WorldWideScience

Sample records for preirradiation control values

  1. Radicals contributing to preirradiation graft polymerization onto porous polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Kazuya; Saito, Kyoichi; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Ishigaki, Isao

    Porous polyethylene hollow fiber was irradiated by an electron beam at 160 kGy and 8 kGy/min. The concentrations of the radicals such as alkyl, allyl and peroxy were determined by analyzing an integral form of ESR spectra. The comparison of the decay of the radicals with and without contact with air demonstrated that the key radical contributing to the preirradiation graft polymerization is the alkyl radical. The decay of the alkyl radical was simulated by the diffusion-controlled model in the spherical crystallites of polyethylene.

  2. Meaning of pre-irradiation to diamond detector

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, S; Toyoda, T; Wakamatsu, O; Machida, T

    2002-01-01

    Diamond detector PTW/IPTP Type 60003 (PTWFREIBURG) is recommended to be exposed 5 to 10 Gy as pre-irradiation just before use. But it is not mentioned how long this effect last. The volume of diamond detector introduced into our hospital was estimated to be 0.3 mm x 12.6 mm sup 2 =3.8 mm sup 3. We did preirradiation of 1.00, 3.00, 5.00 and 9.00 Gy changing the operation day and doses exposed 1.00 Gy were measured at the maximum depth until 90 minutes afterwards at some optional intervals. Those measured means and standard deviations had variations within 0.3% excluding the first value and they were almost the same as those obtained with Japanese Association of Radiological Physicists (JARP) dosimeter. Here, 10 MV x-rays were generated by MEVATRON KD2/50 PRIMUS (TOSHIBA). We usually get data continuously at 1 minute intervals or so and it is not presumed to pause more than 10 minutes, accordingly we measured doses exposed 1.00 Gy at intervals of 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes on each different day. Those means and sta...

  3. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  4. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  5. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  6. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-β are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds.

  7. Influence of photo- and thermal bleaching on pre-irradiation low water peak single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianchong; Wen, Jianxiang; Luo, Wenyun; Xiao, Zhongyin; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2011-12-01

    Reducing the radiation-induced transmission loss in low water peak single mode fiber (LWP SMF) has been investigated by using photo-bleaching method with 980nm pump light source and using thermal-bleaching method with temperature control system. The results show that the radiation-induced loss of pre-irradiation optical fiber can be reduced effectively with the help of photo-bleaching or thermal-bleaching. Although the effort of photo-bleaching is not as significant as thermal-bleaching, by using photo-bleaching method, the loss of fiber caused by radiation-induced defects can be reduced best up to 49% at 1310nm and 28% at 1550nm in low pre-irradiation condition, the coating of the fiber are not destroyed, and the rehabilitating time is just several hours, while self-annealing usually costs months' time. What's more, the typical high power LASER for photo-bleaching can be 980nm pump Laser Diode, which is very accessible.

  8. Humidity Sensing Properties of Pre-irradiation Grafted HDPE Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiao; Qun Fu; Xiang Geng; Zhen Li; Haijian Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE) films have been prepared by grafting sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AA) onto HDPE using preirradiation method. The structure and surface morphology of both grafted and ungrafted HDPE films were observed by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The humidity sensing properties of grafted HDPE films were investigated. The results show that the impedance of the film decreases with increasing of relative humidity (RH). The films display high sensitivity with nearly three orders of magnitude change in the resistance during the relative humidity variation from 5% to 98%. Grafted HDPE films exhibit excellent properties as humidity sensors.

  9. AGC-2 Graphite Pre-irradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2010-08-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  10. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen (Germany). KKG Hyperthermie GSF-Haematologikum; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III

    2008-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  11. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-02-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43/sup 0/C. As a result, the 43/sup 0/C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5/sup 0/C. At temperatures below 42/sup 0/C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42/sup 0/C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43/sup 0/C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43/sup 0/C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed.

  12. AGC-1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes

    2011-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All samples in the experiment will be fully characterized before irradiation, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and then re-examined to determine the irradiation induced changes to key materials properties in the different graphite grades. The information generated during the AGC experiment will be utilized for NRC licensing of NGNP reactor designs, shared with international collaborators in the Generation IV Information Forum (GIF), and eventually utilized in ASME design code for graphite nuclear applications. This status report will describe the process the NGNP Graphite R&D program has developed to record the AGC1 pre-irradiation examination data.

