K.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Anderson, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses the distinction between contemporary and old-fashioned prejudice using survey data from a national sample (n=600) of self-identified whites living in the United States and interviewed by telephone in 2001. First, we examine associations among indicators of contemporary and old-fashioned prejudice. Consistent with the literature, contemporary and old-fashioned prejudice indicators represent two distinct but correlated common factors. Second, we examine whether belief in genetic race differences uniformly predicts both types of prejudice. As might be expected, belief in genetic race differences predicts old-fashioned prejudice but contrary to recent theorizing, it also predicts contemporary prejudice. PMID:20076765

  9. The motivation to express prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study.

  10. The motivation to express prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  11. Outgroup prejudice in western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Brika, J.B.; Lemaine, G.; Meertens, R.W.; Jackson, J.S.; Wagner, U.; Zick, A.; Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.

    1998-01-01

    (from the chapter) Outgroup prejudice has been a major area for social psychological applications. Yet European social psychology has not widely studied prejudice against the continent's new minorities. These groups provide a useful comparison with which to test generalization concerning prejudice

  12. Outgroup prejudice in western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Brika, J.B.; Lemaine, G.; Meertens, R.W.; Jackson, J.S.; Wagner, U.; Zick, A.; Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.

    1998-01-01

    (from the chapter) Outgroup prejudice has been a major area for social psychological applications. Yet European social psychology has not widely studied prejudice against the continent's new minorities. These groups provide a useful comparison with which to test generalization concerning prejudice d

  13. Outgroup prejudice in western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Brika, J.B.; Lemaine, G.; Meertens, R.W.; Jackson, J.S.; Wagner, U.; Zick, A.; Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.

    1998-01-01

    (from the chapter) Outgroup prejudice has been a major area for social psychological applications. Yet European social psychology has not widely studied prejudice against the continent's new minorities. These groups provide a useful comparison with which to test generalization concerning prejudice d

  14. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  15. Does superstition help? A study of the role of superstitions and death beliefs on death anxiety amongst Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that traditional Chinese death beliefs, which mostly consisted of superstitious thoughts, are related to death anxiety. However, other studies have shown that superstitions may help people cope with uncertainty and, therefore, reduce uncertainty-induced anxiety. The role of superstitions, whether related to heightened death anxiety or reduced death anxiety, is unclear. This study attempted to address the knowledge gap by examining the relationships among superstitions and Chinese death beliefs on death anxiety in the Chinese context. One hundred twenty-four undergraduates in Hong Kong completed measures of superstition (R-PBS), death anxiety (MFODS), and Chinese death beliefs scale. Superstition was found to be predictor of death anxiety, as expected. With superstitions highly prevalent in Chinese societies, the study has practical implications in end-of-life care, bereavement support, and death education in the Chinese context.

  16. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  17. Dynamics of liquefaction during the 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Youd, T.L.; Hanks, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressure changes and surface and subsurface accelerations at a site undergoing liquefaction caused by the Superstition Hills, California, earthquake (24 November 1987; M = 6.6) reveal that total pore pressures approached lithostatic conditions, but, unexpectedly, after most of the strong motion ceased. Excess pore pressures were generated once horizontal acceleration exceeded a threshold value.

  18. Religiosity and Superstition: Are They Related or Separate Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee

    1988-01-01

    Correlated responses to three items designed to measure superstition to 10 religiosity items among 355 college students. Found that religiosity items showed few significant relationships to either self-perceived superstitiousness or to use of horoscopes. Results suggest that most superstitious respondents tended to be least religious. (Author/NB)

  19. The distinction between witchcraft and madness in colonial Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Lawrence B

    2002-12-01

    This essay argues two points in regard to early New England: first, that witchcraft is not a significant aspect of the history of mental illness; and second, that seventeenth-century society had a cultural protocol for distinguishing one from the other. The examples discussed in detail are from Connecticut, but they are representative of colonial New England as a whole.

  20. Witchcraft, territories and marginal resistances in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Birman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their everyday references to witchcraft, allegedly emanating from Afro-Brazilian cults, Evangelical pastors denounce heinous crimes and acts of barbarity that provoke horror and terror in their listeners in church and on radio and television. I describe two allegations of witchcraft by Pentecostal groups, which connect marginality, crime and the presence of diabolical evil in two communities. Witchcraft provides an entry point to examine some of the problems faced by those living in 'communities:' the 'demonization' of peripheral territories provoked by the state's identification of their populations with criminality, on one hand, and the Evangelical battle against diabolical evil, on the other. I look to show that in the community of believers and the favela alike the Evangelicals' battle with the devil is a response to the State's interpellations associated with its modalities of identifying peripheral spaces. In the process, I analyze the meaning assumed by witchcraft within the wider Evangelical project of salvation and the social future it aims to build.

  1. "Passions" in the Discourses on Witchcraft in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabout, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    International audience; This paper is about misfortune as elaborated in the narratives of (counter-) witchcraft practitioners and consultants. Their statements can be read from different perspectives, and I choose here to look at them specifically in terms of "passions" and their control.

  2. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional…

  3. Socio-Missiological Significance of Witchcraft Belief and Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    on people's houses on their way back from a meeting. Promotion is ... The psychic power of witchcraft enables a witch to remove the soul of her victim and transform ... It is also believed that one can be a witch and not be conscious of it. Such a.

  4. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional wisdom…

  5. heroes, villains and the state in south africa's witchcraft zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were the laws on witchcraft in the Statute books copied wholesale from. Indian colonial ..... body of an adult and that person was then identified as one Jim. Nephalama, an .... other hand, Nephalama is a known self-confessed witch in his community. ' ..... Is There a Role for Traditional Healers in Health Care in South Africa?

  6. [Criminal superstition, pregnancy and infants at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2012-01-01

    Around 1900, various crimes were still caused by criminal superstition. Criminologists like Hans Gross, Albert Hellwig and August Löwenstimm were engaged in the exploration of this topic aiming at the complete explanation of criminal behaviour linked to superstition. Crimes against pregnant women and infants are particularly good examples to illustrate the problems arising from crimes motivated by superstition. When assessing superstition under scientific and legal aspects, the criminologists applied different approaches, although positivistic rationalization was the most common tendency. In the forensic and legal evaluation of crimes related to superstition the problematical questions were whether the perpetrator was criminally responsible and how the offence was to be legally qualified. In many cases, criminals motivated by superstition were treated with more lenience.

  7. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  8. THE EMBODIMENT OF BRITISH WITCHCRAFT CULTURE IN HARRY POTTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阅

    2015-01-01

    The series novel Harry Potter was created by English woman writer J.K.Rowling. It contains the rich mythical factor, the witchcraft fantasy component and the folk cultural factor. It has inherited England traditional culture, fantastic novel and children literature. This essay mainly discuss the reason of Harry Potter regarded with great favor in the west from the perspective of traditional culture of British and Europe. It started from the witchcraft culture and Christian Culture. These two points are expounded the western culture details by means of the analyzing on culture background. Both of them layed the culture foundations for the success of the series. At last,the depiction of the heroism of nobody is in sharp contrast with the traditional heroism, thereby reflected the commendable, which makes people realised to carish the worth of peaceful life.

  9. Biblical principles as an answer to the African people�s questioning of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Witchcraft is still an enormous and serious issue in African culture. The media, including the entertainment component (e.g. African Magic programmes on satellite television, portray witchcraft as an issue that needs to be addressed. Witchcraft has in a sense been integrated into the system and context of the Nigerian community because most of the programming originates from this country. The same can be said of the South African milieu. It would be remarkable to read a tabloid such as the Daily Sun without at least one reference to witchcraft. Between 1994 and 1996 several hundred people were killed in the Limpopo Province on suspicion of witchcraft, to which the response from the Christian sector was diverse and varied. De Vries (2010:35 argues that Christians believe that upon becoming a member of this faith, witchcraft is powerless; yet there are indeed Christians who consider bewitchment possible, despite a belief in God. This being the case, the question that arises is, �What does the Bible teach in this regard�? The most compelling evidence for the existence of witchcraft is its mention in both the Old Testament (OT and the New Testament (NT. Although all Christians read the same Bible, the interpretation of its teachings on witchcraft differ greatly. This article has attempted to identify, from a historical-grammatical exegetical point of view, a number of biblical principles on witchcraft that could be set as guidelines for addressing witchcraft-related matters and to obtain a clearer picture on Scripture�s teachings regarding witchcraft. (This topic has also been explored from a meta-theoretical perspective in a follow-up article.

  10. Christianity or Superstition? Effects on Locus of Control and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McDonald, Ana; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    Various studies have related superstition to religion, describing the two terms synonymously. However, religion is a highly variable construct which must be measured more discriminately. In this study, superstition was examined in relation to God Concepts, locus of control, and Spiritual Well-Being. Results obtained from 151 Christian…

  11. Palm tree justice in the Bertoua court of appeal : the witchcraft cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisiy, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines thirty witchcraft cases reviewed by the Court of Appeal of Bertoua (East Province, Cameroon) during the period 1981-1984. The basic aim is to highlight the nature and sources of witchcraft accusations, the process of securing a conviction (i.e. proof), and finally, the magnitude

  12. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that…

  13. Social suffering and anxiety: deciphering coughs and colds at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Jane

    2011-12-01

    In treating illness and suffering, the Akan anti-witchcraft shrine is often presented as a model of unchanging, tightly bounded and antiquated ideals. This fails to acknowledge the extensive repertoire of Ghanaian witchcraft discourses and contemporary divinatory practices uncovered at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines. This paper analyses how one of the most popular Akan anti-witchcraft shrine in Europe, in an eastern banlieue of Paris, diagnoses the seemingly common and innocuous coughs and colds suffered by recently arrived, unskilled female Ghanaian migrants as something more socially and economically malignant, witchcraft. Successful treatment combines divinatory techniques, paracetamol medicines and positive thinking in order to empower clients and present them with the possibility of new social and gainful employment prospects.

  14. How to Know whether a Dog is Dangerous: Myth, Superstition and its Influence on the Human-dog Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kovačič

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and dogs is complex and ambivalent. The dog was the first animal that Homo sapiens domesticated. This means that the human-dog relationship has lasted longer than any other human-animal relationships. Despite all this, mythological, symbolic and folkloristic traditions often depict dogs in a negative light and as a dangerous and threatening force from the underworld. Due to the belief that seeing an unknown dog can lead to misfortune, accident or even death, people were often afraid of dogs. People had to invent certain rules that could help them determine which dog was dangerous and which was not. Those rules had to change over time based on the fact that human-dog relationship is culturally and historically defined. The author analyses stories from in the Glasovi (Voices collection to show that, in the last few centuries in the territory of modern Slovenia, black dogs where most feared by humans. In contrast, nowadays the most feared dogs are those of the Pit Bull and some other breeds. Nevertheless, the folk superstitions and prejudice toward black dogs is still present in modern Western societies. In the English language “black dog” symbolizes depression. And some are still reluctant to adopt large black dogs from the animal shelters.

  15. The Influence of the Expression of Subtle and Blatant Sexual Prejudice on Personal Prejudice and Identification With the Expresser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolikowski, Alex M; Rinella, Mark; Ratcliff, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    Although the negative consequences of subtle and blatant prejudice for the targets of prejudice are clear in the psychological literature, the impact of exposure to subtle and blatant prejudice on non-targets remains unclear. The current work examines how exposure to blatant and subtle sexual prejudice affects non-targets' personal endorsement of prejudice and their identification with the prejudice expresser. Results suggest that relative to exposure to blatant or neutral expressions of prejudice, exposure to subtle prejudice increased prejudice levels. Individuals were also more likely to distance from the prejudice expresser when exposed to blatant compared to subtle prejudice. The implications are discussed.

  16. Salem witchcraft and lessons for contemporary forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Howie, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 1692 and 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts, more than 150 colonists were accused of witchcraft, resulting in 19 being hanged and one man being crushed to death. Contributions to these events included: historical, religious and cultural belief systems; social and community concerns; economic, gender, and political factors; and local family grievances. Child witnessing, certainty of physician diagnosis, use of special evidence in the absence of scholarly and legal scrutiny, and tautological reasoning were important factors, as well. For forensic psychiatry, the events at Salem in 1692 still hold contemporary implications. These events of three centuries ago call to mind more recent daycare sexual abuse scandals.

  17. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  18. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions in delusions and hallucinations of Chinese schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-06-01

    Religious beliefs and superstitions have an important impact on the psychopathology of psychiatric patients. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions, such as fortune telling, Buddhist gods, Taoist gods, historical heroic gods and ancestor worship, have important influence on subjective psychotic experiences, in particular delusions and hallucinations. By means of empirical phenomenological case narration, the writer shows that all these traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions tend to affect the contents, manifestation and meaningfulness of delusion and hallucination. They also serve as a means to replace clients' self-identity. They appear in the form of a supernatural force to resolve all difficulties, cause of troubles and misfortune, stress and coping mechanisms.

  19. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  20. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  1. Prejudices against Immigrants in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…

  2. PREJUDICE AND HOSTILITY: SOME PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Faturochman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the United the States the largest segment of studies has predictively been the descriptive or documenttaion of racial prejudice for over four decades (Crosby, Bromley and Saxe, 1984. The differential treatment of individuals based on their gorup membership, especially race, can be measured by discrriminatory behaviour and prejudiced attitudes. The pre-sumption of certain sttributes in individuals solely on the basis of a particular group, called stereotyping, is another form of prejudice that is a useful measure for racism.

  3. Witchcraft in Transkei Region of South African: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, B L

    2009-03-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunt have been practiced widely almost all over the world. It is known as magic in Europe, maleficium (wrong-doing) in Latin America, and superpower in Asia. In Africa those accused of being witches often face execution. A range of accusations are leveled against witches such as causing impotence, turning milk sour, causing disease and death.Three cases are presented here to highlight the issues related to witch craft in Transkei area. The information was given by the next of kin at the time of autopsy. All were elderly women over 50 years of age. The first was related to tuberculosis of the brother of the perpetrator the second, death of the culprit's relative and third the death of culprits brother in Johannesburg. The first and third victims were brutally chopped by axe and in the second it was a firearm injury. The case history, the type of wounds, and medico-legal aspects of death are discussed in these reports. There law related to witchcraft and their implementations to prevent such deaths are discussed.

  4. The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft, and Western ethnocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to illustrate the ethnocentrism of Western thought by projecting its own science-oriented culture onto cultures with different beliefs. A comparative study between African witchcraft and the Greek phenomenon of the evil eye will be done to investigate whether similar reasons can be given for their existence today. The article reflects on the view that has been prevalent since the Enlightenment, namely that belief in the supernatural is “primitive” and has no place in a world where most things can be explained or solved scientifically. Against this background, contemporary Western perspectives on evil are explained and compared with those of the Greek Orthodox worldview, which shows similarities with New Testament textual evidence. This correlation is demonstrated by an anthropological perspective on the phenomenon of the evil eye as seen from a social, cultural and ecological point of view. These insights are compared with the belief in witchcraft, demonic possession and exorcism within African tradition and spirituality.

  5. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  6. Radioactivity - superstition and science; Radioaktivitaet - Aberglaube und Wissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  7. Sexual orientation, prejudice, and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.S. Plug (Erik); H.D. Webbink (Dinand); N.G. Martin (Nicholas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken fromAustralian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segr

  8. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation res

  9. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F. Pettigrew; O. Christ; U. Wagner; R.W. Meertens; R. van Dick; A. Zick

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically alienate

  10. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  11. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  12. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  13. Elusive or Illuminating: Using the Web To Explore the Salem Witchcraft Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Stephanie R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Web sites useful for teaching about the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Includes Web sites that offer primary source material, collections of Web sites, teaching material, and sites that are interactive, including features, such as QuickTime movies. (CMK)

  14. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Niek

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches-resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity.

  15. Rewriting the Salem Witchcraft Trials in Contemporary Popular Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta María Gutiérrez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692 have received a lot of attention from history and literature, although there are very few critical analysis of how this historical event has entered the literary field. Many works of historical fiction – considered the most suitable literary genre to talk about an historical event - have used it in their storylines; however, popular genres such as romance, crime fiction, fantasy and science fiction have also shown an interest in this witch hunt. The main reason for this interest can be found in the lack of final conclusions as regards what really happened in Salem. The main objective of this paper is to show how what happened in Salem has entered contemporary popular fiction with the aim of showing the interest that it still arises and to vindicate the production of more critical works about the literary construction of one of the events that most dramatically has affected the configuration of the American mind.

  16. The Bargarran witchcraft trial--a psychiatric reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S W; Thom, A; Thom, A

    1996-10-01

    In 1697, seven people were condemned at Paisley for using witchcraft to torment Christian Shaw, daughter of the laird of Bargarran. For seven months, Christian had bizarre seizures during which she claimed to see the Devil and her tormentors assaulting her. She also exhibited pica and said that the foreign material had been forced into her mouth by her invisible assailants. The notable Glasgow physician, Matthew Brisbane, was consulted and gave evidence at the trial; he could find no natural explanation for the pica. It is likely that Christian had a dissociative (conversion) disorder after being cursed by a servant. Christian recovered and later married the minister of Kilmaurs. After his untimely death, she established a highly successful spinning business which lead to the Paisley cotton industry.

  17. Inverting measurements of surface slip on the Superstition Hills fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, J.; Budding, K.E.; Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    We derive and test a set of inversions of surface-slip measurements based on the empirical relation u(t)=uf/(1 + T/t)c proposed by Sharp and Saxton (1989) to estimate the final slip uf, the power-law exponent c, and the power-law duration T. At short times, Sharp's relation behaves like the simple power law, u(t)~u1tc, where u1 is the initial slip, that is, the slip at 1 day after the earthquake. At long times, the slip approaches the final slip asymptotically. The inversions are designed in part to exploit the accuracy of measurements of differential slip; that is, measurements of surface slip which are made relative to a set of nails or stakes emplaced after the earthquake. We apply the inversions to slip measurements made at 53 sites along the Superstition Hills fault for the 11 months following the M=6.2 and 6.6 earthqakes of 24 November 1987. -from Authors

  18. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  19. GPS measurements of deformation associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1991-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  20. Confronting Prejudice in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Luisa; Strasser, Janis

    2003-01-01

    By age three or four, children have already begun to construct their gender and racial identity. Stereotypes, prejudices, and practices in homes, communities, and the media can negatively affect children's feelings about themselves and others. Derman-Sparks (1983, 3) warned that young children may develop "pre-prejudice," which she defined as…

  1. News exposure predicts anti-Muslim prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media’s role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950’s, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world’s most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice. PMID:28362823

  2. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  3. The Approach of Emotional Deactivation of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Nil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…

  4. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  5. Prejudice, Mental Health and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Nathan W.

    This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…

  6. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  7. Research: General Semantics Training: Pride or Prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that general semantics research into prejudice has made only minor contributions to an understanding of prejudice because of weak experimental designs. Suggests improvements in research methodology and urges that knowledge of the semantic world of minority groups be sought as a prerequisite to eliminating cultural bias in standardized…

  8. The influence of numerical superstition on IPO underpricing in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Dieben, E.V.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese culture, certain digits are considered lucky and others unlucky. This thesis evaluates how numerical superstition affects financial decision-making in the Chinese A-share IPO market for the period between 2003-2015. Evidence has been found that suggests that numerical superstition influences the initial return on the issuing day of A-share IPOs on the Shanghai exchange. On this exchange newly listed firms with the unlucky number 4 and lucky numbers 6 and 8 in their ticker are initi...

  9. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe.

  10. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  11. Taking Seriously Ingroup Self-Evaluation, Meta-Prejudice, and Prejudice in Analyzing Interreligious Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Idhamsyah Eka

    2016-07-18

    The present study aims to understand the conditions where prejudice can be predicted by ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice. The data collecting was disseminated toward Muslim and Christian participants (N = 362) living in Maumere, Flores Island, Indonesia. In Flores, Christianity is the largest religion and Islam is the second. Across two samples, the effects of ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice on prejudice were found to be moderated by ingroup self-evaluation. It shows that at high level (but not low) of positive ingroup self-evaluation, ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice were found to predict prejudice. The results suggest that it is important to consider how group members evaluate their own group and how group members think what others are thinking, in the study pertaining to intergroup relations.

  12. The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.

  13. Use of Superstition and Fatalism by Secondary Students in Explaining Problems in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Gregory E.

    1981-01-01

    Students, whether they are academic or vocational-technical majors, need to interpret social studies problems by use of the scientific approach rather than by the use of fatalism, supernaturalism, and superstition. To ensure this outcome, secondary school curricula must provide enriching experiences through modern instructional techniques which…

  14. Cultural evolution of a belief controlling human mate choice: dynamic modeling of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Cinthia Marie; Iwasa, Yoh

    2012-09-21

    We develop a simple cultural dynamics model to dicuss the spread of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan. A large drop in the number of newborn babies observed in 1966 was attributed mainly to parents' avoiding having a child born in a hinoeuma year. Presumably, Japanese parents were afraid that a daughter born in 1966 (a hinoeuma year) might later have difficulty finding a mate. We construct mathematical models to examine whether the hinoeuma superstition would likely become extinct or be stably maintained in the population. We classify members of a population according to whether they believed the hinoeuma superstition (believer or nonbeliever), their gender (male or female), and their year of birth (born in a hinoeuma year or not). We compare several cases that differ according to (1) whether the belief in the superstition was transmitted to children by matrilineal, patrilineal, or Mendelian inheritance; (2) which parent controlled the timing of pregnancy and childbirth (maternal or paternal birth control); and (3) the probability of birth control failure. Our results show that the hinoeuma superstition is likely to spread if the mother has a strong influence on birth control and on the belief of their children. In contrast, if birth control is paternal and the belief is passed down from father to child, the hinoeuma superstition is likely to become extinct. In between these extremes, whether the superstition becomes extinct or fixed in the population depends on the initial frequency of believers in the population.

  15. Surface faulting along the Superstition Hills fault zone and nearby faults associated with the earthquakes of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The M6.2 Elmore Desert Ranch earthquake of 24 November 1987 was associated spatially and probably temporally with left-lateral surface rupture on many northeast-trending faults in and near the Superstition Hills in western Imperial Valley. Three curving discontinuous principal zones of rupture among these breaks extended northeastward from near the Superstition Hills fault zone as far as 9km; the maximum observed surface slip, 12.5cm, was on the northern of the three, the Elmore Ranch fault, at a point near the epicenter. Twelve hours after the Elmore Ranch earthquake, the M6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake occurred near the northwest end of the right-lateral Superstition Hills fault zone. We measured displacements over 339 days at as many as 296 sites along the Superstition Hills fault zone, and repeated measurements at 49 sites provided sufficient data to fit with a simple power law. The overall distributions of right-lateral displacement at 1 day and the estimated final slip are nearly symmetrical about the midpoint of the surface rupture. The average estimated final right-lateral slip for the Superstition Hills fault zone is ~54cm. The average left-lateral slip for the conjugate faults trending northeastward is ~23cm. The southernmost ruptured member of the Superstition Hills fault zone, newly named the Wienert fault, extends the known length of the zone by about 4km. -from Authors

  16. Disgust is a factor in extreme prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathleen

    2007-09-01

    Understanding intergroup prejudice is a dominant research focus for social psychology. Prejudice is usually conceptualized as a continuum of positive/negative affect, but this has limitations. It neither reflects people's ability to maintain simultaneous positive and negative stereotypes of others nor explains extreme prejudice (bigotry). Some researchers have proposed multidimensional models of prejudice in which different negative emotions are evoked depending on the situation. Extending this to bigotry raises the question of which emotions are most relevant. Therefore, this study looked at 'anti-group' texts--writings which promote extreme intergroup hostility--and analysed the frequency of emotive language. Findings suggest that bigotry may be distinguished by high levels of disgust.

