Geschiere, P.; Wright, J.D.
Till far into the twentieth century two nodal points in the study of witchcraft stood out: the work by historians on witch trials in early modern Europe, and anthropologists' studies of its role in local tensions in Africa and Melanesia. The differences between the two settings were so glaring that
This paper is a genealogical reflection on both the historiography of European witchcraft and the dynamics of witchcraft trials. I argue that traditional scholarly assumptions about the 'unsophisticated' nature of early modern European mentalities result in inadequate representations of accused witches and of the social contexts and processes of the trials. Genealogy, by contrast, problematizes fundamental notions such as reason, order, power and progress in ways that not only provide a different range of effective tools for the analysis of belief in witchcraft, but also underline its crucial significance for social theory. In the final section, an analysis of a typical trial is undertaken employing key genealogical insights into confession, torture, truth, governmentality, power, pleasure and pain.
Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.
Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke
Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.
Hirshleifer, David; Jian, Ming; Zhang, Huai
In Chinese culture, certain digits are lucky and others unlucky. We test how such numerological superstition affects financial decision in the China IPO market. We find that the frequency of lucky numerical stock listing codes exceeds what would be expected by chance. Also consistent with superstition effects, newly listed firms with lucky listing codes are initially traded at a premium after controlling for known determinants of valuation multiples, the lucky number premium dissipates within...
Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L
Different groups, because they are perceived to pose different threats, elicit different prejudices. Collective action by disadvantaged groups can amplify the perception of specific threats, with predictable and potentially counterproductive consequences. It is important to carefully consider the threat-based psychology of prejudice(s) before implementing any strategy intended to promote positive social change.
Full Text Available The present paper investigates one of the forms of expression and manifestation belonging to popular religiosity, the superstitions, practices through which people get into disagreement with their self and with the ideology advanced by institutions whose declared mission is to investigate and overcome man’s spiritual condition, the Church. There will be looked into, on the one hand, the major types of superstitions that the Romanians have according to a number of variables (ages, gender, education and, on the other hand, the categories of conflict generated by the superstitious behaviour.
This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary
Full Text Available The present contribution to the phenomenology of witchcraft will depend for its data on the traditional conceptions, rites, and folklore of witchcraft among the Inuit (Eskimo of Čanada and Greenland. A phenomenological definition of witchcraft may be obtained through recognition of its position within Inuit religion. Like many native North Americans, the Inuit epitomized their religion in the concept of balance. The Polar Inuit understood religion to have the function "to keep a right balance between mankind and the rest of the world". Without exception, the rites of Inuit witchcraft were rites of Inuit religion that were made unnatural, through the alteration of one or more features. Because counterclockwise ritual motions were specific to witchcraft, the expression "contrary to nature" may be understood to epitomize the Inuit's own appreciation of witchcraft. Whether witchcraft depended on deliberate violations of traditional observances, on malicious uses of magic formulae and songs, and/or on ritual motions, witchcraft proceeded "contrary to nature". Thus, witchcraft can be defined as special practices, which together with the beliefs and folklore surrounding them, are believed to be innately disruptive of the balance between mankind and the numina. Because it is contrary to nature, witchcraft is innately anti-social. The disruption of the balance of mankind with the numina is not the private act of the witch against a victim, but a danger for the entire community.
diametrically opposed to the African one; secondly, witchcraft accusation is a ... satisfactory and an all-embracing definition of witchcraft are difficult to arrive ..... This is the reason why if an old woman in some Yoruba communities roasts meat.
Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.
Food superstitions were held on foods like fufu, beans, snail, cocoa drink, okro, dika nut, etc. Conclusively, this research has revealed that 29% acknowledged that there is still an existence of food superstition among pregnant women that attend ante-natal in UNTH Ituku/Ozalla and about 19% of them still practice it.
our common understanding of reason and rationality? To adopt rational expectations about the world, after all, should we not attempt to avoid the emotional over-determination of our assessments? I show that applied reason is conceptually entangled with this superstitious optimism in the continued...... of retro-causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against...... successes of technology. The article thus reveals a curious sense in which reason is intrinsically superstitious. I offer an evolutionary explanation for this, showing that the biological origins of reason will by nature tend to produce rational agents which are superstitiously bound to realism...
John D. Ruby
Full Text Available This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries—holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.
Lai, Calvin; Nosek, Brian; Hoffman, Kelly
Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open issues in implicit prejudice reduction research: 1) what shows effectiveness in real-world application; 2) what doesn’t work for implicit prejudice r...
Guimera, L M
The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality (descriptive subsystem), the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance (etiological subsystem). The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis. Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft (nocturnal illnesses). He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. This study, based on a number of years of fieldwork, is part of an ongoing research program on African folk-medicine pursued by the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative of the Université de Paris X.
AN ANALYSIS OF FEAR AND PREJUDICE WAS MADE THROUGH A SERIES OF ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRES, PRIVATE INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED BY TRAINED PSYCHOLOGISTS, AND A SERIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS. RESULTS SHOWED THAT PREJUDICE STARTED IN THE FIRST FEW YEARS OF A CHILD'S LIFE THROUGH HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS PARENTS. THE ADULTS LOW IN PREJUDICE HAD STABLE OUTLOOKS…
Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik
Human behavior is guided by evolutionarily shaped brain mechanisms that make statistical predictions based on limited information. Such mechanisms are important for facilitating interpersonal relationships, avoiding dangers, and seizing opportunities in social interaction. We thus suggest that it is essential for analyses of prejudice and prejudice reduction to take the predictive accuracy and adaptivity of the studied prejudices into account.
Correlated responses to three items designed to measure superstition to 10 religiosity items among 355 college students. Found that religiosity items showed few significant relationships to either self-perceived superstitiousness or to use of horoscopes. Results suggest that most superstitious respondents tended to be least religious. (Author/NB)
Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.
Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M
There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DR. OKECHUKWU NWAFOR
In any case, if we assume that witchcraft exists, what are the implications to the ... of juvenile delinquency, chopped off the tail of a certain pussycat which used to .... presence in the community can neutralize or nullify the evil machinations of ...
This paper reviews the connection claimed to exist between magic, witchcraft, and parapsychology. Special attention is given to issues raised by the late Prof. Peter Bodunrin of Nigeria, including the demand that knowledge gained by psychic means be grounded in beliefs justified by good reasons and convincing ...
The films tell stories of the problems and joys of the contemporary Tanzanian society, and revolve around themes such as gender relations, love and/or sex, witchcraft and politics. Using selected films from prominent filmmakers, this article analyses the nature of Kiswahili filmmaking in Tanzania and the ways in which some ...
Byrnes, Deborah A.
Reviews studies on prejudice and children focusing on how children learn prejudice and what can be done to prevent it. Offers three activity and discussion ideas which can be used to develop children's awareness of inappropriate prejudgments. Identifies a selection of related instructional resources and includes a 34-item bibliography. (JDH)
A tour de force of wit and sparkling dialogue, Pride and Prejudice shows how the headstrong Elizabeth Bennett and the aristocratic Mr Darcy must have their pride humbled and their prejudices dissolved before they can acknowledge their love for each other.
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models
Shields, David Light
While subdued forms of everyday prejudice may seem harmless, appearances can be deceiving. Such commonplace prejudices form the foundation upon which more extreme acts of prejudice build. And they also leave us vulnerable to costly errors of judgment that can have tragic consequences. That is why addressing prejudice in the classroom is as crucial…
Few of us are free of all prejudices, however subtle and subconscious, and they may affect both patient care and teaching. Here I use reflection about a patient with HIV infection, from the points of view of two doctors caring for him and the patient himself, to explore prejudice against lifestyles that are considered "dangerous". The paper then goes on to discuss research about physicians' attitudes to such cases, the teaching of ethics in a clinical environment and the need to support junior medical staff. Key Words: Prejudice • HIV infections • professional-patient relationships PMID:11314156
Brandt, Mark J
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models' predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors.
Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.
Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365
Cornel W. du Toit
Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.
Full Text Available After some introductory remarks on the role of fear in religious discourse. Plutarch�s treatise On Superstition is analysed according to its rhetorical outline. Questions of authenticity are discussed and answered by locating the essay in Plutarch�s early career. Then we ask for the place of �fear of God� in biblical teaching and theology, compare it to Plutarch and show some limits in Plutarch�s youthful thinking, which doesn't yet pay due respect to the life values of myth. We conclude with two New Testament passages, Romans 8:15, masterfully interpreted by Martin Luther, and 1 John 4:17f excellently explained by 20th century�s Swiss theologian and psychologian Oskar Pfister, and we show that these texts are propagating �belief without fear�.
Pettigrew, T.F.; Brika, J.B.; Lemaine, G.; Meertens, R.W.; Jackson, J.S.; Wagner, U.; Zick, A.; Hewstone, M.; Stroebe, W.
(from the chapter) Outgroup prejudice has been a major area for social psychological applications. Yet European social psychology has not widely studied prejudice against the continent's new minorities. These groups provide a useful comparison with which to test generalization concerning prejudice
Full Text Available The relationship between humans and dogs is complex and ambivalent. The dog was the first animal that Homo sapiens domesticated. This means that the human-dog relationship has lasted longer than any other human-animal relationships. Despite all this, mythological, symbolic and folkloristic traditions often depict dogs in a negative light and as a dangerous and threatening force from the underworld. Due to the belief that seeing an unknown dog can lead to misfortune, accident or even death, people were often afraid of dogs. People had to invent certain rules that could help them determine which dog was dangerous and which was not. Those rules had to change over time based on the fact that human-dog relationship is culturally and historically defined. The author analyses stories from in the Glasovi (Voices collection to show that, in the last few centuries in the territory of modern Slovenia, black dogs where most feared by humans. In contrast, nowadays the most feared dogs are those of the Pit Bull and some other breeds. Nevertheless, the folk superstitions and prejudice toward black dogs is still present in modern Western societies. In the English language “black dog” symbolizes depression. And some are still reluctant to adopt large black dogs from the animal shelters.
Hedegaard, Morten; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
We present a new type of field experiment to investigate ethnic prejudice in the workplace. Our design allows us to study how potential discriminators respond to changes in the cost of discrimination. We find that ethnic discrimination is common but highly responsive to the “price of prejudice”, i...
Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G
Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Marta María Gutiérrez Rodríguez
Full Text Available The Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692 have received a lot of attention from history and literature, although there are very few critical analysis of how this historical event has entered the literary field. Many works of historical fiction – considered the most suitable literary genre to talk about an historical event - have used it in their storylines; however, popular genres such as romance, crime fiction, fantasy and science fiction have also shown an interest in this witch hunt. The main reason for this interest can be found in the lack of final conclusions as regards what really happened in Salem. The main objective of this paper is to show how what happened in Salem has entered contemporary popular fiction with the aim of showing the interest that it still arises and to vindicate the production of more critical works about the literary construction of one of the events that most dramatically has affected the configuration of the American mind.
In Chinese culture, certain digits are considered lucky and others unlucky. This thesis evaluates how numerical superstition affects financial decision-making in the Chinese A-share IPO market for the period between 2003-2015. Evidence has been found that suggests that numerical superstition influences the initial return on the issuing day of A-share IPOs on the Shanghai exchange. On this exchange newly listed firms with the unlucky number 4 and lucky numbers 6 and 8 in their ticker are initi...
Brandt, Mark; Crawford, Jarret
Existing meta-analytic evidence finds that low levels of Openness and Agreeableness correlate with generalized prejudice. However, previous studies relied on restricted operationalizations of generalized prejudice that only assessed prejudice toward disadvantaged, low-status groups. Across four samples (total N = 7,543), we tested the associations between Big Five traits and generalized prejudice using an inclusive operationalization of generalized prejudice. A meta-analysis of these findings...
Drs. Ewoud Jansen
The corporate goal of striving for stockholder value meets considerable resistance due to various misunderstandings and prejudices. The goal of this contribution is to clear up some of those misperceptions.
Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne
Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...... is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most...
Tanaka, Cinthia Marie; Iwasa, Yoh
We develop a simple cultural dynamics model to dicuss the spread of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan. A large drop in the number of newborn babies observed in 1966 was attributed mainly to parents' avoiding having a child born in a hinoeuma year. Presumably, Japanese parents were afraid that a daughter born in 1966 (a hinoeuma year) might later have difficulty finding a mate. We construct mathematical models to examine whether the hinoeuma superstition would likely become extinct or be stably maintained in the population. We classify members of a population according to whether they believed the hinoeuma superstition (believer or nonbeliever), their gender (male or female), and their year of birth (born in a hinoeuma year or not). We compare several cases that differ according to (1) whether the belief in the superstition was transmitted to children by matrilineal, patrilineal, or Mendelian inheritance; (2) which parent controlled the timing of pregnancy and childbirth (maternal or paternal birth control); and (3) the probability of birth control failure. Our results show that the hinoeuma superstition is likely to spread if the mother has a strong influence on birth control and on the belief of their children. In contrast, if birth control is paternal and the belief is passed down from father to child, the hinoeuma superstition is likely to become extinct. In between these extremes, whether the superstition becomes extinct or fixed in the population depends on the initial frequency of believers in the population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krolikowski, Alex M; Rinella, Mark; Ratcliff, Jennifer J
Although the negative consequences of subtle and blatant prejudice for the targets of prejudice are clear in the psychological literature, the impact of exposure to subtle and blatant prejudice on non-targets remains unclear. The current work examines how exposure to blatant and subtle sexual prejudice affects non-targets' personal endorsement of prejudice and their identification with the prejudice expresser. Results suggest that relative to exposure to blatant or neutral expressions of prejudice, exposure to subtle prejudice increased prejudice levels. Individuals were also more likely to distance from the prejudice expresser when exposed to blatant compared to subtle prejudice. The implications are discussed.
Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark
Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Booth, Grace Marie
A mother and daughter share their insights on what American schools can learn about cooperative, student-centered, problem-solving approaches to instruction from the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter books. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)
In African and therefore, African American cultural world-view, some perceive witchcraft as evil and some identify it as an art that unifies and orders ... as evil conspirators and collaborators with the demonic world who are rarely benevolent and should be purged from the society; whereas, Toni Morrison sees them as ...
Full Text Available In the United the States the largest segment of studies has predictively been the descriptive or documenttaion of racial prejudice for over four decades (Crosby, Bromley and Saxe, 1984. The differential treatment of individuals based on their gorup membership, especially race, can be measured by discrriminatory behaviour and prejudiced attitudes. The pre-sumption of certain sttributes in individuals solely on the basis of a particular group, called stereotyping, is another form of prejudice that is a useful measure for racism.
Carter, Clifford; Rice, C. Lynne
Identifies three major categories of prejudice: conscious/intentional, conscious/unintentional, and unconscious/unintentional. Asserts that prejudice plays a large role in the development of children and has its origins in the individual's group identity. Claims that exposure to and understanding of the development of prejudice can diminish its…
Moore, J. William; And Others
This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…
Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan
This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…
Spong, Sheila J.
This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…
Evgeny F. Krinko
Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.
Olsen, Nancy J.; Willemsen, Eleanor W.
Explores a methodology for studying sex prejudice in children. First-, third-, and fifth-grade students were asked to rate the performance of an eight-year-old child identified as a girl for half of the subjects and as a boy for the remaining half. (BD)
Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…
Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.
This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation
Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.
Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC
might not be sufficient to determine the correct model of the underlying physics. As a first look at the signatures of these models in indirect detection experiments, we examined whether our models could explain the PAMELA excess in the positron to electron ratio at high energies. We find that there are models which fit the PAMELA data rather well, and some of these have significantly smaller boost factors than generally assumed for a thermal relic. The study of the pMSSM presents exciting new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology. The next few years will hopefully see important discoveries both in colliders and in satellite or ground-based astrophysical experiments. It is important that we follow the data and not our existing prejudices; hopefully this sort of relatively model-independent approach to collider and astrophysical phenomenology can be useful in this regard.
determine the correct model of the underlying physics. As a first look at the signatures of these models in indirect detection experiments, we examined whether our models could explain the PAMELA excess in the positron to electron ratio at high energies. We find that there are models which fit the PAMELA data rather well, and some of these have significantly smaller boost factors than generally assumed for a thermal relic. The study of the pMSSM presents exciting new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology. The next few years will hopefully see important discoveries both in colliders and in satellite or ground-based astrophysical experiments. It is important that we follow the data and not our existing prejudices; hopefully this sort of relatively model-independent approach to collider and astrophysical phenomenology can be useful in this regard.
Miller, Audrey K; Wagner, Maverick M; Hunt, Amy N
Extant research has established numerous demographic, personal-history, attitudinal, and ideological correlates of sexual prejudice, also known as homophobia. The present study investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains, particularly Openness, and FFM facets, particularly Openness to Values, contribute independent and incremental variance to the prediction of sexual prejudice beyond these established correlates. Participants were 117 college students who completed a comprehensive FFM measure, measures of sexual prejudice, and a demographics, personal-history, and attitudes-and-ideologies questionnaire. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, whereas Openness domain score predicted only marginal incremental variance in sexual prejudice, Openness facet scores (particularly Openness to Values) predicted independent and substantial incremental variance beyond numerous other zero-order correlates of sexual prejudice. The importance of integrating FFM personality variables, especially facet-level variables, into conceptualizations of sexual prejudice is highlighted. Study strengths and weaknesses are discussed as are potential implications for prejudice-reduction interventions.
Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A
Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.
Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio
Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable.
McGough, Laura J
In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.
Sierra Rose Dye
Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.
Charles, Eric P; Rowland, Nicholas J; Long, Brooke; Yarrison, Fritz
Our research on non-religion supports the proposed shift toward more interactive models of prejudice. Being nonreligious is easily hideable and, increasingly, of low salience, leading to experiences not easily understood via traditional or contemporary frameworks for studying prejudice and prejudice reduction. This context affords new opportunity to observe reverse forms of interactive prejudice, which can interfere with prejudice reduction.
Full Text Available This paper deals with interpretations of prejudices and specifically, prejudices towards people with disabilities, from the perspective of one of the many theoretical approaches. Psychoanalytic theoretical point of view interpret prejudices through the personality of the individual. The study and interpretation of prejudices towards people with disabilities is one of the major themes of modern social model of disability. Psychoanalytic interpretations determine prejudices, as well as prejudices towards people with disabilities, as a result of defense mechanisms, especially projection. This paper discusses the emotional component of attitude, based on its predominance in prejudices, as a extreme attitudes. In this analysis we have taken into account the emotional and unconscious reactions that can compose an emotional ambivalence in relation to the object of an attitude. Prejudice towards people with disabilities were brought in connection with the irrational and emotional reactions and unconscious fantasies related to the object of an attitude.
This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.
This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…
Ulyanchenko Anton Leonidovich
Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.
Антон Леонидович Ульянченко
Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-7
Karpuzcu, Hakan Feyzullah
This study attempts to sketch a general picture of the late Ottoman conceptualizations of Islam through the preliminary observation of the ideas of M. Şemseddin (Günaltay), an important intellectual and political figure of the Ottoman Second Constitutional Period (1908-1918). More specifically this thesis deals with why and how Şemseddin Günaltay devised an exclusionary rhetoric on Sufi orders and superstitions. In Şemseddin Günaltay's understanding of Islam, superstitions, folk beliefs and S...
Butz, David A; Plant, E Ashby
A decade of research indicates that individual differences in motivation to respond without prejudice have important implications for the control of prejudice and interracial relations. In reviewing this work, we draw on W. Mischel and Y. Shoda's (1995, 1999) Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) to demonstrate that people with varying sources of motivation to respond without prejudice respond in distinct ways to situational cues, resulting in differing situation-behavior profiles in interracial contexts. People whose motivation is self-determined (i.e., the internally motivated) effectively control prejudice across situations and strive for positive interracial interactions. In contrast, people who respond without prejudice to avoid social sanction (i.e., the primarily externally motivated) consistently fail at regulating difficult to control prejudice and respond with anxiety and avoidance in interracial interactions. We further consider the nature of the cognitive-affective units of personality associated with motivation to respond without prejudice and their implications for the quality of interracial relations.
Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.
Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…
Shaver, John H; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph
News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media's role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950's, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world's most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice.
The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…
Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)
Hira, K; Fukui, T; Endoh, A; Rahman, M; Maekawa, M
To determine the influence of superstition about Taian (a lucky day)-Butsumetsu (an unlucky day) on decision to leave hospital. To estimate the costs of the effect of this superstition. Retrospective and descriptive study. University hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Patients who were discharged alive from Kyoto University Hospital from 1 April 1992 to 31 March 1995. Mean number, age, and hospital stay of patients discharged on each day of six day cycle. The mean number, age, and hospital stay of discharged patients were highest on Taian and lowest on Butsumetsu (25.8 v 19.3 patients/day, P=0.0001; 43.9 v 41.4 years, P=0.0001; and 43.1 v 33.3 days, P=0.0001 respectively). The effect of this difference on the hospital's costs was estimated to be 7.4 million yen (¿31 000). The superstition influenced the decision to leave hospital, contributing to higher medical care costs in Japan. Although hospital stays need to be kept as short as possible to minimise costs, doctors should not ignore the possible psychological effects on patients' health caused by dismissing the superstition.
Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona
Full Text Available The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.
The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008
Amodio, David M
Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.
Putra, Idhamsyah Eka
The present study aims to understand the conditions where prejudice can be predicted by ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice. The data collecting was disseminated toward Muslim and Christian participants (N = 362) living in Maumere, Flores Island, Indonesia. In Flores, Christianity is the largest religion and Islam is the second. Across two samples, the effects of ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice on prejudice were found to be moderated by ingroup self-evaluation. It shows that at high level (but not low) of positive ingroup self-evaluation, ingroup and outgroup meta-prejudice were found to predict prejudice. The results suggest that it is important to consider how group members evaluate their own group and how group members think what others are thinking, in the study pertaining to intergroup relations.
Munter, Preston A.
This article, noting some current change in attitude towards homosexuals, discusses the validity of certain beliefs about them and stresses the need for health care that is above prejudice for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike.
Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.
This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as
Full Text Available The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children’s values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles. Parents’ blatant and subtle ethnic prejudice and parenting style are measured together with children’s explicit and implicit ethnic prejudice in pupils and parents of preschool and primary schools in the region of Rome, Italy (N = 318. Results show that parents’ subtle prejudice predicts children’s implicit prejudice regardless of the parenting style. Findings indicate that children might acquire prejudice by means of the parents’ implicit cognition and automatic behavior and educational actions. Implications for future studies and insights for possible applied interventions are discussed.
Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.
The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No…
Pirchio, Sabine; Passiatore, Ylenia; Panno, Angelo; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Carrus, Giuseppe
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children’s values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles. Parents’ blatant and subtle ethnic prejudice and parenting style are measured together with children’s explicit and implicit ethnic prejudice in pupils and parents of preschool and primary schools in the region of Rome, Italy (N = 318). Results show that parents’ subtle prejudice predicts children’s implicit prejudice regardless of the parenting style. Findings indicate that children might acquire prejudice by means of the parents’ implicit cognition and automatic behavior and educational actions. Implications for future studies and insights for possible applied interventions are discussed. PMID:29479328
Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M.; Wang, J.
UAVSAR data were first acquired over the Salton Trough region, just north of the Mexican border in October 2009. Second passes of data were acquired on 12 and 13 April 2010, about one week following the 5 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. The earthquake resulted in creep on several faults north of the main rupture, including the Yuha, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults. The UAVSAR platform acquires data about every six meters in swaths about 15 km wide. Tropospheric effects and residual aircraft motion contribute to error in the estimation of surface deformation in the Repeat Pass Interferometry products. The Superstition Hills fault shows clearly in the associated radar interferogram; however, error in the data product makes it difficult to infer deformation from long profiles that cross the fault. Using the QuakeSim InSAR Profile tool we extracted line of site profiles on either side of the fault delineated in the interferogram. We were able to remove much of the correlated error by differencing profiles 250 m on either side of the fault. The result shows right-lateral creep of 1.5±.4 mm along the northern 7 km of the fault in the interferogram. The amount of creep abruptly changes to 8.4±.4 mm of right lateral creep along at least 9 km of the fault covered in the image to the south. The transition occurs within less than 100 m along the fault. We also extracted 2 km long line of site profiles perpendicular to this section of the fault. Averaging these profiles shows a step across the fault of 14.9±.3 mm with greater creep on the order of 20 mm on the northern two profiles and lower creep of about 10 mm on the southern two profiles. Nearby GPS stations P503 and P493 are consistent with this result. They also confirm that the creep event occurred at the time of the El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. By removing regional deformation resulting from the main rupture we were able to invert for the depth of creep from the surface. Results indicate
Full Text Available Introduction :To the authors’ best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Material and methods : Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154 and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. Results : A total of 4,104 (83.4% respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that “it is better not to touch naevi”. Moreover, 3,510 (71.3% individuals believed that naevi located in “harmed places” may turn into melanoma. Conclusions : Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life.