  13. Study on the preirradiation polymerization of vinyl monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Ming, Liu; Yue-Qi, Yang; Zue-Teh, Ma

    This paper presents mainly the polymerization, copolymerization and crosslinking of monomers off-source induced by peroxides which are formed by high energy irradiation of vinyl monomers such as styrene (St), acrylonitrile (AN), methylmethacrylate (MMA), vinyl acetate (VAc) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The peroxides produced by irradiation of the above-mentioned monomers can not only induce the monomers themselves, but also another non-irradiated monomer to carry out copolymerization efficiently. The activation energy of peroxide formation, the apparent activation energy of polymerization and the activation energy of peroxide initiation by irradiation of vinyl monomers are: Ef(MMA) = 11, Ef(St) = 9.6, Ef(AN) = 8.5, EMMA = EVA = 11.4, Ei(MMA) = Ei(VA) = 13 kcal/mol. The rate of decomposition of monomer peroxides is smoother than that of BPO during the polymerization and so a smooth kinetic progress is obtained. The initiating ability of forming peroxides by irradiation of the vinyl monomers depends mainly on the chemical structure of the monomers. For instance, the main structure of peroxides formed during preirradiation MMA are: alternating peroxy-copolymer ? and random peroxy-copolymer ? Owing to the peroxy-bond which is unstable and in which homolytic breakage easily occurs to yield a pair of radicals, RO . is formed within the above-mentioned structural compounds, so that they possess stronger initiating reactivity. It is quite evident that the initiating reactivity of AN peroxide will be greatly reduced because of the conjugate double bond. In other words, the initiating ability of AN peroxide is lower than MMA peroxide and St peroxide.

  14. Pre-irradiation testing of actively cooled Be-Cu divertor modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Kuehnlein, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A set of neutron irradiation tests is prepared on different plasma facing materials (PFM) candidates and miniaturized components for ITER. Beside beryllium the irradiation program which will be performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, includes different carbon fiber composites (CFQ) and tungsten alloys. The target values for the neutron irradiation will be 0.5 dpa at temperatures of 350{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C, resp.. The post irradiation examination (PIE) will cover a wide range of mechanical tests; in addition the degradation of thermal conductivity will be investigated. To determine the high heat flux (HHF) performance of actively cooled divertor modules, electron beam tests which simulate the expected heat loads during the operation of ITER, are scheduled in the hot cell electron beam facility JUDITH. These tests on a selection of different actively cooled beryllium-copper and CFC-copper divertor modules are performed before and after neutron irradiation; the pre-irradiation testing is an essential part of the program to quantify the zero-fluence high heat flux performance and to detect defects in the modules, in particular in the brazed joints.

  15. Value-Engineering Review for Numerical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Selecting parts for conversion from conventional machining to numerical control, value-engineering review performed for every part to identify potential changes to part design that result in increased production efficiency.

  16. Characterization of methyl methacrylate grafting onto preirradiated biodegradable lignocellulose fiber by gamma-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ferdous

    2005-01-14

    Gamma-radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto natural lignocellulose (jute) fiber was carried out by the preirradiation method in an aqueous medium by using octylphenoxy-polyethoxyethanol as an emulsifier. The different factors that influenced the graft copolymer reaction process were investigated. In the case of radiation-dose-dependent grafting, samples irradiated in the presence of air produced up to 73% graft weight compared to 53% obtained in the case of irradiation in a nitrogen environment. By assuming Arrhenius reaction kinetics, the activation energy (E(a)) of the grafting reaction process was evaluated for different reaction temperatures. Moreover, the graft copolymer reaction was controlled by incorporating a homopolymer-inhibiting agent and three different chain-transfer agents in the reaction medium. The mechanical and thermal properties of jute fiber 'as received' and jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) were also investigated. The results showed that the percentage of grafting with jute fiber has a significant effect on the properties. The kinetic parameters were evaluated from TGA thermograms by using Broido's method in the temperature range 240-350 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs show that the structural changes on the surface of jute fibers were induced by graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer. Fiber-fiber surface friction was measured in terms of the average maximum load and the kinetic friction. SEM of jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate).

  17. Transient fuel behavior of preirradiated PWR fuels under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, extensive studies on transient fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been continued in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A new experimental program with preirradiated LWR fuel rods as test samples has recently been started. In this program, transient behavior and failure initiation have been studied with 14 × 14 type PWR fuel rods preirradiated to a burnup of 20 to 42 MWd/kgU. The test fuel rods contained in a capsule filled with the coolant water were subjected to a pulse irradiation in the NSRR to simulate a prompt power surge in an RIA. The effects of preirradiation on the transient fission gas release, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and fuel failure were clearly observed through the transient in-core measurements and postirradiation examination.

  18. Development of data base with mechanical properties of un- and pre-irradiated VVER cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V.; Yegorova, L.; Kaplar, E.; Lioutov, K. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of Russian Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.; Smirnov, V.; Prokhorov, V.; Goryachev, A. [State Research Centre, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors

    1998-03-01

    Analysis of recent RIA test with PWR and VVER high burnup fuel, performed at CABRI, NSRR, IGR reactors has shown that the data base with mechanical properties of the preirradiated cladding is necessary to interpret the obtained results. During 1997 the corresponding cycle of investigations for VVER clad material was performed by specialists of NSI RRC KI and RIAR in cooperation with NRC (USA), IPSN (France) in two directions: measurements of mechanical properties of Zr-1%Nb preirradiated cladding versus temperature and strain rate; measurements of failure parameters for gas pressurized cladding tubes. Preliminary results of these investigations are presented in this paper.