  17. Age Prejudice of 'Act Your Age.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, Zander

    1978-01-01

    Many life-style decisions are often adversely influenced by prejudicial attitudes, norms, and laws about age. The relationship between ways of thinking about developmental tasks and age prejudice is discussed. (Author)

  18. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  19. Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances in Adolescents Involved in Witchcraft and Satanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burket, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined inpatient medical records of 157 consecutive adolescent admissions to private psychiatric hospital. Ten patients with interest in witchcraft and Satanism had significantly more diagnoses of identity disorder, alcohol abuse, and hallucinogen abuse. One-half reported history of self-mutilation. Found no significant difference in criminal…

  20. What American Schools Can Learn from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Booth, Grace Marie

    2003-01-01

    A mother and daughter share their insights on what American schools can learn about cooperative, student-centered, problem-solving approaches to instruction from the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter books. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  1. Matilda Joslyn Gage: A Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Historian Looks at Witchcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ideas of the nineteenth century female historian, Matilda Joslyn Gage, who authored the book, "Woman, Church, and State." Focuses on Gage's ideas about women's history, particularly related to the role of the church and women persecuted for witchcraft. (CMK)

  2. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2008-01-01

    Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...... is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most...... difficult test possible. The binary opposites we are familiar with from the ‘Methodenstreit' of the social sciences are unproductive....

  3. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary School Pupils in Northern England: Introducing the Outgroup Prejudice Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No religion". The scale demonstrated…

  4. Linguocultural analysis of superstitions used in the communicative situation Christmas holiday in the Pyrenean national variant of the Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Анатольевна Фролкова

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals both with the linguocultural analysis of superstitions used in the communicative situation Christmas holyday in the Pyrenean national variant of the Spanish language and their structural classification.

  5. Cultural evolution of hinoeuma superstition controlling human mate choice: The role of half-believer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Makoto; Lee, Joung-Hun; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-11-21

    In this study, we used a cultural dynamic model to explain the persistence of the hinoeuma superstition in traditional Japan. Men with this superstition avoid marrying women born in a hinoeuma year (or hinoeuma-women). Parents avoided childbirth during the last hinoeuma year out of the concern that their daughter would have trouble finding a husband in the future, and this resulted in a large drop in the number of babies born in 1966. A previous theoretical analysis of the hinoeuma superstition considered two alternative cultural factors: believers and nonbelievers. In the present study, we considered a third cultural factor, the half-believer. A man that is a half-believer accepts a hinoeuma-woman as his wife, but parents that are half-believers avoid childbirth during hinoeuma years. With these three cultural factors, there are two possible outcomes for the population. In the first outcome, [1] non-believers become extinct, with the population consisting of believers and half-believers; some men refuse hinoeuma-women as their mate choice, and most parents attempt to avoid childbirth during hinoeuma years. In the second outcome, [2] believers become extinct, and the remaining population consists of non-believers and half-believers; no man refuses hinoeuma-women, and some parents avoid childbirth in hinoeuma years to prevent potential harm to their daughters. If birth control fails at a steady rate, believers will become extinct eventually. The superstition is more likely to be maintained if the mother has a stronger influence on the beliefs of her children than the father.

  6. The Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills earthquakes of 24 November 1987: Introduction to the special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Allen, Clarence R.

    1989-01-01

    On 24 November 1987, two significant earthquakes occurred along the southern San Jacinto fault zone and related structural elements in southern California, not far from the International Border. These two events, the Elmore Ranch earthquake (M = 6.2 at 0154 GMT) and the Superstition Hills earthquake (M = 6.6 at 1315 GMT, both moment magnitudes from Sipkin, 1989), and their aftershocks have yielded a rich harvest of geological, seismological, and engineering data pertinent to the cause and ...

  7. Analysis of Major Characters in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志燕

    2007-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is a novel about surmounting obstacles and achieving romantic happiness. The theme of pride and prejudice is discussed throughout the novel, andAusten displays it by the description of the main characters.

  8. Explaining dehumanization among children: the interspecies model of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered.

  9. Faith and Superstitions in the Frontline and in the Rear in Wartime (1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.

  10. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  11. Who confronts prejudice?: the role of implicit theories in the motivation to confront prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2010-07-01

    Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.

  12. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琨

    2013-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s great masterpiece. It discusses love and marriage between middle class and upper class in Britain in 19th century. This thesis aims at analyzing love and marriage in Pride and Prejudice. There are three chapters in this thesis. Chapter one portrays the social background of the author and the social background of Pride and Prejudice. Chapter two describes the concept of love and marriage in Britain in 19th century and four marriages in the novel. Chapter three analyses Jane Austen’s concept of love and marriage:love and marriage are closely connected with property and social status;however, an ideal marriage should be based on true love. Marriages that based on money and social status can not lead to a happy life.

  13. Neural Basis of Disgust Perception in Racial Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.

  14. Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

  15. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  16. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  17. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  18. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  19. 48 CFR 6302.35 - Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prejudice (Rule 35). 6302.35 Section 6302.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.35 Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35). When... prejudice to its restoration to the Board's docket when the cause of suspension has been eliminated....

  20. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  1. Neural Basis of Disgust Perception in Racial Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.

  2. To Converse with the Devil? Speech, Sexuality, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Rose Dye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.

  3. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  4. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice.

  5. Automatic prejudice in childhood and early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2010-01-01

    Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as prejudi

  6. Money and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娟娟

    2012-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is a very famous novel written by Jane Austen and it is highly evaluated in British literature. That specific time decides that people at that time pay more attention to money in their marriage .In this paper we take some marriage case

  7. Lay belief in biopolitics and political prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study

  8. Prejudice, Tolerance, and Attitudes Toward Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual and empirical examination of the term "prejudice". The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the term "tolerance" as it has developed in political sociology and suggests the application of this concept to the study of inter-ethnic attitudes. (Author)

  9. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  10. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  11. Pride and Prejudice in the Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Alf

    1981-01-01

    A four-year study of nearly 4,000 English elementary children indicated that they make extensive use of racial and ethnic distinctions to make sense of the world and, since they are being initiated into an implicitly discriminating society, this early classification process is often accompanied by frank ethnic prejudice. (Author/SJL)

  12. Book Review of Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦影

    2015-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is the representative work of Jane Austen.This novel describes four different kinds of marriages of British society in 18th century.Through analyzing the personalities of typical figures in this novel and the attitude of the author towards their choices,this article gives a general impression about the novel and discusses the guidance for the modern marriage.

  13. Book Review of Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦影

    2015-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is the representative work of Jane Austen.This novel describes four different kinds of marriages of British society in 18 th century.Through analyzing the personalities of typical figures in this novel and the attitude of the author towards their choices,this article gives a general impression about the novel and discusses the guidance for the modern marriage.

  14. Beyond Bigotry: Teaching about Unconscious Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Raj Andrew; Lippard, Cameron; Ribas, Vanesa; Muir, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that unconscious prejudices around characteristics such as race, gender, and class are common, even among people who avow themselves unbiased. The authors present a method for teaching about implicit racial bias using online Implicit Association Tests. The authors do not claim that their method rids students of…

  15. Global positioning system measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake - Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1992-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) compaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10 (exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10 (exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  16. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  17. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  18. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Леонидович Ульянченко

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-7

  19. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanchenko Anton Leonidovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.

  20. 'Our Families are Killing Us': HIV/AIDS, Witchcraft and Social Tensions in the Caprivi Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity

    2007-12-01

    The importance of exploring 'indigenous' constructions of illness is vital when explanatory models of ill health differ markedly from dominant biomedical paradigms. In the Caprivi region of Namibia, an upsurge of witchcraft accusations can be seen as a direct reaction to increasing AIDS-related illness and deaths, and to changes in socio-economic attitudes and expectations. The mobilization of witchcraft narratives provides a socially acceptable explanation for illness, and can positively influence decisions regarding the care and identity of the ill person. However, drawing upon data collected at kin and village level, this paper demonstrates that while witchcraft accusations can avert stigma and blame away from the ill person, they can also result in significant disruption to livelihoods, and place considerable tension upon key social capital networks at a time when the household is particularly vulnerable. Such findings have significant implications for the effectiveness of HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation initiatives, and for livelihood security.

  1. Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rhiannon N; Crisp, Richard J

    2010-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that imagining intergroup contact can be sufficient to reduce explicit prejudice directed towards out-groups. In this research, we examined the impact of contact-related mental imagery on implicit prejudice as measured by the implicit association test. We found that, relative to a control condition, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards elderly people in general. In a second study, we demonstrated that, relative to a control condition, non-Muslim participants who imagined talking to a Muslim stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards Muslims in general. We discuss the implications of these findings for furthering the application of indirect contact strategies aimed at improving intergroup relations.

  2. Is group membership necessary for understanding generalized prejudice? A re-evaluation of why prejudices are interrelated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Robin; Akrami, Nazar; Sidanius, Jim; Sibley, Chris G

    2016-09-01

    Many scholars have proposed that people who reject one outgroup tend to reject other outgroups. Studies examining a latent factor behind different prejudices (e.g., toward ethnic and sexual minorities) have referred to this as generalized prejudice. Such research has also documented robust relations between latent prejudice factors and basic personality traits. However, targets of generalized prejudice tend to be lower in power and status and thus it remains an open question as to whether generalized prejudice, as traditionally studied, is about devaluing outgroups or devaluing marginalized groups. We present 7 studies, including experiments and national probability samples (N = 9,907 and 4,037) assessing the importance of outgroup devaluation, versus status- or power based devaluations, for understanding the nature of generalized prejudice, and its links to personality. Results show that (a) personality variables do not predict ingroup/outgroup biases in settings where power and status differences are absent, (b) women and overweight people who score high on generalized prejudice devalue their own groups, and (c) personality variables are far more predictive of prejudice toward low-compared with high-status targets. Together, these findings suggest that the personality explanation of prejudice including the generalized prejudice concept is not about ingroups versus outgroups per se, but rather about devaluing marginalized groups. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Intelligence of Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to give a character analysis about the heroine:Elizabeth in Jane Austen ’s novel Pride and Prejudice. In the novel, there are many references to the unusual character of Elizabeth Bennet. Independent, lovely ,bravery, and she give a profound effect in 18th century English feminist literature.Here we will analysis the intelligent of Elizabeth.

  4. Threat, prejudice and the impact of the riots in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice.

  5. Four Different Marriages in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Pride and Prejudice has always been,since its pubhcation in 1813,Austen's most popular novel.Pride and Prejudice,a gentle but witty satire of courtship and marriage,tells the story of how the young ladies choose their husbands.All of Austen' s novels are all written on marriage,especially Pride and Prejudice.As matter of fact,she mainly and first deals with the marriage,which is not the result of the love but in want of the economy.With great irony and wit Austen shows how the tenderest human feelings interact with and are influenced by financial considerations.Tony Tanner once said,"Jane Austen,as well as other authors,is very clear that no feeling could be extremely pure and no motive could be definitely single.But as long as it is possible,we should make it clear that which feeling or motive plays the leading role."

  6. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  7. Putting the brakes on prejudice rebound effects: An ironic effect of disparagement humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A

    2016-08-26

    When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.

  8. A pastoral examination of the Christian Church’s response to fears of and reactions to witchcraft amongst African people in the Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elijah Baloyi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amongst other things, African culture (societies has been characterised by its perception and fear of witchcraft. Even though the belief in witchcraft is an old phenomenon, its growth is revealed and to some extent mitigated by videos, films and accounts and stories of church ministers. Whilst some Christian worship services have been turned into witchcraft-centred campaigns against witchcraft, a second group perceive witchcraft as a way of getting rid of one’s enemies and a third group see it as the root of human misfortune. Indeed ministers (including preachers and pastoral caregivers are almost ‘measured’ by their ability to successfully ward off demons (believed to have been sent by witches, as a yardstick for determining whether they are good ministers with a good following or congregation. The first group of people attend church to pray for protection against ‘the enemy’, the second group approach native doctors to protect their households from attacks by witches, and the third group rid themselves of witches by burning them along with their personal belongings. This article investigates the impact and consequences of a fear of witchcraft amongst Christians in African societies, particularly those in the Limpopo province of South Africa. It also offers pastoral guidelines for a theological response to witchcraft and its life-threatening influence on people in the affected communities.

  9. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  10. Influence of superstition on the date of hospital discharge and medical cost in Japan: retrospective and descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Kenji; Fukui, Tsuguya; Endoh, Akira; Rahman, Mahbubur; Maekawa, Munetaka

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To determine the influence of superstition about Taian (a lucky day)-Butsumetsu (an unlucky day) on decision to leave hospital. To estimate the costs of the effect of this superstition. Design Retrospective and descriptive study. Setting University hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Subjects Patients who were discharged alive from Kyoto University Hospital from 1 April 1992 to 31 March 1995. Main outcome measures Mean number, age, and hospital stay of patients discharged on each day of six day cycle. Results The mean number, age, and hospital stay of discharged patients were highest on Taian and lowest on Butsumetsu (25.8 v 19.3 patients/day, P=0.0001; 43.9 v 41.4 years, P=0.0001; and 43.1 v 33.3 days, P=0.0001 respectively). The effect of this difference on the hospital’s costs was estimated to be 7.4 million yen (£31 000). Conclusion The superstition influenced the decision to leave hospital, contributing to higher medical care costs in Japan. Although hospital stays need to be kept as short as possible to minimise costs, doctors should not ignore the possible psychological effects on patients’ health caused by dismissing the superstition. Key messagesBelief in Taian-Butsumetsu, a superstition relating to the six day lunar calendar, is common among Japanese peopleThis study showed that the mean number of patients discharged on Taian (a lucky day) is the highest and that on Butsumetsu (an unlucky day) is the lowestPatients discharged on Taian were older, were more likely to be female, and had longer hospital stays than those discharged on other daysThe findings suggest that patients were extending their stay to leave hospital on TaianThis superstitious belief increased the cost of medical care in Japan PMID:9857123

  11. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifes

  12. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  13. The Impact of Money on Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅丽霞

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice written by Jane Austen has been read widely all over the world. Through the comparison of marriages in Pride and Prejudice, it is obvious that money plays an important role in marriage and it is money that determines people’s marital orientation.

  14. 39 CFR 955.31 - Dismissal without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dismissal without prejudice. 955.31 Section 955.31 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.31 Dismissal without prejudice. In certain cases, appeals docketed before...

  15. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    ) in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find...

  16. Japanese International Female Students' Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…

  17. How Can International Education Help Reduce Students' Prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. It then discusses how prejudice is institutionalised and legitimised in schools, before turning to the main thrust of its investigation: the extent to which international education (K-12) can…

  18. Teaching about Implicit Prejudices and Stereotypes: A Pedagogical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…

  19. Towards AN Understanding of the Nature of Racial Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fred; Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    We discuss a possible biological explanation of the phenomenon of colour prejudice that hinges on the relative advantages and disadvantages in the expression of the strongly dominant gene(s) for melanin under ice-age conditions at different locations on the Earth. An understanding of the genesis of this prejudice could hopefully eradicate or ameliorate its worst manifestations in modern society.

  20. Teaching about Implicit Prejudices and Stereotypes: A Pedagogical Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…

  1. At Risk of Prejudice: The Arab American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikaly, Zeina Azzam

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the stereotypes associated with Arab Americans. States that these stereotypes must be abandoned to stop prejudice against their community. Provides background information on Arab Americans. Discusses the role that educators and counselors have in helping Arab American students deal with prejudice against them. Includes resources on…

  2. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-based Caste Prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta

    2015-01-01

    and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit...... favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste....

  3. Stubborn Soul——Feminism in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austen(1775—1817),the famous writer in the early 19th century,she was well-known and regarded as one of female novelists,her work"Pride and Prejudice",is one of most popular one among her novels.This paper mainly discusses about the feminism reflected in"Pride and Prejudice"and also analyses the reason.

  4. Social desirability of subtle and blatant prejudice scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli Rattazzi, Anna Maria; Volpato, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    The present paper analyzes the relation between the measurement of subtle and blatant prejudice proposed by Pettigrew and Meertens in 1995 and the tendency to give socially desirable responses. It also tests whether items that measure subtle prejudice are judged as more socially desirable than those that measure blatant prejudice. Data were obtained from two groups, one of 497 Italian high school students and one of 77 university students. In the first case, the analysis concerns the relation between the prejudice scores and scores on a shortened form of Marlowe and Crowne's Social Desirability Scale. In the second case, we analyzed the social desirability judgments expressed on single items of the Petrigrew and Meertens scales. Analyses indicate that (1) neither Subtle nor Blatant Prejudice scores correlate with the tendency to give socially desirable responses and (2) when the items of the two prejudice scales are placed in order on the social desirability continuum, with very few exceptions the Blatant Prejudice items are situated at the not socially acceptable pole and Subtle Prejudice items at the socially acceptable pole.

  5. Peculiaritiesin Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua-hua

    2015-01-01

    In point of chronology, Jane Austen belongs to the age of Romanticism, but she would be placed with the realistic nov⁃elists because of her realism half a century later. Her sagacious perception and progressive thought made her one who surpassed her time. This essay introduces Austen briefly and probes into the charm of her most well-known novel Pride and Prejudice whose peculiarities lie in the humorous and ironical language and also in the ordinary world it presents where human beings are imper⁃fect.It aims to shed some light on better understanding and appreciation of this masterpiece.

  6. A mathematical model of 'Pride and Prejudice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sergio; Rossa, Fabio Della; Landi, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for interpreting the love story between Elizabeth and Darcy portrayed by Jane Austen in the popular novel Pride and Prejudice. The analysis shows that the story is characterized by a sudden explosion of sentimental involvements, revealed by the existence of a saddle-node bifurcation in the model. The paper is interesting not only because it deals for the first time with catastrophic bifurcations in romantic relation-ships, but also because it enriches the list of examples in which love stories are described through ordinary differential equations.

  7. Malinowski goes to college: factors influencing students' use of ritual and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Ashleigh

    2007-10-01

    Anthropologists have long noted that the use of ritual and magic is linked to conditions of risk and uncertainty. In this study, the authors examined how perceived task difficulty, participants' level of preparation, and the value of the outcome interact to influence the self-reporting of superstition and ritual. College students rated the likelihood of their using charms or rituals for various scenarios involving academic, artistic, and athletic performances. Reports of use of ritual increased as the stakes of the event increased and decreased with perceived expertise or level of preparation. Additional findings included participants' reporting frequent use of ritual while denying any causal effectiveness. The authors discuss results in terms of the rituals providing participants with an illusion of control.

  8. Motivation to control prejudice predicts categorization of multiracials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Moons, Wesley G; Gaither, Sarah E; Hamilton, David L; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2014-05-01

    Multiracial individuals often do not easily fit into existing racial categories. Perceivers may adopt a novel racial category to categorize multiracial targets, but their willingness to do so may depend on their motivations. We investigated whether perceivers' levels of internal motivation to control prejudice (IMS) and external motivation to control prejudice (EMS) predicted their likelihood of categorizing Black-White multiracial faces as Multiracial. Across four studies, IMS positively predicted perceivers' categorizations of multiracial faces as Multiracial. The association between IMS and Multiracial categorizations was strongest when faces were most racially ambiguous. Explicit prejudice, implicit prejudice, and interracial contact were ruled out as explanations for the relationship between IMS and Multiracial categorizations. EMS may be negatively associated with the use of the Multiracial category. Therefore, perceivers' motivations to control prejudice have important implications for racial categorization processes.

  9. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-based Caste Prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker...... in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste...... and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit...

  10. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.

  11. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  13. Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe : explanations for crossnational variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Mérove

    2002-01-01

    Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic prejudice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice. From

  14. The relation between societal factors and different forms of prejudice: A cross-national approach on target-specific and generalized prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously.

  15. Prejudice, homophobia and the Christian faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Dreyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to illustrate that prejudice differs fundamentally from legitimate presuppositions that come into play when people interpret the Bible or reflect theologically on contemporary issues such as homosexuality. It is argued that prejudice leads to the theologically untenable phenomenon of homophobia. Though the rejection of prejudicial attitudes does not mean that �anything goes�, it is a theological necessity to expose harmful attitudes and behaviours regarding sexuality. To this end the article investigates the labels �homosexual�, �gay� and �queer� that, on the one hand, express and perpetuate homophobia and on the other hand represent a search for authentic identity on the part of sexual minorities. The� article reflects on the effect of underlying social identity theories on homophobia. Such theories include nominialism with its focus on �sameness� and essentialism that focuses on �difference�, as well as primordialism with its emphasis on the immutability of social identity formation and constructionism that highlights change.

  16. Absurdist Witchcraft in Truman Capote’s “Children on their Birthdays”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dumas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available “Children on their Birthdays” was published at the end of the 1940’s, at a time that was seeing the rise of the theater of the absurd. The short story is about the unexpected arrival of an extraordinary young girl, Miss Bobbit, in a small place in Alabama. Her strange ways quickly cause quite a stir in the whole community. This paper aims to show that Miss Bobbit’s witch-like characteristics make her an absurdist character capable of revealing fundamental American truths that carry universal significance. Her witchcraft echoes the author’s in his creation of a theatrical approach to social delusions in a context of metaphysical and cosmic absurdity.

  17. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice.

  18. The effect of belief in free will on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Shi, Jia-xin; Huang, Zhen-wei

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined the role of the belief in free will on prejudice across Han Chinese and white samples. Belief in free will refers to the extent to which people believe human beings truly have free will. In Study 1, the beliefs of Han Chinese people in free will were measured, and their social distances from the Tibetan Chinese were used as an index of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the more that Han Chinese endorsed the belief in free will, the less that they showed prejudice against the Tibetan Chinese. In Study 2, the belief of the Han Chinese in free will was manipulated, and their explicit feelings towards the Uyghur Chinese were used as an indicator of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the participants in the condition of belief in free will reported less prejudice towards Uyghur Chinese compared to their counterparts in the condition of disbelief in free will. In Study 3, white peoples' belief in free will was manipulated, and their pro-black attitudes were measured as an indirect indicator of racial prejudice. The results showed that, compared to the condition of disbelief in free will, the participants who were primed by a belief in free will reported stronger pro-black attitudes. These three studies suggest that endorsement of the belief in free will can lead to decreased ethnic/racial prejudice compared to denial of the belief in free will. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D; Ritchey, P Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents and assessing only a single domain of prejudice. We addressed the intergenerational transmission of prejudice and stereotyping using three competing models: same-sex, parent equivalent, and differential effects. Using multiple regressions in which parents' scores were entered separately, along with control variables, different maternal and paternal influences were detected. Mothers were the primary influence for prejudice regarding HIV/AIDS, fatness, and race, and fathers were the primary influence for male and female stereotyping and prejudice against homosexuals, supporting the differential effects model. We also established that prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains reflected a more general proclivity to be intolerant. In contrast to prejudice and stereotyping in specific domains, fathers and mothers about equally shaped the adolescents' intolerance, supporting the parent equivalent model.