The teleseismic long-period waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network from the two largest Superstition Hills earthquakes are inverted using an algorithm based on optimal filter theory. These solutions differ slightly from those published in the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters Monthly Listing because a somewhat different, improved data set was used in the inversions and a time-dependent moment-tensor algorithm was used to investigate the complexity of the main shock. The foreshock (origin time 01:54:14.5, mb 5.7, Ms6.2) had a scalar moment of 2.3 ?? 1025 dyne-cm, a depth of 8km, and a mechanism of strike 217??, dip 79??, rake 4??. The main shock (origin time 13:15:56.4, mb 6.0, Ms6.6) was a complex event, consisting of at least two subevents, with a combined scalar moment of 1.0 ?? 1026 dyne-cm, a depth of 10km, and a mechanism of strike 303??, dip 89??, rake -180??. -Authors
Carr, Priyanka B; Dweck, Carol S; Pauker, Kristin
Prejudiced behavior is typically seen as emanating from prejudiced attitudes. Eight studies showed that majority-group members' beliefs about prejudice can create seemingly "prejudiced" behaviors above and beyond prejudice measured explicitly (Study 1b) and implicitly (Study 2). Those who believed prejudice was relatively fixed, rather than malleable, were less interested in interracial interactions (Studies 1a-1d), race- or diversity-related activities (Study 1a), and activities to reduce their prejudice (Study 3). They were also more uncomfortable in interracial, but not same-race, interactions (Study 2). Study 4 manipulated beliefs about prejudice and found that a fixed belief, by heightening concerns about revealing prejudice to oneself and others, depressed interest in interracial interactions. Further, though Whites who were taught a fixed belief were more anxious and unfriendly in an interaction with a Black compared with a White individual, Whites who were taught a malleable belief were not (Study 5). Implications for reducing prejudice and improving intergroup relations are discussed.
Carr, Priyanka B.; Dweck, Carol S.; Pauker, Kristin
Prejudiced behavior is typically seen as emanating from prejudiced attitudes. Eight studies showed that majority-group members’ beliefs about prejudice can create seemingly “prejudiced” behaviors above and beyond prejudice measured explicitly (Study 1b) and implicitly (Study 2). Those who believed prejudice was relatively fixed, rather than malleable, were less interested in interracial interactions (Studies 1a–d), race- or diversity-related activities (Study 1a), and activities to reduce their prejudice (Study 3). They were also more uncomfortable in interracial, but not same-race, interactions (Study 2). Study 4 manipulated beliefs about prejudice and found that a fixed belief, by heightening concerns about revealing prejudice to oneself and others, depressed interest in interracial interactions. Further, though those taught a fixed belief were more anxious and unfriendly in an interaction with a Black compared to White individual, those taught a malleable belief were not (Study 5). Implications for reducing prejudice and improving intergroup relations are discussed. PMID:22708626
Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S
Despite the possible costs, confronting prejudice can have important benefits, ranging from the well-being of the target of prejudice to social change. What, then, motivates targets of prejudice to confront people who express explicit bias? In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that targets who hold an incremental theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people can change) are more likely to confront prejudice than targets who hold an entity theory of personality (i.e., the belief that people have fixed traits). In Study 1, targets' beliefs about the malleability of personality predicted whether they spontaneously confronted an individual who expressed bias. In Study 2, targets who held more of an incremental theory reported that they would be more likely to confront prejudice and less likely to withdraw from future interactions with an individual who expressed prejudice. In Study 3, we manipulated implicit theories and replicated these findings. By highlighting the central role that implicit theories of personality play in targets' motivation to confront prejudice, this research has important implications for intergroup relations and social change.
Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon
Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N
Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This essay examines the construction of prejudice and the visibility of the ensuing discriminations associated with the emergence of differences, be it through the affirmation and manipulation of the conditions of difference or through their denial and dissimulation. In both cases, there is a lack of recognition of, or disrespect for, differences that is constitutive of new patterns of violence. This essay builds a bridge between discrimination and violence, emphasizing the diverse forms of discrimination and exclusion, which include: the juridical parameters related to co-existence and re-cognition; the social sciences approach to the construction of differences/non-similarities; the conceptual framework of the category prejudice‘ and its derivative forms of discrimination and social exclusion; the mechanisms of prejudice; and the difference-prejudice relation, image and rationalization of the Other .
Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496
PTA Today, 1995
Presents guidelines for parents to use in teaching their children that prejudice or discrimination in the home, school, community, or workplace is wrong. The article details how prejudice begins, how to respond to children's questions, and what parents can do to combat prejudice. (SM)
In line with Dixon et al.'s argument, I contend that prejudice should be understood in broadly political rather than in narrowly psychological terms. First, what counts as prejudice is a political judgement. Second, studies of collective action demonstrate that it is in "political" struggles, where subordinate groups together oppose dominant groups, that prejudice can be overcome.
... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future filing...
... prejudice (Rule 35). 6302.35 Section 6302.35 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.35 Dismissal without prejudice (Rule 35). When... prejudice to its restoration to the Board's docket when the cause of suspension has been eliminated. Unless...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the time...
Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia
This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...
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This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.
Rifat S. Ilhan; Abdulkadir Cevik
Abstract By the elementary usage in every day life, Prejeudice is a multidimensional phenomena which is influenced by evolutional, ontogenetical, historical, economic, sociopolitic fields. Because of the biopyschosocial features of Human being, Prejudice emerges in many situations. There for, we can be under the influence of prejudice when we make decision and make our choises. From the psychological point of view, identity development process has an important role at the forming of prejud...
Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith
To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…
Haslam, Nick; Rothschild, Louis; Ernst, Donald
Gordon Allport (1954) proposed that belief in group essences is one aspect of the prejudiced personality, alongside a rigid, dichotomous and ambiguity-intolerant cognitive style. We examined whether essentialist beliefs-beliefs that a social category has a fixed, inherent, identity-defining nature-are indeed associated in this fashion with prejudice towards black people, women and gay men. Allport's claim, which is mirrored by many contemporary social theorists, received partial support but had to be qualified in important respects. Essence-related beliefs were associated strongly with anti-gay attitudes but only weakly with sexism and racism, and they did not reflect a cognitive style that was consistent across stigmatized categories. When associations with prejudice were obtained, only a few specific beliefs were involved, and some anti-essentialist beliefs were associated with anti-gay attitudes. Nevertheless, the powerful association that essence-related beliefs had with anti-gay attitudes was independent of established prejudice-related traits, indicating that they have a significant role to play in the psychology of prejudice.
Ghoshal, Raj Andrew; Lippard, Cameron; Ribas, Vanesa; Muir, Ken
Researchers have demonstrated that unconscious prejudices around characteristics such as race, gender, and class are common, even among people who avow themselves unbiased. The authors present a method for teaching about implicit racial bias using online Implicit Association Tests. The authors do not claim that their method rids students of…
Degner, J.; Wentura, D.
Four cross-sectional studies are presented that investigated the automatic activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (aged 9 years to 15 years). Therefore, 4 different versions of the affective priming task were used, with pictures of ingroup and outgroup members being presented as
Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David
Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…
Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.
Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study
Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B
In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Inman, M L; Baron, R S
Two studies examined the influence of cultural stereotypes and personal factors (one's race, gender) on perceptions of racial and gender discrimination. Overall, the data suggest that our perceptions of prejudice are strongly influenced by specific expectations regarding who are the prototypic perpetrators and victims of prejudice. More general expectations regarding out-group conflict or regarding only the characteristics of the perpetrator appear to have less of an impact on such perceptions. Additionally, women were found to be more likely than men to perceive sexism directed against men and racism directed at African Americans and Caucasians. Also, African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to perceive racist events against Whites and Blacks. The implications of these data are discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper I give a short introduction to the standard way to treat offensive language in contemporary philosophy of language, without giving details on the very rich contemporary literature on the problem. My aim here is to connect what is called a “presuppositional point of view” on pejoratives to the topic of prejudice. At the same time, I want to develop some hints given by Flavio Baroncelli, a political philosopher and colleague who offered some provocative suggestions on the educative role of politically correct language. I will show that some of his ideas are still workable, and at the same time I eventually will try to show what is really new in the diffusion of prejudice through social networks and which kinds of reactions can be foreseen.
Full Text Available The paper aims to show, by means of a close look at the most recent samples of political discourse in Europe and America, how much and how frequently populists set up their narratives around a relatively small number of patterns, such as the worship of the people, a (more or less overt appeal to prejudice and the rhetoric of privilege. In so doing, it offers some useful insights into the nature of contemporary populism.
Bergh, Robin; Akrami, Nazar; Sidanius, Jim; Sibley, Chris G
Many scholars have proposed that people who reject one outgroup tend to reject other outgroups. Studies examining a latent factor behind different prejudices (e.g., toward ethnic and sexual minorities) have referred to this as generalized prejudice. Such research has also documented robust relations between latent prejudice factors and basic personality traits. However, targets of generalized prejudice tend to be lower in power and status and thus it remains an open question as to whether generalized prejudice, as traditionally studied, is about devaluing outgroups or devaluing marginalized groups. We present 7 studies, including experiments and national probability samples (N = 9,907 and 4,037) assessing the importance of outgroup devaluation, versus status- or power based devaluations, for understanding the nature of generalized prejudice, and its links to personality. Results show that (a) personality variables do not predict ingroup/outgroup biases in settings where power and status differences are absent, (b) women and overweight people who score high on generalized prejudice devalue their own groups, and (c) personality variables are far more predictive of prejudice toward low-compared with high-status targets. Together, these findings suggest that the personality explanation of prejudice including the generalized prejudice concept is not about ingroups versus outgroups per se, but rather about devaluing marginalized groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark
This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael
Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.
Ford, Thomas E; Teeter, Sabrina R; Richardson, Kyle; Woodzicka, Julie A
When people high in prejudice censor prejudice in one setting, they can experience a prejudice rebound effect-subsequently responding with more prejudice than otherwise. Disparagement humor fosters the release rather than suppression of prejudice. Thus, two experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to disparagement humor attenuates rebound effects. Participants suppressed prejudice by writing fewer anti-gay thoughts about same-sex adoption (Experiment 1) or by reporting greater support for same-sex civil rights (Experiment 2) when expecting to share their responses with others (non-prejudice norm condition) but not if others first exchanged anti-gay jokes (prejudice norm condition). High-prejudice participants then exhibited prejudice rebound in the non-prejudice norm condition only. They rated a gay man more stereotypically (Experiment 1) and allocated greater budget cuts to a gay student organization (Experiment 2) in the non-prejudice norm condition.
Climenhage, L. James
Many stereotypes about persons with red hair are both gender-specific and derogatory. These stereotypes often stand in stark contrast to gender-role stereotypes for men and for women. In three studies, the current research considered if prejudice directed at redheads is, in part, a result of bias against gender-atypical people. In Study 1, participants read about a bullying incident in which the victim was a boy or girl with red hair or another hair colour. Redheads, in general, were seen as ...
Rinaldi, Sergio; Rossa, Fabio Della; Landi, Pietro
A mathematical model is proposed for interpreting the love story between Elizabeth and Darcy portrayed by Jane Austen in the popular novel Pride and Prejudice. The analysis shows that the story is characterized by a sudden explosion of sentimental involvements, revealed by the existence of a saddle-node bifurcation in the model. The paper is interesting not only because it deals for the first time with catastrophic bifurcations in romantic relation-ships, but also because it enriches the list of examples in which love stories are described through ordinary differential equations.
Shelton, J. Nicole; Stewart, Rebecca E.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the extent to which social costs influence whether or not targets of prejudice confront individuals who behave in a prejudiced manner during interpersonal interactions. Consistent with our predictions, we found that although women believe they will confront perpetrators of prejudice regardless of the…
Hamburg, David A.
This essay provides an historical perspective on conflict and discusses the relationship of prejudice and ethnocentrism to intergroup conflict, prejudice and conflict resolution in childhood, as well as approaches to conflict resolution in society. History is full of hateful and destructive indulgences based on religious, racial, and other…
Bonazzo, Claude; Wong, Y. Joel
This qualitative study examined four Japanese international female college students' experience of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes in a predominately white university. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: (1) overt forms of prejudice and discrimination; (2) stereotypes common to Asians; (3) stereotypes unique to the Japanese;…
Hoyle, Fred; Wickramasinghe, Chandra
We discuss a possible biological explanation of the phenomenon of colour prejudice that hinges on the relative advantages and disadvantages in the expression of the strongly dominant gene(s) for melanin under ice-age conditions at different locations on the Earth. An understanding of the genesis of this prejudice could hopefully eradicate or ameliorate its worst manifestations in modern society.
Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.
Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…
Pettigrew, T.F.; Meertens, R.W.
Responds to Coenders et al (see record 2001-06995-005) experiment replication and comments on the article by T. F. Pettigrew and R. W. Meertens' (see record 1995-28884-001) which investigated blatant and subtle intergroup prejudice. Coenders et al produced a different analysis of prejudice from the
This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. It then discusses how prejudice is institutionalised and legitimised in schools, before turning to the main thrust of its investigation: the extent to which international education (K-12) can…
Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta
Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker...... in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste...... and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit...
Full Text Available Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.
Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.
Herrero Olaizola, Juan; Rodríguez Díaz, Francisco Javier; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo
The literature has rarely paid attention to the differential influence of intergroup contact on subtle and blatant prejudice. In this study, we hypothesized that the influence of intergroup contact on subtle prejudice will be smaller than its influence on blatant prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with data from a cross-sectional design on 1,655 school-aged native Spanish adolescents. Prejudice was measured with a shortened version of the Meertens and Pettigrew scale of blatant and subtle prejudice adapted to Spanish adolescent population. Results from multivariate multilevel analyses for correlated outcome variables supported the hypothesis. Students tended to score higher on the subtle prejudice scale; contact with the outgroup was statistically related both to levels of blatant and subtle prejudice; and, the negative relationship of contact with the outgroup and prejudice is greater for blatant prejudice as compared to subtle prejudice. Overall, results provide statistical evidence supporting the greater resistance to change of subtle forms of prejudice.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to illustrate that prejudice differs fundamentally from legitimate presuppositions that come into play when people interpret the Bible or reflect theologically on contemporary issues such as homosexuality. It is argued that prejudice leads to the theologically untenable phenomenon of homophobia. Though the rejection of prejudicial attitudes does not mean that �anything goes�, it is a theological necessity to expose harmful attitudes and behaviours regarding sexuality. To this end the article investigates the labels �homosexual�, �gay� and �queer� that, on the one hand, express and perpetuate homophobia and on the other hand represent a search for authentic identity on the part of sexual minorities. The� article reflects on the effect of underlying social identity theories on homophobia. Such theories include nominialism with its focus on �sameness� and essentialism that focuses on �difference�, as well as primordialism with its emphasis on the immutability of social identity formation and constructionism that highlights change.
Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Mérove
Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic prejudice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice. From
Cárdenas Castro, Manuel
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of a Spanish-language version of the Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale via exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). No research has confirmed the hypothesized factor structure in Latin American countries. Using data from a random and probability survey in population of the northern area of Chile (N= 896), four models were specified: single factor model (global prejudice factor), correlated two-factor model (subtle and blatant prejudice), correlated two-factor second-order model, and single-factor second-order model. The findings indicated that the two-factor second-order model had the best fit. The corresponding alpha coefficients were .82 (subtle prejudice) and .76 (blatant prejudice). Lastly, differences were examined between , , and regarding their feelings toward immigrants, their feelings about their beliefs concerning the state aid received by these out-groups, and their feelings about their beliefs regarding future policies for them.
Meeusen, Cecil; Kern, Anna
The goal of this paper was to investigate the generalizability of prejudice across contexts by analyzing associations between different types of prejudice in a cross-national perspective and by investigating the relation between country-specific contextual factors and target-specific prejudices. Relying on the European Social Survey (2008), results indicated that prejudices were indeed positively associated, confirming the existence of a generalized prejudice component. Next to substantial cross-national differences in associational strength, also within country variance in target-specific associations was observed. This suggested that the motivations for prejudice largely vary according to the intergroup context. Two aspects of the intergroup context - economic conditions and cultural values - showed to be related to generalized and target-specific components of prejudice. Future research on prejudice and context should take an integrative approach that considers both the idea of generalized and specific prejudice simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dunagan, Pamela B; Kimble, Laura P; Gunby, Susan Sweat; Andrews, Margaret M
Attitudes of prejudice in nursing students have the potential to impact patient care and ultimately may contribute to culturally based health disparities. The purpose of this study was to describe attitudes of prejudice reported by baccalaureate nursing students. Baccalaureate nursing students were recruited through Web networking and e-mailing. Participants responded to a Web-based survey that contained an open-ended item requesting them to describe a time when they held an attitude of prejudice. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed for themes. The majority of participants (N = 50) were women (86%) and White (68%). Qualitative data analysis revealed two major themes: Prejudice Against Obese Individuals, and Prejudice Against Someone of Another Race. Many of the participants had insight that prejudice was wrong and they wanted to change. Acknowledging prejudice, as an explicit bias, is an important step toward cultural competence. Teaching strategies focused on addressing explicit and implicit bias are warranted. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):345-348.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Zhao, Xian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Shi, Jia-xin; Huang, Zhen-wei
The current research examined the role of the belief in free will on prejudice across Han Chinese and white samples. Belief in free will refers to the extent to which people believe human beings truly have free will. In Study 1, the beliefs of Han Chinese people in free will were measured, and their social distances from the Tibetan Chinese were used as an index of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the more that Han Chinese endorsed the belief in free will, the less that they showed prejudice against the Tibetan Chinese. In Study 2, the belief of the Han Chinese in free will was manipulated, and their explicit feelings towards the Uyghur Chinese were used as an indicator of ethnic prejudice. The results showed that the participants in the condition of belief in free will reported less prejudice towards Uyghur Chinese compared to their counterparts in the condition of disbelief in free will. In Study 3, white peoples' belief in free will was manipulated, and their pro-black attitudes were measured as an indirect indicator of racial prejudice. The results showed that, compared to the condition of disbelief in free will, the participants who were primed by a belief in free will reported stronger pro-black attitudes. These three studies suggest that endorsement of the belief in free will can lead to decreased ethnic/racial prejudice compared to denial of the belief in free will. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia
Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Jie; Xu, Huilan
Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies.
ZHANG, JIE; XU, HUILAN
Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecuti...
Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
) in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find......Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Becker (1971...
Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M
People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Krupnikov, Yanna; Piston, Spencer
A good deal of scholarship examines the effects of prejudice against blacks on public opinion and vote choice in the United States. Despite producing valuable insights, this research largely ignores the attitudes of Latinos—a critical omission, since Latinos constitute a rapidly growing share of the population. Using two nationally representative survey data sets, we find that the level of racial prejudice is comparable for Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Equally comparable are associations between prejudice and political preferences: policy opinion and support for Obama in the 2008 presidential election. Our findings suggest that despite demographic changes, efforts to enact policies intended to assist blacks and elect black candidates will continue to be undermined by prejudice. That said, Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to support policies intended to assist blacks, because Latinos are more Democratic than non-Hispanic whites, more egalitarian, and less committed to the value of limited government. PMID:27274574
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available Most teachers have experienced various forms of prejudice expressed in the classroom. When one hears attitudes or opinions that go against school and society’s values, it is not always easy to know how to respond appropriately and wisely.Educators have a social responsibility both towards the individual and the community. Individuals are the learning subjects, but the context for learning is group-based. Teachers’ social responsibility entails both individuals that have expressed prejudice against a particular group, and those who identify themselves with this particular group. In addition, educators have responsibility for the group based learning arena, which all the individuals belong to. Beyond this, schools are expected to contribute to a democratic society. Preventing prejudice expressed in the class room will not only ensure a safer environment for the pupils, it will also contribute to society as a whole by promoting democratic values. In other words, there are several reasons why schools should work to prevent prejudice.Many have antipathies or prejudices against groups of people. However, but some groups are more often faced with prejudice than others. A prerequisite for the development of prejudice is the formation of categories. People are able to suppress their prejudices. Prejudice is not created in a vacuum; they are social stances that must be understood in the context of the specific human environment. Studies show that if a person has prejudices against Jews, for example, the person tends to be more disposed to have prejudices against other groups as well, such as for example gays, , Muslims and immigrants. This disposition is called "group focused enmity."When a child is between eight and twelve years, the child starts to check and correct its perception of the world. Before it reaches this stage, the child’s comments about out-groups mainly stems from other people’s instructions. Studies from the USA have shown that
Chonody, Jill M
The presence of bias against gay men and lesbian women remains an ongoing issue, and accurate measurement is essential to targeted intervention. A validation study of a new instrument, the Sexual Prejudice Scale, is reported. Students (N = 851) from 4 different universities participated in this study. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted, and results of these analyses indicated a 3-factor solution (affective - valuation, stereotyping, and social equality beliefs) for each of the sex-specific scales. Evidence of validity and the results of the reliability analysis are reported. Implications for future research are discussed.
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brambilla, Maria; Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Verkuyten, Maykel
The literature on the relationship between religiosity and prejudice has shown inconsistent findings. We argue that it is necessary to distinguish between different types of religiosity and that its relationship with prejudice is mediated by different values. Results of two studies conducted in Italy show that identified religiosity and introjected religiosity predict different levels of prejudice toward Muslim immigrants. Moreover, the negative relationship between identified religiosity and prejudice was mediated by prosocial values, whereas valuing conformity mediated the positive relationship between introjected religiosity and prejudice. The results show that it is possible to better understand the relationship between religiosity and prejudice by disentangling the different ways of being religious.
Zagefka, Hanna; Nigbur, Dennis; Gonzalez, Roberto; Tip, Linda
A study with British participants (N = 90) tested a potential mediator of the effect of essentialist beliefs about the national ingroup on prejudice against immigrants. Essentialist beliefs were defined as beliefs in genetic determinism, a basic assumption that group membership is "written in the blood" and that the groups' boundaries and characteristics are determined by genetic and/or biological factors. Essentialist beliefs were expected to play an important role in the formation of prejudice. They were predicted to be associated with a reduction in the perceived possibility of immigrants' adopting the mainstream culture. Further, it was expected that essentialist beliefs would be positively associated with perceptions of intergroup threat, which in turn would be associated with a stronger demand for immigrants adopting the mainstream culture. Taken together, essentialist beliefs were predicted to be associated with a greater discrepancy between the demand for and perceived feasibility of culture adoption. This discrepancy was hypothesized to mediate the effect of essentialist beliefs on prejudice against immigrants. Structural equation modeling analysis and mediation analysis supported the hypotheses, showing that essentialism attributed to the national ingroup results in people demanding something seemingly impossible from immigrants, and that this situation in which immigrants have little chance of fulfilling majority members' expectations results in prejudice against them. Thus, results show that perceptions of the ingroup are associated with attitudes to the outgroup, and they outline an explanatory mechanism for the positive correlation between essentialism and prejudice which has been found in previous research. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Gervais, Will M
Although prejudice is typically positively related to relative outgroup size, four studies found converging evidence that perceived atheist prevalence reduces anti-atheist prejudice. Study 1 demonstrated that anti-atheist prejudice among religious believers is reduced in countries in which atheists are especially prevalent. Study 2 demonstrated that perceived atheist prevalence is negatively associated with anti-atheist prejudice. Study 3 demonstrated a causal relationship: Reminders of atheist prevalence reduced explicit distrust of atheists. These results appeared distinct from intergroup contact effects. Study 4 demonstrated that prevalence information decreased implicit atheist distrust. The latter two experiments provide the first evidence that mere prevalence information can reduce prejudice against any outgroup. These findings offer insights about anti-atheist prejudice, a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, they suggest both novel directions for future prejudice research and potential interventions that could reduce a variety of prejudices.
Nemec, Patricia B; Swarbrick, Margaret; Legere, Lyn
This column describes the experience of prejudice and discrimination that some mental health service users encounter in their interactions with service providers and organizations. The intent of this column is to highlight potential action steps to address the negative beliefs and attitudes of service providers that contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This description draws from published material and the authors' experience. If the most effective approaches to reduce public prejudice and discrimination toward people diagnosed with a mental illness are education and contact, then those methods may be useful methods to help mental health service providers view and engage persons served from a strengths-based recovery and wellness orientation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R
Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism.
West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles; Lolliot, Simon
There is a growing awareness that responses to mental health disorders differ according to the label. Still, research on contact and prejudice against people with mental health disorders has generally focused on the broader label, "mental illness," as though various disorders were interchangeable. The present research specifically investigated the relationship between intergroup contact and avoidance of people with schizophrenia--a particularly stigmatized and challenging group--as well as mediators of that relationship. In Study 1, 78 students completed measures of their prior contact with and prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Prior contact predicted less desired avoidance of people with schizophrenia, and this relationship was mediated by more favorable attitudes. Study 2 (N = 122) replicated the results of Study 1, and also found that less fear and less intergroup anxiety mediated the relationship between contact and avoidance. This suggests that contact may effectively reduce prejudice, even against this highly stigmatized group.
Cumming, C E; Rodda, M
Prejudiced attitudes toward deaf people are a well-established phenomenon (Higgins & Nash, 1982; Moores, 1982; Quigley & Kretschmer, 1982). In recent years, however, a new phenomenon has appeared, and some members of the deaf population now openly express prejudice against the hearing (Boros & Stuckless, 1982; Nash & Nash, 1981). The phenomenon may be an interesting example of Allport's (1954) classical analysis: The victims of the prejudice may tend to reciprocate and/or internalize the prejudice to which they have been exposed. The purpose of our analysis is to examine this phenomenon in more detail, particularly from the perspective of social learning theory as described by Bandura and Walters (1963), Walters (1966), and Bandura (1977).
Full Text Available In this article we examine the title terms of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice (1813 with particular attention to their distribution and frequency in the text. Our method is to connect the statistical material gathered on frequency and distribution to a narratological analysis of the terms, with special emphasis on whether they occur within the focalization of the external narrator, or that of character-focalizers. In order to approach this task, we have availed ourselves of the narratological theories of Mieke Bal. We conclude that there is a differentiation among types of focalization in the novel that enhances the thematic structure of match-making. Although Jane Austen wrote and published her major works two centuries ago, they continue to fascinate literary scholars and general readers alike.