  20. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓卿

    2014-01-01

    In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austin expresses successfully her viewpoints of marriage and love. This paper tempts to make a deep analysis of these four marriages, and shows how one’s character affects one’s attitudes toward love and marriage. We can see the combination of vulgar Collins and common Charlotte results in a practical marriage, and their marriage has no love;the combination of dissolute Wickhame and flirtatious Lydia results in a sex-oriented marriage, this marriage is without love either, the combination of pleasant Bingley and mild Jane results in a conventional marriage with love, the combination of decent Darcy and sensible Elizabeth results not only in a successful marriage, but also they have got something more than Jane-Bingley mar-riage.

  1. “Better do not touch” and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Gajda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :To the authors’ best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Material and methods : Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154 and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. Results : A total of 4,104 (83.4% respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that “it is better not to touch naevi”. Moreover, 3,510 (71.3% individuals believed that naevi located in “harmed places” may turn into melanoma. Conclusions : Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life.

  2. “Better do not touch” and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Maksymilian; Wydmański, Jerzy; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To the authors’ best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. Aim To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Material and methods Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154) and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. Results A total of 4,104 (83.4%) respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that “it is better not to touch naevi”. Moreover, 3,510 (71.3%) individuals believed that naevi located in “harmed places” may turn into melanoma. Conclusions Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life. PMID:27881937

  3. "Better do not touch" and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Maksymilian; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna; Wydmański, Jerzy; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    To the authors' best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154) and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. A total of 4,104 (83.4%) respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that "it is better not to touch naevi". Moreover, 3,510 (71.3%) individuals believed that naevi located in "harmed places" may turn into melanoma. Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life.

  4. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat.

  5. A Religious Worldview: Protecting One's Meaning System Through Religious Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby

    2015-11-01

    For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people.

  6. Using Human Rights Cases to Teach about Prejudice and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Donald

    1983-01-01

    High school students analyze real-life case studies, taken from the files of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, to learn about the effects of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination with regard to native people in Canada. (RM)

  7. Pride and Prejudice – Identity and Collaboration in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Based on an 18 month ethnographic case study of a construction partnering project, the paper adopts practice based theory for understanding the identity formation and practices of collaboration in construction. Drawing upon practice based theory in general and actor network theory and communities...... practices – enabling and inhibiting collaboration. Pride and prejudice are thus central constitutive elements of present construction practices in the formation of identity and development of collaboration processes........ Overtime they learn to behave competently at the boundaries between professions forming their identity and a sense of belonging in relation to an institutionalized role and the realization of the physical building. In this process the actors develop “pride” in terms of authorship of the physical building...... and membership their profession. However another consequence of these learning processes is the development of prejudices. Prejudices are often viewed as a negative aspect of building processes as it hinders collaboration among the professions. Consequently prejudices is often seen as something which should...

  8. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.

  9. Moment-tensor solutions for the 24 November 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The teleseismic long-period waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network from the two largest Superstition Hills earthquakes are inverted using an algorithm based on optimal filter theory. These solutions differ slightly from those published in the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters Monthly Listing because a somewhat different, improved data set was used in the inversions and a time-dependent moment-tensor algorithm was used to investigate the complexity of the main shock. The foreshock (origin time 01:54:14.5, mb 5.7, Ms6.2) had a scalar moment of 2.3 ?? 1025 dyne-cm, a depth of 8km, and a mechanism of strike 217??, dip 79??, rake 4??. The main shock (origin time 13:15:56.4, mb 6.0, Ms6.6) was a complex event, consisting of at least two subevents, with a combined scalar moment of 1.0 ?? 1026 dyne-cm, a depth of 10km, and a mechanism of strike 303??, dip 89??, rake -180??. -Authors

  10. Religiosity and prejudice: different patterns for two types of religious internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Maria; Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between religiosity and prejudice has shown inconsistent findings. We argue that it is necessary to distinguish between different types of religiosity and that its relationship with prejudice is mediated by different values. Results of two studies conducted in Italy show that identified religiosity and introjected religiosity predict different levels of prejudice toward Muslim immigrants. Moreover, the negative relationship between identified religiosity and prejudice was mediated by prosocial values, whereas valuing conformity mediated the positive relationship between introjected religiosity and prejudice. The results show that it is possible to better understand the relationship between religiosity and prejudice by disentangling the different ways of being religious.

  11. Workplace Incivility as Modern Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; Hoel, Helge; Arenas, Alicia; Munduate, Lourdes

    2015-12-23

    Although discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation is prohibited by law in many countries, negative prejudices against Lesbian and Gay (LG) people, as a stigmatized minority, might be internalized by co-workers, being a source of a modern and subtle form of discrimination. Results from 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with LG employees show that they are victims of workplace incivility which is manifested through jokes, use of language, stereotypes, and intrusive behaviors. Such acts are barely recognizable as a form of discrimination, due to the absence of any reference to sexual orientation, and for this reason it is more difficult to act against them at an organizational level. This is the first study that demonstrates how workplace incivility toward LG employees can be an expression of a subtle form of discrimination. It shows that discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has not disappeared; it has simply changed its manifestations. Contributions and implications of the study are discussed from a theoretical and a practical perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play.

  13. Subtle prejudice and conformism: the intergroup indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In understanding the dynamics that lead to the restriction of human rights, social psychology research has mainly focused on the concept of the banality of evil and of obedience to destructive and immoral orders. However, some authors have also underlined the relevant role of by standing and, in general, of indifference in supporting authoritarian policies on a par with the obedience to authority. The aim of this research was to study the notion of intergroup indifference, defined as being uninterested in problems affecting other social groups. The hypothesis was that indifferent people should be characterized by subtle modalities of obedience to authority and prejudicial attitudes, by exclusive attitudes and by conformist and traditional positions. Results showed that participants who respond with an indifferent stance to some parliamentary bills related to arbitrary policies towards minorities appear to be characterized by similar scores on subtle prejudice, submission to authority, conventionalism, willingness to protest, conservative values and moral exclusion attitudes to those people who openly support such policies. Instead, these two groups differ as concerns more overt hostile attitudes. These data suggest that indifferent people have a role in supporting arbitrary policies. As a theoretical implication, future research should consider that intergroup dynamics do not involve just people who obey or disobey authority. People who apparently do not take up any stance before an authority’s policies should be considered as well.

  14. Surface displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults triggered by the Westmorland, California, earthquake of 26 April 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; Rymer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Parts of the Imperial and the Superstition Hills faults moved right-laterally at the ground surface at the time of or shortly following the ML 5.6 Westmorland earthquake of 26 April 1981. The displacements occurred prior to any significant aftershocks on either fault and thus are classed as sympathetic. Although the main shock was located in an exceptionally seismogenic part of Imperial Valley, about 20 km distant from either fault, no clear evidence of surface faulting has yet been found in the epicentral area. Horizontal displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults, southeast and southwest of the epicenter, respectively, reached maxima of 8 mm and 14 mm, and the discontinuous surface ruptures formed along approximately equal lengths of northern segments of the two structures (16.8 km and 15.7 km, respectively). The maximum vertical component of slip on the Imperial fault, 6 ram, was observed 3.4 km north of the point of largest horizontal slip. Vertical movement on the Superstition Hills fault was less than 1 mm. No new displacement was found along the traces of the Brawley fault zone, the San Andreas fault, or the part of the Coyote Creek fault that slipped during the 1968 Borrego Mountain earthquake. A careful search in the epicentral area of the main shock failed to locate any definite evidence of surface faulting. Concentrations of late aftershocks north and northeast of Calipatria near the southeastward projection of the San Andreas fault occurred mostly after our field check; this area was not investigated.

  15. 彝族“撮泰吉”的巫术内蕴及其社会功能%Witchcraft Connotations of Yi Cuotaiji and Its Social Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白伟伟

    2016-01-01

    Cuotaiji is a kind of extremely rich ancient witchcraft properties of exorcising opera. Cuotaiji witchcraft intrinsic optimism, to be good, such characteristics as subjectivity, at the same time Cuotaiji intrin⁃sic witchcraft culture has continuously strengthen the main body of self-worth, maintain social stability, strong social function.%“撮泰吉”是一种极富巫术性质的古傩戏“。撮泰吉”的巫术内蕴具有乐观性、向善性、主体性等特点,同时“撮泰吉”内蕴的巫术文化具有不断强化主体的自我价值,维护社会稳定的强大的社会功能。

  16. Teacher Prejudice as a Mediating Factor in Student Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    1979-01-01

    Teacher prejudices exert powerful influences on student growth and development and are naturally restrictive whether the prejudice comes from biases about intelligence, sexuality, ethnicity, physical appearance, or socioeconomic status. (JMF)

  17. The Interpretation of the Irony in Pride and Prejudice from the Perspective of Speech Act Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董天; 牛敬敏

    2014-01-01

    The employment of irony makes Pride and Prejudice become one of the most significant novels in the world.The paper tries to make a application of speech act theory to the analysis of irony in Pride and Prejudice.

  18. The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties%秦汉时期巫医术的方术化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 柳长华

    2014-01-01

    巫术是指幻想依靠“超自然力”对客体加强影响或控制的活动.上古巫术应用范围很广,其中用于医疗者,称为“巫医术”,大致包括祝由、厌劾、禁忌数种.秦汉时期,巫医术被阴阳五行理论改造成为医方术的一部分.其中,巫术鬼神系统被方士鬼神系统取代;祝由术、禁忌法被渗入术数思维;厌劾术基本被符篆术取代.巫医术改造不彻的残留,亦为秦汉方技家所兼收并用.%By witchcraft,it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through" supernatural power".Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery,praying,superstitious art of anti-disaster,and tabooing,were collectively called" medical witchcraft".During the Qin-Han periods,witchcraft was transformed by the theory of YinYang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession.Among them,the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation.The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  19. Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Holmes, Emily; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Four studies investigated the effect of imagining intergroup contact on prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a neutral imagined contact task can have negative effects, compared to a control condition, even when paired with incidental positive information (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated, however, that an integrated positive imagined contact scenario does result in less intergroup anxiety and more positive attitudes, even toward this challenging group. Analyses of participants’ descriptions of the imagined interactions in and across the first three studies confirm that positive and high quality imagined contact is important for reducing prejudice, but failing to ensure that imagined contact is positive may have deleterious consequences. We emphasize the importance of investigating the quality of the imagined contact experience, and discuss the implications for using imagined contact as a prejudice-reducing intervention. PMID:26435686

  20. Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: revisiting the ideologies of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2004-10-01

    Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism.

  1. Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world.

  2. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2015-04-01

    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness.

  3. Intergroup contact and prejudice against people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.

  4. Irony in Pride and Prejudice and Its Rhetoric Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付蓉

    2013-01-01

    Pride and prejudice continues to be popular today not only because of its memorable characters, but also because of the perfect use of rhetoric-irony. Irony plays the decisive role in characterization and plot development. We should pay attention on the irony words in dialogue, scene irony and dramatic irony. Irony can be achieved joking, teasing and the effect of sarcasm, makes the work lively and humorous and full of artistic appeal. Irony in Pride and Prejudice shaped fresh characters. From the point of view of the plot development, the whole story seems to be made of many ironies which make the work so fun. Pride and Prejudice is a work worth reading a hundred times for readers.

  5. Reducing Prejudice on Campus: The Role of Intergroup Contact in Diversity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of contact with diverse groups on prejudice levels of 284 college students at three midwestern colleges. The effect of Amir's five contact factors was studied in relation to students' generalized prejudice as well as prejudice toward people who differ from them in race, sex, and sexual orientation. Results show the…

  6. Reducing Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia in College Students by Completing a Psychology of Prejudice Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Walzer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Students enrolled in Psychology of Prejudice and Introductory Psychology courses completed measures of racism, sexism, and attitudes toward homosexuals at the beginning and end of the term. We predicted that those who took part in the Psychology of Prejudice class would have significantly reduced prejudice as a result of the course experience. We…

  7. Anti-Transgender Prejudice: A Structural Equation Model of Associated Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…

  8. "The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained.

  9. The Distribution and Frequency of the Terms "Pride" and "Prejudice" in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dromnes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the title terms of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813 with particular attention to their distribution and frequency in the text. Our method is to connect the statistical material gathered on frequency and distribution to a narratological analysis of the terms, with special emphasis on whether they occur within the focalization of the external narrator, or that of character-focalizers. In order to approach this task, we have availed ourselves of the narratological theories of Mieke Bal. We conclude that there is a differentiation among types of focalization in the novel that enhances the thematic structure of match-making. Although Jane Austen wrote and published her major works two centuries ago, they continue to fascinate literary scholars and general readers alike.

  10. Race, Color and Prejudice: Solutions From Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    Proposes that there are in the Western Hemisphere at least three examples of societies where the problems of race, color, and prejudice have essentially been solved through the operation of social mechanisms of three different types: Brazil, Jamaica, and Mexico. (Author/JM)

  11. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  12. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  13. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle…

  14. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  15. Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…

  16. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  17. Interjections in the Performance of Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel "Pride and prejudice"; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and…

  18. On Models of Racial Prejudice and Urban Residential Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Paul N.; Yinger, John

    Economists have studied the effects of racial prejudice on urban residential structure using a set of models that focus on conditions at the border between the black and white areas. This paper reviews the theoretical literature on these border models and investigates their generality. Section 1 considers the border model developed by Bailey in…

  19. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Prejudice, Sex Role Stereotyping, and Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D.; Ritchey, P. Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents…

  1. An Analysis of the Emotional Contradiction in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓倩

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen' s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice, which develops as the only clue of a love story. Its essence as an entanglement of "rationality" and "emotionality"embodies the author' s view of love and the voice of women' s liberation.

  2. An Analysis of the Emotional Contradiction in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓倩

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen’s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice,which develops as the only clue of a love story.Its essence as an entanglement of"rationality"and"emotionality" embodies the author’s view of love and the voice of women’s liberation.

  3. Comparison of Two Translations of Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhu-juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to compare and analyze two Chinese translations of English novel Pride and Prejudice with its original work, from the aspect of idiomaticity, appropriateness and correctness, to improve our ability in using the languages and to help confirm corresponding language elements and improve the quality of translation works in translation.

  4. Trustworthiness perception at zero acquaintance: Consensus, accuracy, and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Hopfensitz, Astrid; Neys, Wim De

    2017-01-01

    Research on trustworthiness perception from faces has unfolded in a way that is strikingly reminiscent of Jussim's narrative in his 2012 book. Jussim's analysis warns us against overemphasizing evidence about prejudice over evidence about accuracy, when both are scant; and reminds us to hold all accounts to the same standards, whether they call on societal biases or true signals.

  5. Interjections in the Performance of Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel "Pride and prejudice"; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and…

  6. On Quality of Marriages in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新; 石志华

    2014-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is the masterpiece of Jane Austen. In her novel, through description of four marriages, Jane Austen expressed such views on marriage:marriages based on economics or superficial qualities such as lust, money, and appearance will inevitably lead to unhappiness, while those based on mutual understanding and true love will be happy and stable.

  7. Race, Color and Prejudice: Solutions From Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    Proposes that there are in the Western Hemisphere at least three examples of societies where the problems of race, color, and prejudice have essentially been solved through the operation of social mechanisms of three different types: Brazil, Jamaica, and Mexico. (Author/JM)

  8. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  9. Playing "Sherlock Holmes": Enhancing Students' Understanding of Prejudice and Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…

  10. On Witchcrafts inRecords of Huayang Kingdom%论《华阳国志》中的巫术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗业恺

    2012-01-01

    As the first local chronicles, Records of Huayang Kingdom has kept a large amount of materials concerning witchcrafts. From the pre-Qin to Wei and Jin periods, our ancestors in Southwest China dealt with interpersonal relationship and the one between human and nature through witchcrafts which were diversified in forms and effective in practice and had brought great help to both common people and governors.%作为中国第一部地方志,《华阳国志》中保存了大量有关巫术的资料。先秦到魏晋时期的西南地区先民通过巫术处理着人与自然、人与人之间的各种关系。这些巫术形式多样、"行之有效",给当时普通民众和统治者都带来了极大帮助。

  11. Case studies of pre- and midtrial prejudice in criminal and civil litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Neil

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents a number of case studies involving pre- and midtrial prejudice in criminal and civil litigation. The cases reveal deficiencies in the way that prejudicial publicity has been conceptualized and operationalized in many simulation experiments. The studies reveal that potential juror prejudices that concern lawyers and judges involve more than just main effects of mass media. Pre- and midtrial prejudice also involves more general prejudices, gossip and rumor, the assertion of community normative values about justice, and conformity pressures. Four categories of prejudice recognized in American law are described and labeled: interest, specific, generic, and conformity prejudice. The case studies also reveal interesting dynamics involving "minimization" and inconsistency in jurors' self-reports of attitudes which contradict a commonly held judicial view that superficial questioning is sufficient to uncover prejudice. Despite identifying deficiencies in the simulation literature, the paper concludes that experimental research is necessary to provide answers to causal questions that case studies and field research cannot ordinarily provide.

  12. Analysis of the Popularity of Witchcraft among the Miao People in West Hunan%湘西苗族地区蛊的流行原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉宝; 麻友世

    2013-01-01

    明清以来巫蛊一直流传在湘西苗族地区,至今还有很多苗族群众依然相信蛊的存在,其根本原因是科学技术落后,但是同样是处在落后的地区,巫蛊在苗族地区更为流行,其主要原因是,在认识论上,巫蛊流行迎合了苗族的阴阳思想;在制度上,过去苗族地区缺乏制止巫蛊流行的社会管理制度;从其产生和流传来看,苗族地区有“匠嘎”对“蛊病”的诊治和社会舆论对巫蛊流行的推波助澜。%Witchcraft has been popular in the western areas of Hunan from the time of Ming and Qing dynasty . Even in modern times , there are many Miao people who still believe in witchcraft in the world . The basic reason is they have little modern knowledge . However , many people who also live in western underdeveloped areas of Hunan do not believe in witchcraft . The other reason may lie in the fact that witchcraft caters to the Miao people's Yin-yang concept , the Miao people lacked the anti -witchcraft system , and the traditional Miao doctor who can diagnose the so called Gu-disease and the public opinion usually propagates it and make it more popular .

  13. THE WITCHCRAFT, BELIEF AND THE FORMATION OF ORDER:A Survey to the Phenomenon of “Witchcraft Infection” in M Township in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%巫蛊、信仰与秩序的形成--以湘西M乡“中蛊”现象为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寒非

    2015-01-01

    本文从湘西自治州M乡的“中蛊”现象出发,重点讨论巫蛊信仰、巫蛊功能以及巫蛊规则等问题。通过田野调查及个案研究发现,巫蛊信仰应该被认为是一种内心的确信,这构成了巫蛊文化的心理基础。巫蛊具有社会整合和社会控制功能,巫蛊功能的发挥一方面依靠作为心理基础的巫蛊信仰,另一方面依靠具体的巫蛊规则。巫蛊规则符合“另类规范”的特征,应该被视为一种典型的“另类规范”,“另类规范”对于地方“小传统”社会秩序的形成及维系起着极为重要的作用。%This paper focuses on witchcraft beliefs, functions, and rules as well as other issues of the phenomenon of “witchcraft infection” in M township, Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.It is found from fieldwork and case studies that witchcraft beliefs should be considered as a confidant in heart, constituting the psychological foundation of witchcraft culture.Witchcraft plays functions of social integration and social control, relying on the psychological basis of witchcraft beliefs on the one hand, and on the specific rules of witchcraft on the other.The witchcraft rules are in line with the features of “alternative rules”, which should be regarded as a typical “alternative rules” .The “alternative rules” play an extremely important role to form and maintain social order in the local “little tradition” .

  14. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities.

  15. Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J

    2002-07-01

    A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.

  16. The Economic Influence on Bourgeois Marriages in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊美

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austen (1775-1817) is one of the greatest realistic novelists in the history of British literature in the 19th century.In Pride and Prejudice,the author describes the British country through several marriages with various characteristics against the social background in the 19th century.Love is the spiritual core of marriage while the economic element inevitably becomes the material basis.

  17. The Economic Influence on Bourgeois Marriages in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊美

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austen(1775-1817) is one of the greatest realistic novelists in the history of British literature in the 19 th century.In Pride and Prejudice,the author describes the British country through several marriages with various characteristics against the social background in the 19 th century.Love is the spiritual core of marriage while the economic element inevitably becomes the material basis.

  18. On the Social Significance in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭

    2010-01-01

    Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, well-known for its bright and witty conversations, has been regarded as one of her most popular among her six completed novels. It seems that she was just interested in stories of several families' daily life in a country village. In this paper, more will be exploited about the deeper social significance in the works, which was not superficially presented but basically existed and not to be ignored.

  19. A Tentative study on marriage views in pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小梅

    2015-01-01

    Pride and prejudice was written by Jane Austen,a distinguished romantic novelistin the 19th century.The first decade of l9th century saw this story.At that time only by marrying a person who belongs to the middle or high class can the women gain their social status.This paper attempts to show Jane Austen‘s views on marriage through the discussion of the marriages of four couples.

  20. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  1. The relationship between physical appearance concerns, disgust, and anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; Ólafsson, Ragnar P; Hansdóttir, Ingunn; Fridjónsdóttir, Thorarna G; Jónsdóttir, Halla

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between physical appearance concerns (fear of fat, body image disturbance; BIDQ), disgust, and anti-fat prejudice (dislike, blame), and tested whether disgust mediates relationships between physical appearance concerns and anti-fat prejudice. Participants (N=1649; age=28 years) provided demographic data and completed measures of anti-fat prejudice, tendency to feel disgust, and physical appearance concerns. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. Univariate and multivariate associations were found between fear of fat, BIDQ, disgust, and anti-fat prejudice for women. For women only, mediation analyses showed that disgust partially mediated relationships between physical appearance concerns and dislike of fat people. For men, univariate and multivariate relationships were found between fear of fat, and dislike and blame of fat people, but disgust was not related to anti-fat prejudice. Newer constructs centering on physical appearance concerns and disgust appear promising candidates for understanding anti-fat prejudice.

  2. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  3. Reconstruing intolerance: abstract thinking reduces conservatives' prejudice against nonnormative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luguri, Jamie B; Napier, Jaime L; Dovidio, John F

    2012-07-01

    Myrdal (1944) described the "American dilemma" as the conflict between abstract national values ("liberty and justice for all") and more concrete, everyday prejudices. We leveraged construal-level theory to empirically test Myrdal's proposition that construal level (abstract vs. concrete) can influence prejudice. We measured individual differences in construal level (Study 1) and manipulated construal level (Studies 2 and 3); across these three studies, we found that adopting an abstract mind-set heightened conservatives' tolerance for groups that are perceived as deviating from Judeo-Christian values (gay men, lesbians, Muslims, and atheists). Among participants who adopted a concrete mind-set, conservatives were less tolerant of these nonnormative groups than liberals were, but political orientation did not have a reliable effect on tolerance among participants who adopted an abstract mind-set. Attitudes toward racial out-groups and dominant groups (e.g., Whites, Christians) were unaffected by construal level. In Study 3, we found that the effect of abstract thinking on prejudice was mediated by an increase in concerns about fairness.

  4. 鬼神病因观与巫术疗法的沿革%Studyonthe Continuity of Witchcraft Therapy Basedon Etiology of Ghosts and Gods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾

    2015-01-01

    虽然对“巫”的抵制历代不绝,然而在我国古代医疗活动中,巫术疗法仍长期占有一席之地。传统的鬼神信仰是这一现象的思想根源,人们相信疾病可由鬼神作祟而致,由此导致了社会对巫术治疗的需求。医学领域中亦形成了相应的鬼神病因观,一些巫术疗法在一定范围内得到医家以及律法的认可。虽然当巫术治疗成为借鬼神诈财惑众的工具时,“巫”会受到严厉的打击,而“医”作为有效的打击手段得到一定的宣扬。但这些打击所针对的并非鬼神信仰本身,由此不可能实现真正意义上的“禁巫”。%Although the prohibition of witchcraft was often carried out , the witchcraft was a long‐term phenomenon in ancient Chinese medical activities .The traditional thought of ghosts and gods was the root of this phenomenon .People believed that the disease can be caused by the ghost haunting and god’s punishment ,which led to the demand for witchcraft therapy .The corresponding idea was formed in the medical field from a pathogenic point of view ,and some witchcraft therapies were applied by the medical community and permitted by law in a certain range .Witchcraft would be energetically prohibited when people used it as tools to defraud the public .As a weapon ,medicine would be promoted .While those fights were not aimed at supernatural beliefs ,it is impossible to realize the prohibition of witchcraft in the true sense .

  5. 'Can't Get Enough': Prejudice, Contact Jobs and the Racial Wage Gap in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Laouénan, Morgane

    2014-01-01

    The wage gap between African-Americans and white Americans is substantial in the US and has slightly narrowed over the past 30 years. Today, blacks have almost achieved the same educational level as whites. There is reason to believe that discrimination driven by prejudice plays a part in explaining this residual wage gap. Whereas racial prejudice has substantially declined over the past 30 years, the wage differential has slightly converged overtime. This 'prejudice puzzle' raises other reas...

  6. Less than human: Dehumanization underlies prejudice toward people with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Laura Ruth Murry

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of prejudice toward people with developmental disabilities, its underlying root in dehumanization and implication for opposition to social policies, and the efficacy of two strategies for reducing this bias. In Study 1 and Study 2, dehumanization significantly predicted both greater prejudice and greater opposition to social policies benefiting people with Autism and Down Syndrome. Furthermore, prejudice significantly mediated the effect of dehumanizat...

  7. Literature and cinema: images of femininity in pride and prejudice Literature and cinema: images of femininity in pride and prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Guardini T. Vasconcelos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available By comparing the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen with an American filmic version from 1940, the article draws attention to the shift in the focus of the two narratives. While the novel provides alternative possibilities for the stories of the female characters, the filmic version chooses to reinforce an idealized image of social harmony. Ao comparar o romance Pride and Prejudice de Jane Austen com uma versão fílmica americana de 1940, o artigo chama atenção para a mudança de enfoque das duas narrativas. Enquanto o romance fornece possibilidades alternativas para as estórias das personagens femininas, a versão fílmica opta por reforçar uma imagem idealizada de harmonia social.

  8. Translation of Conversational Implicatures in Pride and Prejudice%Translation of Conversational Implicatures in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conversational implicatures which attempts to explain the implicit meaning in the utterances, this paper aims to apply the Cooperative Principles of conversational implicatures to the translation of Pride and Prejudice. The paper presents translational strategies through the analysis and translation of the conversational implicatures of the selected chapter of the novel. The conclusion is that conversational implicautures, if practiced properly by the translators, would be of great help to the target readers in understanding the text.

  9. Experiences of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination: a review of measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brohan, Elaine; Slade, Mike; Clement, Sarah; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    .... This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness...

  10. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  11. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice.

  12. Notes on the Witchcraft Classification of the Miao People of the East Dialect%东部方言苗族之巫分类说明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻勇斌

    2016-01-01

    苗族之巫是最具神圣性的古老文化之一,对其进行分类说明,是对其开展调查研究的基础工作。民间和专家学者已然形成的分类,均存在缺陷与不足。本文依据民间形成的关于苗族之巫的内涵最大的概念和苗巫知识体系构造,按照七种分类方法将其进行逐一分类说明。同时,对苗族之巫的核心内容:“巴狄”,进行分类说明。%The Miao people’s witchcraft is the most sacred ancient culture,whose classification is a fundamental job for survey and research. The folk and expert classifications have their own shortcomings. Based on seven types,this paper attempts to make notes on the classification by means of the most extensive folk concept and the Miao witchcraft knowledge system. Meanwhile,Badi,the core content of Miao witchcraft,is illustrated by types.

  13. Scapegoating Non-Conforming Identities: Witchcraft Hysteria in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Yılmaz Demirkaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scapegoating Non-Conforming Identities: Witchcraft Hysteria in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom Abstract When people are faced with different takes on their traditions that they firmly cling to so as to remain being who they purport to be, they are generally inclined to ostracise those who are different. In this sense, ostracising people by discarding them from their community is, metaphorically speaking, the same as leaving the goat in the wilderness as the verses from Leviticus explain the history of scapegoating. Just as the goat story from Leviticus, political and patriarchal power groups blame non-conforming individuals for all the problems in society, and ostracise them as witches only to take the upper hand, and enjoy absolute power. The pattern of punishment proves to be the same, that is, to leave the victim alone in a place away from home, be it the wilderness for a goat, or the loneliness and isolation for an individual. Besides, one of the most used and most efficient ways of scapegoating people, as the evidence shows, is to rekindle the tall-tale of witchcraft. This paper explores how and why witchcraft is deployed as a scapegoating strategy to silence and stigmatise non-conforming individuals on the pretext of maintaining order in society in Arthur Miler’s The Crucible (1953 and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom (1976 respectively.

  14. Rupture process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Wennerberg, Leif

    1989-01-01

    We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and rupture velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4 Hz) seismic energy radiated by this shock. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10 sec after initiation of rupture. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8 km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. The azimuthal distribution of amplitudes for the second subevent can be largely explained by a rupture that propagated about 2 km to the southeast along the Superstition Hills fault at a velocity about equal to the P-wave velocity. An alternative model with rupture propagating to the northeast along a conjugate fault plane can also account for the observed directivity of this subevent, but it is not supported by the aftershock distribution. The third subevent ruptured to the southeast along an 8-km long portion of the Superstition Hills fault at about the shear-wave velocity. This rupture propagation caused the relatively large accelerations and velocities observed in strong-motion records for stations southeast of the hypocenter. The long time intervals between the subevents and their relative proximity to each other indicate a very slow component to the rupture development. The southern half of the Superstition Hills fault did not generate significant high-frequency strong ground motion, although it showed substantial co-seismic surface displacement. The subevents are situated along the same northern portion of the fault

  15. What is Racism? Othering, Prejudice and Hate-motivated Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Jefferson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s concern is the current difficulty, in journalism, the academy and politics, of discussing questions to do with race, ethnicity, difference and immigration because of the fear of being called a racist. It starts with an analysis of biographical interview data drawn from fifteen people who had variously acquired the label racist and who were part of a small-scale study into racism in the Midlands city of Stoke-on-Trent, UK conducted between 2003 and 2005. The interviews used the free association narrative interview method. This analysis revealed that most people do not consider themselves racist and that having a conviction for a racially aggravated offence or being a member of a far right organisation was not able to differentiate racists from non-racists. It also revealed a spectrum of attitudes towards immigrants or particular ethnic groups: strong expressions of hatred at one end of the spectrum; strong prejudicial feelings in the middle; and a feeling that ‘outsider’ groups should not benefit at the expense of ‘insiders’ (called ‘othering’ at the other end. The turn to theory for assistance revealed that, although hatred, prejudice and ‘othering’ are not the same thing, and do not have the same origins, they have become elided. This is primarily because cognitive psychology’s hostility to psychoanalysis marginalised hatred whilst its exclusive preoccupation with prejudice came effectively to define racism at the individual level. Progress in thinking about racism might consist of abolishing the term and returning to thinking about hatred, prejudice and ‘othering’ separately.

  16. How communication affects the minds of senders and recipients : stereotypes, prejudice, and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation provides insights into the effects of communicative roles on stereotyping and prejudice. It has generally been assumed that communicating stereotypes and prejudices serves to strengthen these beliefs in senders and recipients. Whereas we agreed that senders would strengthen

  17. The Cortisol Response to Anticipated Intergroup Interactions Predicts Self-Reported Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Scheepers, D.; Ellemers, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to antic

  18. Immortality of Prejudice in Striving Ubuntu: Case Studies of Community Managed Schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…

  19. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD): Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing…

  20. Individual differences in ideological attitudes and prejudice: evidence from peer-report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J Christopher; Kämpfe-Hargrave, Nicole; Riemann, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    Our knowledge on the personality basis of ideological attitudes and prejudice, while based on a substantial body of research, suffers from a potentially serious methodological limitation: an overreliance on the method of self-reports. Across 2 studies (Ns = 193, 424), we examined associations between the Big Five personality dimensions, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and generalized prejudice, using both self-report and peer-report data stemming from 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) peer rater/s. Correlational and regression analyses as well as structural equation modeling showed that (a) the associations between personality dimensions, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were largely similar to previous research for both data sources; (b) RWA and prejudice showed a similar level of self-peer agreement to personality dimensions; (c) most of the known associations between personality, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were replicated also when measured by independent methods; (d) peer reports had some incremental validity in predicting ideological attitudes and prejudice; and (e) there was evidence that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness predicted prejudice directly and not only indirectly via RWA and SDO, respectively. Implications for the status of RWA, SDO, and prejudice as individual-difference constructs and for their bases in personality dimensions are discussed.

  1. The Influence of Multicultural Training on Perceived Multicultural Counseling Competencies and Implicit Racial Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Brossart, Daniel F.; Reyes, Carla J.; Conoley, Collie W.; Phoummarath, Marion J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of multicultural training on multicultural counseling competencies and implicit racial prejudice. Results of a multilevel modeling analysis showed that only the multicultural counseling course was related to a decrease in implicit racial prejudice and an increase in cultural self-awareness. Implications for…

  2. (Some) Things Are Different Now: An Optimistic Look at Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample reason to be discouraged about the prevalence of sexual prejudice. As Herek (2000) notes, the majority of adult respondents in the United States report that homosexual behavior is wrong or "unnatural." The author readily acknowledges, then, that it is overly optimistic to believe that sexual prejudice is a thing of the past or that…

  3. Cultural Identity and Experiences of Prejudice and Discrimination of Afghan and Iranian Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Koh, Jane G.; Mill, Catriona

    2008-01-01

    In culturally diverse and immigrant receiving societies, immigrant youth can be subject to prejudice and discrimination. Such experiences can impact on immigrant youth's cultural identity and influence their psychosocial outcomes. This paper presents findings of a study that examined cultural identity and experiences of prejudice and…

  4. Raising Awareness of HIV-Related Stigma and Its Associated Prejudice and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D.; Francis, E.

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS will remain a problem for a long time. Many people with HIV/AIDS still live in fear of discovery because of the prevalent stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination. This article examines how HIV-related stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination can be addressed in a classroom--in the field of education. (Contains…

  5. 42 CFR 406.38 - Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government error. 406.38 Section 406.38 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Hospital Insurance § 406.38 Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government error. (a) If...

  6. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices.

  7. The NCBI Prejudice Reduction Model: A Process for Building a Multicultural Campus Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Erin A.; Slavin, Dvora

    1989-01-01

    The National Coalition Building Institute Prejudice Reduction Model, a tool for campuses to use in bringing about change in attitude and to enable people of diverse backgrounds to work together toward shared goals, is described. It teaches skills in interrupting prejudice and in conflict resolution. (MLW)

  8. The World Ahead: Black Parents Prepare Their Children for Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Presents interviews with Blacks about past experiences with racial discrimination and the impact of integration and prejudice on their children. Discusses the importance of parental guidance in teaching young Blacks about their cultural heritage and how to cope with prejudice and discrimination. (SA)

  9. Thoughts of Marriage in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 李春澎

    2007-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is a great realistic novel of the 18th century, in which Jane Austen presents us a central topic on marriage: the plots of the novels and the actions of the characters revolve around marriage.The thesis analyzes women's opinion on marriage in different two times-the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century and modern society. How the novel influence the people's views of marriage in that period, and what we can learn about marriage from it.

  10. Contrasting the anti-vaccine prejudice: a public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stefanelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, there has been always opposition to vaccines. This may be due to several factors, some of which are : 1 the vaccines are given to healthy individuals to prevent disease; 2 the perception of the vaccine value paradoxically declines when the use of a vaccine reduces or eliminates the risk of a disease. Contrasting anti-vaccine movements/ feelings is important in order to keep vaccinate coverage rates high. Specific training of health care workers and other vaccine providers is needed in order to understand the reasons of reluctant parents, and to deal with prejudice and misinformation.

  11. Stereotypes and Prejudices in HR Industry in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Simina GHERASIM-ARDELEAN; Maura GORAŞ

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we aimed to reveal the effects of the crisis in HR area, the stereotypes and prejudices clients have about Romanian HR companies, training programs and trainers and the ideal profile of a trainer. The effects of the crisis in HR are: the stagnation of the number of clients in the company’s portfolio, the decreasing in the number of contracted training, the decreasing of the training prices and project-based contracts with trainers instead of permanent job contracts. We find that...

  12. Jane Austen and her representative work Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许若冰

    2011-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is the representative work of Jane Austen in which she narrates a story about love and marriage. Through a female's sight, she portrays different female characters in the story by minute description and humor words. And from heroine Elizabeth. we can learn Jane Austen's thought corning love and marriage. From the story, we can learn living condition for female in that period. And we study what Austin want to state about the relationship for love and marriage.

  13. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  14. A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2006-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently

  15. Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary Pupils in Northern England: Are the Predictors at the Individual, School or Neighbourhood Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Adrian; Wicker, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Outgroup Prejudice Index (see "Research in Education," 83, 2010) to see what factors best predict levels of outgroup prejudice among adolescents living in northern England. A sample of 2,502 eleven- to sixteen-year-old secondary school pupils completed a questionnaire that included measures of outgroup prejudice,…

  16. 21 CFR 170.103 - Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket... ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.103 Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN). A manufacturer or supplier may withdraw an FCN without prejudice to...

  17. Putting prejudice into perspective: does perceived suitability for adoption depend on sexual orientation more than on other applicant features?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Scali, T.

    2015-01-01

    Most prejudice studies focus on a single aspect, for instance, sexual prejudice, overlooking other individual characteristics or multiple minority status (i.e., identity intersections). As a drawback, this approach could overestimate specific sources of prejudice. We demonstrated this empirically in

  18. Examining the role of positive and negative intergroup contact and anti-immigrant prejudice in Brexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Seger, Charles R; Vermue, Marieke

    2017-06-21

    This study examined the interplay of anti-immigrant prejudice and intergroup contact experience on voting intentions within Britain's 2016 referendum on its membership in the European Union. In the days before the referendum, we asked more than 400 British people how they planned to vote. We measured a number of demographic factors expected to predict voting intentions as well as individuals' prejudice towards and intergroup contact experience (positive and negative) with EU immigrants. Anti-immigrant prejudice was a strong correlate of support for Brexit. Negative intergroup contact experience was associated with higher anti-immigrant prejudice and, in turn, increased support for 'Leave'. Positive intergroup contact, on the other hand, seemed to play a reparative role, predicting lower prejudice and increasing support for 'Remain'. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Dambrun, Michaël; Michinov, Nicolas; Duarte, Sandra

    2003-04-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been proposed as an important variable in the explanation of prejudice. We distinguish between three conceptualizations of SDO: SDO as a personality trait (personality model), SDO as a moderator of the effects of situational variables (Person x Situation model), and SDO as a mediator of the effect of social position on prejudice (group socialization model [GSM]). Four studies (N = 1.657) looking at the relations between social positions, SDO, and prejudice in a natural setting and in a laboratory setting provide strong support for the GSM. In contrast to previous correlational findings, there is evidence of a cause (dominant social position), an effect (prejudice increases), and a mediator (SDO). These results suggest new perspectives on the integration of individual and contextual determinants of prejudice.

  20. Irrational categorization, natural intolerance and reasonable discrimination: lay representations of prejudice and racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgou, Lia; Condor, Susan

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores how the constructs of 'prejudice' and 'racism' were used and understood by respondents in an interview study concerning the settlement of Albanian refugees in Greece. Analysis indicated the existence of multiple, potentially contradictory, common sense understandings of prejudice and racism, analogous to some accounts of the prejudice construct in academic social psychology. However, notwithstanding the fact that respondents displayed multiple understandings of racism or prejudice in theory, these abstract formulations were rarely employed to account for actual instances of discrimination. Specific discriminatory acts against Albanian people were framed instead as matters of fear and risk. By virtue of being cast within a problematic of in/security rather than within the discursive frame of prejudice, particular hostile actions against the Albanian refugees could be glossed as reasonable and understandable.

  1. The effect of weight controllability beliefs on prejudice and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Einar B; Loi, Natasha M; Breadsell, Dana

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test for the presence of prejudice towards obesity and whether weight controllability beliefs information reduces this prejudice and impacts on a person's own healthy eating self-efficacy. The experiment randomly allocated 346 participants (49 males) into one of three conditions: controllable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about personal control about diet and exercise); uncontrollable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about genes, factors in society); and a control condition with no information given. Prejudice was present in 81% of the sample. High prejudice was predicted by low self-efficacy for exercise and weight. Weight controllability beliefs information had no significant effect on prejudice levels or exercise or healthy eating self-efficacy levels. Future research directions are discussed.

  2. Psychological change in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, R

    1989-01-01

    In the spirit of Jerome Frank's (1973) pioneering studies of universal characteristics in psychotherapeutic change, I have tried to demonstrate that character development in Pride and Prejudice can be understood in terms of psychoanalytic process. In the course of this thesis certain observations have emerged. Change occurs in the context of a relationship intense enough to disturb the tendency of personality to homeostasis (engagement). The change-inducing relationship is composed of a sequence of effects and countereffects (mutual influence). For these influences to be salutory (therapeutic) there must be a directional pull provided by the attitude of the primary agent of change, a pull that resonates with important motivations of the object of change (directionality). In Pride and Prejudice we recurrently found self-concept, and particularly the question of worth, to be an important interface of these phenomena. As therapists we are familiar with this as a clinical issue. Study of the novel suggests that self-esteem may play a central role in motivating therapeutic change. This observation raises intriguing unanswered questions regarding the conceptualization of self-esteem in psychoanalytic thinking.

  3. [Prejudice, women, and psychiatry. As crazy as your mom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobredo, Laura Dolores

    2007-01-01

    If being named somehow is condition of human existencies and to a certain extent also makes them determinate, then the dimension of prejudice is perhaps irreducible; at least in this sense, as a previous idea being the site of understanding, reflection and production. The present work starts from the ideas of the production and transformation of reality produced by the theoretical developments that describe and legitimate the practice of a certain discipline and the notion of gender as a socio historical category referring to the social relations of power and subordination established between males and females and are translated, through an extrapolative operation, into social inequalities. By going through the psychoanalytic conceptualisation of the Oedipus Complex in women, an understanding is made possible of some prejudices affecting psychiatrists in thier practice with women pacients. An attempt to read from a particular theoretical framework that makes these women what is called mad, starts from the history of those that name them in such a manner, with reference to the nexus with the mother. Such nexus is transited by each, with a better or worse destiny. Taking into account the responsibility of a determinate creation of subjectivity from the position of subject of the enunciation that is produced in the daily task from a particular ethical position.

  4. Reporting risk, producing prejudice: how news reporting on obesity shapes attitudes about health risk, policy, and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2014-06-01

    News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice.

  5. The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bijleveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50 and blatant (r = .53 prejudice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups, experienced threat (or its biological substrate is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.

  6. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. The effects of death reminders on sex differences in prejudice toward gay men and lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Russell J; Saucier, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Terror management research shows that death reminders (mortality salience) increase prejudice toward worldview violators. Two studies investigated whether death reminders exacerbated differences in heterosexual men's and women's reports of sexual prejudice (negative attitudes based on sexual orientation). Results showed that following death reminders, sex differences in anti-gay discrimination and affective prejudice toward gay men (but not toward lesbians) were larger, and that these increased sex differences were mediated by gender role beliefs. The current studies suggest that researchers may attenuate the effects of death reminders by lessening the perceived worldview violation in addition to alleviating the existential terror of death.

  8. New Evidence of Construct Validity Problems for Pettigrew and Meertens' (1995) Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice.

  9. Civil unions in Vermont: political attitudes, religious fundamentalism, and sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Donald A; Cawman, Audrey J

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont passed civil union legislation that granted same-sex couples the same legal rights as traditionally married opposite sex couples. This study examined the influence that sexual prejudice, religious fundamentalism, social dominance orientation, and support for civil unions had on voters' choice for governor in the subsequent election. Results showed that support for civil unions was a primary motivator for many voters in the election, and that sexual prejudice, religious fundamentalism, and social dominance orientation were unique predictors of voters' choices. These results show that prejudice can be a key factor in determining whom voters elect to represent them in government.

  10. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  11. Prejudice as moral action in Christian ethical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus J. Myburgh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the many approaches regarding the use of the Bible, the ethical work in biblical interpretation and the work of being concerned with an ethical issue affecting the Christian as a moral agent cannot be separated from one another. This article deals with that affinity between the approach of the interpreter as moral agent, using the Bible in his or her ethical decision-making and aspects that constitute fundamental starting points for him or her in this ethical decision-making, with regard to the liberation of prejudices as that which makes understanding for moral action possible. It is maintained in the article that prejudices that are conformable to the ways in which responsibility should qualify Christian ethics in general make for responsible use of the Bible in Christian ethical decision-making. Prejudices (pre-understanding that are grounded in an ethics of responsibility allow for the interpreter to adhere to the truth claim of a text, which can only be had from hermeneutical work that promotes prejudices in an intentional and critical way as the link between past text and current interpreter.�--- Abstract translated into Sipedi ---Khuet�o ya dikakanyo t�a mosekaseki e le tiro ya maitshwaro mo go t�eeng diphetho ka maitshwaro a malebaSenaganwaGe re �edit�e ditsela t�a go fapana t�a ka fao Bibele e �omi�wago ka gona, mo�omo wa maitshwaro a maleba tlhathollong le tshekakong ya Bibele le mo�omo wa go tshwenyega ka taba ya maitshwaro a maleba ao a huet�ago Mokriste bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro di ka se aroganywe. Pampiri ye e tlo swaragana le tswalano magareng ga mosekaseki bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro, a diri�a Bibele mo go t�eeng diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba le mafapa ao a bopago motheo wa mathomo fao go t�ewago diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba, mabapi le tokologo ya maitshwaro a botse e le seo se kgonagat�ago kwe�i�o ya tiro ya maitshwaro. Mo pampiring ye re t�ea gore maitshwaro a

  12. Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2013-12-01

    The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Egalitarianism and Sexual Prejudice: the Role of Ingroup Distinctiveness Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Berent, Jacques; Mugny, Gabriel; Faniko, Klea

    2015-10-13

    The present research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate their ingroup from gay men moderates the link between egalitarianism and sexual prejudice. In two experiments conducted in Switzerland (N = 74) and Ecuador (N = 104), we assessed heterosexual men's endorsement of egalitarian values and experimentally manipulated scientific evidence supporting or refuting the existence of biological differences between heterosexual and gay men (the biological theory). The main dependent variable was attitude towards homosexuality. As predicted, the interaction between egalitarianism and the biological theory was significant in both experiments, t(67) = 3.18, p = .002, ηp 2 = .13, and t(100) = 2.26, p = .026, ηp 2 = .04, respectively. Egalitarianism increased positive attitudes towards homosexuality only when science supported the existence of biological differences between heterosexual and gay men. We discuss the relevance of this finding to intergroup relations.