Pedro Jesús Teruel
Full Text Available The notion of prejudice occupies a not very visible place in the Kantian works. In fact it has been seldom treated in Kantian studies in German, English, French, Italian or Spanish. But it connects with relevant key notes of the Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787 as well as from the Critique of Practical Reason (1788 and the Critique of Judgement (1790. The aim of this paper consists in the analysis of the Kantian notion of prejudice, its systematic place and its sources (among these particularly the works of Georg Friedrich Meier and the thought of Christian Thomasius.
Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie
This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Walzer, Amy S.
Students enrolled in Psychology of Prejudice and Introductory Psychology courses completed measures of racism, sexism, and attitudes toward homosexuals at the beginning and end of the term. We predicted that those who took part in the Psychology of Prejudice class would have significantly reduced prejudice as a result of the course experience. We…
Roč. 20, č. 5 (2017), s. 583-604 ISSN 1367-6261 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : prejudice * youth * attitudes towards minorities Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016
Dermer, Shannon B.; Smith, Shannon D.; Barto, Korenna K.
To effectively work with and advocate for lesbians, gay men, and their families, one has to be aware of the individual, relational, and societal forces that may negatively affect them. The focus of this article is to familiarize the reader with terminology used to identify and label sexual prejudice, discrimination, and oppression. The pros and…
O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine
Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austen's (1813/1994) novel "Pride and prejudice"; (2) the interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and…
This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen’s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice,which develops as the only clue of a love story.Its essence as an entanglement of"rationality"and"emotionality" embodies the author’s view of love and the voice of women’s liberation.
This paper aims to reveal Jane Austen' s creative style of realism through an analysis of the emotional contradiction in Pride and Prejudice, which develops as the only clue of a love story. Its essence as an entanglement of "rationality" and "emotionality"embodies the author' s view of love and the voice of women' s liberation.
O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D.; Ritchey, P. Neal
The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents…
Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles
We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627
Junn, Ellen N.; Grier, Leslie K.; Behrens, Debra P.
Describes an experiential classroom exercise that was designed to help students understand stereotyping and prejudice. The instructor read behavioral and psychological descriptions, asked students to imagine they were Sherlock Holmes, and identify classmates to whom the descriptions might apply. States that students of color reported more benefits…
Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.
Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…
Rhyne, Dwight C.
Teachers and counselors in an eight-week institute on problems of school desegregation were used in this study to estimate the degree of change in ethnic attitudes on the rational-irrational and anti-pro minority dimensions of prejudice as related to participation in an intensive adult education experience. (DS)
Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William
Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles
We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.
Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin
This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents’ (N ¼ 1; 187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators
Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez
The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…
Tuch, Steven A.
Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…
Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian
This special issue brings together scholars who examine the nexus between the (economic) crisis, national identities and the use of historical images, prejudices and stereotypes by focusing particularly on media and political discourses in different European countries. Pictures of Angela Merkel in a
Chambers, John R; Schlenker, Barry R; Collisson, Brian
In three studies, we tested whether prejudice derives from perceived similarities and dissimilarities in political ideologies (the value-conflict hypothesis). Across three diverse samples in study 1, conservatives had less favorable impressions than liberals of groups that were identified as liberal (e.g., African Americans, homosexuals), but more favorable impressions than liberals of groups identified as conservative (e.g., Christian fundamentalists, businesspeople). In studies 2 and 3, we independently manipulated a target's race (European American or African American) and political attitudes (liberal or conservative). Both studies found symmetrical preferences, with liberals and conservatives each liking attitudinally similar targets more than dissimilar targets. The amount of prejudice was comparable for liberals and conservatives, and the race of the target had no effect. In all three studies, the same patterns were obtained even after controlling for individual differences on prejudice-related dimensions (e.g., system justification, social-dominance orientation, modern racism). The patterns strongly support the value-conflict hypothesis and indicate that prejudice exists on both sides of the political spectrum.
Does it work? This question lies at the very heart of the kinds of controversies that have surrounded complementary and alternative medicines (such as herbal medicine) in recent decades. In this article, I argue that medical anthropology has played a pivotal and largely overlooked role in taking...... the sham out of the placebo effect with important implications for what it means to say a therapy or drug `works'. If pharmacologists and clinicians have corporeally located the concept of efficacy in terms of bio-availability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and herbalists in terms of a herbal...... and bio-efficacy co-circulate in recent attempts by herbalists, clinicians and pharmacologists to address the question of whether or not this herbal remedy `works' in the treatment of depression....
Miller, Carol T; Varni, Susan E; Solomon, Sondra E; DeSarno, Michael J; Bunn, Janice Y
This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being. Telephone surveys of 347 residents of these same communities (selected via random digit dialing) were used to assess community explicit HIV prejudice and motivation to control HIV prejudice. These community residents then completed an online measure of implicit prejudice toward people with HIV, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Multilevel analyses showed that higher community implicit HIV prejudice was associated with greater psychological distress among residents with HIV living in that community. The physical well-being of participants with HIV was negatively related to community implicit HIV prejudice in communities in which residents were unmotivated to control HIV prejudice or had high levels of explicit HIV prejudice. These findings indicate that implicit prejudice of residents of real-world communities may create an environment that may impair the well-being of stigmatized people. Implicit prejudice can therefore be considered an element of macro-level or structural stigma. The discussion considered the possible role of implicit HIV prejudice on a community's social capital as a pathway by which it compromises the well-being of residents with HIV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Hensley, Scott; Pierce, Marlon; Wang, Jun; Rundle, John
4 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake that occurred in Baja California, Mexico and terminated near the U.S. Mexican border caused slip on the Imperial, Superstition Hills, and East Elmore Ranch Faults. The pattern of slip was observed using radar interferometry from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument collected on 20-21 October 2009 and 12-13 April 2010. Right-lateral slip of 36 ± 9 and 14 ± 2 mm occurred on the Imperial and Superstition Hills Faults, respectively. Left-lateral slip of 9 ± 2 mm occurred on the East Elmore Ranch Fault. The widths of the zones of displacement increase northward suggesting successively more buried fault motion to the north. The observations show a decreasing pattern of slip northward on a series of faults in the Salton Trough stepping between the El Mayor-Cucapah rupture and San Andreas Fault. Most of the motion occurred at the time of the M 7.2 earthquake and the UAVSAR observations are consistent with field, creepmeter, GPS, and Envisat observations. An additional 28 ± 1 mm of slip at the southern end of the Imperial Fault over a <1 km wide zone was observed over a 1 day span a week after the earthquake suggesting that the fault continued to slip at depth following the mainshock. The total moment release on the three faults is 2.3 × 1023-1.2 × 1024 dyne cm equivalent to a moment magnitude release of 4.9-5.3, assuming shallow slip depths ranging from 1 to 5 km.
Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J
A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G; Peruche, Michelle B
The current work examined factors that contribute to positive interracial interactions. It argues that the source of people's motivation to respond without prejudice and the goals and strategies they pursue in interracial interactions influence the quality of these interactions. Three studies show that non-Black participants who are highly internally motivated to respond without prejudice tend to focus on strategies and behaviors in interactions with Black people that approach a positive (i.e., egalitarian) outcome. As a result of engaging in these approach behaviors, their interracial interactions go more smoothly for both themselves and their interaction partners as compared to people less internally motivated. In contrast, externally motivated people tend to focus on avoiding negative (i.e., prejudiced) outcomes, which ironically results in their coming across to their partners as prejudiced. The implications of the findings for smoothing out the rocky road to positive intergroup interactions are discussed.
Dion, K L; Earn, B M
The effects of preceived prejudice upon affect and self-evaluation were explored by experimentally investigating the reactions of Jews to failure in an interpersonal situation. Subjects attributing their failure to religious discrimination by gentiles reported feeling more aggression, sadness, anxiety, and egotism on the Mood Adjective Check List than those who could not invoke anti-Semitism as an explanation for their failure. Moreover, they indicated less "social affection," particularly when one of the prejudiced opponents constituted the audience for their self-presentation. Finally, in response in perceived prejudice, subjects also evaluated themselves more favorably on positive traits underlying the Jewish stereotype. These findings were explained in terms of a stress interpretation.
Mounting evidence supports longstanding claims that religions can extend cooperative networks. However, religious prosociality may have a strongly parochial component. Moreover, aspects of religion may promote or exacerbate conflict with those outside a given religious group, promoting regional violence, intergroup conflict, as well as tacit prejudice against nonbelievers. Anti-atheist prejudice—a growing concern in increasingly secular societies—affects employment, elections, family life, an...
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Waldzus, Sven; Cypryanska, Marzena
The results of four studies suggest that contamination concerns involved in prejudice towards male homosexuals may be expressed in the increased need for physical cleansing after an imagined contact with a homosexual man. Participants in Study 1 completed word fragments according to the theme of cleansing, and in Study 2, they chose a cleansing wipe more often after imagining using a mobile phone of a homosexual (vs. heterosexual) man. The need for cleansing was specific to the body parts eng...
Jesús ZAMORA BONILLA
Full Text Available Two aspects of Miranda Fricker’s book are criticised: the implicit assumption that ethical theory can solve fundamental problems in epistemology, and the excessive reliance on testimony as a fundamental source of knowledge. Against the former, it is argued that ethical theories are based on cultural prejudices to a higher extent than epistemological theories. Against the latter, argumentation is proposed as a more important epistemic practice than testimony.
Turner, M. S.; Steigman, G.; Krauss, L. M.
Theoretical prejudices argue strongly for a flat universe; however, observations do not support this view. It is pointed out that this apparent conflict could be resolved if the mass density of the universe today were dominated by (1) relativistic particles produced by the recent decay of massive, relic particle species, or by (2) a relic cosmological constant. Scenario (1) has several advantages in the context of galaxy formation, but must confront the problem of a young universe.
The purpose of this thesis is to present an empirical finding in the area of culture and entrepreneurial intention. The author developed an entrepreneurial culture measure regard to values of proudness and prejudice based on the data from the World Values Survey. Entrepreneurial intention as the dependent variable was draw from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Consortium (GEM) ’s 2006 dataset. The data sample contains 27 countries. The result shows the newly developed culture measure is negati...
Luguri, Jamie B; Napier, Jaime L; Dovidio, John F
Myrdal (1944) described the "American dilemma" as the conflict between abstract national values ("liberty and justice for all") and more concrete, everyday prejudices. We leveraged construal-level theory to empirically test Myrdal's proposition that construal level (abstract vs. concrete) can influence prejudice. We measured individual differences in construal level (Study 1) and manipulated construal level (Studies 2 and 3); across these three studies, we found that adopting an abstract mind-set heightened conservatives' tolerance for groups that are perceived as deviating from Judeo-Christian values (gay men, lesbians, Muslims, and atheists). Among participants who adopted a concrete mind-set, conservatives were less tolerant of these nonnormative groups than liberals were, but political orientation did not have a reliable effect on tolerance among participants who adopted an abstract mind-set. Attitudes toward racial out-groups and dominant groups (e.g., Whites, Christians) were unaffected by construal level. In Study 3, we found that the effect of abstract thinking on prejudice was mediated by an increase in concerns about fairness.
Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo
Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Spiers, Hugo J; Love, Bradley C; Le Pelley, Mike E; Gibb, Charlotte E; Murphy, Robin A
Despite advances in understanding the brain structures involved in the expression of stereotypes and prejudice, little is known about the brain structures involved in their acquisition. Here, we combined fMRI, a task involving learning the valence of different social groups, and modeling of the learning process involved in the development of biases in thinking about social groups that support prejudice. Participants read descriptions of valenced behaviors performed by members of novel social groups, with majority groups being more frequently encountered during learning than minority groups. A model-based fMRI analysis revealed that the anterior temporal lobe tracked the trial-by-trial changes in the valence associated with each group encountered in the task. Descriptions of behavior by group members that deviated from the group average (i.e., prediction errors) were associated with activity in the left lateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and lateral anterior temporal cortex. Minority social groups were associated with slower acquisition rates and more activity in the ventral striatum and ACC/dorsomedial PFC compared with majority groups. These findings provide new insights into the brain regions that (a) support the acquisition of prejudice and (b) detect situations in which an individual's behavior deviates from the prejudicial attitude held toward their group.
Sandra Guardini T. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available By comparing the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen with an American filmic version from 1940, the article draws attention to the shift in the focus of the two narratives. While the novel provides alternative possibilities for the stories of the female characters, the filmic version chooses to reinforce an idealized image of social harmony. Ao comparar o romance Pride and Prejudice de Jane Austen com uma versão fílmica americana de 1940, o artigo chama atenção para a mudança de enfoque das duas narrativas. Enquanto o romance fornece possibilidades alternativas para as estórias das personagens femininas, a versão fílmica opta por reforçar uma imagem idealizada de harmonia social.
Whitley, Bernard E; Webster, Gregory D
This meta-analysis summarizes the results of research on the relationships of majority group members' endorsement of assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and the relative relationships of colorblindness and multiculturalism to ethnic prejudice. Random effects analyses found that assimilation was positively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = 0.80), multiculturalism was negatively related to both explicit ( g. = -0.26) and implicit prejudice ( g. = -0.19), and colorblindness was negatively related to explicit prejudice ( g. = -0.07). Multiculturalism was more closely associated with low prejudice than colorblindness ( g. = 0.15). Effect sizes varied as a function of methodology (experimental vs. correlational), country in which research was conducted (United States vs. other countries), and, in experimental studies of multiculturalism, type of prime used (abstract vs. concrete). Discussion points include methodological issues, groups used as targets of prejudice, national diversity norms, additional issues raised in the studies reviewed, and directions for future research.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel
This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.
religious realms in modern Western civilization, provides us with “a good context for the confrontation with some of the fundamental problems of justice that remain before us today”. Religion as he sees it, therefore, is finally to be understood as psychologically and historically contingent human action. All the same, it takes place over against the irrational-rational background of some philosophically resilient categories: superstition and morality. Resumo/apresentaçãoCientista da religião reconhecido e respeitado em ambientes intelectuais da América do Norte e da Europa, Michel Despland é ainda pouco conhecido pela academia brasileira. Entre suas publicações estão, por exemplo: Kant on history and religion: with a translation of Kant's On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies (McGillQueen's University Press, 1973; The education of desire, Plato and the philosophy of religion (University of Toronto Press, 1985; Les hierarchies sont ebranlees, politiques et theologies au XIXe siècle, (Fides, 1998; Comparatisme et Christianisme: questions d'histoire et de methode (L'Harmattan, 2002. No texto ora publicado, apresentado durante o XII Simpósio da Associação Brasileira de História das Religiões (2011, UFJF, o prof. Despland assume a premissa antropológica de que “a religião é algo que as pessoas fazem.” Baseando-se em Espinosa, Despland elege a categoria da “superstição” como um instrumento de análise mais adequado para a análise do religioso do que, por exemplo, a do “sagrado”. O objetivo mais imediato de Despland é primeiramente entender como o próprio Espinosa constrói os âmbitos político e religioso em sua inter-relação, em continuidade e ruptura com as tradições herdadas da teologia política do Ocidente/do cristianismo. A partir daí, ele passa a sondar historiograficamente as dimensões morais e sociais da religião diante do Estado, tanto em suas próprias instituições, quanto no cada vez mais consp
This is the first quantitative research to investigate attitudes toward heterosexual anal and oral sex in Jamaica, compare them to anti-gay and anti-lesbian attitudes, and frame them within a broader understanding of sexual prejudice based on gender norms. Fifty Jamaican participants’ attitudes toward heterosexual anal sex were as negative as attitudes toward gay male sex, and more negative than attitudes toward lesbian sex. Negative attitudes toward male sexual behaviours were predicted by m...
Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Vilardaga, Roger; Lillis, Jason; Nobles, Richard; Hayes, Steven C.
Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice meas...
Full Text Available We test two assumptions of the generalized prejudice literature. First, that the structure of generalized prejudice (i.e. how prejudices are interrelated is dependent on the intergroup context. Second, that different types of prejudice have similar political consequences and run via the generalized prejudice component. We perform these tests in the two main regions of Belgium − Flanders and Wallonia − and investigate the influence of differences in the history of immigration, experience of the linguistic and autonomy conflict, and the separate party system and political discourse (i.e. the societal and intergroup context on these premises. We make use of the Belgian Election Panel (BEP data that included measures of prejudice toward multiple target groups (immigrants, Flemings, Walloons, homosexuals, and Jews and voting propensities for the main political parties. Our results show that, regardless of the differences in intergroup experiences, the structure of prejudice is identical in Flanders and Wallonia. Flemings are, however, more tolerant toward homosexuals and immigrants than Walloons. The political context and the set of potential political outlets does play an important moderating role in the translation of prejudices to party preferences: While negative attitudes toward the other regional group seem to divide the electorate in Flanders, it does not affect voting intentions in Wallonia. Anti-immigrant prejudice is crucial in both regions, but affects voters in different ways at the right-side of the political spectrum.
Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.
In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976
Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A
In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Based on an 18 month ethnographic case study of a construction partnering project, the paper adopts practice based theory for understanding the identity formation and practices of collaboration in construction. Drawing upon practice based theory in general and actor network theory and communities...... of practice in particular, the construction project is interpreted as configuration of networked practices characterized by strong professional practices (e.g. architects and contractors) and locally negotiated collaboration practices. During the construction project, actors gain experiences in relation...... practices – enabling and inhibiting collaboration. Pride and prejudice are thus central constitutive elements of present construction practices in the formation of identity and development of collaboration processes....
Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick
Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.
Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J
Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S
Developmental intergroup theory specifies the mechanisms and rules that govern the processes by which children single out groups as targets of stereotyping and prejudice, and by which children learn and construct both the characteristics (i.e., stereotypes) and affective responses (i.e., prejudices) that are associated with these groups in their culture. Specifically, we argue that children have a drive to understand their world, and that this drive is manifested in their tendency to classify natural and non-natural stimuli into categories, and to search the environment for cues about which of the great number of potential bases for categorization are important. The first step in the process of stereotype and prejudice formation is, therefore, the establishment of the psychological salience of some particular set of dimensions. Four factors are hypothesized to affect the establishment of the psychological salience of person attributes: (1) perceptual discriminability of social groups, (2) proportional group size, (3) explicit labeling and use of social groups, and (4) implicit use of social groups. We argue that person characteristics that are perceptually discriminable are more likely than other characteristics to become the basis of stereotyping, but that perceptual discriminability alone is insufficient to trigger psychological salience. Thus, for example, young children's ability to detect race or gender does not mean that these distinctions will inevitably become the bases of stereotypes and prejudice. Instead, for perceptually salient groups to become psychologically salient, one or more additional circumstances must hold, including being characterized by minority status, by adults' use of different labels for different groups, by adults using group divisions functionally, or by segregation. After a particular characteristic that may be used to differentiate among individuals becomes salient, we propose that children who have the ability to sort consistently
Full Text Available Although immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, there has been always opposition to vaccines. This may be due to several factors, some of which are : 1 the vaccines are given to healthy individuals to prevent disease; 2 the perception of the vaccine value paradoxically declines when the use of a vaccine reduces or eliminates the risk of a disease. Contrasting anti-vaccine movements/ feelings is important in order to keep vaccinate coverage rates high. Specific training of health care workers and other vaccine providers is needed in order to understand the reasons of reluctant parents, and to deal with prejudice and misinformation.
West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles
Jamaica has been called "the most homophobic place on Earth" ( Padgett, 2006 , p. 1), and has been involved in numerous international incidents with Britain, and other countries, concerning anti-gay prejudice. However, neither the severity of Jamaican anti-gay prejudice, nor any means of reducing this prejudice has ever been empirically investigated. Intergroup contact-social interaction with a person from another group-is one of the most successful and widely used social-psychological interventions to reduce prejudice and improve intergroup relations. In this article, we compared sexual prejudice in Jamaica to that in Britain and investigated the relationship between contact and sexual prejudice in both countries. Jamaican participants reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than did British participants, but contact was more strongly associated with reduced sexual prejudice for Jamaican participants than for British participants. Implications for reducing Jamaican sexual prejudice are discussed.
Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing…
Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes; hence, its practical…
Presents interviews with Blacks about past experiences with racial discrimination and the impact of integration and prejudice on their children. Discusses the importance of parental guidance in teaching young Blacks about their cultural heritage and how to cope with prejudice and discrimination. (SA)
Das, E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bezemer, M.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Vermeulen, I.E.
Three studies tested predictions derived from terror management theory (TMT) about the effects of terrorism news on prejudice. Exposure to terrorism news should confront receivers with thoughts about their own death, which, in turn, should increase prejudice toward outgroup members. Non-Muslim
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti
The immortality of prejudice after the school management transfer has not been judged. This makes communities to take responsibility for schools further by compelling the government to mandate amendments of Community Managed Schools (CMS) Directives. The purpose was to explore the CMS enduring Ubuntu against immorality of prejudice, through…
The present dissertation provides insights into the effects of communicative roles on stereotyping and prejudice. It has generally been assumed that communicating stereotypes and prejudices serves to strengthen these beliefs in senders and recipients. Whereas we agreed that senders would strengthen
Kite, Mary E.
There is ample reason to be discouraged about the prevalence of sexual prejudice. As Herek (2000) notes, the majority of adult respondents in the United States report that homosexual behavior is wrong or "unnatural." The author readily acknowledges, then, that it is overly optimistic to believe that sexual prejudice is a thing of the past or that…
Problem Statement: Trust is crucial for creating a positive culture in the school environment, which is called as trust culture. On the other hand, prejudice is thought to be a potential barrier for creating trust culture in schools. Thus, it is meaningful to examine the relationship between trust culture and prejudice in schools and then to…
Lee, Yeonjin; Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993-2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health.
Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Objectives. We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. Methods. We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993–2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. Results. Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. Conclusions. Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health. PMID:26378850
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government error. 406.38 Section 406.38 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Hospital Insurance § 406.38 Prejudice to enrollment rights because of Federal Government error. (a) If an...
Cohrs, J Christopher; Kämpfe-Hargrave, Nicole; Riemann, Rainer
Our knowledge on the personality basis of ideological attitudes and prejudice, while based on a substantial body of research, suffers from a potentially serious methodological limitation: an overreliance on the method of self-reports. Across 2 studies (Ns = 193, 424), we examined associations between the Big Five personality dimensions, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and generalized prejudice, using both self-report and peer-report data stemming from 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) peer rater/s. Correlational and regression analyses as well as structural equation modeling showed that (a) the associations between personality dimensions, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were largely similar to previous research for both data sources; (b) RWA and prejudice showed a similar level of self-peer agreement to personality dimensions; (c) most of the known associations between personality, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were replicated also when measured by independent methods; (d) peer reports had some incremental validity in predicting ideological attitudes and prejudice; and (e) there was evidence that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness predicted prejudice directly and not only indirectly via RWA and SDO, respectively. Implications for the status of RWA, SDO, and prejudice as individual-difference constructs and for their bases in personality dimensions are discussed.
Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina
The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674
Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Remedios, Jessica D
Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats that target one another (i.e., stigma transfer). The studies explore whether stigma transfer occurred primarily when shared Latino and Asian stereotype content was a salient component of the prejudice remark (e.g., foreigner stereotypes; Study 3), or when outgroup prejudice targeted a social group with shared stereotype content (Study 4), though neither appeared to substantively moderate stigma transfer. Minority group members who conceptualize prejudiced people as holding multiple biases (i.e., a monolithic prejudice theory) were more susceptible to stigma transfer suggesting that stereotype content is not necessary for stigma transfer because people assume that prejudice is not singular.
Loi, Natasha M.; Breadsell, Dana
An experiment was conducted to test for the presence of prejudice towards obesity and whether weight controllability beliefs information reduces this prejudice and impacts on a person’s own healthy eating self-efficacy. The experiment randomly allocated 346 participants (49 males) into one of three conditions: controllable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about personal control about diet and exercise); uncontrollable contributors toward obesity condition (e.g., information about genes, factors in society); and a control condition with no information given. Prejudice was present in 81% of the sample. High prejudice was predicted by low self-efficacy for exercise and weight. Weight controllability beliefs information had no significant effect on prejudice levels or exercise or healthy eating self-efficacy levels. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:26966679
Shi, Yuanyuan; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen; Liu, Li
Past work suggested that dual identity was effective to reduce prejudice. This study extended research on dual identity and prejudice by identifying a boundary condition in this relationship, that is, group permeability. In Study 1, we replicated previous studies with Chinese individuals and found that inducing dual identity (emphasizing subgroup differences and a common nation identity), compared to the control condition, decreased the urban residents’ prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. In Study 2, we manipulated the group boundary permeability using the Hukou system reform, and found that when the group boundary was permeable, dual identity was effective in reducing prejudice against rural-to-urban migrants. However, this effect vanished in the condition where the group boundary was impermeable. These results point to the importance of inducing dual identity under specific conditions for research on decreasing prejudice. Some practical implications of the findings for urbanization and immigration are discussed. PMID:28261130
Phelan, Jo; Link, Bruce G; Dovidio, John F
In light of increasing cross-communication and possible coalescence of conceptual models of stigma and prejudice, we reviewed 18 key models in order to explore commonalities and possible distinctions between prejudice and stigma. We arrive at two conclusions. First, the two sets of models have much in common (representing “one animal”); most differences are a matter of focus and emphasis. Second, one important distinction is in the type of human characteristics that are the primary focus of models of prejudice (race) and stigma (deviant behavior and identities, and disease and disabilities). This led us to develop a typology of three functions of stigma and prejudice: exploitation and domination (keeping people down); norm enforcement (keeping people in); and disease avoidance (keeping people away). We argue that attention to these functions will enhance our understanding of stigma and prejudice and our ability to reduce them. PMID:18524444
Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Scali, T.