  14. Prejudice as moral action in Christian ethical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus J. Myburgh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the many approaches regarding the use of the Bible, the ethical work in biblical interpretation and the work of being concerned with an ethical issue affecting the Christian as a moral agent cannot be separated from one another. This article deals with that affinity between the approach of the interpreter as moral agent, using the Bible in his or her ethical decision-making and aspects that constitute fundamental starting points for him or her in this ethical decision-making, with regard to the liberation of prejudices as that which makes understanding for moral action possible. It is maintained in the article that prejudices that are conformable to the ways in which responsibility should qualify Christian ethics in general make for responsible use of the Bible in Christian ethical decision-making. Prejudices (pre-understanding that are grounded in an ethics of responsibility allow for the interpreter to adhere to the truth claim of a text, which can only be had from hermeneutical work that promotes prejudices in an intentional and critical way as the link between past text and current interpreter.�--- Abstract translated into Sipedi ---Khuet�o ya dikakanyo t�a mosekaseki e le tiro ya maitshwaro mo go t�eeng diphetho ka maitshwaro a malebaSenaganwaGe re �edit�e ditsela t�a go fapana t�a ka fao Bibele e �omi�wago ka gona, mo�omo wa maitshwaro a maleba tlhathollong le tshekakong ya Bibele le mo�omo wa go tshwenyega ka taba ya maitshwaro a maleba ao a huet�ago Mokriste bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro di ka se aroganywe. Pampiri ye e tlo swaragana le tswalano magareng ga mosekaseki bjalo ka moemedi wa maitshwaro, a diri�a Bibele mo go t�eeng diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba le mafapa ao a bopago motheo wa mathomo fao go t�ewago diphetho t�a maitshwaro a maleba, mabapi le tokologo ya maitshwaro a botse e le seo se kgonagat�ago kwe�i�o ya tiro ya maitshwaro. Mo pampiring ye re t�ea gore maitshwaro a

  15. Jane Austen's Feminine Consciousness That Reflected in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童薇

    2011-01-01

    Jane Austen is one of the most famous female novelists in the world.Among her works,"Pride and Prejudice" is her most outstanding representative.The story of "Pride and Prejudice" happened in Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.At that time,Women regarded marriage as goods to climb up the upper class and to obtain the financial support and their attitudes towards marriage was affected by material factors in determine way.The story of this novel and the behavior of the characters develop around marriage.It mainly talks about Elizabeth,Jane,Charlotte and Lydia these four young ladies' marriages.There are three kinds of motivations of or attitudes towards marriage that are presented for manifestation.First,Charlotte's marriage to Mr.Collins is just for money and social position.Second,Lydia's marriage to Wickham is for beauty regardless of personal morality.Third,is the marriage of Elizabeth and Darcy and that of Jane and Mr.Bingley which are for love and personal merits.Their love stories reveal different views to marriage among young women of the middle class and express Jane Austen her own attitude towards marriage.What's more important,we find that Jane Austen concerns about women's lives and their unfair conditions by means of her feminine consciousness.By examining Jane Austen's social conditions that she lived in and her experiences and analyzing these four marriages,this paper attempts to find the Austen's views of marriage and her feminine consciousness that reflected in this novel.

  16. Interjections in the performance of Jane Austen's Pride and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2010-08-01

    Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel Pride and prejudice; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and actors in the film production (Birtwistle and Langton in Pride and prejudice [TV Mini-series]. London: BBC TV, 1995) whose script, despite modest selectiveness, adheres most closely of all film versions to Austen's original text. Overall, the respective frequencies of occurrence of interjections were 136 < 141 < 398. Of the 136 interjections in Austen's printed text, 96% were attributable to women's roles, particularly Elizabeth Bennet and her mother. The second of these figures (141) is an average across all six readers. Hence, readers added a very modest number of interjections. But the actresses and actors added a large number of interjections. The dramatic oral expressiveness of the film performance is largely carried by and reflected in the actresses' and to a lesser extent in the actors' use of these primary interjections. These findings can well be related to Nübling's (Zeitschrift für Semiotik 26:11-45, 2004, Duden: Die Grammatik (pp 573-640). Mannheim: Dudenverlag, 2005) hypothesis of a spectrum of interjectional expressivity. But Ameka's (J Pragmat 18:101-118, 1992) linguistic hypothesis that pauses will both precede and follow interjections was once again found to be empirically groundless. A large percentage (96%) of the interjections in the film performance served the function of initializing various units of discourse, either after a pause before articulatory phrases, or before a sentence and/or turn. Both the emotional and initiating functions of interjections are characteristic of conceptual and medial orality rather than of conceptual and medial literacy. Accordingly, their usage throws further light on a

  17. A Study on Differences between Kew Gardens and Pride and Prejudice in Form, Techniques and Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hua-jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to briefly summarize the major differences in form, techniques and characterization between modern fiction and conventional realistic novels by comparatively analyzing the typical masterpiece in the two fields: Kew Gardens and Pride and Prejudice.

  18. Multisensory stimulation with other-race faces and the reduction of racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estudillo, Alejandro J; Bindemann, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether multisensory stimulation with other-race faces can reduce racial prejudice. In three experiments, the faces of Caucasian observers were stroked with a cotton bud while they watched a black face being stroked in synchrony on a computer screen. This was compared with a neutral condition, in which no tactile stimulation was administered (Experiment 1 and 2), and with a condition in which observers' faces were stroked in asynchrony with the onscreen face (Experiment 3). In all experiments, observers experienced an enfacement illusion after synchronous stimulation, whereby they reported to embody the other-race face. However, this effect did not produce concurrent changes in implicit or explicit racial prejudice. This outcome contrasts with other procedures for the reduction of self-other differences that decrease racial prejudice, such as behavioural mimicry and intergroup contact. We speculate that enfacement is less effective for such prejudice reduction because it does not encourage perspective-taking.

  19. Attitudes of prejudice as a predictor of cultural competence among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B; Kimble, Laura P; Gunby, Susan Sweat; Andrews, Margaret M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between attitudes of prejudice and cultural competence among nursing students. Using a mixed-methods design, a convenience sample of students (N = 129) currently enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program was recruited via Web networking. Data regarding attitudes of prejudice, cultural competence, prior cultural experience, and integration of cultural competence were obtained via a Web-based survey. Multiple linear regression was used to predict cultural knowledge, attitudes, and consciousness. Although all three regression models were statistically significant, the significant predictors varied within each model. Greater prejudice was a significant predictor of less culturally competent attitudes toward providing nursing care. Existing prejudice among nursing students needs to be addressed to help promote positive cultural attitudes and, ultimately, cultural competent nursing care.

  20. Interventions to reduce sexual prejudice: a study-space analysis and meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoş, Sebastian E; Berger, Israel; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.

  1. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  2. Austen's "Pride and Prejudice": Comic Vision and the Teaching of Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the teachable qualities of Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice." Examines the vigorous diction, plausible characterization, and comic vision that make the novel so effective in stimulating students' thought. (SR)

  3. Attraction, personality, and prejudice: liking none of the people most of the time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, William G; Bruce, Jennifer; Sheese, Brad E; Tobin, Renée M

    2007-10-01

    Unfavorable evaluations of others reflect both specific prejudice and generalized negativity. Study 1 examined self-reported norms and personal endorsement of prejudices to various social groups. Study 2 used judgments of overweight persons to examine links among prejudice, personality, and prosocial motives. Study 3 examined negative evaluations and social distancing during interpersonal interaction. Study 4 observed the translation of negative evaluations into overt discrimination. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the behavior of the target and observed its interactive effects with weight, personality, and prosocial motives. Results suggest that prejudice can emerge from otherwise unprejudiced persons when situations permit justification. Patterns in negative evaluations are linked distinctively to (a) the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness, (b) proximal social cognition and motives, and (c) discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Interreligious education in the context of Social Psychology research on attitudes and prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rothgangel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s, interreligious education has become an integral component of thereligious education debate. Regardless of the affective level that interreligious education seeksto provide, the desired changes in attitude and prejudice require one to take into account adiversity of research on attitude and prejudice. Accordingly, the goal of the present article is toencourage the adoption of psychological theories of prejudice with a view to the prospectsthey offer to interreligious education. However, because the field of psychological prejudiceresearch is complex, we will only be discussing those theories that, firstly, reflect the presentstate of prejudice psychology and, secondly, are of particular relevance to interreligiouseducation; these are cognitive theories (accentuation theory, illusory correlation theory,attribution theory, the social identity theory, and social learning theory. Emanating from thisreview, the article will go on to reflect different strategies of attitude change for interreligiouslearning.

  5. Similarities betweenSense and Sensibility andPride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Nan

    2012-01-01

    Both as the noted British novelist Jane Austen' s most famous works, Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice share great similarities in character building, recurrences, one technique -irony andthe theme.

  6. Austen's "Pride and Prejudice": Comic Vision and the Teaching of Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the teachable qualities of Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice." Examines the vigorous diction, plausible characterization, and comic vision that make the novel so effective in stimulating students' thought. (SR)

  7. Gurinder Chadha's Bride and Prejudice: a transnational journey through time and space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliete Aldea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    ...); these changes, however, go hand in hand with a "global fear" of a potentially threatening "other", which fuel people to take defensive actions that re-create "protective" prejudices and boundaries (Bauman, 2006: 97...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF RELIGION, SUPERSTITION, AND PERCEIVED GENDER INEQUALITY ON THE DEGREE OF SUICIDE INTENT: A STUDY OF SERIOUS ATTEMPTERS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIE; XU, HUILAN

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies. PMID:18214067

  9. Estimates of velocity structure and source depth using multiple P waves from aftershocks of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Event record sections, which are constructed by plotting seismograms from many closely spaced earthquakes recorded on a few stations, show multiple free-surface reflections (PP, PPP, PPPP) of the P wave in the Imperial Valley. The relative timing of these arrivals is used to estimate the strength of the P-wave velocity gradient within the upper 5 km of the sediment layer. Consistent with previous studies, a velocity model with a value of 1.8 km/sec at the surface increasing linearly to 5.8 km/sec at a depth of 5.5 km fits the data well. The relative amplitudes of the P and PP arrivals are used to estimate the source depth for the aftershock distributions of the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills main shocks. Although the depth determination has large uncertainties, both the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills aftershock sequencs appear to have similar depth distribution in the range of 4 to 10 km. -Author

  10. Three-dimensional records of surface displacement on the Superstition Hills fault zone associated with the earthquakes of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.; Saxton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Seven quadrilaterals, constructed at broadly distributed points on surface breaks within the Superstition Hills fault zone, were repeatedly remeasured after the pair of 24 November 1987 earthquakes to monitor the growing surface displacement. Changes in the dimensions of the quadrilaterals are recalculated to right-lateral and extensional components at millimeter resolution, and vertical components of change are resolved at 0.2mm precision. The displacement component data for four of the seven quadrilaterals record the complete fault movement with respect to an October 1986 base. The three-dimensional motion vectors all describe nearly linear trajectories throughout the observation period, and they indicate smooth shearing on their respective fault surfaces. The inclination of the shear surfaces is generally nearly vertical, except near the south end of the Superstition Hills fault zone where two strands dip northeastward at about 70??. Surface displacement on these strands is right reverse. Another kind of deformation, superimposed on the fault displacements, has been recorded at all quadrilateral sites. It consists of a northwest-southeast contraction or component of contraction that ranged from 0 to 0.1% of the quadrilateral lengths between November 1987 and April 1988. -from Authors

  11. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD): Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Velasco

    2015-01-01

    Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing the past, understanding the present, and preparing for the future of communication in a global society (Sadri and Flammia, 2011, p. 1...

  12. Homophobia or sexism? A systematic review of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.

  13. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.; Justin R. Garcia

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or neg...

  14. The Impact of the Feminist Heroine: Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chun CHANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines the feminist significance of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. The feminist view found in Pride and Prejudice is well-supported in literary criticism yet little discussion has focused on Elizabeth’s feminism as seen in the prominent contrast to her female foils within the novel, namely Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. Each of these women conforms to the socially imposed gender norms of Regency England, while Elizabeth artfully challen...

  15. Henri Tajfel's 'cognitive aspects of prejudice' and the psychology of bigotry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper pays tribute to Tajfel's classic article 'Cognitive aspects of prejudice' and re-examines its central arguments. Tajfel's paper is important for outlining a social cognitive approach to the study of prejudice and also for refuting of what Tajfel called the 'blood-and-guts' approach. Taking Tajfel's proposition that social psychology is not value-free, the current paper examines the moral and political view of 'Cognitive aspects' and also the gaps in its approach to the study of prejudice. It is suggested that this cognitive approach has difficulty in accounting for extreme bigotry, at least without recourse to the motivational themes that the approach seeks to exclude. In particular, there would be limitations in applying this approach in order to understand the Holocaust. Indeed, Tajfel did not attempt to do so, for reasons that are discussed. Tajfel's Social Identity Theory (SIT) has similar limitations. The paper also examines Tajfel's use of the term 'depersonalization', which he described as a 'milder' form of dehumanization of out-groups. Later social identity theorists have tended to use 'depersonalization' differently, shifting their attention to in-groups. Their perspective moves away from understanding the topic of prejudice in the way that can be found in Tajfel's 'Cognitive aspects of prejudice'. Finally, the present paper suggests how extreme prejudice might be studied without returning to the motivational 'blood-and-guts' approach that Tajfel so cogently criticized.

  16. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  17. Racial Prejudice and Spending on Drug Rehabilitation: The Role of Attitudes Toward Blacks and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Amie L; Bonn, Scott; Wilson, George

    2010-12-01

    We enhance understanding of the prejudice-induced "color coding" phenomenon among whites by determining whether racial and ethnic prejudices are associated with a previously unexplored policy outcome, spending on drug rehabilitation. We examine attitudes toward both blacks and Latinos; the latter is a group largely ignored in previous research. We assess the impact of several types of racial/ethnic views, including those that manifest modern/indirect prejudice (e.g., stereotypes about violence, individualistic causal attributions) and those that reflect social-distance-based traditional prejudice (opposition to residential proximity and to interracial marriage). These relationships are examined using data from the General Social Survey. Bivariate results support the linkage between both traditional and modern prejudice and rehabilitation spending. Logistic regression analyses also indicate that support for rehabilitation is racialized: Attributing race differences in socioeconomic outcomes to "structural" factors, namely discrimination and lack of chance for education, is associated with believing rehabilitation spending is inadequate, controlling for the effects of other racial/ethnic attitudes and background factors. The relationship between this measure of modern prejudice and the outcome is consistent with color coding. The implications of the findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research that further examine the scope of color coding are offered.

  18. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events.

  19. 《五十二病方》中的巫术与民俗%Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海燕

    2010-01-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore.A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty -two Diseases ) indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures.The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases ) could be divided into supplication,Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc.Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of Wushierbingfang ( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases).%巫医混杂是古代早期医学的一个重要特征.战国时期中的少量巫方的保留,正是医混杂现象在医学文献中残留的痕迹.中记载的巫方可分为祝由、禹步、祓除、傩礼、桃符等.巫同时又演变为民风民俗,术的实施常常表现民风民俗的形式,的记载对此也有一定反映.

  20. “Who Are These Foreigners Anyway?” The Content of the Term Foreigner and Its Impact on Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Asbrock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term foreigners is often used in prejudice research to analyze prejudice toward immigrants, but it is not specified which groups respondents have in mind. In the present study, we analyzed the content of the term foreigner and its impact on prejudice toward foreigners in a German national probability sample (N = 1,763. Results indicated that most respondents think of people with a Turkish migration background, but regional differences between East and West Germany occurred. In addition, the different individual meanings connected with the term foreigner go along with different levels of prejudice against foreigners: Differences in prejudice toward foreigners between East and West Germany are partially due to different groups associated with the term foreigner. Theoretical and practical implications for quantitative prejudice research are discussed.

  1. "It ain't all as bad as it may seem": young Black lesbians' responses to sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah J; Valenti, Maria T

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which young, Black lesbians manage their sexual minority identity when experiencing sexual prejudice. Fourteen Black lesbians between the ages of 16 and 24 participated in semistructured interviews. Instances of sexual prejudice and the young women's responses were thematically analyzed using open and axial qualitative coding techniques. Results indicated that participants experienced sexual prejudice frequently and even within the lesbian community. Responses to sexual prejudice included: cognitive reframing of heterosexist messages, passing, gaining support from self-created gay families, and fighting back (physically and verbally) in the event of isolated instances of sexual prejudice. Analysis focuses on how gender identity relates to experiences of sexual prejudice and identity management strategies. Findings suggest that there are parallels between the management strategies of these women and young, Black gay and bisexual males and between these women and Black women who are coping with sexism and racism.

  2. The moderating effects of contact with lesbian and gay friends on the relationships among religious fundamentalism, sexism, and sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which contact with lesbian and gay friends moderated the effects of religious fundamentalism and sexism on sexual prejudice. The authors gathered data from 269 heterosexual adults living in Texas. Results indicate that the effects of religious fundamentalism on sexual prejudice were reduced when contact was high. However, the positive association between modern sexism and sexual prejudice was not moderated by contact. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  3. A psychological flexibility-based intervention for modulating the impact of stigma and prejudice: a descriptive review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Masuda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been growing efforts to understandand modulate stigma and prejudice from the standpoint of the psychological flexibility model, a pragmatic model of complex human behavior. The present paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence on the applicability of the psychological flexibility model, and its applied strategy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, to stigma and prejudice. Preliminary findings suggest that the psychological flexibility model and ACT are promising avenues for reducing stigma and prejudice; however, further investigation and refinement of the model and ACT are crucial for significantly ameliorating human suffering related to stigma and prejudice.

  4. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Above and beyond superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    revitalizing of the body's own vis medicatrix naturae, from the early 20th century onwards medical anthropologists (especially those who became interested in the `savage mind') have built up an equally rigorous theory of symbolic efficacy in terms of narratives, symbols and a kind of cognitive homeostasis....... It was precisely as a mediating link between the somatic and the symbolic that I suggest a decriminalized placebo effect (as opposed to suggestion) could emerge in the middle of the 20th century. Taking the example of St John's Wort, I go on to show how notions of symbolic efficacy, spillover placebo efficacy...

  6. [Superstitions around teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H

    1996-12-01

    Popular beliefs in magical medicines or manneuvers to cure dental pains, have been at every time subject of curiosity and even of credulity for common people. Writers and story-tellers describe medicines and habits used to relief or get rid of toothache, in interesting and humorous tales.

  7. Above and beyond superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Does it work? This question lies at the very heart of the kinds of controversies that have surrounded complementary and alternative medicines (such as herbal medicine) in recent decades. In this article, I argue that medical anthropology has played a pivotal and largely overlooked role in taking ...

  8. Superstitions Endanger Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾名之

    2002-01-01

    泰国妇女择日分娩,为了让子女在“黄道吉日”来到这个世界,泰国1/5以上的孕妇实行了剖腹产。殊不知,此举将严重影响孩子大脑的发育。可怜天下父母心!本则消息出现“剖腹产”一词:caesarean/caesarean section([医]剖腹生产术)。另如:Their first baby was born by caesarean。/他们的头胎婴儿是剖腹产的。需注意的是,首字母大写的Cesarean却别具含义:凯撒的;皇帝的。 此外,文中一个way,用法新鲜,别具含义。

  9. How "it gets better": effectively communicating support to targets of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-05-01

    What is said when communicating intergroup support to targets of prejudice, and how do targets react? We hypothesized that people not targeted by prejudice reference social connection (e.g., social support) more than social change (e.g., calling for a reduction in prejudice) in their supportive messages. However, we hypothesized that targets of prejudice would be more comforted by social change messages. We content coded naturalistic messages of support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning teenagers from youtube.com (Study 1) and college undergraduates' statements (Study 2a) and found social connection messages more frequent than social change messages. Next, we explored targets' responses (Studies 2b-4b). Lesbian and gay participants rated social connection messages less comforting than social change messages (Study 3). Study 4 showed that only targets of prejudice distinguish social connection from social change messages in this way, versus non-targets. These results highlight the importance of studying the communication, content, and consequences of positive intergroup attitudes.

  10. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  11. Like parent, like child? Development of prejudice and tolerance towards immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Although intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of parents, there is no longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. In addition, research on socialization of intergroup attitudes has omitted possible effects of adolescents on their parents. We also know little about the conditions under which intergroup attitudes are transmitted. This two-wave, 2 years apart, study of adolescents (N = 507) and their parents examined the relations between parents and adolescents' prejudice and tolerance from a longitudinal perspective. The study tested whether parental prejudice and tolerance would predict over-time changes in adolescents' attitudes and whether adolescents' prejudice and tolerance would elicit changes in parental attitudes. Additionally, it explored whether some of the effects would depend on perceived parental support. Results showed significant bidirectional influences between parents and adolescents' attitudes. In addition, adolescents who perceived their parents as supportive showed higher parent-adolescent correspondence in prejudice than youth with low parental support. These findings show that intergroup attitudes develop as a result of mutual influences between parents and adolescents. Hence, the unidirectional transmission model and previous research findings should be revisited. The results also suggest that parents' prejudice influence adolescents' attitudes to the extent that youth perceive their parents as supportive.

  12. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on "vertical" processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings' contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings' friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  13. Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.

  14. 武术演进过程中原始巫术的影响%The influence of primitive witchcraft in the process of evolution of Wushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王校中; 谭广鑫

    2014-01-01

    幅员辽阔的中华大地,孕育了世界上唯一没有被中止的文化传统,而这种历史悠久,连绵不断的文化形式,保存了太多的文化遗留,主流文化很早便完成了从蒙昧向文明的转变,而未被理性教化的民间社会却从未脱离原始思维,充斥于民间的神话、巫术、神坛祭祀等“迷信”活动,无不显露出这些原始信仰在民间社会的重要地位。武术根植于民间,在充满遗留文化的神秘环境中完成了自身的演进,从神话传说与神灵崇拜、巫术仪式、巫术修炼的角度解析武术,以一种文化遗存的态度来对待武术,将会扩展了解武术的视野。%The vast land of China had given birth to the only cultural tradition in the world which has never been interrupted, and such a form of culture with a long history and ceaseless development contains numerous cultural legacies; mainstream culture had completed the transformation from an uncivilized state to a civilized state a long time ago, yet the civil society that has not been enlightened by ration has never broken away from primitive think-ing; such activities of “superstition” as myths, witchcraft and altar sacrifice all over the folk world have unexcep-tionally revealed the important status of these primitive beliefs in the civil society. Wushu is rooted in the folk world, has completed its own evolution in a mysterious environment full of passed on cultures; analyzing Wushu from the perspectives of myths and legends, god worship, witchcraft rituals and witchcraft practice, as well as treat-ing Wushu with an attitude of cultural relic, will expand the field of vision to understand Wushu.

  15. An Analysis of Women's Social Status at Bourgeois Times from Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧珊

    2007-01-01

    The opening sentence of Pride and Prejudice left the deep impression on readers almost two centuries ago.As the author of Pride and Prejudice,Jane Austen was one of the famous realistic writers in English literature in the nineteenth century.In Pride and Prejudice Austen wrote four marriage types:ideal Elizabeth and Darcy,realizable Charlotte and Collins,felicitous Jane and Bingley,unhappy Lydia and Wickham.She pointed out emphatically economic consideration is the bonds of wedlock and love.She said marriage is not determined by property and family status;it is unwise to marry without money,but it is wrong to marry for money;the marriage settled by love is happy and ideal.