Most prejudice studies focus on a single aspect, for instance, sexual prejudice, overlooking other individual characteristics or multiple minority status (i.e., identity intersections). As a drawback, this approach could overestimate specific sources of prejudice. We demonstrated this empirically in
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket... ADDITIVES Premarket Notifications § 170.103 Withdrawal without prejudice of a premarket notification for a food contact substance (FCN). A manufacturer or supplier may withdraw an FCN without prejudice to a...
Brockett, Adrian; Wicker, Kate
This study examines the Outgroup Prejudice Index (see "Research in Education," 83, 2010) to see what factors best predict levels of outgroup prejudice among adolescents living in northern England. A sample of 2,502 eleven- to sixteen-year-old secondary school pupils completed a questionnaire that included measures of outgroup prejudice,…
Sobredo, Laura Dolores
If being named somehow is condition of human existencies and to a certain extent also makes them determinate, then the dimension of prejudice is perhaps irreducible; at least in this sense, as a previous idea being the site of understanding, reflection and production. The present work starts from the ideas of the production and transformation of reality produced by the theoretical developments that describe and legitimate the practice of a certain discipline and the notion of gender as a socio historical category referring to the social relations of power and subordination established between males and females and are translated, through an extrapolative operation, into social inequalities. By going through the psychoanalytic conceptualisation of the Oedipus Complex in women, an understanding is made possible of some prejudices affecting psychiatrists in thier practice with women pacients. An attempt to read from a particular theoretical framework that makes these women what is called mad, starts from the history of those that name them in such a manner, with reference to the nexus with the mother. Such nexus is transited by each, with a better or worse destiny. Taking into account the responsibility of a determinate creation of subjectivity from the position of subject of the enunciation that is produced in the daily task from a particular ethical position.
Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D
We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J
Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Saguy, Abigail C; Frederick, David; Gruys, Kjerstin
News reporting on research studies may influence attitudes about health risk, support for public health policies, or attitudes towards people labeled as unhealthy or at risk for disease. Across five experiments (N = 2123) we examined how different news framings of obesity research influence these attitudes. We exposed participants to either a control condition, a news report on a study portraying obesity as a public health crisis, a news report on a study suggesting that obesity may not be as much of a problem as previously thought, or an article discussing weight-based discrimination. Compared to controls, exposure to the public health crisis article did not increase perception of obesity-related health risks but did significantly increase the expression of antifat prejudice in four out of seven comparisons. Across studies, compared to controls, participants who read an article about weight-based discrimination were less likely to agree that overweight constitutes a public health crisis or to support various obesity policies. Effects of exposure to an article questioning the health risks associated with overweight and obesity were mixed. These findings suggest that news reports on the "obesity epidemic" - and, by extension, on public health crises commonly blamed on personal behavior - may unintentionally activate prejudice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi
Objectives While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat–prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Methodology/Principal findings Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. Conclusions These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience. PMID:22442709
Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne
Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Bijleveld, Erik; Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi
While prejudice has often been shown to be rooted in experiences of threat, the biological underpinnings of this threat-prejudice association have received less research attention. The present experiment aims to test whether activations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, due to anticipated interactions with out-group members, predict self-reported prejudice. Moreover, we explore potential moderators of this relationship (i.e., interpersonal similarity; subtle vs. blatant prejudice). Participants anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was similar or dissimilar to the self. To index HPA activation, cortisol responses to this event were measured. Then, subtle and blatant prejudices were measured via questionnaires. Findings indicated that only when people anticipated an interaction with an out-group member who was dissimilar to the self, their cortisol response to this event significantly predicted subtle (r = .50) and blatant (r = .53) prejudice. These findings indicate that prejudicial attitudes are linked to HPA-axis activity. Furthermore, when intergroup interactions are interpreted to be about individuals (and not so much about groups), experienced threat (or its biological substrate) is less likely to relate to prejudice. This conclusion is discussed in terms of recent insights from social neuroscience.
Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur
The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M
This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.
Stewart, Maria-Christina; Schiavo, R Steven; Herzog, David B; Franko, Debra L
Limited research indicates that public attitudes toward individuals with eating disorders are moderately negative. The present study examined specific forms of stigmatisation attributed to individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Eighty female participants recruited from an undergraduate institution completed questionnaires assessing stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination of four target individuals: a woman with AN, depression, schizophrenia and mononucleosis. AN was considered to result more from lack of social support and biological factors than poor living habits. Characteristics attributed to targets were less positive for AN than the targets with schizophrenia and mononucleosis; participants reported greater discomfort interacting with the target with AN compared to the targets with depression and mononucleosis. Having actual contact with an individual with AN related to a positive predicted outcome of and comfort in interacting with the target with AN. Findings support the existence of stigma toward individuals with AN. Future research should examine means of reducing stigma. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ruiz, Miguel Á; Blanco, Amalio; Cárdenas, Manuel
Given the current debate over the distinction between subtle and blatant prejudice, this study provides new evidence regarding problems with the construct validity of the Pettigrew and Meertens' Blatant and Subtle Prejudice Scale. To assess these issues, an existing data sample of 896 Chilean participants collected in 2010 was reanalyzed. The main analysis method used was a confirmatory factor analysis. The model that best represented the original theory (a model of two correlated second-order factors) had an improper solution due to the unidentified model. The scale has substantial psychometric problems, and it was not possible to distinguish between subtle and blatant prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.
Yopina G Pertiwi
Full Text Available In light of the current socio-political situation that magnifies the majority-minority group division in the country, it is essential for parents and other elements of the society to discuss about how this situation may affect the development of the next generation. Both explicit and implicit information on social categorization provided by adults and other resources assist in the formation of children’s stereotype and prejudice towards various social groups. This paper reviews empirical studies on the development of prejudice across childhood and the strategy that can potentially facilitates the reduction of prejudice among children. It is evident that children have begun to use social categories to describe different social groups from a very young age and promoting intergroup contact may be used as a promising solution to lower prejudice among children.
Raymond, Richard C.
Discusses the teachable qualities of Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice." Examines the vigorous diction, plausible characterization, and comic vision that make the novel so effective in stimulating students' thought. (SR)
Lucas B. Mazur
Full Text Available There is a growing body of research findings suggesting that prejudice reduction strategies can have unintended negative consequences, particularly by helping to stabilize systems of inequality. In light of these findings, a handful of scholars have suggested that the field be guided less by the prejudice reduction tradition, so as to focus more on collective action. While agreeing with the recent critiques of prejudice reduction, I argue that in more robustly embracing a collective action approach we should be careful not to abandon the notion of perceptualism that colored original thinking on prejudice reduction, lest we artificially narrow the scope of social psychological research and unintentionally ignore communities that do not fit well within current thinking in the collective action tradition.
MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.
The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347
Dunagan, Pamela B; Kimble, Laura P; Gunby, Susan Sweat; Andrews, Margaret M
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between attitudes of prejudice and cultural competence among nursing students. Using a mixed-methods design, a convenience sample of students (N = 129) currently enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program was recruited via Web networking. Data regarding attitudes of prejudice, cultural competence, prior cultural experience, and integration of cultural competence were obtained via a Web-based survey. Multiple linear regression was used to predict cultural knowledge, attitudes, and consciousness. Although all three regression models were statistically significant, the significant predictors varied within each model. Greater prejudice was a significant predictor of less culturally competent attitudes toward providing nursing care. Existing prejudice among nursing students needs to be addressed to help promote positive cultural attitudes and, ultimately, cultural competent nursing care.
Bartoş, Sebastian E; Berger, Israel; Hegarty, Peter
Sexual prejudice is an important threat to the physical and mental well-being of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. Therefore, we reviewed the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce such prejudice. A study-space analysis was performed on published and unpublished papers from all over the world to identify well-studied and underexplored issues. Most studies were conducted with North American undergraduates and were educational in nature. Dissertations were often innovative and well designed but were rarely published. We then performed meta-analyses on sets of comparable studies. Education, contact with gay people, and combining contact with education had a medium-size effect on several measures of sexual prejudice. The manipulation of social norms was effective in reducing antigay behavior. Other promising interventions, such as the use of entertainment media to promote tolerance, need further investigation. More research is also needed on populations other than American students, particularly groups who may have higher levels of sexual prejudice.
Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa
This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.
Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.
Abstract Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization. However, prejudice predicted the extent of category competition between prototypically low vs high Black faces. Suggesting more response conflict toward less prototypic Black vs White faces, anterior cingulate cortex activity increased toward Black vs White faces as they decreased in racial prototypicality, with prejudice positively predicting this difference (Experiment 2). These findings extend the literature on racial prototypicality and categorization by showing that relative prejudice tempers the extent of category competition and response conflict engaged when initially perceiving faces. PMID:28077728
Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona
Full Text Available O artigo indaga pela representação da mulher nas pinturas e gravuras sobre a bruxaria dos séculos XVI e XVII, procurando estabelecer uma tipologia iconográfica e percorrendo a construção de estigmas negativos imputados no corpo feminino e na sua degradação natural. O texto, apoiado em fontes visuais como pinturas e gravuras, principalmente da Renascença alemã, demonstra como as índias do Novo Mundo foram associadas com as bruxas da Europa e com o deus clássico Saturno, através do mito do canibalismo.The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.
Giddings, L.; Dunn, T.J.
Over the past decade, distrust of atheists has been documented in psychological literature yet remains relatively understudied. The current research sought to test the robustness of anti-atheist prejudice. Specifically, it examined the extent to which an individual’s anti-atheist prejudice remained unchanged in light of new information. 100 participants from the UK completed an online experiment. The experiment involved reading a vignette describing the actions of an untrustworthy individual....
MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.
The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or neg...
Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano
Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; Mir, Azeem S; Hunter, John A
Anti-fat sentiment is increasing, is prevalent in health professionals, and has health and social consequences. There is no evidence for effective obesity prejudice reduction techniques in health professionals. The present experiment sought to reduce implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students. Health promotion/public health bachelor degree program students (n = 159) were randomized to one of three tutorial conditions. One condition presented an obesity curriculum on the controllable reasons for obesity (i.e., diet/exercise). A prejudice reduction condition presented evidence on the uncontrollable reasons for obesity (i.e., genes/environment); whereas a neutral (control) curriculum focused on alcohol use in young people. Measures of implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice, beliefs about obese people, and dieting, were taken at baseline and postintervention. Repeated measures analyses showed decreases in two forms of implicit anti-fat prejudice (decreases of 27 and 12%) in the genes/environment condition relative to other conditions. The diet/exercise condition showed a 27% increase in one measure of implicit anti-fat prejudice. Reductions in explicit anti-fat prejudice were also seen in the genes/environment condition (P = 0.006). No significant changes in beliefs about obese people or dieting control beliefs were found across conditions. The present results show that anti-fat prejudice can be reduced or exacerbated depending on the causal information provided about obesity. The present results have implications for the training of health professionals, especially given their widespread negativity toward overweight and obesity.
The term "Sexual Prejudice" refers to all negative attitudes toward an individual based on sexual orientation. In recent decades there has been a huge increase in society's tolerance of same-sex relationships (Heaven : 1999). It does, however, remain a significant problem with detrimental mental health effects on the stigmatised (Herchberger : 1995). It is, therefore, necessary to investigate the correlates of this prejudice and move forward in attaining the reasons behind remaining Sexual Pr...
Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica
Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bonn, Scott; Wilson, George
We enhance understanding of the prejudice-induced “color coding” phenomenon among whites by determining whether racial and ethnic prejudices are associated with a previously unexplored policy outcome, spending on drug rehabilitation. We examine attitudes toward both blacks and Latinos; the latter is a group largely ignored in previous research. We assess the impact of several types of racial/ethnic views, including those that manifest modern/indirect prejudice (e.g., stereotypes about violence, individualistic causal attributions) and those that reflect social-distance-based traditional prejudice (opposition to residential proximity and to interracial marriage). These relationships are examined using data from the General Social Survey. Bivariate results support the linkage between both traditional and modern prejudice and rehabilitation spending. Logistic regression analyses also indicate that support for rehabilitation is racialized: Attributing race differences in socioeconomic outcomes to “structural” factors, namely discrimination and lack of chance for education, is associated with believing rehabilitation spending is inadequate, controlling for the effects of other racial/ethnic attitudes and background factors. The relationship between this measure of modern prejudice and the outcome is consistent with color coding. The implications of the findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research that further examine the scope of color coding are offered. PMID:21532926
O'Brien, Kerry S; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; Ólafsson, Ragnar P; Hansdóttir, Ingunn; Fridjónsdóttir, Thorarna G; Jónsdóttir, Halla
This study examined relationships between physical appearance concerns (fear of fat, body image disturbance; BIDQ), disgust, and anti-fat prejudice (dislike, blame), and tested whether disgust mediates relationships between physical appearance concerns and anti-fat prejudice. Participants (N=1649; age=28 years) provided demographic data and completed measures of anti-fat prejudice, tendency to feel disgust, and physical appearance concerns. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. Univariate and multivariate associations were found between fear of fat, BIDQ, disgust, and anti-fat prejudice for women. For women only, mediation analyses showed that disgust partially mediated relationships between physical appearance concerns and dislike of fat people. For men, univariate and multivariate relationships were found between fear of fat, and dislike and blame of fat people, but disgust was not related to anti-fat prejudice. Newer constructs centering on physical appearance concerns and disgust appear promising candidates for understanding anti-fat prejudice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vervaet, Roselien; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J
The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils' teachability. Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils' teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter
Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n = 20 226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI = 1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664
Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna
Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.
Reed, Sarah J; Valenti, Maria T
This article explores the ways in which young, Black lesbians manage their sexual minority identity when experiencing sexual prejudice. Fourteen Black lesbians between the ages of 16 and 24 participated in semistructured interviews. Instances of sexual prejudice and the young women's responses were thematically analyzed using open and axial qualitative coding techniques. Results indicated that participants experienced sexual prejudice frequently and even within the lesbian community. Responses to sexual prejudice included: cognitive reframing of heterosexist messages, passing, gaining support from self-created gay families, and fighting back (physically and verbally) in the event of isolated instances of sexual prejudice. Analysis focuses on how gender identity relates to experiences of sexual prejudice and identity management strategies. Findings suggest that there are parallels between the management strategies of these women and young, Black gay and bisexual males and between these women and Black women who are coping with sexism and racism.
Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna
Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which contact with lesbian and gay friends moderated the effects of religious fundamentalism and sexism on sexual prejudice. The authors gathered data from 269 heterosexual adults living in Texas. Results indicate that the effects of religious fundamentalism on sexual prejudice were reduced when contact was high. However, the positive association between modern sexism and sexual prejudice was not moderated by contact. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications.
O'Brien, K S; Latner, J D; Ebneter, D; Hunter, J A
Self-report measures of anti-fat prejudice are regularly used by the field, however, there is no research showing a relationship between explicit measures of anti-fat prejudice and the behavioral manifestation of them; obesity discrimination. The present study examined whether a recently developed measure of anti-fat prejudice, the universal measure of bias (UMB), along with other correlates of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs (that is, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation; SDO, physical appearance investment) predict obesity discrimination. Under the guise of a personnel selection task, participants (n=102) gave assessments of obese and non-obese females applying for a managerial position across a number of selection criteria (for example, starting salary, likelihood of selecting). Participants viewed resumes that had attached either a photo of a pre-bariatric surgery obese female (body mass index (BMI)=38-41) or a photo of the same female post-bariatric surgery (BMI=22-24). Participants also completed measures of anti-fat prejudice (UMB) authoritarianism, SDO, physical appearance evaluation and orientation. Obesity discrimination was displayed across all selection criteria. Higher UMB subscale scores (distance and negative judgement), authoritarianism, physical appearance evaluation and orientation were associated with greater obesity discrimination. In regression models, UMB 'distance' was a predictor of obesity discrimination for perceived leadership potential, starting salary, and overall employability. UMB 'negative judgement' predicted discrimination for starting salary; and authoritarianism predicted likelihood of selecting an obese applicant and candidate ranking. Finally, physical appearance evaluation and appearance orientation predicted obesity discrimination for predicted career success and leadership potential, respectively. Self-report measures of prejudice act as surrogates for discrimination, but there has been no empirical support for
Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.
Gervais, Will M; Shariff, Azim F; Norenzayan, Ara
Recent polls indicate that atheists are among the least liked people in areas with religious majorities (i.e., in most of the world). The sociofunctional approach to prejudice, combined with a cultural evolutionary theory of religion's effects on cooperation, suggest that anti-atheist prejudice is particularly motivated by distrust. Consistent with this theoretical framework, a broad sample of American adults revealed that distrust characterized anti-atheist prejudice but not anti-gay prejudice (Study 1). In subsequent studies, distrust of atheists generalized even to participants from more liberal, secular populations. A description of a criminally untrustworthy individual was seen as comparably representative of atheists and rapists but not representative of Christians, Muslims, Jewish people, feminists, or homosexuals (Studies 2-4). In addition, results were consistent with the hypothesis that the relationship between belief in God and atheist distrust was fully mediated by the belief that people behave better if they feel that God is watching them (Study 4). In implicit measures, participants strongly associated atheists with distrust, and belief in God was more strongly associated with implicit distrust of atheists than with implicit dislike of atheists (Study 5). Finally, atheists were systematically socially excluded only in high-trust domains; belief in God, but not authoritarianism, predicted this discriminatory decision-making against atheists in high trust domains (Study 6). These 6 studies are the first to systematically explore the social psychological underpinnings of anti-atheist prejudice, and converge to indicate the centrality of distrust in this phenomenon.
Rattan, Aneeta; Ambady, Nalini
What is said when communicating intergroup support to targets of prejudice, and how do targets react? We hypothesized that people not targeted by prejudice reference social connection (e.g., social support) more than social change (e.g., calling for a reduction in prejudice) in their supportive messages. However, we hypothesized that targets of prejudice would be more comforted by social change messages. We content coded naturalistic messages of support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning teenagers from youtube.com (Study 1) and college undergraduates' statements (Study 2a) and found social connection messages more frequent than social change messages. Next, we explored targets' responses (Studies 2b-4b). Lesbian and gay participants rated social connection messages less comforting than social change messages (Study 3). Study 4 showed that only targets of prejudice distinguish social connection from social change messages in this way, versus non-targets. These results highlight the importance of studying the communication, content, and consequences of positive intergroup attitudes.
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret
Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2% girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.
Although intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of parents, there is no longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. In addition, research on socialization of intergroup attitudes has omitted possible effects of adolescents on their parents. We also know little about the conditions under which intergroup attitudes are transmitted. This two-wave, 2 years apart, study of adolescents (N = 507) and their parents examined the relations between parents and adolescents' prejudice and tolerance from a longitudinal perspective. The study tested whether parental prejudice and tolerance would predict over-time changes in adolescents' attitudes and whether adolescents' prejudice and tolerance would elicit changes in parental attitudes. Additionally, it explored whether some of the effects would depend on perceived parental support. Results showed significant bidirectional influences between parents and adolescents' attitudes. In addition, adolescents who perceived their parents as supportive showed higher parent-adolescent correspondence in prejudice than youth with low parental support. These findings show that intergroup attitudes develop as a result of mutual influences between parents and adolescents. Hence, the unidirectional transmission model and previous research findings should be revisited. The results also suggest that parents' prejudice influence adolescents' attitudes to the extent that youth perceive their parents as supportive. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena
The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. PMID:27247684
Brandt, M.J.; Reyna, C.
Fundamentalism is consistently related to racial prejudice (Hall, Matz, & Wood, 2010), yet the mechanisms for this relationship are unclear. We identify two core values of fundamentalism, authoritarianism and traditionalism, that independently contribute to the fundamentalism‐racial prejudice
Full Text Available This paper examines how the perceived threat of immigration affects the links between national identification, endorsement of assimilation or multiculturalism, and prejudice against immigrants in France. One hundred thirty-five French undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring these factors. Path analysis showed that higher national identification increased perception of immigrants as a threat, which in turn predicted increased endorsement of assimilation for immigrants. The link between endorsement of assimilation and prejudice was not significant. In contrast, lower national identification decreased perception of immigrants as a threat and, in turn, increased endorsement of multiculturalism and reduced levels of prejudice. An alternative model specifying perception of threat as an outcome of preferences for multiculturalism or assimilation did not fit the data well. Results suggest that perceived threat from immigration is the key factor that guides the preferences of the majority group for acculturation ideologies and, through these preferences, shapes intergroup attitudes.
Based on Self-Determination Theory, the role of parental extrinsic versus intrinsic (E / I) goal promotion for adolescent ethnic prejudice and the mechanisms underlying this effect were examined in a sample of adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that paternal and maternal E / I goal promotion had a significantly positive effect on ethnic prejudice. This effect could be accounted for by differences in adolescent right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). In addition, differences in adolescent E / I goal pursuit fully mediated the effects of parental E / I goal promotion on RWA and SDO. Finally, the effects of adolescent E / I goal pursuits on ethnic prejudice were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. Implications of these findings will be discussed.
Ashton-James, Claire E; Tracy, Jessica L
The present research demonstrates that pride has divergent effects on prejudice, exacerbating or attenuating evaluative biases against stigmatized groups, depending on the form of pride experienced. Specifically, three experiments found that hubristic pride--associated with arrogance and self-aggrandizement--promotes prejudice and discrimination, whereas authentic pride--associated with self-confidence and accomplishment--promotes more positive attitudes toward outgroups and stigmatized individuals. Findings generalized to discriminatory judgments (Experiment 2) and were found to be mediated by empathic concern for the evaluative target. Together, these experiments suggest that pride may be a cause of everyday prejudice and discrimination but that these social consequences depend on whether hubristic or authentic pride is experienced, and the degree to which empathic concern is subsequently aroused.
Lin, Monica H; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Cheung, Anna; Fiske, Susan T
The Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes anti-Asian American stereotypes differentiating two dimensions: (excessive) competence and (deficient) sociability. The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) shows this envious mixed prejudice in six studies. Study 1 began with 131 racial attitude items. Studies 2 and 3 tested 684 respondents on a focused 25-item version. Studies 4 and 5 tested the final 25-item SAAAS on 222 respondents at three campuses; scores predicted outgroup friendships, cultural experiences, and (over)estimated campus presence. Study 6 showed that allegedly low sociability, rather than excessively high competence, drives rejection of Asian Americans, consistent with system justification theory. The SAAAS demonstrates mixed, envious anti-Asian American prejudice, contrasting with more-often-studied contemptuous racial prejudices (i.e., against Blacks).
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…
Park, Yung Keun; Kim, Je Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine prejudices and attitudes of students in the department of physical therapy, in order to suggest basic data for constructing an effective program to develop a positive attitude toward people with disabilities and lower social distance from them. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, students in the department of physical therapy participate in the survey examining prejudices and attitude towards people with disabilities. [Results] First, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had contact on a frequent basis currently with those who have disabilities. Second, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had an experience of being harmed by people with disabilities. Third, there was a correlation among prejudices against people with disabilities with each other that is articulated in the eighth domain. Finally, as a result of regression analysis, the students' attitudes towards people with disabilities were explained appropriately by the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. [Conclusion] It is crucial to create an environment where University students in the department of physical therapy can have positive interactions with people with disabilities, to reduce the overall prejudices, and specifically, the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and about NIMBY syndrome.
Thijs, J.T.; Gharaei, N.; de Vroome, T.M.
The present study examined native Dutch adolescents’ motivations to regulate their out-group prejudice, and tested the relations with their ethnic attitudes and the perceived multicultural norms of their friends and parents. Three types of anti-prejudice motivation were assessed using a slightly
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JOÃO DAVI AVELAR PIRES
Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho se propõe a pensar a Inquisição, principalmente a medieval, como uma extensão ou organização católica que buscava a erradicação daqueles que se opunham aos dogmas e a moral pregadas pela Igreja. Fundamentados pelo conceito de ritual, apresentamos a relação entre a Inquisição e as mulheres acusadas de feitiçaria como um ritual, que se inicia desde o momento da captura das acusadas, passando pelos interrogatórios, pela tortura e chegando até o auto-de-fé, onde era queimada num local público, geralmente em feriados ou dias santos.Palavras-chave: Inquisição – Feitiçaria – Ritual. Abstract: his paper proposes to think the Inquisition, mainly medieval, as an extension or Catholic organization that sought to eradicate those who opposed the beliefs and morality preached by the Church. Basing on the concept of ritual, we present the relationship between the Inquisition and women accused of witchcraft as a ritual, which begins from the moment of capture of the accused, throughout the inquiry and torture until reaching the act of faith, where she was burnt at a public place, usually on holidays.Keywords: Inquisition – Witchcraft – Ritual.
Fiske, Susan T
Not all biases are equivalent, and not all biases are uniformly negative. Two fundamental dimensions differentiate stereotyped groups in cultures across the globe: status predicts perceived competence, and cooperation predicts perceived warmth. Crossing the competence and warmth dimensions, two combinations produce ambivalent prejudices: pitied groups (often traditional women or older people) appear warm but incompetent, and envied groups (often nontraditional women or outsider entrepreneurs) appear competent but cold. Case studies in ambivalent sexism, heterosexism, racism, anti-immigrant biases, ageism, and classism illustrate both the dynamics and the management of these complex but knowable prejudices.
Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana; Marletta, Giuseppe
This research investigated the relationship among perception of ingroup threats (realistic and symbolic), conservative ideologies (social dominance orientation [SDO] and right-wing authoritarianism [RWA]), and prejudice against immigrants. Data were collected with a cross-sectional design in two samples: non-student Italian adults (n = 223) and healthcare professionals (n = 679). Results were similar in both samples and indicated that symbolic and realistic threats, as well as SDO and RWA, positively and significantly predicted anti-immigrant prejudice. Moreover, the model considering SDO and RWA as mediators of threats' effects on prejudice showed a better fit than the model in which ingroup threats mediated the effects of SDO and RWA on prejudice against immigrants. Accordingly, SDO and RWA partially mediated the effect of both symbolic and realistic threats, which maintained a significant effect on prejudice against immigrants, however.
Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)
textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context
Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea
The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…
Katz, Andrew D; Hoyt, William T
The broad goal of this study was to examine multiple potential predictors of anti-Black bias among counselors. Specifically, in an online survey of 173 trainees and professionals in mental health, this study used 3 measures related to cultural sensitivity as predictors of therapists' expectancies for bond and prognosis with African American clients compared with White clients. The Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI; Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) was used to measure global multicultural competence. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) served as a measure of automatic prejudice toward Blacks. Additionally, a new self-report measure of anti-Black clinical prejudice was created specifically for this study. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1984) was included to control for socially desirable responding. Each predictor of cultural sensitivity uniquely explained variance in anti-Black bias in bond ratings, with the IAT accounting for more variance than the 2 self-reports. Our novel measure of clinical prejudice accounted for anti-Black bias in prognosis ratings, but the MCI and the IAT did not. Researchers studying cultural competence are encouraged to consider the roles of automatic and deliberate prejudice in determining disparities in clinical expectancies and cross-racial therapeutic alliances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
van Ravenzwaaij, D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.
Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due
Sexual and gender prejudice refer, respectively, to negative attitudes based on sexual orientation or gender identity or expression; enacted stigma is the behavioral expression of such attitudes. This thesis explored the possible antecedents and outcomes of enacted sexual and gender stigma in
Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…
This brochure is written out of concern for the impact anti-gay prejudice and discrimination have on children--gay and straight. Although people have different views about homosexuality, most Americans believe that everyone should be treated fairly and with respect. American society has many kinds of families, and many people have neighbors,…
Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng
This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…
Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…
Rudman, L.A.; Moss-Racusin, C.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Nauts, S.
Agentic female leaders risk social and economic penalties for behaving counter-stereotypically (i.e., backlash; Rudman, 1998), but what motivates prejudice against female leaders? The status incongruity hypothesis (SIH) proposes that agentic women are penalized for status violations because doing so
Monteith, Margo J.
Investigates whether modern racism theory and research on prejudice-related discrepancies are distinct by determining the extent of association among measures of each form of conflict and the affective reactions associated with each form of conflict. Indicates virtually no evidence of overlap among the measures of conflict. Scores on measures of…
Maurer, Trent W.; Keim, Cassidy
This study presents a three-year replication and extension of Maurer's (2013) evaluation of a classroom activity to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Students in six sections of an introductory family science course were assigned to one of three conditions and one of two target marginalized groups for a 3x2 design. Results differed…
Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte
We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.
School-based psychological interventions which require students and pupils to think of counter-stereotypic individuals (e.g., a female mechanic, a Black President) have been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice. But while these interventions are increasingly popular, no one has tested whether
Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana
Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Rohmer, Odile
The present research further extends recent data revealing implicit attitude towards persons with disability, with the aim to explore if meditation practice can reduce automatic mental processes initiating prejudice. Forty adult experienced meditators and 34 meditation-naïve individuals performed an evaluative priming task. None of them presented…
Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.
This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…
Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Wilton, Leigh S; Remedios, Jessica D
In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2). Robust to perceptions of liking and the order in which measures were administered, results showed that prejudice transfers between racism and sexism were driven by the presumed social dominance orientation of the prejudiced individual. In addition, important downstream consequences, such as the increased likelihood of anticipated stigma, expectations of unfair treatment, and the attribution of negative feedback to sexism, appeared for stigmatized individuals.
Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.
This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…
Degner, J.; Wentura, D.
We report one study that explored the applicability of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) as an indirect measure of prejudice. The EAST detected known differences in reactions revealing that a Turkish outgroup was spontaneously evaluated more negatively than the German ingroup. More
Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.
Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…
Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.
Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…
Werkhoven, Thea; Cotton, Wayne; Dudley, Dean
Objectives: To synthesize and review pedagogically informed interventions that increase nutrition knowledge and decrease weight prejudice among practicing and pre-service health and education professionals. These factors have been addressed as separate entities in intervention-based research and this represents a gap in current literature. The…
Roof, Wade Clark
This study examines the relationship of religious orthodoxy to prejudice against minorities using a world-view perspective. It is argued that both religious belief and intolerance toward minorities are reflections of a localistic world view. An implication that can be drawn is the importance of education in developing a "breadth of perspective."…
Hiemstra, John L.
Using data from the Canadian National Election Study, the paper examines whether religious schooling will lead to increased prejudice and intolerance, noting relationships with public funding. In general, Christians and Jews with religious schooling had similar or better scores on tolerance of Jews and non-whites than did public school students.…
Investigates whether religion may actually contribute to intolerance, discrimination, suffering, and bloodshed in the world. The author offers study findings that suggest relationships among religious fundamentalism, quest, right-wing authorization, and prejudice. It is suggested that it is how people hold their religious beliefs, rather than the…
Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A
Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cassidy, Brittany S; Sprout, Gregory T; Freeman, Jonathan B; Krendl, Anne C
Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower response latencies during categorization (Experiment 1), suggesting a pronounced racial prototypicality effect on minority race categorization. However, prejudice predicted the extent of category competition between prototypically low vs high Black faces. Suggesting more response conflict toward less prototypic Black vs White faces, anterior cingulate cortex activity increased toward Black vs White faces as they decreased in racial prototypicality, with prejudice positively predicting this difference (Experiment 2). These findings extend the literature on racial prototypicality and categorization by showing that relative prejudice tempers the extent of category competition and response conflict engaged when initially perceiving faces. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy
Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…
The aim of this study is to determine the mediating role of prejudice in the relationship between the cultural intelligence of school principals and the level of entrepreneurship. The design of this study was classified as correlational survey research. This study was designed by quantitative research method. The universe of this study constitutes…
This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego, and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several aspects, such as her pursuit for love, her prejudice towards Mr. Darcy, and the changes in her attitudes towards Wickham. This analysis helps readers appreciate this masterpiece from a different aspect which is related to the…
Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret T
Previous research finds that lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice. We test two unresolved questions about this association using a heterogeneous set of target groups and data from a representative sample of the United States (N = 5,914). First, we test “who are the targets of
Estudillo, Alejandro J; Bindemann, Markus
This study investigated whether multisensory stimulation with other-race faces can reduce racial prejudice. In three experiments, the faces of Caucasian observers were stroked with a cotton bud while they watched a black face being stroked in synchrony on a computer screen. This was compared with a neutral condition, in which no tactile stimulation was administered (Experiment 1 and 2), and with a condition in which observers' faces were stroked in asynchrony with the onscreen face (Experiment 3). In all experiments, observers experienced an enfacement illusion after synchronous stimulation, whereby they reported to embody the other-race face. However, this effect did not produce concurrent changes in implicit or explicit racial prejudice. This outcome contrasts with other procedures for the reduction of self-other differences that decrease racial prejudice, such as behavioural mimicry and intergroup contact. We speculate that enfacement is less effective for such prejudice reduction because it does not encourage perspective-taking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sullivan, Tia N.; Scott, David A.; Nocks, Elaine C.
Research on implicit prejudice suggests that target person judgments may be affected by unintentional, but well-learned, cognitive associations. Ethnicity, gender, and smiling or nonsmiling expression were varied as cues in White college students' perception tasks. The results of a factorial experiment are included as well as a discussion of the…
Brown, Christia Spears; Tam, Michelle; Aboud, Frances
Ethnic prejudice, even among very young children, is a universal occurrence. Yet, little research has been conducted on this issue outside of Westernized contexts. The current study evaluated a storybook intervention in Indonesia, a country of historically high racial tensions, designed to reduce young children's ethnic bias regarding out-groups…
Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.
Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…
Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M
Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.
Trujillo, Matthew D.
During the past century, American society has made enormous strides in promoting equality and diminishing prejudice among different racial and ethnic groups (Dovidio et al. 2002). Indeed, many believe the election of the first Black president, Barack Obama, marked the beginning of a post-racial America. While progress is undeniable, America is by…
Museus, Samuel D.; Lambe Sariñana, Susan A.; Yee, April L.; Robinson, Thomas E.
Mixed-race persons constitute a substantial and growing population in the United States. We examined multiracial college students' experiences with prejudice and discrimination in college with conducted focus group interviews with 12 mixed-race participants and individual interviews with 22 mixed-race undergraduates to understand how they…
Cramer, Robert J.; Miller, Audrey K.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Burks, Alixandra C.
Research has indicated that people who are more open to novel and diverse experiences express less prejudicial views concerning minority group members. The openness-prejudice relationship, however, may be mediated by the degree to which individuals adhere to traditional social convention and absolutist thinking patterns. Thus, informed by the…
Coenders, Marcel; Scheepers, Peer; Sniderman, Paul M.; Verberk, Geneviève
Although it has become common to suggest a conceptual distinction between traditional and contemporary forms of prejudice, Pettigrew and Meertens have actually attempted to distinguish the two empirically and developed measures to gauge each. Replication of their study, on the distinction between
Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of ethnic acceptance and prejudice on English language learning among immigrant nonnative speakers. During 2004 and 2005, the author conducted participatory dialogues among six Vietnamese and Mexican adult immigrant English language learners. The researcher sought to answer five questions: (1 What are some nonnative English speakers’ experience regarding the way native speakers treat them? (2 How have nonnative English speakers’ experiences of ethnic acceptance or ethnic prejudice affected their learning of English? (3 What do nonnative English speakers think they need in order to lower their anxiety as they learn a new language? (4 What can native English speakers do to lower nonnative speakers’ anxiety? (5 What can nonnative English speakers do to lower their anxiety with native English speakers? Even though many of the adult immigrant participants experienced ethnic prejudice, they developed strategies to overcome anxiety, frustration, and fear. The dialogues generated themes of acceptance, prejudice, power, motivation, belonging, and perseverance, all factors essential to consider when developing English language learning programs for adult immigrants.
Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M
Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R
Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Baba, Yoko; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Masafumi
Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals. We performed a survey examining stigmas toward people with psychotic-like-experiences (PLE), at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), schizophrenia, or depression. Prejudice was measured using a 21-item questionnaire, and discrimination was measured using the Social Distance Scale. The participants consisted of 149 people from the general public, 97 patients, and 119 psychiatric professionals. Generally, a similar pattern was observed among the groups in which prejudice and discrimination against PLE was mildest, followed by that against ARMS and depression, and finally schizophrenia. When the stigma of the general public was compared with that of psychiatric professionals, the prejudice and discrimination against PLE of the general public were both lower than those of the psychiatric professionals. However, the prejudice of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for ARMS. Furthermore, the discrimination of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for schizophrenia. The stigmas of mental illness differed according to the clinical stage, although the pattern of severity was similar among the three groups. A formulation process is suggested in which stigma toward schizophrenia develops from an attitudinal property (prejudice) against ARMS and a behavioral property (discrimination) against schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zemore, Sarah E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Keithly, Sarah; Mulia, Nina
Objective: Although racial and ethnic minorities are often disadvantaged in multiple ways, little research has examined the interactive effects of multiple forms of disadvantage in these populations. The current study describes the independent and interactive effects of perceived prejudice, perceived unfair treatment, poverty, and foreign nativity on problem drinking outcomes among Black and Latino adults. Method: The data source was Black (n = 504) and Latino (n = 766) drinkers from the nationally representative, weighted 2005 National Alcohol Survey. Perceived prejudice was assessed using a composite measure of racial stigma consciousness; perceived unfair treatment was assessed using a single item. Respondents whose per capita household income was below the 2004 poverty guidelines were coded as “poor”; nativity status was assessed among Latinos. Outcomes included past-year drinking to drunkenness, any drinking-related consequences, and two or more dependence symptoms. Results: In bivariate tests, higher levels of unfair treatment were significantly associated with all three outcomes among Blacks (marginally so for drunkenness) and dependence symptoms among Latinos. Further, higher racial stigma was significantly associated with higher rates of any drinking consequences among Latinos. In multivariate logistic regressions, six significant or marginally significant interactions emerged. For each, the pattern of results suggested stronger associations between perceived prejudice/unfair treatment and problem drinking given either poverty or foreign nativity. Conclusions: Although findings were somewhat mixed, the pattern of results tentatively supports the hypothesis that associations between problem drinking and both prejudice and unfair treatment can be exacerbated given the presence of other stressors, particularly among Latinos. Results extend the literature on the health consequences of prejudice and discrimination, highlighting important effects of
Keith, Jessica M; Bennetto, Loisa; Rogge, Ronald D
Increases in intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) diagnoses coupled with higher rates of inclusion in school and community settings, has created more opportunities for exposure and integration between those with IDD and the mainstream population. Previous research has found that increased contact can lead to more positive attitudes toward those with IDD. The current study further investigated this impact of contact on attitudes by examining the influence of the quality and quantity of contact on both explicit and implicit levels of prejudice, while also considering potential mediation via intergroup anxiety and implicit attitudes. Based on past research and theory, we predicted that contact (especially quality contact) would have a strong relationship with explicit and implicit positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD. In the present study, 550 people completed a survey and short task that measured their level of contact with individuals with IDD across their lifetime, their current attitudes toward these individuals, and other constructs that are thought to influence this relationship. Multiple regression analyses suggested consistent links between higher quality of contact and lower levels of prejudice toward individuals with IDD at both the explicit and implicit levels. After controlling for quality of contact, higher quantity of contact was either not significantly associated with our measures of prejudice or was, importantly, associated with higher levels of prejudice. Additional analyses support intergroup anxiety and implicit positive attitudes as significant mediators in the associations between quality of contact and the various dimensions of explicit prejudice. Thus, it would seem that it is the quality of interpersonal interactions that is most strongly related to positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD, making it crucial to take care when developing inclusion opportunities in community settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd
Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui
The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.
Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F
Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.
Geertz, Armin W.
Artiklen undersøger hekseri, sygdom og helbredelse hos hopi-indianerne dels på baggrund af egne indsamlede interviews og af litteraturen. Hekseri anskues delvis som narrativ strategi således at sladder fungerer som en omvendt etisk redskab. Desuden inddrages kognitive teorier....
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Hegarty, Peter; Massey, Sean
This article uses Sedgwick's distinction between minoritizing and universalizing theories of sexuality to analyze variability in social psychologists' studies of anti-homosexual prejudice, focusing on studies of attitudes. Anti-homosexual prejudice was initially defined in conversation with gay liberationists and presumed, among other things, that fear of homoerotic potential was present in all persons. Later social psychologists theorized anti-homosexual prejudice in strict minoritizing terms: as prejudice towards a distinct out-group. In the first section of this paper we discuss corresponding shifts in the conceptualization of anti-homosexual attitudes. Next, using a universalizing framework, we re-interpret experiments on behavioral aspects of anti-homosexual attitudes which were originally conceptualized using a minoritizing framework, and suggest avenues for future research. Finally, we examine how queer theory might enrich this area of social psychological inquiry by challenging assumptions about the politics of doing scientific work and the utility of identity-based sexual politics.
Perry, Sylvia P.; Dovidio, John F.; Murphy, Mary C.; van Ryn, Michelle
Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of Bias Awareness—a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites’ awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased—and prejudice on Whites’ intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in Bias Awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students’ intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students’ intentions to work with minority populations. PMID:25111552
Charles-Toussaint, Gifflene C; Crowson, H Michael
International students provide a variety of benefits to higher education institutions within the United States (J. J. Lee, 2007; J. J. Lee & C. Rice, 2007). Despite these benefits, many international students experience prejudice and discrimination by American students. The purpose of the present study was to examine several potential predictors of prejudice against international students: perceptions of international students as symbolic and realistic threats, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. A simultaneous regression analysis that the authors based on 188 students at a Southwestern university revealed that perceptions of symbolic and realistic threats and social dominance orientation were each positive and significant predictors of prejudice. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice is fully mediated through perceived symbolic threat and partially mediated by realistic threat.
Ohm, Ruth; Rosen, Libby
Discrepancy in quality of health care for patients with diverse backgrounds contributes to health outcome disparities. BSN students reveal surprise regarding the presence of health care disparities. Critical social theory guided this study. The psychometric properties of the Perception of Prejudice in Health Care Scale–Modified (PPHC-M) were evaluated,and the relationship between perceived discrimination in health care delivery and cultural sensitivity awareness was explored. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 146 Midwest BSN students was conducted using Cultural Competence Assessment (CCA), PPHC-M, and the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale. PPHC-M demonstrated reliability(α = .781.) Cronbach’s alphas for General Perception of Prejudice (GPP) and Personal Experience of Prejudice (PEP) were.759 and .756, respectively. Construct validity was supported by contrasted groups. The PPHC was not significantly correlated with the CCA scores. PPHC-M shows promise in measuring perceived prejudice in health care.
Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M
Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Perry, Sylvia P; Dovidio, John F; Murphy, Mary C; van Ryn, Michelle
Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness-a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites' awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased-and prejudice on Whites' intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students' intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students' intentions to work with minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Poteat, V Paul; Anderson, Carolyn J
This study documented significant changes in prejudice toward gay and lesbian individuals among adolescents from the ages of 12 to 18 years. Moreover, in line with developmental theories of prejudice, there was substantial variability in these patterns, partially predicted by the gender and ideological beliefs (reflected by social dominance orientation [SDO]) of individuals. Boys reported higher prejudice at age 12 than girls. SDO also accounted for initial differences in levels of prejudice. Further, although prejudice toward gay men did decrease among girls over time, it did not decrease among boys. Prejudice toward lesbians decreased at similar rates for boys and girls. These different trajectories are explained within the context of gender socialization processes during adolescence. In addition, fluctuations in adolescents' own SDO corresponded with fluctuations in their level of prejudice, over and above those tied to age-related changes. This association was even stronger among those with overall higher SDO tendencies than others. However, SDO, when treated as a stable invariant factor, did not predict different patterns of progressive age-related change in prejudice. These results extend the research on sexual prejudice by examining it within a broader and more dynamic developmental framework, in greater alignment with developmental theories of prejudice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Nota, Juvencio Manuel
This article analyzes the representations (explanations) of future biology teachers about the nature of homosexuality and the type of prejudice expressed against homosexuals. For this we applied questionnaires to 127 students of both sexes from first to fourth year biology course in Pedagogical University in Maputo. The results showed a bipolar representation of homosexuality reasoned explanations psychosocial and biological, but also a widespread prejudice. The analysis of the type of anchor...
Kossowska, Małgorzata; Szwed, Paulina; Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Aneta; Sekerdej, Maciek; Wyczesany, Miroslaw
We claim that religious orthodoxy is related to prejudice toward groups that violate important values, i.e., atheists. Moreover, we suggest that expressing prejudice may efficiently reduce the threat posed by this particular group among people who hold high levels, but not low levels, of orthodox belief. We tested these assumptions in an experimental study in which, after being exposed to atheistic worldviews (value-threat manipulation), high and low orthodox participants were allowed (experimental condition) or not (control condition) to express prejudice toward atheists. Threat was operationalized by cardiovascular reactivity, i.e., heart rate (HR); the higher the HR index, the higher the threat. The results found that people who hold high (vs. low) levels of orthodox belief responded with increased HR after the threat manipulation. However, we observed decreased HR after the expression of prejudice toward atheists among highly orthodox participants compared to the control condition. We did not find this effect among people holding low levels of orthodox belief. Thus, we conclude that expressing prejudice toward this particular group may be an efficient strategy to cope with the threat posed by this group for highly orthodox people. The results are discussed in light of previous findings on religious beliefs and the self-regulatory function of prejudice. PMID:28611715
Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A
Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.
Gushue, George V; Hinman, Kimberly A
The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories. The results indicate that locomotion was negatively associated with external motivation to respond without prejudice, while assessment and prevention were positively associated with external motivation. Taken together, findings highlight the importance of cultivating locomotion (action oriented) motivation and inhibiting prevention (loss oriented) and assessment (preoccupation with finding the correct answer) motivations in multicultural training. Implications for training, effective action for justice, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of my article will be that of discussing a recent transformation of the novel by the American writer Seth Grahame-Smith: his gothic adaptation Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009. This version is not just inspired by the Romantic novelist, but it keeps up a dialogue and a constant reference to her, captivating the readers into a constant confrontation between past and present, tradition and innovation, conventions and subversion, seriousness and satire. This new product is an interesting example of literary remediation of the original Pride and Prejudice, created to engage the contemporary audience to copy and interact with a challenging society, which, far from being stable and rational, is scary and full of mystery.
Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined and a historical review of their development (Duckitt, 1992 was made. The results from a survey of prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=942; 347 men and 595 women; average age 21.3 years towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, carried out in 5 time intervals: 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results showed that the assessment of the minority groups was more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceived most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews were positive.
Tuttas, Carol A
Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article. © The Author(s) 2014.
Morrison, Melanie A; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Todd G
Prejudice and discrimination against LGBT individuals is widespread and has been shown to have negative consequences for sexual and gender minority persons' physical and psychological wellbeing. A recent and problematic trend in the literature is to compositely measure prejudice toward and discrimination against LGBT persons. As such, a review of the psychometric properties of scales assessing, in a combinatory fashion, negative attitudes and/or behaviors toward LGBT persons is warranted. In the current study, 32 scales were identified, and their psychometric properties were evaluated. Most of the scales reviewed did not provide sufficient information regarding item development and refinement, scale dimensionality, scale score reliability, or validity. Properties of the reviewed scales are summarized, and recommendations for better measurement practice are articulated.
Yasemin Gülsüm Acar
Full Text Available Prejudice reduction research has focused on reducing negative regard as a means to improve relations between various groups (e.g., religious, ethnic, political. Though positive regard between groups may be created, these forms of contact and common identification do not alter policy orientations of advantaged groups toward disadvantaged ones. Rather than intergroup contact, it is suggested that a collective action model of prejudice reduction (Dixon, J., Levine, M., Reicher, S., & Durrheim, K. (2012. Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 411-425 would create ties between disadvantaged groups to work toward beneficial policy change. We seek to show that the Gezi Park protests in Taksim, İstanbul functioned as an intergroup phenomenon, requiring the cooperation of a number of disadvantaged groups (e.g., feminists, Kurds working together to improve the status of all present. In a series of interviews with 34 activists from the Gezi Park protests, participants were to reflect on their individual and group-based experiences during their time in the Gezi Park protests. Data indicate that although a few groups remained distant or disconnected during the protests, a common ground was achieved such that some participants were able to overcome past prejudices. Data also indicate that through group perceptions and individuals’ descriptions of events, groups who had previously not been able to cooperate were able to work and stick together at Gezi. Results also imply, in line with Dixon et al. (2012, that if disadvantaged groups work together, they might change the position of their groups and improve each group’s disadvantaged position via collective action.
Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas
In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Titzmann, Peter F; Brenick, Alaina; Silbereisen, Rainer K
Increasingly, adolescents are growing up in multiethnic multicultural societies. While intergroup prejudice can threaten the multicultural societal cohesion, intergroup friendships are strong predictors of reduced prejudice. Thus, more research is needed to fully understand the development of intergroup friendships and their relations to less prejudicial attitudes. This study addressed two major developmental research questions: first, whether longitudinal patterns of intergroup friendships of native adolescents (i.e., whether or not a native German adolescent has a friendship with an immigrant at different points in time) relate to changes in rates of prejudice about immigrants. Second, whether these friendship patterns that unfold over time can be predicted by contact opportunities, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control assessed at the beginning of the study. The sample included 372 native German adolescents (14.7 years of age at first assessment, 62.3% girls) who showed one of four friendship trajectories over the three annual assessments: they either maintained, gained, never had, or lost a friendship with an outgroup peer. In particular, results showed that adolescents who gained an intergroup friendship over the three time points showed a significant decrease in negative prejudice over the study. All four theorized predictors contributed to explain friendship trajectory membership. Generally, adolescents with many opportunities for contact, positive attitudes about contact, perceived positive social norms for contact, and high levels of behavioral control (self-efficacy) were more likely to maintain a friendship with an outgroup member than to follow any of the three other friendship trajectories (gain, lost, or never had). The pattern of predictions differed, however, depending on the specific pairs of friendship trajectories compared.
Cassidy, Brittany S.; Sprout, Gregory T.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Krendl, Anne C.
Less racially prototypic faces elicit more category competition during race categorization. Top-down factors (e.g. stereotypes), however, affect categorizations, suggesting racial prototypicality may enhance category competition in certain perceivers. Here, we examined how prejudice affects race category competition and stabilization when perceiving faces varying in racial prototypicality. Prototypically low vs high Black relative to White faces elicited more category competition and slower r...
Full Text Available On May 9, 2017, Europe Day, a date chosen as a sign of goodwill for the future of Europe, a group of philosophers, linguists, historians, political scientists and media experts, coming from Belgium, France, Greece, Iceland, Norway, Poland, and Italy of course, gathered in Genoa (Italy to debate The Rhetoric of Prejudice. The subtitle of the Conference, which should not to be overlooked, posed a crucial question: can Europe still be inclusive?