  16. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroud, Adam M.; Everett, Jim A. C.; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area using racial group memberships has quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions. PMID:24734016

  17. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: Does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mourad Chekroud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area, using racial group memberships, quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field, and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions.

  18. Guilty by stereotypic association: Country animosity and brand prejudice and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W

    2010-12-01

    This research tests the proposition that brands suffer prejudice and discrimination due to animosity toward a country with which they have a strong stereotypic association. In the first study, attitudinal data collected across a range of brands that vary in terms of the strength of the brand-country association indicate that brands with strong stereotypic association with a country suffer direct prejudice, in the form of more negative attitudes, related to animosity. When the brand-country association is less strong, the relationship between animosity and brand attitudes is moderated by the strength of the stereotypic association. In the second study, the level of brand-country association is manipulated experimentally to provide additional evidence of its moderating role on the relationship between country animosity and both prejudice toward (more negative brand attitudes) and discrimination against (less choice) a new brand.

  19. Pride and prejudice: how feelings about the self influence judgments of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton-James, Claire E; Tracy, Jessica L

    2012-04-01

    The present research demonstrates that pride has divergent effects on prejudice, exacerbating or attenuating evaluative biases against stigmatized groups, depending on the form of pride experienced. Specifically, three experiments found that hubristic pride--associated with arrogance and self-aggrandizement--promotes prejudice and discrimination, whereas authentic pride--associated with self-confidence and accomplishment--promotes more positive attitudes toward outgroups and stigmatized individuals. Findings generalized to discriminatory judgments (Experiment 2) and were found to be mediated by empathic concern for the evaluative target. Together, these experiments suggest that pride may be a cause of everyday prejudice and discrimination but that these social consequences depend on whether hubristic or authentic pride is experienced, and the degree to which empathic concern is subsequently aroused.

  20. Adolescent ethnic prejudice: understanding the effects of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic goal promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Based on Self-Determination Theory, the role of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic (E / I) goal promotion for adolescent ethnic prejudice and the mechanisms underlying this effect were examined in a sample of adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that paternal and maternal E / I goal promotion had a significantly positive effect on ethnic prejudice. This effect could be accounted for by differences in adolescent right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). In addition, differences in adolescent E / I goal pursuit fully mediated the effects of parental E / I goal promotion on RWA and SDO. Finally, the effects of adolescent E / I goal pursuits on ethnic prejudice were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  1. Socio-Demographic Factors Affecting Levels of Cultural and Non-Cultural Prejudice: Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…

  2. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  3. The Effects of Contact on the Prejudice between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles N.

    2007-01-01

    The growing Hispanic population has come into increasing contact with the larger population of non-Hispanic Whites. It is important to understand the effects of this contact on prejudice. The effects of six kinds of contact were examined for their effects on prejudice between Hispanics (n = 156) and non-Hispanic Whites (n = 1,479) who were…

  4. The Pervasiveness of Racial Prejudice in Higher Education in the U.S.: Raising Awareness and Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Justina O.

    2007-01-01

    Racial diversity is one of the greatest strengths of America?s higher education system. But racial prejudice is entrenched and pervasive in many campuses of institutions of higher learning. A close observation reveals that racial prejudice is not restricted to any race. As much as one would like to believe that simply passing legislations and…

  5. 浅议巫术说--艺术的另类解读%Discussion on witchcraft--the offbeat interpretation of art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于川东

    2013-01-01

    This paper starts from the views of western academic circles to the origin of the art, development and evolution from the relationship between art and witchcraft, proves a masterstroke, expounds the historical relationship between art and magic always as the shadow follows the form influence each other, mining culture art behind from different angles.%本文从西方学术界对艺术起源的观点入手,从艺术与巫术之间关系的发展演变,探明一条主线,阐述历史上艺术与巫术总是如影随形相互影响的关系,从不一样的角度挖掘艺术品背后的文化。

  6. The Historical Paradigm,Periodization of Witchcraft Anxiety and Art Therapy and Its Contemporary Response%巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的历史范型、分期及当代应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世武; 张冰焱

    2015-01-01

    艺术治疗的疗法按伦理标准可分为两种类型:一种是以治愈焦虑为目的的疗法,一种是以加剧焦虑为目的的疗法。可以从历史维度大致勾勒出巫术焦虑与艺术治疗所经历的几个阶段:巫术论占绝对优势的时期、巫术论的知识观与科学知识观彼此博弈的时期、巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的衰落期、巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的复兴期。应当将对巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的研究作为现代艺术治疗理论研究和治疗实践的突破口;在现实的文化政策中,对不同类型的巫术焦虑与艺术治疗模式采取不同的措施;继续改善社会福利,用现代治疗技术来治疗民众的生存焦虑。%According to ethical standards,there are two types of art therapy:one is to cure the anxiety,the other to intensify it.A historical review of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy sketches out the following stages it has experienced:the predominance of witch-craft theory,the co-existence of witchcraft knowledge and science knowledge,the decline of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy and the renaissance of it.In the theoretical research and practice of modern art therapy,we should take the study of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy as a breakthrough.In implementation of culture policy,different measures be adopted for different types of witchcraft anxie-ty.Besides,we should continue to improve social welfare and apply modern techniques to treat people’s survival anxiety.

  7. To Discuss Three Kinds of Witchcraft about Yu in RiShu%秦简《日书》涉禹出行巫术考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫喜琴

    2011-01-01

    The reason that Yu's some behaviors had been used by the Pre-Qin sorcerer as witchcraft in RiShu, first, had lied in Pre-Qin sorcerer to want to obtain Yu's authority by imitating his behavior; Next, Yu had played an important role in witchcraft history;%秦简《日书》涉禹出行巫术的产生,首先是由于禹在长期的行旅生涯中,立下了赫赫的功绩,确立了崇高的威望,故而先秦巫师在作法之时,意欲通过模仿禹的行为以获得禹所拥有的无上权威;其次禹既是一个伟大的君主,也是一个在巫术发展史上曾经起到过举足轻重作用的大巫,故巫师施展法术之时,视禹之巫术为正宗并效法之;第三,相信鬼神巫术、在先秦社会影响极大的显学墨家对禹倍加推崇,所以涉禹巫术自然也就会得到他们的信奉并宣扬。总之,由于以上三种原因,使禹的一些行为遂为先秦巫师所采纳,作为其解决与出行相关的问题时的重要巫术加以利用。此后

  8. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article.

  9. A traduÃÃo da personagem Elizabeth Bennet, de Pride & Prejudice, para o cinema.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricelly JÃder Bezerra da Silva

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho à analisar o processo de traduÃÃo da personagem Elizabeth Bennet, protagonista do romance Pride & Prejudice, publicado em 1813, de autoria da escritora inglesa Jane Austen, para o filme Pride and Prejudice (1940), de Robert Z. Leonard. Em sua obra, Austen constrÃi uma crÃtica a padrÃes socioculturais que relegam posiÃÃo inferior à mulher do sÃculo XIX em relaÃÃo ao sexo masculino. Tal crÃtica està presente de maneira sutil em sua narrativa, principalmente, centrada n...

  10. Superstition, religion and the political / Superstição, religião e o político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Despland

    2011-01-01

    religious realms in modern Western civilization, provides us with “a good context for the confrontation with some of the fundamental problems of justice that remain before us today”. Religion as he sees it, therefore, is finally to be understood as psychologically and historically contingent human action. All the same, it takes place over against the irrational-rational background of some philosophically resilient categories: superstition and morality. Resumo/apresentaçãoCientista da religião reconhecido e respeitado em ambientes intelectuais da América do Norte e da Europa, Michel Despland é ainda pouco conhecido pela academia brasileira. Entre suas publicações estão, por exemplo: Kant on history and religion: with a translation of Kant's On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies (McGillQueen's University Press, 1973; The education of desire, Plato and the philosophy of religion (University of Toronto Press, 1985; Les hierarchies sont ebranlees, politiques et theologies au XIXe siècle, (Fides, 1998; Comparatisme et Christianisme: questions d'histoire et de methode (L'Harmattan, 2002. No texto ora publicado, apresentado durante o XII Simpósio da Associação Brasileira de História das Religiões (2011, UFJF, o prof. Despland assume a premissa antropológica de que “a religião é algo que as pessoas fazem.” Baseando-se em Espinosa, Despland elege a categoria da “superstição” como um instrumento de análise mais adequado para a análise do religioso do que, por exemplo, a do “sagrado”. O objetivo mais imediato de Despland é primeiramente entender como o próprio Espinosa constrói os âmbitos político e religioso em sua inter-relação, em continuidade e ruptura com as tradições herdadas da teologia política do Ocidente/do cristianismo. A partir daí, ele passa a sondar historiograficamente as dimensões morais e sociais da religião diante do Estado, tanto em suas próprias instituições, quanto no cada vez mais consp

  11. Far from fairness: Prejudice, skin color, and psychological functioning in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Netland, Jason D; Miyake, Elisa R

    2017-07-01

    We explored the moderating role of observed skin color in the association between prejudice and concurrent and lagged psychological functioning (i.e., depression, ingroup/outgroup psychological connectedness). We further aimed to understand gender differences in these processes. Data from 821 Asian American undergraduate students (57.5% female and 42.5% male) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman. Cross-sectional and longitudinal regression-based moderation models were conducted with PROCESS 2.13 for SPSS. Lighter skin color nullified the association between prejudice and recent depression for Asian American females. This moderating effect did not hold over time with regards to depression symptoms 1 year later. Additionally, prejudice predicted psychological distance to other Asian students 1 year later among females rated as lighter in skin color, whereas prejudice was tied to psychological closeness for females with darker skin ratings. Results highlight skin color as a pertinent factor relevant to the short-term and long-term mental health and social experiences of Asian American women in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…

  13. Vietnamese American Experiences of English Language Learning: Ethnic Acceptance and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey LaBelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of ethnic acceptance and prejudice on English language learning among immigrant nonnative speakers. During 2004 and 2005, the author conducted participatory dialogues among six Vietnamese and Mexican adult immigrant English language learners. The researcher sought to answer five questions: (1 What are some nonnative English speakers’ experience regarding the way native speakers treat them? (2 How have nonnative English speakers’ experiences of ethnic acceptance or ethnic prejudice affected their learning of English? (3 What do nonnative English speakers think they need in order to lower their anxiety as they learn a new language? (4 What can native English speakers do to lower nonnative speakers’ anxiety? (5 What can nonnative English speakers do to lower their anxiety with native English speakers? Even though many of the adult immigrant participants experienced ethnic prejudice, they developed strategies to overcome anxiety, frustration, and fear. The dialogues generated themes of acceptance, prejudice, power, motivation, belonging, and perseverance, all factors essential to consider when developing English language learning programs for adult immigrants.

  14. On counter-stereotypes and creative cognition: When interventions for reducing prejudice can boost divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether

  15. A Case Study of Community Prejudice: The Amish of Filmore County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Lee

    1993-01-01

    In-depth, unstructured, interviews with 20 non-Amish public officials, farmers, and business people in Fillmore County, Minnesota, examined attitudes toward the local Amish population, including Amish religious beliefs and practices, taxation and school issues, Amish impact on the area economy, and prejudice toward the Amish as a group. Data were…

  16. The Interplay between Prejudice against Latinos and Policy: A Social Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, American society has made enormous strides in promoting equality and diminishing prejudice among different racial and ethnic groups (Dovidio et al. 2002). Indeed, many believe the election of the first Black president, Barack Obama, marked the beginning of a post-racial America. While progress is undeniable, America is by…

  17. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  18. The influence of multicultural counseling competence and anti-Black prejudice on therapists' outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Andrew D; Hoyt, William T

    2014-04-01

    The broad goal of this study was to examine multiple potential predictors of anti-Black bias among counselors. Specifically, in an online survey of 173 trainees and professionals in mental health, this study used 3 measures related to cultural sensitivity as predictors of therapists' expectancies for bond and prognosis with African American clients compared with White clients. The Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to measure global multicultural competence. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) served as a measure of automatic prejudice toward Blacks. Additionally, a new self-report measure of anti-Black clinical prejudice was created specifically for this study. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1984) was included to control for socially desirable responding. Each predictor of cultural sensitivity uniquely explained variance in anti-Black bias in bond ratings, with the IAT accounting for more variance than the 2 self-reports. Our novel measure of clinical prejudice accounted for anti-Black bias in prognosis ratings, but the MCI and the IAT did not. Researchers studying cultural competence are encouraged to consider the roles of automatic and deliberate prejudice in determining disparities in clinical expectancies and cross-racial therapeutic alliances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Can We Reduce Our Implicit Prejudice toward Persons with Disability? The Challenge of Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Rohmer, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The present research further extends recent data revealing implicit attitude towards persons with disability, with the aim to explore if meditation practice can reduce automatic mental processes initiating prejudice. Forty adult experienced meditators and 34 meditation-naïve individuals performed an evaluative priming task. None of them presented…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Multiracial Students' Experiences with Prejudice and Discrimination in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Lambe Sariñana, Susan A.; Yee, April L.; Robinson, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-race persons constitute a substantial and growing population in the United States. We examined multiracial college students' experiences with prejudice and discrimination in college with conducted focus group interviews with 12 mixed-race participants and individual interviews with 22 mixed-race undergraduates to understand how they…

  1. Pride, Prejudice, and Ambivalence: Toward a Unified Theory of Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, hundreds of psychologists have studied race and ethnicity. Yet this scholarship, like American culture at large, has been ambivalent, viewing race and ethnicity both as sources of pride, meaning, and motivation as well as sources of prejudice, discrimination, and inequality. Underlying this ambivalence is widespread…

  2. Prejudice and Pride: Japanese Americans in the Young Adult Novels of Yoshiko Uchida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiffett, Danton

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five books for young adults by author Yoshiko Uchida. Notes that these books, accessible to children in grades 5 and above, describe the prejudice against Japanese Americans, internment camps, and upheaval, sorrow, and anger spawned by the American government's racist actions. Shows how the books can prompt discussions about cultural…

  3. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  4. Analyzing Anti-Asian Prejudice from a Racial Identity and Color-Blind Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…

  5. Effects of Target Person Expression on Ethnic Prejudice toward Middle Easterners and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tia N.; Scott, David A.; Nocks, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on implicit prejudice suggests that target person judgments may be affected by unintentional, but well-learned, cognitive associations. Ethnicity, gender, and smiling or nonsmiling expression were varied as cues in White college students' perception tasks. The results of a factorial experiment are included as well as a discussion of the…

  6. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  7. National Identification and Anti-Immigrant Prejudice: Individual and Contextual Effects of National Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Brown, Rupert

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between national identification and anti-immigrant prejudice in a multilevel analysis of ISSP survey data from 37,030 individuals in 31 countries. We argue that this relationship depends on how national groups are defined by their members. Across the 31 national samples, the correlation between national…

  8. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes.

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Multiracial Students' Experiences with Prejudice and Discrimination in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Lambe Sariñana, Susan A.; Yee, April L.; Robinson, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-race persons constitute a substantial and growing population in the United States. We examined multiracial college students' experiences with prejudice and discrimination in college with conducted focus group interviews with 12 mixed-race participants and individual interviews with 22 mixed-race undergraduates to understand how they…

  10. Openness, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Antigay Prejudice in College Students: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Miller, Audrey K.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Burks, Alixandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that people who are more open to novel and diverse experiences express less prejudicial views concerning minority group members. The openness-prejudice relationship, however, may be mediated by the degree to which individuals adhere to traditional social convention and absolutist thinking patterns. Thus, informed by the…

  11. Jane Austen and Imperialism--A Rereading of "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…

  12. Galatea and Pygmalion Glances: Perception and Strategies of the "Other" in Front of (Pre)judices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termes López, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    One of the most universally recognized mechanisms in the sociology of education is the Pygmalion effect: the expectations and prejudices of teachers (from a position of power), projected onto the students, have the potential to become a self-fulfilled prophecy--either positive either stigmatizing. But what elements are used to build these…

  13. Relations between Prejudice, Cultural Intelligence and Level of Entrepreneurship: A Study of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the mediating role of prejudice in the relationship between the cultural intelligence of school principals and the level of entrepreneurship. The design of this study was classified as correlational survey research. This study was designed by quantitative research method. The universe of this study constitutes…

  14. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  15. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  16. On counter-stereotypes and creative cognition: When interventions for reducing prejudice can boost divergent thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether

  17. What Leads to a Happy Marriage——Matrimonial Value in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 余丽涛

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to analyze the marriage of various characters in Pride and Prejudice, such as the marriages of Charlotte and Collins based on economic status,and the marriage of Elizabeth and Darcy on the basis of true love and morals; and finally leads to a conclusion about Jane Austen's matrimonial value.

  18. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  19. The Reasons for Prejudices against Women in Christian Culture of Medieval Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨心彤

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at further analyzing the critical reasons for prejudices against women during medieval times which roots deeply in Christian culture.Drawing strength from the past makes it easier to address gender discrimination through modern feminism.Thus,human community can evolve into something far better.

  20. Sexual and gender prejudice among adolescents and enacted stigma at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Collier

    2014-01-01

    Sexual and gender prejudice refer, respectively, to negative attitudes based on sexual orientation or gender identity or expression; enacted stigma is the behavioral expression of such attitudes. This thesis explored the possible antecedents and outcomes of enacted sexual and gender stigma in second

  1. The Issue of Marriage of Jane Austen--Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 张利景

    2011-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is the most popular and well-known work of Jane Austen,the famous realistic novelist of the late 18th and early 19th century.In the novel,Jane Austen describes the social life of the English landed gentry of that age and also discloses

  2. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  3. Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: The role of intergroup face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M

    2017-04-01

    Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.

  4. Prejudice, Ethnic Identity, Contact and Ethnic Group Preferences Among Dutch Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context amo

  5. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  6. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  7. The Negative Effects of Prejudice on Interpersonal Relationships within Adolescent Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…

  8. The Id, Ego and Super-Ego in "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego, and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several aspects, such as her pursuit for love, her prejudice towards Mr. Darcy, and the changes in her attitudes towards Wickham. This analysis helps readers appreciate this masterpiece from a different aspect which is related to the…

  9. Applying Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Values to the Reduction of Prejudice: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Two classroom approaches to reducing racial and ethnic prejudice among college students were compared: a class session based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and an educational lecture drawn from a textbook on the psychology of racial differences. Undergraduates who were enrolled in two separate classes on racial differences were exposed…

  10. Female Characters’ Views on Marriage and Love in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何烨

    2014-01-01

    Pride and prejudice took the Britain of the end of the 18 th century as the background. In this paper, three marriage cases of young men and young ladies and a representative madam are taken as the typical examples to research and discuss.

  11. Female Characters’ Views on Marriage and Love in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何烨

    2014-01-01

    Pride and prejudice took the Britain of the end of the 18th century as the background. In this paper, three marriage cases of young men and young ladies and a representative madam are taken as the typical examples to research and discuss.

  12. Teaching Students About Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: An Interview with Susan Fiske

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…

  13. Jane Austen's marriage and family values in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    Though Austen is unmarried, courtship and marriage are her natural concerns and the major subjects of her novels. While the novel Pride and Prejudice, mainly talks about four different viewpoints of marriage among young women of the middle class, it also reflects Jane Austin's marital viewpoint and ideal.

  14. Breaking a Spell of Silence: The Tasmanian Evaluation of the 2006 Pride & Prejudice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Doug

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the Pride & Prejudice program, which ran in three Tasmanian schools in 2006, suggests that students who completed the program had more positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. This finding parallels an earlier evaluation of the same anti-homophobia program undertaken in Victoria. The evaluation leads to a discussion…

  15. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  16. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  17. [The psychiatric criticism of social prejudices as a medical strategy of legitimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Torger

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this article is the relation between psychiatric knowledge and social prejudice. This will be observed from the perspective of the medical discourse and the perspective of the history of science in a case study on epilepsy. In context of an increasing democratization of science and society a discussion on the social discrimination of epileptic patients entered the medical discourse in the 1960s and 70s. In the medical discourse the cause for discrimination is ascribed to emotionally determined prejudices found in the population, that are to be countered by educating the population with scientific knowledge. From the perspective of the history of science it however becomes apparent, that the prejudices found in the population are a result of a popularization of psychiatric knowledge beginning in the end of the 19th and reaching well into the 20th century. Thus, it is science and not the population that is the source of these so called prejudices. In the closing remarks these findings are discussed as different 'discourse' strategies for the legitimation of psychiatry and psychiatric objects.

  18. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  19. "What Does Gay Mean?" How To Talk with Kids about Sexual Orientation and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Lynn

    This brochure is written out of concern for the impact anti-gay prejudice and discrimination have on children--gay and straight. Although people have different views about homosexuality, most Americans believe that everyone should be treated fairly and with respect. American society has many kinds of families, and many people have neighbors,…

  20. Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

    2014-04-01

    Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.

  1. The relationship between contact and attitudes: Reducing prejudice toward individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jessica M; Bennetto, Loisa; Rogge, Ronald D

    2015-12-01

    Increases in intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) diagnoses coupled with higher rates of inclusion in school and community settings, has created more opportunities for exposure and integration between those with IDD and the mainstream population. Previous research has found that increased contact can lead to more positive attitudes toward those with IDD. The current study further investigated this impact of contact on attitudes by examining the influence of the quality and quantity of contact on both explicit and implicit levels of prejudice, while also considering potential mediation via intergroup anxiety and implicit attitudes. Based on past research and theory, we predicted that contact (especially quality contact) would have a strong relationship with explicit and implicit positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD. In the present study, 550 people completed a survey and short task that measured their level of contact with individuals with IDD across their lifetime, their current attitudes toward these individuals, and other constructs that are thought to influence this relationship. Multiple regression analyses suggested consistent links between higher quality of contact and lower levels of prejudice toward individuals with IDD at both the explicit and implicit levels. After controlling for quality of contact, higher quantity of contact was either not significantly associated with our measures of prejudice or was, importantly, associated with higher levels of prejudice. Additional analyses support intergroup anxiety and implicit positive attitudes as significant mediators in the associations between quality of contact and the various dimensions of explicit prejudice. Thus, it would seem that it is the quality of interpersonal interactions that is most strongly related to positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD, making it crucial to take care when developing inclusion opportunities in community settings.

  2. Right-wing authoritarianism predicts prejudice equally toward "gay men and lesbians" and "homosexuals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R

    2016-08-01

    Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Stigma toward psychosis and its formulation process: prejudice and discrimination against early stages of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoko; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-02-01

    Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals. We performed a survey examining stigmas toward people with psychotic-like-experiences (PLE), at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), schizophrenia, or depression. Prejudice was measured using a 21-item questionnaire, and discrimination was measured using the Social Distance Scale. The participants consisted of 149 people from the general public, 97 patients, and 119 psychiatric professionals. Generally, a similar pattern was observed among the groups in which prejudice and discrimination against PLE was mildest, followed by that against ARMS and depression, and finally schizophrenia. When the stigma of the general public was compared with that of psychiatric professionals, the prejudice and discrimination against PLE of the general public were both lower than those of the psychiatric professionals. However, the prejudice of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for ARMS. Furthermore, the discrimination of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for schizophrenia. The stigmas of mental illness differed according to the clinical stage, although the pattern of severity was similar among the three groups. A formulation process is suggested in which stigma toward schizophrenia develops from an attitudinal property (prejudice) against ARMS and a behavioral property (discrimination) against schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Tentative Study of Different Translated Versions of Pride and Prejudice from the Perspective of Polysystem Theory%A Tentative Study of Different Translated Versions of Pride and Prejudice from the Perspective of Polysystem Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹莹

    2011-01-01

    Polysystem theory may explain some cases of literary translation, the article firstly gives a brief introduction to polysystem. Then writer attempts to study polysystem from its application to different translated versions of Pride and Prejudice.