Salter, Michael; McGuire, Kim
The field of hate crime research addresses the presence, sources, and impact of particular types of expressions of prejudice, often perceived as particularly damaging and hurtful forms of interpersonal abuse and violence. There is the reflexive question of the possibilities of researchers themselves ever being able to adopt a truly "unprejudiced" approach to the presence of such damaging prejudices. Can this goal be realized without a researcher necessarily losing an experientially grounded understanding of what these meanings, values and purposes have come to mean, and how they are themselves interpretively reconstituted anew, including within the lived experience of victims, witnesses, police, prosecutors, judges, and victim support workers? A possible philosophically informed approach to the dilemmas posed by this topic is offered by Husserl's phenomenology. This study critically explores the possibilities, reflective stages, and theoretical limitations of a sympathetically reconstructed Husserlian approach to hate crime. It argues that despite its manifest tensions, gaps, ambiguities, and internal contradictions, aspects of the Husserlian philosophical approach directed toward the different levels of experienced hate crime still retain the potential to both challenge and advance our understanding of this topic. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lisa K. Hartley
Full Text Available While most of the world's refugees reside in developing countries, their arrival to western countries is highly politicised, giving rise to questions about the types of entitlements and rights that should, or should not, be granted. In this study, using a mixed-methods community questionnaire (N = 185, we examined attitudes towards social policies aimed at providing assistance to two categories of new arrivals to Australia: resettled refugees (who arrive via its official refugee resettlement program and asylum seekers (who arrive via boat and then seek refugee status. Social policy attitude was examined as a consequence of feelings of anger, fear, and threat, as well as levels of prejudice. Participants felt significantly higher levels of anger, fear, threat, and prejudice towards asylum seekers compared to resettled refugees. For both resettled refugees and asylum seekers, prejudice was an independent predictor of more restrictive social policy attitudes. For resettled refugees, fear and perceived threat were independent predictors for more restrictive social policy whereas for asylum seekers anger was an independent predictor of restrictive social policy. The qualitative data reinforced the quantitative findings and extended understanding on the appraisals that underpin negative attitudes and emotional responses. Practical implications relating to challenging community attitudes are discussed.
Full Text Available Social researchers and activists who use the sociological definition of racism – that 'Racism = Prejudice + Power' – generally aim to attain racial equality by equalising differences in social power among racial groups. However, this definition can be taken to extreme when the role of social power is given disproportionately more weight than the role prejudice in explaining the occurrence and entrenchment of racism in society, such as assertions that racism is synonymous with White supremacy. Such a definition is logically flawed, demonstrates reverse racism, is disempowering for individuals from all racial groups who strive for racial equality, and absolves those who do not. We examine how the recent literature on cultural competency may provide a more effective strategic framework for reducing racism. Cultural competency is a move away from ethnocentrism and towards respect and value for cultural difference, with no racial group treated as a reference point around which the discourse on race relations revolves. In short, by properly acknowledging the role of prejudice, and not exclusively focusing on power, all racial groups can be better empowered to take responsibility for protecting the human right to racial equality.
Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.
Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278
Parrott, Dominic J; Lisco, Claire G
This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men's sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities.
Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Mistler, Stephen A.; Neuberg, Steven L.
Previous theorizing suggests that often-stigmatized individuals may be just as likely, if not more likely, than infrequently stigmatized individuals to protect self-regard by derogating members of low-status groups after receiving negative feedback from high-status others. Often-stigmatized individuals, however, can discount criticism from these high-status others as reflecting prejudice, thereby making outgroup derogation unnecessary as an esteem-protective strategy. Replicating past research, White participants in Experiment 1 expressed prejudices after receiving negative feedback from a White evaluator; as predicted, however, Black participants did not. In Experiment 2, participants instead received negative feedback from Black evaluators (evaluators more likely to threaten Black participants’ self-regard). Here, contrary to previous theorizing, Black participants expressed prejudices, not toward another low-status group, but toward high-status Whites. In all, findings reveal flaws in previous assumptions that frequently stigmatized individuals may be especially prone to devalue lower-status others after rejection or negative feedback from members of higher-status groups. PMID:20401175
In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516
Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G
In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.
Enge, Luke R; Lupo, Amber K; Zárate, Michael A
Prejudice is generally thought to derive from learned, emotion-laden experiences. The mechanisms underlying the formation of prejudice over time, however, remain unknown. In the present research, we proposed and tested hypotheses regarding prejudice formation derived from research on memory consolidation and social perception. We hypothesized that time-dependent memory consolidation would produce better implicit memory for negative out-group information and positive in-group information, compared with negative in-group information and positive out-group information. Fifty undergraduates learned positive and negative information about racial in-group (Latino) and out-group (African American) targets. Participants returned after both a short time delay (2-6 hr after the learning session) and a long time delay (48 hr after the learning session) to complete a lexical decision task. Results demonstrated that participants responded to information consistent with an in-group bias faster after a long time delay than after a short time delay. Our findings have important implications for the study of social perception and memory consolidation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica
In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.
Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction was causally related to decreased essentialist beli...
Lovakov, Andrey; Agadullina, Elena
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between outgroup entitativity and prejudice. A quantitative analysis of 85 effect sizes from 33 independent samples showed a significant positive relationship between entitativity and prejudice (Fisher’s z = .414, 95% CI [.272, .557], p < .0001). Three possible moderators of the relationship between entitativity and prejudice were tested: conceptualization of the entitativity (essence-based entitativity scale, agency-based entitativ...
Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S
Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs. remain silent) and hold a growth (vs. fixed) mindset-the belief that others can change-they remain more positive in their subsequent outlook in the workplace. Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 used hypothetical workplace scenarios to expose participants to someone who expressed bias; Study 3 ensured real-world relevance by eliciting retrospective accounts of workplace bias from African American employees. Across studies, women and minorities who confronted the perpetrator of prejudice exhibited more positive subsequent expectations of that coworker when they held a growth mindset. It is important that these more positive expectations were associated with reports of greater workplace belonging (Study 2), ratings of improved relations with coworkers who had displayed bias (Study 3), and greater workplace satisfaction (Studies 2-3). Thus, a growth mindset contributes to successful workplace diversity by protecting women's and minorities' outlook when they opt to confront expressions of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt
Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Jang, Hyeongap; Lim, Jun-Tae; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jin-Seok
While there have been many quantitative studies on the public's attitude towards mental illnesses, it is hard to find quantitative study which focused on the contextual effect on the public's attitude. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the public's beliefs and attitudes including contextual effects. We analyzed survey on the public's beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness in Korea with multi-level analysis. We analyzed the public's beliefs and attitudes in terms of prejudice as an intermediate outcome and social distance as a final outcome. Then, we focused on the associations of factors, which were individual and regional socio-economic factors, familiarity, and knowledge based on the comparison of the intermediate and final outcomes. Prejudice was not explained by regional variables but was only correlated with individual factors. Prejudice increased with age and decreased by high education level. However, social distance controlling for prejudice increased in females, in people with a high education level, and in regions with a high education level and a high proportion of the old. Therefore, social distance without controlling for prejudice increased in females, in the elderly, in highly educated people, and in regions with a high education and aged community. The result of the multi-level analysis for the regional variables suggests that social distance for mental illness are not only determined by individual factors but also influenced by the surroundings so that it could be tackled sufficiently with appropriate considering of the relevant regional context with individual characteristics.
Loignon, Christine; Boudreault-Fournier, Alexandrine; Truchon, Karoline; Labrousse, Yanouchka; Fortin, Bruno
Clinicians face challenges in delivering care to socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. While both the public and academic sectors recognize the importance of addressing social inequities in healthcare, there is room for improvement in the training of family physicians, who report being ill-equipped to provide care that is responsive to the living conditions of these patients. This study explored: (i) residents' perceptions and experience in relation to providing care for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients, and (ii) how participating in a photovoice study helped them uncover and examine some of their prejudices and assumptions about poverty. We conducted a participatory photovoice study. Participants were four family medicine residents, two medical supervisors, and two researchers. Residents attended six photovoice meetings at which they discussed photos they had taken. In collaboration with the researchers, the participants defined the research questions, took photos, and participated in data analysis and results dissemination. Meetings were recorded and transcribed for analysis, which consisted of coding, peer debriefing, thematic analysis, and interpretation. The medical residents uncovered and examined their own prejudices and misconceptions about poverty. They reported feeling unprepared to provide care to socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. Supported by medical supervisors and researchers, the residents underwent a three-phase reflexive process of: (1) engaging reflexively, (2) break(ing) through, and (3) taking action. The results indicated that medical residents subsequently felt encouraged to adopt a care approach that helped them overcome the social distance between themselves and their socioeconomically disadvantaged patients. This study highlights the importance of providing medical training on issues related to poverty and increasing awareness about social inequalities in medical education to counteract prejudices toward
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Carloni, Maria Emília Oliveira Gomes; Rovida, Tânia Adas Saliba; Martins, Ronald Jefferson
To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3%) with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%). The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7%) and the duration of the treatment (28.7%). A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. RESULTS: The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3% with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%. The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7% and the duration of the treatment (28.7%. A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Sheehan, Lindsay; Al-Khouja, Maya A; Lewy, Stanley; Major, Deborah R; Mead, Jessica; Redmon, Megghun; Rubey, Charles T; Weber, Stephanie
Families of individuals who die by suicide report public stigma that threatens their well-being. This study used a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to describe a factor structure for the family stigma of suicide. Candidate items (n = 82) from a previous qualitative study were presented in an online survey format. Members of the public (n = 232) indicated how much they thought items represented public views and behaviors towards family members who lost a loved one to suicide. Factor analyses revealed two factors for stereotypes (dysfunctional, blameworthy), one factor for prejudice (fear and distrust), and three factors for discrimination (exclusion, secrecy, and avoidance).
Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the processes of globalization have propelled intense cultural contacts between formerly cohesive communities resulting in both homogenizing and hybridizing socio-cultural changes (Robertson, 1995: 27; these changes, however, go hand in hand with a “global fear” of a potentially threatening “other”, which fuel people to take defensive actions that re-create “protective” prejudices and boundaries (Bauman, 2006: 97. As culturally hybrid products, transnational films not only transcend the limits of cinematic genres but cultural boundaries based on prejudice and uneven power relations. Chadha’s transnational movie Bride and Prejudice (2004 includes elements of Hollywood, Bollywood and British cinematic traditions to create a hybrid transnational film that metaphorically represents the re-emergence of past prejudices in contemporary encounters of Eastern and Western cultures. Following a cultural studies methodological approach, this article intends to analyze the competing meanings and interpretations the film offers when set against its globalized cultural background.En los albores del siglo XXI, los procesos de la globalización han intensificado intercambios culturales entre comunidades hasta entonces cerradas, dando lugar a cambios sociales conducentes a la homogeneidad o a la hibridación de las culturas (Robertson, 1995: 27; esta situación también suele ir acompañada del “miedo global” a un “otro” potencialmente amenazador, lo cual provoca acciones defensivas que recrean prejuicios y fronteras “protectoras” (Bauman, 2006: 97. Como producto cultural híbrido, el cine transnacional no sólo transciende los límites de los géneros cinematográficos si no que también traspasa los de las identidades culturales basadas en prejuicios y relaciones de poder desiguales. La película de Gurinder Chadha Bodas y Prejuicios (2004 incluye ingredientes de tradiciones cinematogr
Valdiney V. Gouveia
Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.
Kauff, Mathias; Asbrock, Frank; Thörner, Stefan; Wagner, Ulrich
We studied the influence of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) on the relationship between a multicultural ideology and attitudes about ethnic diversity and immigrants. We hypothesized that a multicultural ideology poses a threat to authoritarian individuals, which leads to a decrease in positive diversity beliefs and an increase in prejudice toward immigrants. On the basis of representative survey-data from 23 European countries, we showed that the negative relationship between RWA and positive diversity beliefs was stronger the more a country engages in multiculturalism (Study 1). In addition, in two experiments we demonstrated that RWA moderated the relationship between a video promoting multiculturalism (Study 2) or a picture showing a multicultural group (Study 3) and attitudes toward immigrants and diversity. As expected, for high-RWAs, both stimuli led to an increase in prejudice. In Study 3, perceived threat mediated the relationship between a multicultural norm and prejudice for people high in RWA.
Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in gender prejudice between parents and their offspring. This work is divided into two phases: our goal in Phase I was to investigate whether any similarity exists in the prejudice response profiles of parents and their young adult offspring. Phase II sought to uncover the levels of unique similarity between parents and child in gender prejudice (cultural stereotype effect. Participants were 293 Italian families (young adult child, mother and father, for a total of 879 people. Each participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and Ambivalence toward Men (Glick & Fiske, 1999 scales. As our research included family data, specific analysis were used, such dyadic indexes (Kenny, Kashy & Cook, 2006. Results reveal that (1 the response profiles of parents and offspring are dissimilar, and (2 the slight shared variance between them is determined by the cultural stereotype effect.
Neel, Rebecca; Neufeld, Samantha L; Neuberg, Steven L
How do targets of stigma manage social interactions? We built from a threat-specific model of prejudice to predict that targets select impression-management strategies that address the particular threats other people see them to pose. We recruited participants from two groups perceived to pose different threats: overweight people, who are heuristically associated with disease and targeted with disgust, and Black men, who are perceived to be dangerous and targeted with fear. When stereotypes and prejudices toward their groups were made salient, overweight people (Studies 1 and 2) and Black men (Study 2) selectively prioritized self-presentation strategies to minimize apparent disease threat (wearing clean clothes) or physical-violence threat (smiling), respectively. The specific threat a group is seen to pose plays an important but underexamined role in the psychology of being a target of prejudice.
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel
Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.
Miller, Carol T.; Grover, Kristin W.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.
We investigated the relationship between reports by 203 people with HIV/AIDS in New England communities about their experiences with stigma and reports by 2,444 randomly selected residents of those same communities about their motivation to control HIV/AIDS prejudice. Multi-level regression analyses revealed that the disclosure concerns of participants with HIV/AIDS were lower in communities in which residents were motivated by personal values to control HIV/AIDS prejudice, and were higher in communities in which residents were motivated by social pressure to control HIV/AIDS prejudice. Reported experiences with discrimination and exclusion were unrelated to these community motivations. These results suggest that the realities of the communities in which stigmatized people live shape their perceptions of stigmatization. PMID:21478473
Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew
Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…
Michael D. Bailey’s Magia e superstizione in Europa dall’Antichità ai giorni nostri (Magic and Superstition in Europe: A Concise History from Antiquity to the Present) is a useful work for a wide audience. Based on a wide scholarship of the history of magic and witchcraft, it gives readers a comparative perspective on how different Western societies viewed and categorized magic and superstition, and how magical traditions changed and adapted to different historical conditions. Bailey looks at...
Full Text Available Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010. Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing the past, understanding the present, and preparing for the future of communication in a global society (Sadri and Flammia, 2011, p. 19. This paper provides a brief overview of pertinent research and major theories related to communicating with people of different cultural backgrounds, as well as useful techniques and strategies to use when teaching in international or multinational classrooms, and working or consulting in international or multinational companies, organizations, and educational institutions. It also includes data collected via surveys and interviews that helps to shed light on underlying issues of racism and discontent in Japanese and Nigerian populations within Japan, and concludes with a description of a new approach to one of the most common intercultural communication exercises called the E.A.D. (Evaluate, Analyze, Describe. While this exercise has proved to increase cultural awareness and open the lines of communication between individuals from various cultural and lingual backgrounds, research also shows that other strategies may be necessary to achieve desired levels of communication.
Full Text Available A contribution to the ongoing debate on how anti-Americanism can be adequately conceptualized and how such prejudice can be distinguished from legitimate criticism, arguing that part of these conceptual problems arise from a too narrow focus on defining anti-Americanism and the use of standardized empirical operationalizations. Such approaches exhibit severe limitations in grasping the flexibility of the phenomenon in everyday discourse and often underestimate or ignore the interpretive aspect involved in identifying utterances as anti-American prejudice. Alternatively, a performative approach is proposed, understanding anti-Americanism as a network of speech acts bound by family resemblance rather than identical features. In combination with qualitative empirical research methods such a conceptualization is especially suited to account for the flexible, situated use of anti-American utterances. At the same time it grants reflexivity to the research concept, in the sense of a close description of the scientific application of the notion of anti-Americanism. Two empirical examples from an interview study on anti-American speech in Germany illustrate the potential of such an approach, providing an insight into how anti-Americanism is incorporated into the construction and expression of racist and revisionist national identifications in everyday discourse.
Full Text Available This paper critically examines the feminist significance of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. The feminist view found in Pride and Prejudice is well-supported in literary criticism yet little discussion has focused on Elizabeth’s feminism as seen in the prominent contrast to her female foils within the novel, namely Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. Each of these women conforms to the socially imposed gender norms of Regency England, while Elizabeth artfully challenges gender inequality. As other women adapt their views to increase their chances of marriage, Elizabeth persistently refuses to capitulate. Defying traditional gender norms, Elizabeth affirms her feminist perspective by helping to shape Mr. Darcy’s moral character to match her own. Elizabeth inspires Mr. Darcy to set aside the pride he has in his high station in society in order to win her affections and take her hand in marriage. I argue that Elizabeth’s character is not feminist in isolation, but is understood only in contrast to Caroline, Jane, and Charlotte. This claim is supported by an in-depth comparison of Elizabeth and each of the female foils.
Full Text Available Adaptations are always a matter of hard choices: the scriptwriter and the director have their interpretations of what an adaptation should be, very much like every reader has his/her own vision of the characters and the plot, and very rarely do the two visions coincide. This paper was inspired by the on-going debate amongst Jane Austen fans on Internet forums as to which adaptation of Pride and Prejudice is more faithful to the 1813 novel. The main two contenders appear to be the 1995 BBC mini-series starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth, and Joe Wright’s 2005 film with Keira Knightley and Matthew Macfadyen in the lead roles. This paper will attempt to identify the cardinal points of Austen’s Pride and Prejudice to illustrate that both the 1995 and 2005 adaptations are faithful to the original. Furthermore, it shall look at the strengths and weaknesses of the mini-series and the feature film as genres, before analysing the respective strengths and weaknesses of the adaptations themselves. The paper will suggest that Wright’s film fully captures “the spirit” of Austen’s novel through its masterful use of point of view and symbolism in less than half the time the 1995 mini-series does.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210 This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.
Full Text Available Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented. Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual’s beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer, whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background. This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.
Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B
Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1-2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.
Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F.
Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt. PMID:22888322
Melike Marethe Fourie
Full Text Available Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively- and positively-valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46 who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs. Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ nonprejudiced self-standards (positive condition, or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition, in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride, and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt. In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS scale, reported greater guilt.
Fourie, Melike M; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G F
Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants' non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants' attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt.
Nelson Filice de Barros
Full Text Available In recent decades an important social movement related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine has been identified worldwide. In Brazil, although homeopathy was recognized as a specialist medical area in 1980, few medical schools offer courses related to it. In a previous study, 176 resident doctors at the University of Campinas Medical School were interviewed and 86 (49% rejected homeopathy as a subject in the core medical curriculum. Thus, this qualitative study was conducted to understand their reasons for refusing. 20 residents from 15 different specialist areas were interviewed. Very few of them admitted to a lack of knowledge for making a judgment about homeopathy; none of them made a conscientious objection to it; and the majority demonstrated prejudice, affirming that there is not enough scientific evidence to support homeopathy, defending their position based on personal opinion, limited clinical practice and on information circulated in the mass media. Finally, resident doctors’ prejudices against homeopathy can be extended to practices other than allopathic medicine.
Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prejudice Reduction in Schools: Teaching Tolerance in Schools--Lessons Learned since Brown v. Board of Education about the Development and Reduction of Children's Prejudice. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 2
Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Brown, Christia Spears; Juvonen, Jaana
More than five decades after Brown v. Board of Education and four decades after the Civil Rights era, racial prejudice remains a national problem cutting across social class and culture. Although schools may seem ideal places to teach children about tolerance and harmony, there is little consensus on how to best reduce negative sentiments and…
Drury, Lisbeth; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Lamont, Ruth A; Gerocova, Katarina
Caring is a positive social act, but can it result in negative attitudes towards those cared for, and towards others from their wider social group? Based on intergroup contact theory, we tested whether care workers' (CWs) positive and negative contact with old-age care home residents (CHRs) predicts prejudiced attitudes towards that group, and whether this generalises to other older people. Fifty-six CWs were surveyed about their positive and negative contact with CHRs and their blatant and subtle attitudes (humanness attributions) towards CHRs and older adults. We tested indirect paths from contact with CHRs to attitudes towards older adults via attitudes towards CHRs. Results showed that neither positive nor negative contact generalised blatant ageism. However, the effect of negative, but not positive, contact on the denial of humanness to CHRs generalised to subtle ageism towards older adults. This evidence has practical implications for management of CWs' work experiences and theoretical implications, suggesting that negative contact with a subgroup generalises the attribution of humanness to superordinate groups. Because it is difficult to identify and challenge subtle prejudices such as dehumanisation, it may be especially important to reduce negative contact. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dixon, Jeffrey C.
Does interracial/interethnic propinquity breed hostility or harmony? Group threat and contact theories generally answer hostility and harmony, respectively. The author proposes that a historically and culturally rooted racial/ethnic hierarchy differentially shapes whites' present-day threat of, contact with, and ultimately, prejudice towards…
Tamulevich, Jeffrey S
.... Results of regression analyses indicate that both gender and ethnicity were significant predictors of sexual harassment and racial prejudice but not drug misuse. Athletic status did not significantly influence perceptions. Implications of these findings are discussed for understanding midshipmen perceptions of these behaviors.
Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong
Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…
Research on prejudice seeks to understand and transform inaccurate beliefs about others. Indeed, historically such research has offered a cautionary tale of the biased nature of human cognition. Recently, however, this view has been challenged by work defending the essential rationality of intergroup perception, a theme captured controversially in Jussim and colleagues' (2009) research on the 'unbearable accuracy of stereotyping'. The present paper argues that in its own terms the 'rationalist turn' in socio-cognitive research on stereotyping presents an important challenge to the prejudice tradition, raising troubling questions about its conceptual and empirical foundations. However, it also argues for the necessity of transcending those terms. By focusing on the correspondence between individual beliefs and the supposedly 'objective' characteristics of others, we neglect the historical and discursive practices through which the social realities that we 'perceive' are actively constructed and institutionalized. We mask their social origins, contested and perspectival nature, relativity, and relationship to wider structures of power. By implication, moving beyond the Allportian perspective that has dominated both the prejudice tradition and the emerging stereotype accuracy paradigm, we may now need to prioritize other kinds of questions. Reversing Allport's famous definition of prejudice, it may now be time to ask: How, and with what consequences, does 'thinking ill of others' become sufficiently warranted? How does such thinking become part of institutionalized relations of power and an accepted way of perceiving, evaluating and treating others? What should social psychologists be doing to challenge this state of affairs? © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier
Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…
Pica-Smith, Cinzia; Poynton, Timothy A.
Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships in schools among children and adolescents is an important part of a progressive educational agenda informed in equity, social justice frameworks, and critical multicultural education that leads to a reduction in racial prejudice. Positive intergroup contact is a necessary condition in prejudice…
Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva
This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.
In this study, we investigate the association between a school's ethnic composition, the track in which teachers teach, and their level of involvement with multicultural teaching (MCT) in the Flemish context, taking into account the ethnic prejudice of teachers. Multilevel analyses of data from 590 Flemish teachers in 40 Belgian secondary schools…
King, Kimberly R.
This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…
Dixon, John; Levine, Mark; Reicher, Steve; Durrheim, Kevin
For most of the history of prejudice research, negativity has been treated as its emotional and cognitive signature, a conception that continues to dominate work on the topic. By this definition, prejudice occurs when we dislike or derogate members of other groups. Recent research, however, has highlighted the need for a more nuanced and “inclusive” (Eagly 2004) perspective on the role of intergroup emotions and beliefs in sustaining discrimination. On the one hand, several independent lines of research have shown that unequal intergroup relations are often marked by attitudinal complexity, with positive responses such as affection and admiration mingling with negative responses such as contempt and resentment. Simple antipathy is the exception rather than the rule. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence that nurturing bonds of affection between the advantaged and the disadvantaged sometimes entrenches rather than disrupts wider patterns of discrimination. Notably, prejudice reduction interventions may have ironic effects on the political attitudes of the historically disadvantaged, decreasing their perceptions of injustice and willingness to engage in collective action to transform social inequalities. These developments raise a number of important questions. Has the time come to challenge the assumption that negative evaluations are inevitably the cognitive and affective hallmarks of discrimination? Is the orthodox concept of prejudice in danger of side-tracking, if not obstructing, progress towards social justice in a fuller sense? What are the prospects for reconciling a prejudice reduction model of change, designed to get people to like one another more, with a collective action model of change, designed to ignite struggles to achieve intergroup equality?