  5. Pre-earthquake displacement and triggered displacement on the Imperial fault associated with the Superstition Hills earthquake of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two right-lateral slip events, about 3 weeks apart in November 1987, broke the surface discontinuously along probably similar, nearly 20km lengths of the northern Imperial fault. The first displacement, at about the beginning of November, was accompanied by a surface tilt representing deep vertical motion or distributed strain. The later surface offset was triggered, probably by the second main shock of the 24 November earthquakes located in the Superstition Hills, about 37km northwest of the Imperial fault. Pre-earthquake resurveys of short-length leveling lines indicated combined surface displacement and an eastward tilt at two locations between surveys 7 1/2 months apart and 13 months apart; the tilt at Harris Road during this pre-earthquake interval is modeled as a 1.4cm vertical component of slip deeper than 100m on a 70?? northeastward-dipping fault. Later surveys showed a marked reduction of deep movement in the time period including the triggered slip, and between December 1987 and January 1988, it had ceased. No definite evidence of surface fracturing was found in the Brawley fault zone during either period of time when the Imperial fault moved. -from Authors

  6. Prejudice against international students: the role of threat perceptions and authoritarian dispositions in U.S. students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Toussaint, Gifflene C; Crowson, H Michael

    2010-01-01

    International students provide a variety of benefits to higher education institutions within the United States (J. J. Lee, 2007; J. J. Lee & C. Rice, 2007). Despite these benefits, many international students experience prejudice and discrimination by American students. The purpose of the present study was to examine several potential predictors of prejudice against international students: perceptions of international students as symbolic and realistic threats, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. A simultaneous regression analysis that the authors based on 188 students at a Southwestern university revealed that perceptions of symbolic and realistic threats and social dominance orientation were each positive and significant predictors of prejudice. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice is fully mediated through perceived symbolic threat and partially mediated by realistic threat.

  7. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed.

  8. Validation Study of the Revised Version of the Scale of Prejudice against Sexual and Gender Diversity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; de Lara Machado, Wagner; Ruschel Bandeira, Denise; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2016-08-12

    In Brazil, there is a deficit of culturally adapted tools to assess prejudice against sexual and gender diversity with empirically demonstrable validity and reliability. Prejudice against non-heterosexual orientations is a strong problem within Brazilian culture and is particularly related to non-normative expressions of gender. To address these issues, a scale was created. The objective of this article is to validate the revised version of this instrument developed for the specificities of Brazilian culture and establish its reliability. Eight thousand, one hundred and eighty-four undergraduate students from southern Brazil completed the revised version of Scale of Prejudice Against Sexual and Gender Diversity (PASGD). Analysis was conducted using Item Response Theory (IRT) model for rating scale data, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scale showed good validity and reliability. The results indicate that the PASGD is a useful tool for assessing prejudice in the Brazilian context, adapted for the local Brazilian reality.

  9. Jane Austen’s Art of Irony in Characterization--Irony in Characterization in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, a well known novel by Jane Austen has employed ironic technique in characterization, and has proved that Jane Austen has been a wonder of the novelist and contributed a lot to literary world.

  10. Jane Austen’s Art of Irony in Characterization——Irony in Characterization in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao; Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice,a well known novel by Jane Austen has employed ironic technique in characterization,and has proved that Jane Austen has been a wonder of the novelist and contributed a lot to literary world.

  11. The relation between international mobility and the modern prejudice of Spaniards toward the immigrant collective in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carmona Vescance

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although international migration has increased in volume during the last decades, prejudice against immigrants is still present in contemporary societies. In the present article, we study transnational human capital and modern prejudice in Spain. The sample consists of 255 Spaniards (born in Spain that were living in Spain at the moment of the survey. The age range of the sample is between 18 and 63 years (M = 33,24; SD = 9,38 and 58,4% of them are women. The sample is non-probabilistic and was taken through the Internet. To study the relationship between transnational human capital and modern prejudice, we created a survey with closed questions to measure mobility effects. To measure modern prejudice, we used the instrument created by Pettigrew and Meertens (1995 and adapted by Frias- Navarro (2009 to the Spanish population. The statistics analysis was done by correlations and anova. The results show that the more mobility effects, the more (and better contact with immigrants, and also lower levels of prejudice. The implications of the study are that the measure of the scale of mobility effects is an appropriate instrument to study the relationship between international mobility and modern prejudice, based on the properties, structure and correlates of that scale.

  12. Rationality and Emotionality——On the plot of Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正玲

    2009-01-01

    Jane Austen was a writer in the age of rationality.which surely leaves its imprint upon her works Pride and Prejudice.The"pride"and"prejudice"of the heroes and heroines in the novel manifest the fact that they arc rationally-controlled.Such rationality.however,high lights the unusual power of emotionality when the characters finally get married after experiencing complicated love This kind of first-back grounding-emotionality-and-then-foregrounding it plot development in the works displays Austen's profound knowledge of life and her progressive thought surpassing her times.It also represents the characteristics of"the exterior rationalism and the interior romanticism"in her works.

  13. The role of prejudice and the need for closure in religious fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Reyna, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Religious fundamentalism has been consistently linked to prejudice toward a variety of outgroups. This article proposes that this is partially the case because fundamentalist ideology provides a sense of consistency and closure. Outgroups that challenge the epistemic certainty that fundamentalism provides are rejected in an effort to protect this certainty. Results from two studies, including one using a nationally representative sample, found that the need for closure was related to fundamentalism and partially mediated the relationship between fundamentalism and the derogation of lesbians and gays (Study 1) and value violators in general (Study 2). Furthermore, in Study 2, it was found that only some aspects of the need for closure explain the fundamentalism-prejudice relationship. Results are discussed in relation to past need for closure and ideology research as well as what this means for the study of fundamentalism.

  14. Stigmatized sources and persuasion: prejudice as a determinant of argument scrutiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, R E; Fleming, M A; White, P H

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments examined the viability of several explanations for why majority group individuals process persuasive messages from stigmatized sources more than those from nonstigmatized sources. In each study, majority group participants who either were high or low in prejudice or were high or low in ambivalence toward a stigmatized source's group were exposed to a persuasive communication attributed to a stigmatized (Black, Experiment 1; homosexual, Experiment 2) or nonstigmatized (White, Experiment 1; heterosexual, Experiment 2) source. In both studies, source stigmatization increased message scrutiny only among those who were low in prejudice toward the stigmatized group. This finding is most consistent with the view that people scrutinize messages from stigmatized sources in order to guard against possibly unfair reactions by themselves or others.

  15. Evidence-based medicine and prejudice-based medicine: the case of homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nelson Filice de; Fiuza, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    In recent decades an important social movement related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine has been identified worldwide. In Brazil, although homeopathy was recognized as a specialist medical area in 1980, few medical schools offer courses related to it. In a previous study, 176 resident doctors at the University of Campinas Medical School were interviewed and 86 (49%) rejected homeopathy as a subject in the core medical curriculum. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to understand their reasons for refusing. 20 residents from 15 different specialist areas were interviewed. Very few of them admitted to a lack of knowledge for making a judgment about homeopathy; none of them made a conscientious objection to it; and the majority demonstrated prejudice, affirming that there is not enough scientific evidence to support homeopathy, defending their position based on personal opinion, limited clinical practice and on information circulated in the mass media. Finally, resident doctors' prejudices against homeopathy can be extended to practices other than allopathic medicine.

  16. Generic prejudice and the presumption of guilt in sex abuse trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, N

    1997-02-01

    In 25 Canadian criminal trials involving charges of sexual abuse, 849 prospective jurors were asked under oath whether they could hear the evidence, follow the judge's instructions on the law, and decide the case with a fair and impartial mind. Knowing only the nature of the charges against the accused, on average 36% of the jurors stated that they could not be impartial. Some jurors explained that they themselves had been victims of abuse, others expressed fears for children, while others stated simply that they could not set aside a presumption of guilt. These findings from real trials are consistent with a body of social science literature about attitudes toward sexual abuse and sexual assault charges. The article distinguishes between prejudices arising from specific pretrial publicity and generic prejudices that cause prejudgments of the case of any defendant perceived as belonging to a general class of defendants who likely are guilty of the crime(s) charged.

  17. Ethnic Stereotypes and Prejudices of Young People in the Period 2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined and a historical review of their development (Duckitt, 1992 was made. The results from a survey of prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=942; 347 men and 595 women; average age 21.3 years towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, carried out in 5 time intervals: 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results showed that the assessment of the minority groups was more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceived most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews were positive.

  18. Promoting Justice or Perpetuating Prejudice? Interrupting External Motivation in Multicultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A

    2017-08-17

    The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. "I guess what he said wasn't that bad": dissonance in nonconfronting targets of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Heather M; Geers, Andrew L; Czopp, Alexander M

    2013-07-01

    Although confrontations can be an effective means of reducing prejudicial responding, individuals often do not confront others due to the interpersonal costs. In the present research, we examined the intrapersonal implications of not confronting prejudice. In three studies, female participants were exposed to a confederate who made a sexist remark. Consistent with self-justification theories, in Study 1, participants who valued confronting and were given the opportunity to confront-but did not-subsequently made more positive evaluations of the confederate. Study 2 found that when participants were given a chance to affirm an important aspect of the self prior to evaluating the confederate, these inflated evaluations of the confederate did not occur. Finally, in Study 3, participants who initially valued confronting but did not confront a sexist partner reduced the amount of importance they placed on confronting. These data reveal that there are important intrapersonal consequences of not confronting prejudice.

  20. “Cruel sacrifices of popish preests”. Theology and the Eucharist debate in Reginald Scot´s The Discoverie of Witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Méndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The next pages will attempt to shed light on the theology developed by Reginald Scot in his The Discoverie of Witchcraft from one of the key topics of the 16th century: the Eucharistic affair. One of the goals is to demonstrate that the way the Englishman understands the divinity is not only the cause of his dismantling of radical demonology, but also of a similar approach to the catholic dogma of transubstantiation. It is suggested here that Scot rejected the intellectual basis of the witch-hunts for the very same reason he negates the transformation of bread and wine into Christ’s body and blood. As a result of the historical context of his intellectual production, the author uses his theology as an anti-catholic proselitism tool, relating papism with every religious error. Furthermore, it became possible to find out if Reginald Scot propounds a positive Eucharistic stance, and –if he does– how it relates with that of the English church and the continental Reform mainstream

  1. Bruxas e índias filhas de Saturno: arte, bruxaria e canibalismo Witches and indian women, daughters of Saturn: arts, witchcraft and cannibalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo indaga pela representação da mulher nas pinturas e gravuras sobre a bruxaria dos séculos XVI e XVII, procurando estabelecer uma tipologia iconográfica e percorrendo a construção de estigmas negativos imputados no corpo feminino e na sua degradação natural. O texto, apoiado em fontes visuais como pinturas e gravuras, principalmente da Renascença alemã, demonstra como as índias do Novo Mundo foram associadas com as bruxas da Europa e com o deus clássico Saturno, através do mito do canibalismo.The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.

  2. 厌胜观念对中国传统建筑装饰的影响%The Witchcraft Concept Impact on Chinese Traditional Architectural Decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永新

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, Chinese ancient architect-ure has formed a building system mainly created by timberwo-rk. This method of using structures as a decoration, at the same time reflects the ancient Chinese cultural concept for building decoration. In this article, the author bases on the fol owing se-veral kinds of traditional Chinese architecture structure to ela-borate the witchcraft concept of Chinese traditional architectu-ral decoration.%我国古代建筑几千年来形成了以木结构为主的建筑体系,这种用结构构件作为装饰的方式,同时反映了中国古人对于建筑装饰的文化观念。以下通过几种中国传统建筑构件,来阐述中国传统建筑装饰中的厌胜观念。

  3. A Discussion of Witchcraft Incident from the Perspective of Rebellion of Prince Wei%从卫太子起兵反叛谈巫蛊之祸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海龙

    2014-01-01

    The witchcraft incident was a significant event which occurred in Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty . Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty did not want to kill Prince Wei before Prince Wei rebelled , until Prince Wei reb-elled, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty ordered to kill Prince Wei , and it sparked a continuing unrest within the ruling class.The prosperity of the Han Dynasty had gone , starting a political situation of rehabilitation .%巫蛊之祸是汉武帝末年发生的重大事件。汉武帝在卫太子举兵反叛之前并未有诛杀太子之意,直至太子起兵反叛,武帝才下令诛杀,并由此引发了统治阶级内部的持续动荡。汉朝盛世局面一去不复返,由此开始了休养生息的政局。

  4. Research on Witches and Their Witchcraft in Shakespeare's Plays%莎士比亚戏剧中的女巫及其巫术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玲

    2011-01-01

    文艺复兴时期.处于萌芽时期的科学与伪科学如魔术、巫术、占星术等并存,这一现象在莎士比亚的戏剧中也有所反映。本文对莎剧中众多女巫形象进行了分析,指出女巫虽然具有预知祸福等超自然能力,但她们的本质仍然是人。在莎士比亚戏剧中,女巫是人世间诱人堕入罪恶的邪恶力量,女巫的预言则象征了人内心的欲望。%During the Renaissance, the developing science coexisted with pseudoscience such as magic, witchcraft, astrology and so on, which is also reflected in Shakespeare's plays. This paper analyses the image of the witches in Shakespeare's plays, and points out that although the witches have supernatural power they are essentially human beings rather than goddesses or Fates. The witches are actually the malicious forces that make use of the weakness of human beings to induce them to evil. The prophecy of the witches is actually the embodiment of the inner desire in the human soul.

  5. Marry for What:Different Attitudes toward Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wei; Xiao Lili

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the roles in Pride and Prejudice which is a very popular novel written by Jane Austen and it is read widely all over the world.In the 19th century,that specific history time decided that people took money much more seriously,even on their marriage.In this paper,the marriage cased of most characters in the book were taken as typical to show different attitudes toward marriage at that time.

  6. A Comparison of Different Versions of the Translation of Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶然

    2015-01-01

    <正>Pride and Prejudice is the master piece of Jane Austen.This work takes the daily life as the source material,different from the popular sentimentalism writing at that time,and gives a vivid reflection of the conservative life under the unenlightened condition in Britain in the 18th to 19th century.Jane was very good at portraying the bright character images during daily

  7. Friendships fighting prejudice: a longitudinal perspective on adolescents' cross-group friendships with immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2015-06-01

    Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.

  8. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  9. Examining Prejudice Reduction Through Solidarity and Togetherness Experiences Among Gezi Park Activists in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gülsüm Acar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice reduction research has focused on reducing negative regard as a means to improve relations between various groups (e.g., religious, ethnic, political. Though positive regard between groups may be created, these forms of contact and common identification do not alter policy orientations of advantaged groups toward disadvantaged ones. Rather than intergroup contact, it is suggested that a collective action model of prejudice reduction (Dixon, J., Levine, M., Reicher, S., & Durrheim, K. (2012. Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 411-425 would create ties between disadvantaged groups to work toward beneficial policy change. We seek to show that the Gezi Park protests in Taksim, İstanbul functioned as an intergroup phenomenon, requiring the cooperation of a number of disadvantaged groups (e.g., feminists, Kurds working together to improve the status of all present. In a series of interviews with 34 activists from the Gezi Park protests, participants were to reflect on their individual and group-based experiences during their time in the Gezi Park protests. Data indicate that although a few groups remained distant or disconnected during the protests, a common ground was achieved such that some participants were able to overcome past prejudices. Data also indicate that through group perceptions and individuals’ descriptions of events, groups who had previously not been able to cooperate were able to work and stick together at Gezi. Results also imply, in line with Dixon et al. (2012, that if disadvantaged groups work together, they might change the position of their groups and improve each group’s disadvantaged position via collective action.

  10. Boosting belligerence: how the July 7, 2005, London bombings affected Liberals’ moral foundations and prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M.; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from SAGE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615615584. Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation’s values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat...

  11. Issues and challenges in the application of Husserlian phenomenology to the lived experience of hate crime and its legal aftermath: an enlightenment prejudice against prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael; McGuire, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The field of hate crime research addresses the presence, sources, and impact of particular types of expressions of prejudice, often perceived as particularly damaging and hurtful forms of interpersonal abuse and violence. There is the reflexive question of the possibilities of researchers themselves ever being able to adopt a truly "unprejudiced" approach to the presence of such damaging prejudices. Can this goal be realized without a researcher necessarily losing an experientially grounded understanding of what these meanings, values and purposes have come to mean, and how they are themselves interpretively reconstituted anew, including within the lived experience of victims, witnesses, police, prosecutors, judges, and victim support workers? A possible philosophically informed approach to the dilemmas posed by this topic is offered by Husserl's phenomenology. This study critically explores the possibilities, reflective stages, and theoretical limitations of a sympathetically reconstructed Husserlian approach to hate crime. It argues that despite its manifest tensions, gaps, ambiguities, and internal contradictions, aspects of the Husserlian philosophical approach directed toward the different levels of experienced hate crime still retain the potential to both challenge and advance our understanding of this topic.

  12. Faggot Speaks: A Poetic Inquiry into the Experience of Antigay Mistreatment and Sexual Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Machado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that, compared to heterosexual counterparts, gay men and other sexual minorities are at higher risk of developing emotional distress and mental disorders. The sexual minority stress model attributes these health disparities to the chronic social stress that arises in response to exposure to antigay mistreatment and sexual prejudice pervasive in the culture. Little research has been done to illuminate the lived experience of exposure to prejudiced behaviors and attitudes and this inquiry aims to begin to fill this gap by addressing the following questions: What is the experience of being mistreated for being gay or perceived as gay? What is the experience of being exposed to sexual prejudice when one is gay? Using the writing of autobiographical poetry as a process of inquiry and the resulting poems as narrative data, I explore my own experiences with antigay encounters and sexual prejudice over the course of my life. The intent is to vivify and magnify the phenomenon under investigation via evocative poetic renderings aimed to foster empathy and embodied understanding in the reader.

  13. "Only White People can be Racist: What does Power have to do with Prejudice?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sawrikar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Social researchers and activists who use the sociological definition of racism – that 'Racism = Prejudice + Power' – generally aim to attain racial equality by equalising differences in social power among racial groups. However, this definition can be taken to extreme when the role of social power is given disproportionately more weight than the role prejudice in explaining the occurrence and entrenchment of racism in society, such as assertions that racism is synonymous with White supremacy. Such a definition is logically flawed, demonstrates reverse racism, is disempowering for individuals from all racial groups who strive for racial equality, and absolves those who do not. We examine how the recent literature on cultural competency may provide a more effective strategic framework for reducing racism. Cultural competency is a move away from ethnocentrism and towards respect and value for cultural difference, with no racial group treated as a reference point around which the discourse on race relations revolves. In short, by properly acknowledging the role of prejudice, and not exclusively focusing on power, all racial groups can be better empowered to take responsibility for protecting the human right to racial equality.

  14. Asylum Seekers and Resettled Refugees in Australia: Predicting Social Policy Attitude From Prejudice Versus Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Hartley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.

  15. Stereotyping to infer group membership creates plausible deniability for prejudice-based aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.

  16. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278

  17. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.

    2016-07-01

    The Miocene Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province (G-SVP), ∼8000 km2 in central Arizona, is composed largely of silicic pyroclastic rocks and lavas, and smaller volumes of alkalic basalt and intermediate-composition lavas. Volcanism began ∼20.5 Ma as sparse rhyolitic and mainly basaltic lavas followed by intermediate lavas, lasting until ∼19 Ma. At that time, ∼1 m.y. of silicic eruptions began, creating most of the G-SVP. Petrologic studies are available for basalts and some for silicic rocks, but petrologic/geochemical information is sparse for intermediate-composition lavas. These latter, andesites and dacites, are the focus of this study, in which we present the processes and sources responsible for their origins. Goldfield-Superstition andesites and dacites have SiO2 ∼56-70 wt.% and Na2O + K2O that qualifies some as trachy-andesite and -dacite. A prominent petrographic feature is plagioclase-phyric texture (∼11-30 vol% plagioclase), where oligoclase-andesine phenocrysts have cores surrounded by corroded, or reacted, zones, mantled by higher An% plagioclase. Where corroded zones are absent, margins are etched, curved, or embayed. Groundmass plagioclase is labradorite, also more calcic than the phenocrysts. Other minerals are quartz (subrounded; embayed), clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and rare titanite and zircon. A salient compositional characteristic that provides insight to andesite-dacite origins with respect to other G-SVP rocks is revealed when using SiO2 as an index. Namely, abundances of many incompatible elements, mainly HFSE and REE, decrease over the low to high SiO2 range (i.e., abundances are lower in dacites than in co-eruptive andesites and underlying alkalic basalts). As examples: G-SVP basalts have ∼50-70 ppm La, and andesites-dacites have ∼59-22 ppm La; for Zr, basalts have ∼225-170 ppm, but most andesites-dacites have ∼180-50; for Y, basalts >20 ppm, andesites-dacites ∼18-9 ppm. To understand these trends of lower

  18. A stone in the soup? Changes in sexual prejudice and essentialist beliefs among British students in a class on LGBT psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hegarty, PJ

    2010-01-01

    Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction was causally related to decreased essentialist beli...

  19. While the Devil Climbs a Post, the Priest Climbs Ten. The Witchcraft and Maneuver of Nuo Altar%魔高一尺,道高一丈——傩坛巫术与特技

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹修明

    2012-01-01

    Nuo altar is to exorcise the ghost and diseases and to bless mortals. The sacrifice ceremo- ny, pray, witchcraft, the song and dance are the necessary "soft Kung Fu" of a wizard, used to rec- oncile with the ghost and God. If reconciliation can not be achieved, a wizard must use force to drive the ghost and diseases away. A wizard must master the "hard Kung Fu" witchcraft to drive them away. Witchcraft is the important and practical skill as well as means of a wizard to communicate with the ghost and God. It is also called Nuo skill from the perspective of performance. While the devil climbs a post, the priest climbs ten. The level of Nuo skills is a vital standard to measure the prestige and status of a wizard and a Nuo altar. "Climbing a mountain of swords", "plunging into a sea of flames", "KAI HONG SHAN" are the performance for the mortals and for shocking the ghosts and God. The witchcrafts have a multitude of names and types for different aims respectively.%傩坛是要驱鬼逐疫,祈福纳吉的。献牲、仪式、祈求巫术,搬演歌舞戏、媚神是与鬼神“和解”,是巫师必备的“软功夫”,和解不成则要武力驱赶、消灾。巫师必须掌握与鬼神较量的“硬功夫”——巫术。巫术是巫师沟通神鬼的重要手段和技能,具有可操作性。从表演的角度看也可以叫傩技。“魔高一尺,道高一丈”。傩坛和巫师声望和地位的高低,巫术、傩技水平是重要的衡量标准。“上刀山”“下火海”、“开红山”等是表演给凡人看的也是为了震撼鬼神的。巫术名目繁多,各有所用。

  20. The Witchcraft of Praying for Rain of the Sorceress in Shang and Zhou Dynasties%商周时期女巫祈雨巫术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高畅

    2015-01-01

    在以农耕生产为经济支柱且生产力不够发达的商周社会,风调雨顺往往意味着农业的丰收、人民生活的安康乃至国家政权的稳定,因此,祈雨禳灾成为当时最重要的宗教活动之一。商周时期的女巫在两大祈雨仪式雩祀和燎祭中发挥了十分重要的作用,但祈雨仪式中她们并不处于垄断地位,无论是女巫本身还是她们的祈雨巫术,都是可以被君主替代的。%The ceremony of praying for rain to eliminate the disaster has become one of the most impor‐tant religious activities because the rich rain often lead to the agricultural harvest and the stable life 、solid state power in Shang and Zhou Dynasties when is the farming production as the pillar of the economy and without advanced productivity .Sorceress play a very important role in the two rain praying ceremonies“Dancing Sacrifice” and“Fire Sacrifice”but without a monopoly position for the reasons that they can be replaced by monarch both themselves and their rain witchcraft .