Yao, Jin; Yang, Liping
As a multinational country incorporating 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, China is concerned with the mental health of members of minority ethnic groups, with an increasing focus on supporting Chinese ethnic minority college students. Nevertheless, in daily life, members of minority ethnic groups in China often perceive prejudice, which may in turn negatively influence their mental health, with respect to relative levels of ethnic identity and hope. To examine the mediating effects of ethnic identity and hope on the relationship between perceived prejudice and the mental health of Chinese ethnic minority college students, 665 students (18–26 years old; 207 males, 458 females; the proportion of participants is 95.38%) from nine colleges in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region and Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China took part in our study, each completing adapted versions of a perceived prejudice scale, a multiethnic identity measure, an adult dispositional hope scale, and a general health questionnaire. Analysis of the results reveals that perceived prejudice negatively influences mental health through both ethnic identity and hope in Chinese ethnic minority college students. The total mediation effect was 54.9%. Perceived prejudice was found to negatively predict ethnic identity and hope, suggesting that perceived prejudice brings about a negative reconstruction of ethnic identity and hope mechanisms within the study's Chinese cultural context. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health was fully mediated by hope and the chain of ethnic identity and hope. Ethnic identity partially mediated the relationship between perceived prejudice and hope. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health mediated by ethnic identity was not significant, which suggests that the rejection–identification model cannot be applied to Chinese ethnic minority college students. This paper concludes by considering the limitations of our study
In the field of the social psychology of prejudice, John Duckitt's Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Model of Ideology and Prejudice has gained a firm grounding over the past decade and a half, while empathy has become one of the most powerful predictors of prejudice, alongside right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. This study integrates empathy into the dual-process model, exploring the effects of this variable, along with the impact of personality and ideological attitudes, on prejudice in both its blatant and subtle forms. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 260 university students by self-report measures. Despite its cross-sectional nature, a pattern of causal relationships was hypothesized according to experimental and longitudinal findings from previous studies. The path analysis results show that in the model fitted to the data, empathy does not have any direct impact on prejudice, although it plays a significant role in the prediction of prejudice towards a particular immigrant group. On the other hand, the dual-process model is confirmed in the explanation of blatant prejudice and, in a weaker and indirect way, of subtle prejudice; sustaining the distinctive nature of these constructs on some differential predictors and paths. In the discussion, this study proposes that when ideological and personality-based variables are both included in the model, general empathy is not so robust in the explanation of prejudice, since some of the empathetic components might become diluted among other covariates. But even so, its indirect effectiveness through personality and ideological attitudes remains relevant. PMID:29621307
Álvarez-Castillo, José Luis; Fernández-Caminero, Gemma; González-González, Hugo
In the field of the social psychology of prejudice, John Duckitt's Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Model of Ideology and Prejudice has gained a firm grounding over the past decade and a half, while empathy has become one of the most powerful predictors of prejudice, alongside right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. This study integrates empathy into the dual-process model, exploring the effects of this variable, along with the impact of personality and ideological attitudes, on prejudice in both its blatant and subtle forms. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 260 university students by self-report measures. Despite its cross-sectional nature, a pattern of causal relationships was hypothesized according to experimental and longitudinal findings from previous studies. The path analysis results show that in the model fitted to the data, empathy does not have any direct impact on prejudice, although it plays a significant role in the prediction of prejudice towards a particular immigrant group. On the other hand, the dual-process model is confirmed in the explanation of blatant prejudice and, in a weaker and indirect way, of subtle prejudice; sustaining the distinctive nature of these constructs on some differential predictors and paths. In the discussion, this study proposes that when ideological and personality-based variables are both included in the model, general empathy is not so robust in the explanation of prejudice, since some of the empathetic components might become diluted among other covariates. But even so, its indirect effectiveness through personality and ideological attitudes remains relevant.
Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.
Adriana Ioana Pîrvu
Full Text Available The paper`s main issue is the fact that in the last years Romania is on top of the list of the states paying the highest damages further to the convictions in front of ECHR, fact that determines an increasing dissatisfaction of legal experts but also of the population. This controversial situation generated the reconsideration of the material liability of magistrates, for the judicial errors and the prejudices consequently created, established not only before international courts but also before domestic courts. Tacking into consideration that, at present, numerous proposals for settling this issue come from more and more subjects, with or without a legislative initiative right, among which the Ministry of Economy and Finances, the Ministry of Justice or The Superior Council of Magistrature the paper tries to capture a perspective view ofthe material liability of magistrates, for the judicial errors in our legal system but also in other systems of law, which can be seen as a source of inspiration. According to the legislation in force, the only one liable before an injured party that suffered a prejudice through a judicial error is the state, whose right and possibility torecover the counter value granted to the prejudiced person through the filing of recourse action against the judge to whom the judicial error is imputable, are acknowledged. The magistrate may be held liable only when the judicial error is caused by the exercise of the function in bad faith or with serious negligence. The application of such concepts as “bad faith” and “serious negligence” is, however, difficult, due to insufficient criteria for their interpretation, considering all the nuances, and quantification, included by law. Also, please note that, through the creation of the possibility that each individual holds the magistrate liable for alleged prejudices caused by the latter, the magistrate’s liability and the good functioning of justice would be seriously
Herek, Gregory M
This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and relatively rapid turnaround in public opinion, this article focuses on the changes in stigma and issues of sexual prejudice as well. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available For many readers, there is no connection between Jane Austen’s novels and the sexualized body. Sexuality in Austen’s novels is never explicit; nonetheless, it permeates every look, gesture, and letter that passes between her lovers. This article aims to reveal the concept of ‘gaze’, especially female gaze, in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. According to feminist critics it is psychologically inevitable that women are the sexual objects of men; therefore, they have effectively refused to acknowledge the possibility that a female gaze could exist. Arguably, as it is indicated throughout this article, women are not necessarily rendered mute and inert by the male gaze; in fact, they actively shape and respond to male desire and their gaze encompasses as much authority and power as the male gaze.
Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo
While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.
Borenstein, Miriam Süssking; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Costa, Eliani; Gregório, Vitória Regina Petters; Koerich, Ana Maria Espíndola; Ribas, Dorotéa Löes
This study is a qualitative research with a socio-historic approach whose objective was to know the prejudice and stigma lived by the institutionalized patients/residents with hanseniase. To achieve this goal, three patients were intervewed who lived in a colony hospital during the research period, utilizing the oral history method. Data were collected and were further analysed, utilizing the stigma referencial. The results indicated that after the entry in the institution, these patients got their family bonds broken, lost their rights as citizens, regarding the situation, they took upon a new life, in a new environment. Concluding that, the nosocomial isolation for a long period of time (years of confinement and dismissal), caused the symbolic death of many patients that lived with the hope to cohabit with family and/or society.
Galinsky, Adam D; Ku, Gillian
Perspective-taking, by means of creating an overlap between self and other cognitive representations, has been found to effectively decrease stereotyping and ingroup favoritism. In the present investigation, the authors examined the potential moderating role of self-esteem on the effects of perspective-taking on prejudice. In two experiments, it was found that perspective-takers, but not control participants, with temporarily or chronically high self-esteem evaluated an outgroup more positively than perspective-takers with low self-esteem. This finding suggests an irony of perspective-taking: it builds off egocentric biases to improve outgroup evaluations. The discussion focuses on how debiasing intergroup thought is often best accomplished by working through the very processes that produced the bias in the first place.
Galli, Giulia; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Pazzaglia, Mariella
Scientific research has consistently shown that prejudicial behaviour may contribute to discrimination and disparities in social groups. However, little is known about whether and how implicit assumptions and direct contact modulate the interaction and quality of professional interventions in education and health contexts. This study was designed to examine implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users. We investigated implicit and explicit attitudes towards wheelchair users in three different groups: patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); health professionals with intense contact with wheelchair users, and healthy participants without personal contact with wheelchair users. To assess the short-term plasticity of prejudices, we used a valid intervention that aims to change implicit attitudes through brief direct contact with a patient who uses a wheelchair in an ecologically valid real-life interaction. We found that: (i) wheelchair users with SCI held positive explicit but negative implicit attitudes towards their novel in-group; (ii) the amount of experience with wheelchair users affected implicit attitudes among health professionals, and (iii) interacting with a patient with SCI who contradicts prejudices modulated implicit negative bias towards wheelchair users in healthy participants. The use of a wheelchair immediately and profoundly affects how a person is perceived. However, our findings highlight the dynamic nature of perceptions of social identity, which are not only sensitive to personal beliefs, but also highly permeable to intergroup interactions. Having direct contact with people with disabilities might foster positive attitudes in multidisciplinary health care teams. Such interventions could be integrated into medical education programmes to successfully prevent or reduce hidden biases in a new generation of health professionals and to increase the general acceptance of disability in patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia
Using data from a nationally representative survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health, this secondary analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of perceived prejudice by health care providers (HCPs) and its relationship with mental disorders. Respondents accessing HCPs in the prior year were asked if they experienced HCP prejudice. A hypothesis driven multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between type of mental disorders and HCP prejudice. Among the 3006 respondents, 10.9 % perceived HCP prejudice, 62.4 % of whom reported a mental disorder. The adjusted odds of prejudice was highest for respondents with anxiety (OR 3.12; 95 % CI 1.60, 6.07), concurrent mood or anxiety and substance disorders (OR 3.08; 95 % CI 1.59, 5.95) and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 1.68, 4.97) compared to respondents without any mental disorders. These findings are timely for informing discussions regarding policies to address HCP prejudice towards people with mental disorders.
Park, Justin H; Isherwood, Edward
Threat perceptions are associated with politically conservative attitudes. Research has also found that specific forms of threat perception (e.g., concerns about pathogens) are associated with functional reactions (e.g., anti-fat prejudice). Recently, moral intuitions have been implicated in explaining political orientation: Liberals tend to place greater weight on "individualizing foundations" (justice and care concerns) in particular, whereas conservatives tend to place high weight on "binding foundations" (loyalty, respect, and purity concerns) as well. A recent study attempted to integrate the above strands of research by showing that the effect of threat perceptions on conservatism is mediated by a tendency to place relatively greater weight on the binding foundations. The present study was intended to replicate and extend past research by testing (a) whether concerns about pathogens predict conservatism and anti-fat prejudice and (b) whether those effects are mediated by a tendency to place relatively greater weight on the binding foundations.
Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J
Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations.
Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J.
Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations. PMID:23483895
Human rights abuses targeted towards LGBT persons constitute a global pattern of serious concern. Despite the fact that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited by various international, regional and national legal provisions, prejudices and stereotypes related to LGBT people significantly impede the implementation of non-discrimination laws. This study focuses on contemporary Serbia, and attempts to understand the role of public discourse in incitin...
Fourie, Melike M; Thomas, Kevin G F; Amodio, David M; Warton, Christopher M R; Meintjes, Ernesta M
Guilt, shame, and embarrassment are quintessential moral emotions with important regulatory functions for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods because their elicitation is more intricate than that of basic emotions. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI), we employed a novel social prejudice paradigm to examine specific brain regions associated with real-time moral emotion, focusing on guilt and related moral-negative emotions. The paradigm induced intense moral-negative emotion (primarily guilt) in 22 low-prejudice individuals through preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Black and disabled people. fMRI data indicated that this experience of moral-negative emotion was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, in addition to areas associated with mentalizing, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. Of significance was prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC, which is consistent with theories proposing an association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. Finally, a significant negative association between self-reported guilt and neural activity in the pregenual ACC suggested a role of self-regulatory processes in response to moral-negative affect. These findings are consistent with the multifaceted self-regulatory functions of moral-negative emotions in social behavior.
Eva Van MOER
Full Text Available Every form of communication, even every culture , is depending on the interaction between expectation and perception. Every perception is related to anticipations and therefore to comparisons. What we understand or see is not simply a given, but is the product of past experiences and future expecta tions. When understanding fails, expectations become prejudices. A big stumbling-block in interpreting artworks in a museum of contemporary art is having confidence in the concept of multiple interpreta tions. Because contemporary art is characterised as ‘open-ended’, understanding does not always occur and viewers are confused or even disappointed. In this study we investigate the process of understanding contemporary art and focus especially on the formulation of prejudices during a museum visit. We underline that the prejudiced nature of understanding does not have to lead to negative or empty experiences but creates openness to future experiences. Prejudices send people back to re -inspect the initial experience. It is important to bring museum visitors to understand their own constructed meanings by reinvestigating their initial interpretation through inquiring. Museum educators should develop tools which allow visitors to position themselves and make them think from various contexts. This kind of education leads to enriched (reinte rpretation and experiences.
Respress, Brandon N.; Small, Eusebius; Francis, Shelley A.; Cordova, David
Although Black adolescents have reported a lower prevalence of substance use relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Black youth are disproportionately affected by adverse social outcomes. Social scientists have highlighted that using a framework that includes perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination as social determinants of adolescent risk behaviors is essential to fully understanding substance use behaviors in adolescents. However, this area of research remains underdeveloped. This study examined whether and to what extent perceived peer prejudice and teacher discrimination affect binge drinking and marijuana use by Black (n = 514) and non-Hispanic White (n = 2,818) adolescents using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 2, Public Use dataset. Findings suggest that peer prejudice increased the risk of substance use in non-Hispanic White youth only, whereas experiences of teacher discrimination increased the risk of substance use in both Black and non-Hispanic White youth. The study’s limitations are noted, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24215222
Loehr, Annalise; Doan, Long; Miller, Lisa R
Empirical research has documented that contact with lesbians and gays is associated with more positive feelings toward and greater support for legal rights for them, but we know less about whether these effects extend to informal aspects of same-sex relationships, such as reactions to public displays of affection. Furthermore, many studies have assumed that contact influences levels of sexual prejudice; however, the possibility of selection effects, in which less sexually prejudiced people have contact, and more sexually prejudiced people do not, raises some doubts about this assumption. We used original data from a nationally representative sample of heterosexuals to determine whether those reporting contact with a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender friend or relative exhibited less sexual prejudice toward lesbian and gay couples than those without contact. This study examined the effect of contact on attitudes toward formal rights and a relatively unexplored dimension, informal privileges. We estimated the effect of having contact using traditional (ordinary least squares regression) methods before accounting for selection effects using propensity score matching. After accounting for selection effects, we found no significant differences between the attitudes of those who had contact and those who did not, for either formal or informal measures. Thus, selection effects appeared to play a pivotal role in confounding the link between contact and sexual prejudice, and future studies should exercise caution in interpreting results that do not account for such selection effects.
Wodtke, Geoffrey T.
It is commonly hypothesized that higher cognitive abilities promote racial tolerance and a greater commitment to racial equality, but an alternative theoretical framework contends that higher cognitive abilities merely enable members of a dominant racial group to articulate a more refined legitimizing ideology for racial inequality. According to this perspective, ideological refinement occurs in response to shifting patterns of racial conflict and is characterized by rejection of overt prejudice, superficial support for racial equality in principle, and opposition to policies that challenge the dominant group's status. This study estimates the impact of verbal ability on a comprehensive set of racial attitudes, including anti-black prejudice, views about black-white equality in principle, and racial policy support. It also investigates cohort differences in the effects of verbal ability on these attitudes. Results suggest that high-ability whites are less likely than low-ability whites to report prejudicial attitudes and more likely to support racial equality in principle. Despite these liberalizing effects, high-ability whites are no more likely to support a variety of remedial policies for racial inequality. Results also suggest that the ostensibly liberalizing effects of verbal ability on anti-black prejudice and views about racial equality in principle emerged slowly over time, consistent with ideological refinement theory. PMID:27134315
Wodtke, Geoffrey T
It is commonly hypothesized that higher cognitive abilities promote racial tolerance and a greater commitment to racial equality, but an alternative theoretical framework contends that higher cognitive abilities merely enable members of a dominant racial group to articulate a more refined legitimizing ideology for racial inequality. According to this perspective, ideological refinement occurs in response to shifting patterns of racial conflict and is characterized by rejection of overt prejudice, superficial support for racial equality in principle, and opposition to policies that challenge the dominant group's status. This study estimates the impact of verbal ability on a comprehensive set of racial attitudes, including anti-black prejudice, views about black-white equality in principle, and racial policy support. It also investigates cohort differences in the effects of verbal ability on these attitudes. Results suggest that high-ability whites are less likely than low-ability whites to report prejudicial attitudes and more likely to support racial equality in principle. Despite these liberalizing effects, high-ability whites are no more likely to support a variety of remedial policies for racial inequality. Results also suggest that the ostensibly liberalizing effects of verbal ability on anti-black prejudice and views about racial equality in principle emerged slowly over time, consistent with ideological refinement theory.
Khan, Mishal S; Osei-Kofi, Anna; Omar, Abbas; Kirkbride, Hilary; Kessel, Anthony; Abbara, Aula; Heymann, David; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman
Involuntary migration is a crucially important global challenge from an economic, social, and public health perspective. The number of displaced people reached an unprecedented level in 2015, at a total of 60 million worldwide, with more than 1 million crossing into Europe in the past year alone. Migrants and refugees are often perceived to carry a higher load of infectious diseases, despite no systematic association. We propose three important contributions that the global health community can make to help address infectious disease risks and global health inequalities worldwide, with a particular focus on the refugee crisis in Europe. First, policy decisions should be based on a sound evidence base regarding health risks and burdens to health systems, rather than prejudice or unfounded fears. Second, for incoming refugees, we must focus on building inclusive, cost-effective health services to promote collective health security. Finally, alongside protracted conflicts, widening of health and socioeconomic inequalities between high-income and lower-income countries should be acknowledged as major drivers for the global refugee crisis, and fully considered in planning long-term solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humphries, Tom; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Napoli, Donna Jo; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian; Smith, Scott
There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion. We expose these misperceptions as based in prejudice and urge institutions involved in educating professionals concerned with the healthcare, raising and educating of deaf children to include appropriate information about first language acquisition and the importance of a sign language for deaf children. We further urge such professionals to advise the parents of deaf children properly, which means to strongly advise the introduction of a sign language as soon as hearing loss is detected. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Fiske, Susan T
Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.
Full Text Available Meinong’s thought has been rediscovered in recent times by analytic philosophy: his object theory has significant consequences in formal ontology, and especially his account of impossible objects has proved itself to be decisive in a wide range of fields, from logic up to ontology of fiction. Rejecting the traditional ‘prejudice in favour of the real’, Meinong investigates what there is not: a peculiar non-existing object is precisely the fictional object, which exemplifies a number of properties (like Sherlock Holmes, who lives in Baker Street and is an outstanding detective without existing in the same way as flesh-and-blood detectives do. Fictional objects are in some sense incomplete objects, whose core of constituent properties is not completely determined. Now, what does it imply to hold that a fictional object may also occur in true statements? We shall deal with the objections raised by Russell and Quine against Meinong’s view, pointing out limits and advantages of both perspectives.
Full Text Available Are schools an effective institution to build citizenship and to transmit values associated with a given citizenship regime? A survey of 300 middle and high school pupils showed that for pupils, the representation of the French citizenship model is structured in two dimensions, ‘republican citizenship’ (or colorblind equality and ‘new laïcité’ (or secularism, replicating previous research among adults. Moreover, the results support the schools’ effectiveness in the transmission of republican values by showing that in the mainstream track, older high school pupils endorse more strongly than younger school pupils both the principle of republican citizenship and new laïcité. The fact that this is not the case for pupils in a professional track suggests that these results are not simply a question of age but of schooling. Finally, support is found for a theoretical model suggesting that these two principles of the French citizenship model mediate the effect of schooling on prejudice. The implications of these results for current theories of intergroup relations are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.
Navarrete, Carlos David; McDonald, Melissa M; Molina, Ludwin E; Sidanius, Jim
Adopting an evolutionary approach to the psychology of race bias, we posit that intergroup conflict perpetrated by male aggressors throughout human evolutionary history has shaped the psychology of modern forms of intergroup bias and that this psychology reflects the unique adaptive problems that differ between men and women in coping with male aggressors from groups other than one's own. Here we report results across 4 studies consistent with this perspective, showing that race bias is moderated by gender differences in traits relevant to threat responses that differ in their adaptive utility between the sexes-namely, aggression and dominance motives for men and fear of sexual coercion for women. These results are consistent with the notion that the psychology of intergroup bias is generated by different psychological systems for men and women, and the results underscore the importance of considering the gender of the outgroup target as well as the gender of the agent in psychological studies on prejudice and discrimination. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Schonemann, P H
This article documents some difficulties authors face who challenge faulty research claims published in mainstream literature. Editors of "reputable journals" may react with stonewalling tactics that tend to enshrine these faulty results. A case in point is the mental test literature, which has long been beset with racist myths. In 1985, Arthur Jensen added a new myth, his "Spearman Hypothesis," which asserts that a positive correlation between White/Black means differences in scores on mental tests and the loadings of the first principal component confirms the existence of a general intelligence factor ("g"). It can be shown by mathematical and geometric deduction, by computer stimulation, and by reference to "real data," including Jensen's own, that the assertion is unwarranted, and that the relationship Jensen observed is an artifact that has nothing to do with ethnicity or "g." Nevertheless, it proved impossible for more than 12 years to record this challenge to Jensen's claims in any of the leading journals in psychology and statistics. Typically, their editors invoked arguments having nothing to do with the fundamental question of whether Jensen's claims are true or false. It is concluded that, in view of the transparent racist implications of these claims, such editorial policies--regardless of their motivations--contribute to the preservation of ethnic stereotypes and prejudice.
Beyer, Heiko; Liebe, Ulf
Empirical research on discrimination is faced with crucial problems stemming from the specific character of its object of study. In democratic societies the communication of prejudices and other forms of discriminatory behavior is considered socially undesirable and depends on situational factors such as whether a situation is considered private or whether a discriminatory consensus can be assumed. Regular surveys thus can only offer a blurred picture of the phenomenon. But also survey experiments intended to decrease the social desirability bias (SDB) so far failed in systematically implementing situational variables. This paper introduces three experimental approaches to improve the study of discrimination and other topics of social (un-)desirability. First, we argue in favor of cognitive context framing in surveys in order to operationalize the salience of situational norms. Second, factorial surveys offer a way to take situational contexts and substitute behavior into account. And third, choice experiments - a rather new method in sociology - offer a more valid method of measuring behavioral characteristics compared to simple items in surveys. All three approaches - which may be combined - are easy to implement in large-scale surveys. Results of empirical studies demonstrate the fruitfulness of each of these approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R
In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items), basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items), and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item). The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (pprejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Megan Johnson Shen
Full Text Available Political rhetoric surrounding Universal Health Care in the United States typically deals only with differences in political ideology. Research on symbolic racism, however, indicates that subtle racial prejudice may also predict attitudes toward policies like universal health care that are assumed to benefit racial minorities. This subtle racial prejudice hypothesis was supported across three studies conducted in the U.S. A measure of attitudes toward universal health care was found to be a reliable, single-dimension measure associated with political ideology (Pilot Study. Subtle racial prejudice (as measured by the Modern Racism Scale predicted opposition to universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and attitudes toward the poor (Study 1. Moreover, reading about a Black individual (compared to a White individual receiving universal health care benefits reduced support for universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and right-wing authoritarianism (Study 2. Being a person who takes advantage of the system (e.g., free rides was a significant predictor of universal health care attitudes while race was not (Study 3. This work demonstrates that subtle racial prejudice plays a critical role in predicting universal health care attitudes among U.S. citizens, reflecting a long-standing history of associations between subtle racial prejudice and opposition to governmental assistance programs in the U.S.
Nicastro, Nicolas; Picard, Fabienne
The objective of this article is to describe whether Joan of Arc had epilepsy and how that may have influenced her sense of mission and ability to encourage thousands of people to help her to chase the English out of France. Documentation of her Trial of Condemnation in 1431 provides a description of her episodes of experienced voices and visions. From the age of thirteen, Joan of Arc experienced frequent episodes of auditory hallucinations associated with elementary or complex visual hallucinations (e.g., a great light or human faces). These had sudden onset, lasting seconds or minutes at most, and occurred when awake or during sleep, arousing her. Some could be triggered by an auditory stimulus. She had no disorganized thought between the episodes. The semiology of the episodes is very suggestive of epileptic seizures, which have been considered as ecstatic by some authors or as partial epilepsy with auditory features by others, which seems more concordant with the ictal symptoms. The auditory and visual hallucinations could have had a religious content because during her childhood and adolescence, she was brought up in a religious environment, insomuch as this content first undefined only appeared after a few seizures. We can suppose that such hallucinations, without the knowledge of their medical origin, gave her a sense of divine mission, hence, a real strength to try to accomplish the orders she heard during the episodes. Her role during the Hundred Years' War and her narration of her strange episodes led her to be burned for heresy at the age of nineteen, yet rehabilitated 25 years later and to be canonized for her achievements in 1920. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires
Full Text Available Se realizaron dos estudios. El primer estudio trataba de comprobar si la escala de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981, resultaba un instrumento válido en la medición de las actitudes prejuiciosas en una muestra de la población brasileña. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 206 estudiantes de dos colegios. Los datos obtenidos muestran una fiabilidad aceptable de la escala. Los resultados muestran que el prejuicio declarado hacia los afrobrasileños es relativamente bajo. El segundo estudio analizó la percepción general de prejuicio y discriminación en una muestra de la población negra/mestiza. Los resultados muestran una moderada percepción general de prejuicio hacia su grupo y la frecuencia en la que han sido discriminados personalmente ha sido baja. Encontramos diferencias entre la variable etnia y discriminación personal percibida.Two studies were performed. The first study was done in order to verify the validity of the scale of modern racism proposed by McCohahay, Hardee and Batts (1981 to measure the prejudiced attitudes in a sample of the Brazilian population. Questionnaires were applied in 206 students from two schools. The obtained data showed an acceptable reliability of the scale. Results show that the expression of prejudice declared by the African-Brazilians is relatively low. The second study examined the general perception of prejudice and discrimination on a sample of a black/mestizo population. The results show a moderate general perception of prejudice with this group but the frequency which they had been personally discriminated was low. We found differences between different ethnic groups and perceived personal discrimination.
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective ...
Full Text Available Multiculturalism, as a political and social phenomenon, is more and more often perceived as a challenge in the realm of studying communication processes. New media make it possible to communicate and build relations in the global dimension with a simultaneous impact on the development of horizontal communication, creating groups and communities and active support for different forms of social participation. In this context a pilot study concerning the role of new media in overcoming schemata and prejudice of students in two different cities with different levels of multiculturalism in the local community was carried out.
Eslen-Ziya, Hande; Koc, Yasin
This paper examines expressions and experiences of internalised sexual stigma with respect to definitions of masculinity and identity conflicts through a thematic analysis of life-history narratives of 14 self-identified gay men living in Turkey. The analysis reveals that internalised sexual prejudice emerges when widely accepted hegemonic masculinity ideology is 'violated' by being gay. Participants' narratives indicate that their construction of masculinity is a vigorous process established via encounters with hegemonic masculinity. Findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature and in relation to Turkish culture's traditional understanding of gender and gender roles.
Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia.
Full Text Available Attitudes, stereotyping, and prejudice are often conceived of as inner, mental or cognitive processes. Drawing on discursive psychology and critical theory, this article proposes a language-based understanding of stereotyping and the “syndrome character” of prejudice that is able to avoid certain epistemological shortcomings and connect social-psychological and sociological research. Stereotyping is outlined as a relational concept that denotes a linguistic mode of relating to the world, whilst the syndrome character of prejudice is conceptualized as a phenomenon that shows in particular stereotypical speech acts, but does not completely coincide with them. The impact of this conceptual figuration is empirically illustrated using Anders Breivik’s manifesto.
Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.
Hughes, Jeffrey; Grossmann, Igor; Cohen, Adam B.
Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1–2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups. PMID:26441728
Craig B. Jacobsen
Full Text Available Review of Jane Austen and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and prejudice and zombies: The classic Regency romance—Now with ultraviolent zombie mayhem! Philadelphia, PA: Quirk Books, 2009. $12.95 (320p ISBN 978-1594743344.
Kirk, P.M.; Stalpers, J.A.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Hansen, K.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Hyde, K.D.; Lücking, R.; Lumbsch, T.H.; Rossman, A.Y.; Seifert, K.A.; Stadler, M.
As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for
González-Pascual, Juan Luis; Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Rodríguez-García, Marta; Gómez-Cantarino, Sagrario; Moreno-Preciado, Manuel
Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain). The findings promote reflection on the effects of nurses' stereotypes and prejudices regarding the gender roles of "Muslim fathers" and the relations between these groups. These prejudices can lead to situations of cultural imposition and/or discrimination. Self-reflection regarding stereotypes and prejudices is necessary in order to provide culturally competent care. The anthropobiological approach by Marie Françoise Collière may be useful for extending this type of care universally, not only to immigrant groups, as everyone, including nurses, patients, and family members, belong to part of a specific sociocultural context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.
Background/Context: As a result of migration processes, schools in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium) are notably ethnically diverse. This evolution has coincided with an increasing number of studies focusing on ethnic-minority pupils' experiences of ethnic prejudice from their ethnic majority counterparts. Purpose/Objective/Research…
Valdiney V. Gouveia
Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal conhecer em que medida as motivações interna e externa para responder sem preconceito frente aos negros se correlacionam com os valores humanos. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 308 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, distribuídas entre estudantes do ensino médio e universitário, bem como pessoas da população geral. Estes responderam, além de questões demográficas, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Desejabilidade Social e a Escala de Motivação Interna e Externa para Responder sem Preconceito. De acordo com os resultados, a motivação interna se correlacionou de modo positivo principalmente com os valores suprapessoais, como maturidade, beleza e conhecimento. No caso da motivação externa, esta o fez unicamente com os valores de realização, destacando-se entre eles prestígio e privacidade. Estes resultados são coerentes com aqueles apresentados na literatura, que indicam a oposição entre os valores de igualitarismo (suprapessoais vs. ética protestante (realização para explicar o preconceito e as motivações para não apresentar este tipo de atitude.The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa - comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole - were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such
Dhont, Kristof; Makwana, Arti P.
Abstract Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self‐worth are positively or negatively related to right‐wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self‐worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio‐political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice. Confirming our hypotheses, the results consistently showed that after controlling for self‐esteem, narcissistic self‐evaluation was positively associated with SDO (accounting for RWA), yet negatively associated with RWA (accounting for SDO). These associations were similar after controlling for psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Study 3) as well as collective narcissism and Big Five personality characteristics (Study 4). Studies 2–4 additionally demonstrated that narcissistic self‐evaluation was indirectly positively associated with prejudice through higher SDO (free of RWA) but indirectly negatively associated with prejudice through lower RWA (free of SDO). Implications for understanding the role of self‐evaluation in right‐wing ideological attitudes and prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28983151
Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires
Full Text Available El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981 y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995 y Venturi (2003. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las personas declararon mayor racismo moderno que racismo cordial. También hemos estudiado las variables que influyen en el prejuicio racial declarado por los participantes. La variable género y orientación a la dominancia social son variables que predicen el racismo moderno en la muestra estudiada. Los participantes indicaron, en mayor medida, la manifestación del prejuicio racial de forma encubierta y lo hacen más abiertamente cuando hay la posibilidad del contacto personal y estrecho.O estudo avaliou as manifestações de preconceito racial em uma amostra da população brasileira, usando escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee e Batts (1981, escala racismo cordial do Datafolha (1995 e Venturi, G. (2003. Os questionários foram aplicados a um total de 101 estudantes de várias universidades da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostram que as duas escalas diferem entre si sobre como capturar as expressões de preconceito. As pessoas relataram mais racismo moderno que racismo cordial. Estudamos também as variáveis que influenciam o preconceito racial declarado pelos participantes. As variáveis gênero e orientação à dominância social são preditores do racismo moderno na amostra estudada. Os participantes indicaram, em maior medida, a manifestação do preconceito racial dissimulado e o fazem mais abertamente quando existe a possibilidade do contato pessoal e estreito.This study measured the manifestations of racial prejudice in a sample of
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM.
Zebrowitz, Leslie A; White, Benjamin; Wieneke, Kristin
White participants were exposed to other-race or own-race faces to test the generalized mere exposure hypothesis in the domain of face perception, namely that exposure to a set of faces yields increased liking for similar faces that have never been seen. In Experiment 1, rapid supraliminal exposures to Asian faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Asian faces. In Experiment 2, subliminal exposures to Black faces increased White participants' subsequent liking for a different set of Black faces. The findings are consistent with prominent explanations for mere exposure effects as well as with the familiar face overgeneralization hypothesis that prejudice derives in part from negative reactions to faces that deviate from the familiar own-race prototype.
Birtel, Michèle D.; Crisp, Richard J.
We propose that key concepts from clinical psychotherapy can inform science-based initiatives aimed at building tolerance and community cohesion. Commonalities in social and clinical psychology are identified regarding (1) distorted thinking (intergroup bias and cognitive bias), (2) stress and coping (at intergroup level and intrapersonal level), and (3) anxiety (intergroup anxiety and pathological anxiety). On this basis we introduce a new cognitive-behavioral model of social change. Mental imagery is the conceptual point of synthesis, and anxiety is at the core, through which new treatment-based approaches to reducing prejudice can be developed. More generally, we argue that this integration is illustrative of broader potential for cross-disciplinary integration in the social and clinical sciences, and has the potential to open up new possibilities and opportunities for both disciplines. PMID:26635678
Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Lim, Sin How; Altice, Frederick L.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM. PMID:26324078
Harendza, Sigrid; Pyra, Martin
Many jokes exist about stereotypical attributes of physicians in various specialties, which could lead to prejudices against physicians from a specific specialty. It is unknown whether and when medical students are aware of stereotypes about different specialties. The goal of this study was to analyze the degree of stereotypes that exist about medical specialties amongst undergraduate medical students at different stages of their education. One hundred fifty-two jokes with different content about attributes of physicians from different specialties were found by an internet search. In total, 36 characteristics of the five specialties of anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, orthopedics, and psychiatry were extracted from the jokes and they constituted the basis for the development of an online questionnaire. The questionnaire allowed each characteristic to be assigned to one of the five specialties and was sent to 999 undergraduate medical students from semester 1, 7, and 12 at the Medical Faculty of Hamburg University. Three hundred eight (30.8%) of the invited students completed the survey. The characteristics of general surgeons and psychiatrists were assigned congruently most frequently (>50%). For internists and orthopedics, there was a significantly more congruent assignment of the characteristics by final year students versus students in their first semester. Male students assigned the characteristics of anesthetists and internists significantly more congruently than female students. The three characteristics "…are a bit slow on the uptake", "…consider income to be relatively unimportant", and "...apologize a lot" were not assigned to any of the five specialties by more than 50% of the students. While stereotypes about physicians from certain specialties seem to exist commonly, medical educators need to be aware that stereotypes about specialties might develop during undergraduate medical training. In order to support students in their
Background In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and TB. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA) in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA and TB. The study population consisted of 862 randomly selected adults in GGFRA. Data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. To triangulate the findings, 8 focus group discussions among women and men were done. Results Of the 862 selected study participants, 750(87%) accepted to be interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 31.2 (SD ± 11.0). Of the total interviewed individuals, 58% of them were females. More than half of the respondents did not know the possibility of transmission of HIV from a mother to a child or by breast feeding. For fear of contagion of HIV, most people do not want to eat, drink, and share utensils or clothes with a person living with HIV/AIDS. A higher proportion of females [OR = 1.5, (95% CI: 1.0, 2.2)], non-literate individuals [OR = 2.3, (95%CI: 1.4, 3.6)], rural residents [OR = 3.8, (95%CI: 2.2, 6.6)], and individuals who had poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS [OR = 2.8, (95%CI: 1.8, 2.2)] were more likely to have high prejudice towards PLHA than respectively males, literates, urban residents and individuals with good knowledge. Exposure to cold air was implicated as a major cause of TB. Literates had a much better knowledge about the cause and methods of transmission and prevention of TB than non-literates. More than half of the individuals (56%) had high prejudice towards a patient with TB. A larger proportion of females [OR = 1.3, (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9)] and non-literate individuals [OR = 1.4, (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0)] had high prejudice towards patients with TB than males and literate individuals. Conclusion TB
Krumm, Angela J; Corning, Alexandra F
Moral credentials are pieces of evidence accrued by individuals that can later be presented, intentionally or unintentionally, as a record of their lack of prejudice (B. Monin & D. T. Miller, 2001). For example, attending a gay pride march or being an openly gay person ostensibly credentials an individual to tell gay jokes free of concern that he or she will be labeled prejudiced. The authors tested whether displays of moral credentials actually work to insulate individuals from attributions of prejudice by others. Results indicated that displays of moral credentials generally discourage attributions of discrimination but unevenly so, depending on who makes the judgment. Consistent with predictions from social identity theory (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1979), participants most swayed by displays of moral credentials were those who shared an in-group status with the person displaying the moral credentials.
Sessa, Paola; Tomelleri, Silvia; Luria, Roy; Castelli, Luigi; Reynolds, Michael
We tested the ability of white participants to encode and retain over a brief period of time information about the identity of white and black people, using faces as stimuli in a standard change detection task and tracking neural activity using electroencephalography. Neural responses recorded over the posterior parietal cortex reflecting visual working memory activity increased in amplitude as a function of the number of faces that had to be maintained in memory. Critically, these memory-related neural responses varied as a function of participants’ implicit racial prejudice toward black people. High-prejudiced participants encoded black people faces with a lower degree of precision compared to low-prejudiced participants, suggesting that the class of mental operations affected by implicit racial prejudice includes basic cognitive mechanisms underpinning the encoding and maintenance of faces’ visual representations in visual working memory. PMID:21768206
Dural Şenoğuz, Uzay; Dural Senoguz, Uzay
The widespread underrepresentation of women in senior leadership positions and discrimination against them has been mostly explained using socio-cognitive processes, such as stereotypic and prejudicial attitudes against women’s leadership. Any reduction in such unfavorable attitudes of employees seems to be necessary before we can see more gender balance in senior leadership. There are divergent theories and contradicting results on how malleable stereotypes and prejudices toward women manage...
Zagefka, Hanna; González, Roberto; Brown, Rupert; Lay, Siugmin; Manzi, Jorge; Didier, Nicolás
Two surveys were conducted in Chile with indigenous Mapuche participants (N study 1: 573; N study 2: 198). In line with previous theorising, it was predicted that intergroup contact with the non-indigenous majority reduces prejudice. It was expected that this effect would be because of contact leading to more knowledge about the outgroup, which would then lead to less intergroup anxiety. The two studies yielded converging support for these predictions. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F
Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.
Van Hiel, Alain; Cornelis, Ilse; Roets, Arne
The present study aimed to delineate the psychological structure of materialism and intrinsic and extrinsic value pursuit. Moreover, we compared models based on self-determination theory (SDT), Fromm's marketing character, and Inglehart's theory of social change to account for racial prejudice. In a sample of undergraduate students (n=131) and adults (n=176) it was revealed that the extrinsic value pursuit Financial Success/Materialism could be distinguished from the extrinsic value scales Physical Appeal and Social Recognition, and Community Concern could be distinguished from the intrinsic value pursuit scales Self-acceptance and Affiliation. Moreover, Financial Success/Materialism and Community Concern were consistently and significantly related to prejudice, whereas the other SDT facet scales yielded weaker relationships with prejudice. Structural models based on SDT and Inglehart were not corroborated, but instead the present data supported a mediation model based on Fromm's work in which the effect of Community Concern was mediated by Financial Success/Materialism. Broader implications for SDT are critically assessed.
Kossowska, Małgorzata; Czernatowicz-Kukuczka, Aneta; Sekerdej, Maciej
In this article, we suggest that dogmatic beliefs, manifested as strong beliefs that there is no God (i.e., dogmatic atheism) as well as strong beliefs in God (i.e., religious orthodoxy), can serve as a cognitive response to uncertainty. Moreover, we claim that people who dogmatically do not believe in religion and those who dogmatically believe in religion are equally prone to intolerance and prejudice towards groups that violate their important values. That is because prejudice towards these groups may be an efficient strategy to protect the certainty that strong beliefs provide. We tested these assumptions in two studies. In Study 1 and Study 2, we demonstrated that dogmatic beliefs mediate the relationship between intolerance to uncertainty and both, religious orthodoxy and dogmatic atheism. In addition, in Study 2 we showed that both the religiously orthodox and dogmatic atheists become prejudiced towards groups that violate their values and that these effects are especially strong under experimentally induced uncertainty. In this study, we focused on atheists and homosexuals as groups that pose a threat to Christian's religious worldviews, and Catholics and pro-life supporters as groups that pose a threat to the values of atheists. The results are discussed in relation to past research on dogmatism and religion, as well as with reference to what this means for the study of prejudice. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment. PMID:29230185
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala
Full Text Available The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.
Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer
Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Storm, Ingrid; Sobolewska, Maria; Ford, Robert
Most literature on racial prejudice deals with the racial attitudes of the ethnic majority and ethnic minorities separately. This paper breaks this tradition. We examine the social distance attitudes of white and non-white British residents to test if these attitudes follow the same trends over time, whether they are driven by the same social processes and whether they are inter-related. We have three main findings. Firstly, social distance from other ethnic groups has declined over time for both white and ethnic minority Britons. For the white majority there are both period and cohort elements to this decline. Secondly, we see some evidence that social distance between the majority and minority groups is reciprocal. Specifically, minorities who experience rejection by the white British feel a greater sense of distance from them. Thirdly, we find that all groups share the perception of the same ethnic hierarchy. We see evidence of particularly widespread hostility towards Muslim Britons from all ethnic groups suggesting that Muslims are singled out for negative attention from many British residents of all other backgrounds, including a large number who do not express hostility to other groups. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; LaFrance, Marianne; Przedworski, Julia M; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Hardeman, Rachel R; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle
Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information. Participants ( n =3406) were heterosexual medical students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. As in prior research, bisexual targets were evaluated slightly more negatively than gay/lesbian targets overall. More importantly for the present investigation, higher levels of NFC predicted negative evaluations of bisexual people after accounting for negative evaluations of gay/lesbian people, and higher levels of NFC also predicted an explicit evaluative preference for gay/lesbian people over bisexual people. These results suggest that differences in evaluations of sexual minority groups partially reflect different psychological processes, and that NFC may have a special relevance for bisexual targets even beyond its general association with prejudice. The practical value of testing this theory on new physicians is also discussed.
Feng, Danjun; Zhao, Wenjing; Shen, Shiyu; Chen, Jieru; Li, Lu
The gender-based stereotype of nursing as a female profession has been a large obstacle to men entering the nursing profession. However, there is little quantitative research on the influence of prejudice induced by this stereotype on male nursing students' willingness to be nurses. To examine the effect of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse via the mediating effect of satisfaction with major among Chinese male nursing students. A cross-sectional survey was used. Four hundred and sixty male nursing students who were enrolled either in bachelor's programs in universities or advanced diploma programs in colleges in Jinan, China, were surveyed using questionnaires measuring perceived prejudice, satisfaction with major, and willingness to be a nurse. Structural equation modeling with bias-corrected bootstrapping was employed to determine the influence of perceived prejudice on willingness to be a nurse with major satisfaction as a mediator. Male students who were in an advanced diploma nursing program and those for whom nursing was the first-choice major reported significantly less perceived prejudice, greater satisfaction with major, and greater willingness to be nurses than did those in a bachelor's nursing program and those for whom nursing was not the first-choice major, respectively. Moreover, although perceived prejudice had no significant direct effect on willingness to be a nurse (β=0.07, p>0.05), it did have a strong indirect effect (full mediation) via satisfaction with major (β=-0.59, pnursing students' willingness to be nurses via the full mediating effect of satisfaction with major. Because this obsolete stereotype of nursing as a female occupation gives birth to prejudice against male nursing students, effective measures should be taken to change this stereotype to recruit more men as nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic...
Full Text Available Neste ensaio discutem-se a construção do preconceito e a visibilidade das discriminações decorrentes, duplamente associadas à condição de emergência das diferenças: seja pela afirmação e manipulação da condição da diferença, seja por sua insistente negação ou dissimulação. Em ambos os casos, o não-reconhecimento das diferenças ou a falta de respeito a elas se fazem presentes, criando novos padrões de violência. A reflexão constrói uma ponte entre o preconceito e a violência, enfatiza as diversas formas de discriminação e exclusão, e compreende os seguintes aspectos: os parâmetros jurídicos em relação a co-existir e a re-conhecer; as ciências sociais diante da construção das diferenças/dis-semelhanças; os fundamentos conceituais da categoria 'preconceito' e suas derivantes em relação às de discriminação e exclusão social; os mecanismos do preconceito; a relação diferença¾ preconceito, imagem e racionalização do outro.This essay examines the construction of prejudice ¾ and the visibility of the ensuing discriminations ¾ associated with the emergence of differences, be it through the affirmation and manipulation of the conditions of difference or through their denial and dissimulation. In both cases, there is a lack of recognition of, or disrespect for, differences that is constitutive of new patterns of violence. This essay builds a bridge between discrimination and violence, emphasizing the diverse forms of discrimination and exclusion, which include: the juridical parameters related to co-existence and re-cognition; the social sciences approach to the construction of differences/non-similarities; the conceptual framework of the category 'prejudice' and its derivative forms of discrimination and social exclusion; the mechanisms of prejudice; and the difference-prejudice relation, image and rationalization of the Other .
Detzer, K A
The book presents a compilation of public lectures, review articles, and statements of opinion from public debates that all refer to topical, socio-political problems in connection with technology and industry, and is intended to reveal structural interdependencies in order to contradict the frequently observed simplifications, prejudices, or ideologies, and in order to point out true arguments that can be used in a fair discussion based on pluralistic principles, about the decisions to be taken. Technology and its impacts on industry, politics, education and ethics. (HSCH).
Marius Povilas Saulauskas
Full Text Available Even at the dawn of a full-fledged information society Homo Informaticus as well as its netted counterpart - Homo Irretitus - already carries a handful of badly compatible fears and hopes. First, anxieties about an inevitable desolation of habitual patterns of human interaction and values,as well as an inexorably impending threat of horrifying global control. Second, evergreen optimism of rapidly approaching egalitarian era under the pledge of free universal access to information, cornucopian abundance of all imaginable material and spiritual goods, and unrestricted reign of knowledge once for all overthrowing unjust orders of power and brute force. The article puts under the close scrutiny the key pro et contra arguments involved in the theoretical articulation of these basic attitudes and examines the topical question: why can neither the dreadful fears nor the gay hopes of Homo Irretitus be reasonably sustained in the face of critical inquiry?
José Antonio Santiago Sánchez
Full Text Available This article attempts to theorize about poetry, proposing a immanent and entirely practical basis, and even vital in its most adaptive sense, from certain concepts as habituality, habitability (Juan Bautista Fuentes, ritornelo (Deleuze, kairós, mimesis and poiein (from the Greek tradition or Stimmung (Heidegger in which the final concepts of beauty and truth are framed. This, in turn, requires to grow apart from a visionary and metaphysical poetry, and to apply the language, be it poetic or not, understood as “superstition” of reality.
To further put the woman in position of gender inequality, the man weaves such superstitious .... She is childless. As a highly revered institution in traditional Africa, the purpose for marriage ... view of African female image in our literature.
films, part of my intention is not only to draw attention to the Malawian filmmaking .... In line with the traditional storytelling structure, the force of good needs an antagonist in the .... one meddles with such power, for very little gain. One thing that ...
Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.
This essay examines Max Weinreich's efforts to turn "culture and personality studies" into social and psychological weapons that could be used to combat the effects of prejudice. It focuses on language choice, audience, and purpose in the production of such knowledge by and for a Yiddish-speaking Eastern European population. During the 1930s, Weinreich led the Yiddish Scientific Institute, a research organization headquartered in Poland but affiliated with neither a state nor a university. He was profoundly influenced by a year spent at Yale and a trip through the American South visiting segregated African-American universities. In his 1935 study Der veg tsu undzer yugnt [The Way to Our Youth], Weinreich blended European, Soviet, American, and African-American research traditions to examine the effects of prejudice on child and adolescent development; he also considered the ways members of "despised minorities" could use such science. In 1940 he fled to New York and in 1946 published Hitler's Professors, the first book analyzing the uses of the human sciences to advance Nazi state-sponsored antisemitism. In examining Weinreich's Yiddish and English writings, this essay explores the broader relationship of social science not only to state power but also to statelessness and powerlessness.
Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; David, Barbara
Role congruity theory predicts prejudice towards women who meet the agentic requirements of the leader role. In line with recent findings indicating greater acceptance of agentic behaviour from women, we find evidence for a more subtle form of prejudice towards women who fail to display agency in leader roles. Using a classic methodology, the agency of male and female leaders was manipulated using assertive or tentative speech, presented through written (Study 1, N = 167) or verbal (Study 2, N = 66) communications. Consistent with predictions, assertive women were as likeable and influential as assertive men, while being tentative in leadership reduced the likeability and influence of women, but not of men. Although approval of agentic behaviour from women in leadership reflects progress, evidence that women are quickly singled out for disapproval if they fail to show agency is important for understanding how they continue to be at a distinct disadvantage to men in leader roles. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims to analyze (1 what power is exercised in The Devil Wears Prada and Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, (2 how power operates gender oppression, and (3 how power plays an important role in gender oppression in the novels. Marxist-Feminist approach is used to analyze the data by applying Engels’s theory of power, Young’s theory of gender oppression, Marx’s, Engels’s and Lenin’s theory of liberation. The result has found out that all the indicators of the exercise of power by the ruling class are present in both novels. In relation to gender oppression, the female character in The Devil Wears Prada suffers from exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, and cultural imperialism in the workplace. Meanwhile, some female characters in Pride and Prejudice and Zombies suffer from all the forms of gender oppression as the impact of the exercise of power in their social life. However, almost all elements of women liberation mostly is revealed in the novels.
are the beet part of the fish. He no longer desired variety in the cooking, becsoe fond of row fish, and liked fermented whale oil. Later, he...expedition in 1845 to search for the Northwest passage, he took along a three-year supply of lime juice, vinegar , fresh carrots, onions, cranberries
Roberto Polanco - Carrasco
Full Text Available Fragmento......Así tituló la novelista británica Jane Austen (1775 – 1817 una de sus obras más importantes y una de las primeras comedias románticas en la historia de la literatura.La novela describe poco más de un año de la vida de la familia Bennet y un grupo de adinerados jóvenes en el Londres de fines de siglo 18. Considerada una obra de “educación personal”, Austen ilustra con maestría, como tanto el orgullo como el prejuicio pueden causar malos entendidos y alejarnos de las personas que nos interesan. Sus protagonistas Elizabeth y Darcy, deberán madurar y aprender de sus errores para poderestar juntos, superando por un lado el orgullo de clase de Darcy y por otro los prejuicios de Elizabeth hacia él. Tanto el orgullo como el prejuicio se pueden encontrar, del mismo modo, rondando como fantasmas los espacios de la formación profesional. Revisemos algunos datos; actualmente en Chile, cerca del 40% de los alumnos que entra a estudiar psicología, no lo hace por una directa vocación hacia la carrera. Más bien se trata de una elección guiada por el deseo de mejorar la situación económica y buscar asenso formando parte de un grupo profesional todavía cotizado a nivel social. ......
Chadefaux, Thomas; Helbing, Dirk
We model an N-player repeated prisoner's dilemma in which players are given traits (e.g., height, age, wealth) which, we assume, affect their behavior. The relationship between traits and behavior is unknown to other players. We then analyze the performance of "prejudiced" strategies--strategies that draw inferences based on the observation of some or all of these traits, and extrapolate the inferred behavior to other carriers of these traits. Such prejudiced strategies have the advantage of learning rapidly, and hence of being well adapted to rapidly changing conditions that might result, for example, from high migration or birth rates. We find that they perform remarkably well, and even systematically outperform both Tit-For-Tat and ALLD when the population changes rapidly.
Science and religion are two separate fields, as Dawkins clearly states in his book ‘The God delusion’1. His crystal-clear and critical analysis shows that religion hinders the development of an independent mind in young people. More specific, it is the church with its clerics that is most guilty of