  1. The stigma and prejudice of leprosy: influence on the human condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. RESULTS: The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3% with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%. The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7% and the duration of the treatment (28.7%. A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.

  2. The role of need for closure in essentialist entitativity beliefs and prejudice: an epistemic needs approach to racial categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The present research investigates how people's general epistemic motives may inspire essentialist beliefs about racial groups and racism. In three studies, we focus particularly on essentialist entitativity (EE, referring to beliefs about the uniformity, informativeness, and inherent core of racial groups), probing into its relationships with epistemic need for closure (NFC) and prejudice. In Study 1, we develop an EE scale, empirically distinguish it from the naturalness component of essentialism and non-EE beliefs, and establish its predictive utility for explaining racial prejudice. Study 2 provides experimental evidence for the causal effect of NFC on EE beliefs. Study 3 demonstrates in three different samples that EE beliefs mediate the relationship between dispositional NFC and racial prejudice. It is argued that EE beliefs about racial groups are an expression of motivated social cognition, serving people's seizing needs for quick and easy social judgment.

  3. Being similar versus being equal: intergroup similarity moderates the influence of in-group norms on discrimination and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrot, Fabrice; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the influence of in-group norms of anti- and pro-discrimination on prejudice and discrimination as a function of intergroup similarity (Studies 1 and 2) and in-group identification (Study 2). In a condition where there was no information about intergroup similarity (Study 1) or intergroup similarity was low (Study 2), prejudice and discrimination were lower when norms prescribe anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. In contrast, when intergroup similarity was high, prejudice and discrimination were higher when the in-group norm represents anti-discrimination compared to pro-discrimination. This pattern was most apparent among highly identified in-group members (Study 2). The paradoxical effect of the anti-discrimination norm in the high similarity condition is interpreted as a response to the threat this situation introduces to in-group distinctiveness.

  4. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  5. Side effects of multiculturalism: the interaction effect of a multicultural ideology and authoritarianism on prejudice and diversity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Thörner, Stefan; Wagner, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    We studied the influence of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) on the relationship between a multicultural ideology and attitudes about ethnic diversity and immigrants. We hypothesized that a multicultural ideology poses a threat to authoritarian individuals, which leads to a decrease in positive diversity beliefs and an increase in prejudice toward immigrants. On the basis of representative survey-data from 23 European countries, we showed that the negative relationship between RWA and positive diversity beliefs was stronger the more a country engages in multiculturalism (Study 1). In addition, in two experiments we demonstrated that RWA moderated the relationship between a video promoting multiculturalism (Study 2) or a picture showing a multicultural group (Study 3) and attitudes toward immigrants and diversity. As expected, for high-RWAs, both stimuli led to an increase in prejudice. In Study 3, perceived threat mediated the relationship between a multicultural norm and prejudice for people high in RWA.

  6. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  7. Gurinder Chadha’s Bride and Prejudice: A Transnational Journey Through Time and Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Oliete-Aldea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the processes of globalization have propelled intense cultural contacts between formerly cohesive communities resulting in both homogenizing and hybridizing socio-cultural changes (Robertson, 1995: 27; these changes, however, go hand in hand with a “global fear” of a potentially threatening “other”, which fuel people to take defensive actions that re-create “protective” prejudices and boundaries (Bauman, 2006: 97. As culturally hybrid products, transnational films not only transcend the limits of cinematic genres but cultural boundaries based on prejudice and uneven power relations. Chadha’s transnational movie Bride and Prejudice (2004 includes elements of Hollywood, Bollywood and British cinematic traditions to create a hybrid transnational film that metaphorically represents the re-emergence of past prejudices in contemporary encounters of Eastern and Western cultures. Following a cultural studies methodological approach, this article intends to analyze the competing meanings and interpretations the film offers when set against its globalized cultural background.En los albores del siglo XXI, los procesos de la globalización han intensificado intercambios culturales entre comunidades hasta entonces cerradas, dando lugar a cambios sociales conducentes a la homogeneidad o a la hibridación de las culturas (Robertson, 1995: 27; esta situación también suele ir acompañada del “miedo global” a un “otro” potencialmente amenazador, lo cual provoca acciones defensivas que recrean prejuicios y fronteras “protectoras” (Bauman, 2006: 97. Como producto cultural híbrido, el cine transnacional no sólo transciende los límites de los géneros cinematográficos si no que también traspasa los de las identidades culturales basadas en prejuicios y relaciones de poder desiguales. La película de Gurinder Chadha Bodas y Prejuicios (2004 incluye ingredientes de tradiciones cinematogr

  8. Jane Austen's Standard of values about Marriage——pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹璐

    2009-01-01

    Jane Austen(1775-1817)is one of the greatest of English novelists in the romantic period.In her novels,the life of the gentry,landowners,clergy and officers at the end of the eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth centuries is shown in detail.Jane wrote her works with her usual irony,humor and profound sensitivity to express her standard of values about marriage and other values she recognized.This essay takes her Pride and Prejudice as an example to discuss her standard of values about marriage to reveal her reflection on the society she lives in and her feminist consciousness.

  9. Polymorphous prejudice: liberating the measurement of heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Sean G

    2009-01-01

    A multidimensional measure of sexual prejudice was developed to assess the increasing complexity of heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a valid and reliable 7-factor measure that assessed: 1) traditional heterosexism; 2) tendency to deny anti-gay discrimination continues; 3) aversion toward gay men; 4) aversion to lesbians; 5) judgments regarding the value of the gay and lesbian movement; 6) resistance to heteronormative expectations; and 7) endorsement of positive beliefs about gay people. A modern heterosexism theory was supported and queer/liberationist notions of anti-heteronormativity and positive beliefs were found to be related to pro-homosexual attitudes.

  10. Of pride, prejudice, and discrimination. Why generalizations can be unfair to the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, A

    1992-05-01

    The categorization of individuals into groups can serve some useful purposes. If the individuals being grouped are heterogeneous, however, the categories used are likely to be flawed. Thus, any resulting generalizations are also flawed, especially when applied to a given individual in a group. The most serious attendant dangers can be misplaced pride, misguided prejudice, and unfair discrimination. The categorization of physicians according to their original medical training and the generalizations that result are examined here. The principles advanced could also be applied to many other forms of categorization.

  11. What counts are facts but not prejudices; Fakten zaehlen, nicht Vorurteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obst, M.; Langkabel

    1997-07-01

    Diesel or Otto engine, which one is the better engine? Are there still major differences? Or have both processes become more comparable due to modern technology, so that former prejudices do not longer exist? The author of this article explains the state-of-the art of the technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Diesel- und Ottomotoren - welches ist das bessere Prinzip? Gibt es noch gravierende Unterschiede? Oder hat die moderne Technik laengst eine Annaeherung beider Verfahren bewirkt, so dass bisherige Vorurteile kaum noch zutreffen. Der Verfasser dieses Artikels zeigt den Stand der Technik. (orig.)

  12. On lntergrowth of Witchcraft and Art in Nowadays Bai Villages from Perspective of Religion%当代白族乡村巫术与艺术共生的宗教维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世武

    2012-01-01

    当代白族乡村巫术艺术共生现象的研究不能在西方艺术考古学、艺术人类学或艺术哲学的学科范式内进行,“原始艺术”这一术语与当代白族乡村民间艺术之间是不可通约的。从宗教维度来阐释当代白族乡村巫术与艺术共生的现象,是将此现象视为一种社会行为,可以发现巫术、艺术、宗教等文化事象之间的微妙关系。%The study on the intergrowth of witchcraft and art in nowadays Bai people villages should not be done in the mode of western Artistic Archaeology, Anthropology of Art or Philosophy of Art. The term ' primitive art' is different from the art in contemporary Bai rural areas. Interpre- ting the intergrowth from religion regards the phenomena as a social behavior to discover the subtle relation between witchcraft, art and religion.

  13. A Inquisição e a Feitiçaria: A Ritualização do Interrogatório e da Tortura * The Inquisition and Witchcraft: the Ritualization of Inquiries and Torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO DAVI AVELAR PIRES

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho se propõe a pensar a Inquisição, principalmente a medieval, como uma extensão ou organização católica que buscava a erradicação daqueles que se opunham aos dogmas e a moral pregadas pela Igreja. Fundamentados pelo conceito de ritual, apresentamos a relação entre a Inquisição e as mulheres acusadas de feitiçaria como um ritual, que se inicia desde o momento da captura das acusadas, passando pelos interrogatórios, pela tortura e chegando até o auto-de-fé, onde era queimada num local público, geralmente em feriados ou dias santos.Palavras-chave: Inquisição – Feitiçaria – Ritual. Abstract: his paper proposes to think the Inquisition, mainly medieval, as an extension or Catholic organization that sought to eradicate those who opposed the beliefs and morality preached by the Church. Basing on the concept of ritual, we present the relationship between the Inquisition and women accused of witchcraft as a ritual, which begins from the moment of capture of the accused, throughout the  inquiry and torture until  reaching the act of faith, where she  was burnt  at a public place, usually on holidays.Keywords: Inquisition – Witchcraft – Ritual.

  14. Perception of prejudice and self-esteem among adolescents in a familiar context and in out-of-home care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Lopes Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relation between perception of prejudice and self-esteem in a group of 556 adolescent students, living with their families, compared to a group of 96 adolescents living in out-of-home care. The Brazilian Youth Questionnaire was employed, in which questions about perception of prejudice and self-esteem were asked to both groups. Univariate Analyses of Variance indicated significant differences between the two groups with respect to prejudice, as well as between genders with regards to self-esteem. The out-of-home care group showed a greater prejudice perception and the female participants in both groups showed lower self-esteem. It can be concluded that, although institutionalization may contribute to a greater perception of prejudice, this did not reflect in a significantly lower mean for self-esteem. This result indicates that these institutions may represent a place capable of, even temporarily, providing protection and conditions for a healthy development.

  15. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  16. Evidence-based medicine and prejudice-based medicine: the case of homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Filice de Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades an important social movement related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine has been identified worldwide. In Brazil, although homeopathy was recognized as a specialist medical area in 1980, few medical schools offer courses related to it. In a previous study, 176 resident doctors at the University of Campinas Medical School were interviewed and 86 (49% rejected homeopathy as a subject in the core medical curriculum. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to understand their reasons for refusing. 20 residents from 15 different specialist areas were interviewed. Very few of them admitted to a lack of knowledge for making a judgment about homeopathy; none of them made a conscientious objection to it; and the majority demonstrated prejudice, affirming that there is not enough scientific evidence to support homeopathy, defending their position based on personal opinion, limited clinical practice and on information circulated in the mass media. Finally, resident doctors’ prejudices against homeopathy can be extended to practices other than allopathic medicine.

  17. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD: Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010. Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing the past, understanding the present, and preparing for the future of communication in a global society (Sadri and Flammia, 2011, p. 19. This paper provides a brief overview of pertinent research and major theories related to communicating with people of different cultural backgrounds, as well as useful techniques and strategies to use when teaching in international or multinational classrooms, and working or consulting in international or multinational companies, organizations, and educational institutions. It also includes data collected via surveys and interviews that helps to shed light on underlying issues of racism and discontent in Japanese and Nigerian populations within Japan, and concludes with a description of a new approach to one of the most common intercultural communication exercises called the E.A.D. (Evaluate, Analyze, Describe. While this exercise has proved to increase cultural awareness and open the lines of communication between individuals from various cultural and lingual backgrounds, research also shows that other strategies may be necessary to achieve desired levels of communication.

  18. Social Exclusion Based on Group Membership is a Form of Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.

  19. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Melike M; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants' non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants' attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt.

  20. The Impact of the Feminist Heroine: Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun CHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the feminist significance of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. The feminist view found in Pride and Prejudice is well-supported in literary criticism yet little discussion has focused on Elizabeth’s feminism as seen in the prominent contrast to her female foils within the novel, namely Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. Each of these women conforms to the socially imposed gender norms of Regency England, while Elizabeth artfully challenges gender inequality. As other women adapt their views to increase their chances of marriage, Elizabeth persistently refuses to capitulate. Defying traditional gender norms, Elizabeth affirms her feminist perspective by helping to shape Mr. Darcy’s moral character to match her own. Elizabeth inspires Mr. Darcy to set aside the pride he has in his high station in society in order to win her affections and take her hand in marriage. I argue that Elizabeth’s character is not feminist in isolation, but is understood only in contrast to Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. This claim is supported by an in-depth comparison of Elizabeth and each of the female foils.

  1. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Marethe Fourie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively- and positively-valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46 who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs. Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ nonprejudiced self-standards (positive condition, or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition, in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride, and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt. In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS scale, reported greater guilt.

  2. [Astronomical bodies, disasters and superstitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Hugli, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    The belief that a full moon or Friday the 13th or some specific doctors are associated with busier shifts in the emergency room is still widespread among caregivers. Although such a topic may seem anecdotal, even folkloric, it has been the subject of several studies that have shown that there is no association between these factors and the number of emergency room admissions or type of pathology. It is not certain that an evidence-based approach is sufficient to eliminate such beliefs because their existence also responds to an attempt to put some semblance of meaning into the chaotic and stressful activity of emergencies.

  3. 'Thinking ill of others without sufficient warrant?' Transcending the accuracy-inaccuracy dualism in prejudice and stereotyping research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John

    2017-03-01

    Research on prejudice seeks to understand and transform inaccurate beliefs about others. Indeed, historically such research has offered a cautionary tale of the biased nature of human cognition. Recently, however, this view has been challenged by work defending the essential rationality of intergroup perception, a theme captured controversially in Jussim and colleagues' (2009) research on the 'unbearable accuracy of stereotyping'. The present paper argues that in its own terms the 'rationalist turn' in socio-cognitive research on stereotyping presents an important challenge to the prejudice tradition, raising troubling questions about its conceptual and empirical foundations. However, it also argues for the necessity of transcending those terms. By focusing on the correspondence between individual beliefs and the supposedly 'objective' characteristics of others, we neglect the historical and discursive practices through which the social realities that we 'perceive' are actively constructed and institutionalized. We mask their social origins, contested and perspectival nature, relativity, and relationship to wider structures of power. By implication, moving beyond the Allportian perspective that has dominated both the prejudice tradition and the emerging stereotype accuracy paradigm, we may now need to prioritize other kinds of questions. Reversing Allport's famous definition of prejudice, it may now be time to ask: How, and with what consequences, does 'thinking ill of others' become sufficiently warranted? How does such thinking become part of institutionalized relations of power and an accepted way of perceiving, evaluating and treating others? What should social psychologists be doing to challenge this state of affairs? © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Supporting Interethnic and Interracial Friendships among Youth to Reduce Prejudice and Racism in Schools: The Role of the School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…

  5. A Psychometric Validation of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…

  6. The Role of Peers in Predicting Students' Homophobic Behavior: Effects of Peer Aggression, Prejudice, and Sexual Orientation Identity Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…

  7. A Brief Analysis on the Two Chinese Versions of "Pride and Prejudice" from the Perspective of Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng

    2010-01-01

    "Pride and Prejudice," owing to its romantic and superb language, enjoys a great audience and has at least five Chinese versions in circulation. Among them are two versions which are translated by the most authoritative translators published in China: the version translated by Wang Keyi and the version translated by Sun Zhili. The former…

  8. Appreciation of translation from mea ning and style---exemplified with the version of Proud and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雪美

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of good translation is kind of enjoyment, but firstly it is indispensable to grasp the knowledge of the standard of good translation. This paper tries to combine the traditional standard and some linguistic theories, from the aspect of meaning and style, exemplified with the version of proud and prejudice to appreciate a good translation.

  9. Can Caring Create Prejudice? An Investigation of Positive and Negative Intergenerational Contact in Care Settings and the Generalisation of Blatant and Subtle Age Prejudice to Other Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Lisbeth; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Lamont, Ruth A; Gerocova, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Caring is a positive social act, but can it result in negative attitudes towards those cared for, and towards others from their wider social group? Based on intergroup contact theory, we tested whether care workers' (CWs) positive and negative contact with old-age care home residents (CHRs) predicts prejudiced attitudes towards that group, and whether this generalises to other older people. Fifty-six CWs were surveyed about their positive and negative contact with CHRs and their blatant and subtle attitudes (humanness attributions) towards CHRs and older adults. We tested indirect paths from contact with CHRs to attitudes towards older adults via attitudes towards CHRs. Results showed that neither positive nor negative contact generalised blatant ageism. However, the effect of negative, but not positive, contact on the denial of humanness to CHRs generalised to subtle ageism towards older adults. This evidence has practical implications for management of CWs' work experiences and theoretical implications, suggesting that negative contact with a subgroup generalises the attribution of humanness to superordinate groups. Because it is difficult to identify and challenge subtle prejudices such as dehumanisation, it may be especially important to reduce negative contact. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N = 588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice.

  11. On Jane Austen’s Views on marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志新

    2013-01-01

    Marriage and love are eternal topics in our society. Among these works,Pride and Prejudice written by Jane Austen is welcomed all over the world. In this novel,Jane Austen expresses her own opinions about this problem through the description of four couples’marriage,that is: marriage should not be determined by property and family status. It is unwise to marry without money, but it is also wrong to marry for money. The marriage settled by love is happy and ideal. Her views on marriage have great realistic significance to the modern society.This paper sums up Jane Austen’s views on ideal marriage and its great realistic significance to the modern society from the analysis of four different types of marriage in the novel.

  12. An Analysis of Jane Austen’s Outlook on Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎丽

    2013-01-01

    Jane Austen, one of the most influential female novelists in the history of world literature, is the first female to break up the monopoly of male writing. Her famous work Pride and Prejudice was created in 1813, which gained her lasting fame and popularity. In this novel, the characters of the four ladies are impressive: Jane is mild; Charlotte is mediocre; Lydia is ignorant;Elizabeth is wise. Different characters result in different marriages which are moral marriage, utilitarian marriage, sex-oriented marriage and perfect marriage. Through the analysis of the characters and these four marriages, this thesis aims to conclude Jane Austen’s Perception of Marriage, that is, character determines marriage.

  13. Beyond "homophobia": Thinking more clearly about stigma, prejudice, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and relatively rapid turnaround in public opinion, this article focuses on the changes in stigma and issues of sexual prejudice as well. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. ‘Gaze’ and ‘Visuality’ in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfagharkhani M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For many readers, there is no connection between Jane Austen’s novels and the sexualized body. Sexuality in Austen’s novels is never explicit; nonetheless, it permeates every look, gesture, and letter that passes between her lovers. This article aims to reveal the concept of ‘gaze’, especially female gaze, in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. According to feminist critics it is psychologically inevitable that women are the sexual objects of men; therefore, they have effectively refused to acknowledge the possibility that a female gaze could exist. Arguably, as it is indicated throughout this article, women are not necessarily rendered mute and inert by the male gaze; in fact, they actively shape and respond to male desire and their gaze encompasses as much authority and power as the male gaze.

  15. The dual process model of ideology and prejudice: a longitudinal test during a global recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the pathways between personality, social worldviews, and ideology, predicted by the Dual Process Model (DPM) of ideology and prejudice. These paths were tested using a full cross-lagged panel design administered to a New Zealand community sample in early 2008 (before the effects of the global financial crisis reached New Zealand) and again in 2009 (when the crisis was near its peak; n = 247). As hypothesized, low openness to experience predicted residualized change in dangerous worldview, which in turn predicted right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Low agreeableness predicted competitive worldview, which in turn predicted social dominance orientation (SDO). RWA and SDO also exerted unexpected reciprocal effects on worldviews. This study provides the most comprehensive longitudinal test of the DPM to date, and was conducted during a period of systemic instability when the causal effects predicted by the DPM should be, and were, readily apparent.

  16. Stigma as ego depletion: how being the target of prejudice affects self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; McKay, Linda; Aronson, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    This research examined whether stigma diminishes people's ability to control their behaviors. Because coping with stigma requires self-regulation, and self-regulation is a limited-capacity resource, we predicted that individuals belonging to stigmatized groups are less able to regulate their own behavior when they become conscious of their stigmatizing status or enter threatening environments. Study 1 uncovered a correlation between stigma sensitivity and self-regulation; the more Black college students were sensitive to prejudice, the less self-control they reported having. By experimentally activating stigma, Studies 2 and 3 provided causal evidence for stigma's ego-depleting qualities: When their stigma was activated, stigmatized participants (Black students and females) showed impaired self-control in two very different domains (attentional and physical self-regulation). These results suggest that (a) stigma is ego depleting and (b) coping with it can weaken the ability to control and regulate one's behaviors in domains unrelated to the stigma.

  17. Community Influences on the Material Liability of Magistrates for Prejudices Caused by Material Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ioana Pîrvu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper`s main issue is the fact that in the last years Romania is on top of the list of the states paying the highest damages further to the convictions in front of ECHR, fact that determines an increasing dissatisfaction of legal experts but also of the population. This controversial situation generated the reconsideration of the material liability of magistrates, for the judicial errors and the prejudices consequently created, established not only before international courts but also before domestic courts. Tacking into consideration that, at present, numerous proposals for settling this issue come from more and more subjects, with or without a legislative initiative right, among which the Ministry of Economy and Finances, the Ministry of Justice or The Superior Council of Magistrature the paper tries to capture a perspective view ofthe material liability of magistrates, for the judicial errors in our legal system but also in other systems of law, which can be seen as a source of inspiration. According to the legislation in force, the only one liable before an injured party that suffered a prejudice through a judicial error is the state, whose right and possibility torecover the counter value granted to the prejudiced person through the filing of recourse action against the judge to whom the judicial error is imputable, are acknowledged. The magistrate may be held liable only when the judicial error is caused by the exercise of the function in bad faith or with serious negligence. The application of such concepts as “bad faith” and “serious negligence” is, however, difficult, due to insufficient criteria for their interpretation, considering all the nuances, and quantification, included by law. Also, please note that, through the creation of the possibility that each individual holds the magistrate liable for alleged prejudices caused by the latter, the magistrate’s liability and the good functioning of justice would be seriously

  18. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  19. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-10-07

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  20. Human Errors May Explain Prejudice of Mass Media against People with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen J Salerian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the publications about the Sandy Hook massacre allegedly committed by an autistic man with history of Asperger’s disorder. We systematically reviewed the news about the Sandy Hook massacre. Despite the publicly available scientific evidence consistent with the inaccuracy of the alleged massacre the news media have continued to portray Adam Lanza as the mass murderer of 26 children and 3 adults. The evidence seems to support the need not only to further investigate the alleged Sandy Hook massacre but also to study the mass media’s failure to report the evidence based news about autistic spectrum disorders and the alleged Sandy Hook massacre. Physicians and public health officials should become familiar with mass delusions which promote prejudice against people with psychiatric disorders.