  19. Helium-neon laser preirradiation induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, R; Gupta, P K; Dube, A

    2000-02-01

    We have observed that preirradiation with a helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157. The magnitude of protection was found to depend on the helium-neon laser irradiance, exposure time, and period of incubation between helium-neon laser exposure and subsequent UVC irradiation. The optimum values for dose, irradiance and interval between the two exposures were found to be 7 kJ/m(2), 100 W/m(2) and 1 h, respectively. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the helium-neon laser-induced protection is also discussed.

  20. Preirradiated Grains in H-Chondritic Regolith Breccias: an In Situ Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romstedt, J.; Metzler, K.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: Recently taken photographs of the asteroids Ida and Gaspra show cratered surfaces similar to the moon. Weak outlined craters indicate the existence of regolith layers. Certain meteorites, the regolith breccias, reflect asteroidal regoliths and contain informations about irradiation conditions and gardening processes on asteroidal surfaces. Olivine grain separates of four H-chondritic regolith breccias, Acfer 111, 153, 192 and Bremervorde, were etched for four hours in WN solution [1] to reveal nuclear tracks in olivines. This procedure was done to determine the track "background" produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) during transit from the parent body to earth. Additionally whole thin sections of the investigated meteorites were etched for less than thirty minutes to reveal high nuclear track densities which were induced by solar cosmic rays (SCR) on the parent body surface. The short etching time protects extremely high irradiated grains from destruction during the etching procedure. Etched thin sections allows the determination of the spatial distribution of preirradiated components in a given meteorite and a view on the irradiation features of single components within their natural surrounding. Therefore a comparison with the more intensively investigated lunar regolith is possible. Results: I. One of the investigated samples (Acfer 153) shows a layering of preirradiated grains as it is observed in lunar regolith drill cores. Obviously the meteorite samples reflect on a small scale a part of the parent body's stratigraphy [2]. II. The content of preirradiated components varies within the investigated meteorites between Wedekind J. A. (1977) Proc. Symp. Planetary Cratering Mechanics, Pergamon.

  1. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Linfan; Jiang, Haiqing; Li, Jingye

    2012-01-01

    Acrylonitrile has been widely used in the modification of polymers by graft polymerization. In the present work, pre-irradiation induced emulsion graft polymerization method is used to introduce acrylonitrile onto PE nonwoven fabric instead of the traditional reaction in organic solvents system. The degree of grafting (DG) is measured by gravimetric method and the kinetics of the graft polymerization is studied. The existence of the graft chains is proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Thermal stability of the grafted polymer is measured by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  2. Pre-irradiation grafting of cellulose and slightly carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC) fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, N. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Takacs, E. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: takacs@iki.kfki.hu; Wojnarovits, L. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Borsa, J. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2007-08-15

    Acrylamide, hydroxypropyl acrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate vinyl monomers were grafted onto cellulose as well as onto cellulose of improved accessibility (slightly carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC)) by the pre-irradiation grafting technique. The effect of dose, monomer structure, crosslinking agent and carboxymethylation on the grafting yield was studied and the optimal conditions for the grafting were established. Grafting, with the exception of acrylamide (AAm), decreased the swelling of the samples, which is advantageous for some applications. In case of AAm decrease in swelling was observed only when crosslinking agent was applied. At low doses (<5 kGy) the high accessibility of carboxymethylated cellulose resulted in a higher grafting yield.

  3. Acrylation of pre-irradiated polypropylene and its application for removal of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hossam M.; Sokker, Hesham H.; El-Hag Ali, Amr

    2010-04-01

    Reactive extrusion of pre-irradiated polypropylene (PP) at different doses of gamma radiation was studied in the presence of different concentrations of acrylic acid monomer (AAc). Preliminary investigations study the feasibility or removal of organic pollutants. The optical properties and surface morphology of the grafted polypropylene were observed by FT-IR, UV/vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The affinity of this membrane to the basic dye was found to be increased with increase in the dose of gamma irradiation and the ratio of acrylic acid monomer (AAc).

  4. Effect of neon plasma pre-irradiation on surface morphology and deuterium retention of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, L., E-mail: L.Cheng@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); De Temmerman, G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ji, G. [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Université Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Zhou, H.B. [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, B. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yuan, Y., E-mail: yueyuan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Y. [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, G.H., E-mail: LGH@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics & Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neon and deuterium plasma irradiation of polycrystalline tungsten targets have been performed at high fluxes of ∼10{sup 24} ions m{sup −2} s{sup −1} to study the interaction of neon with tungsten and the influence of neon on deuterium retention. Tungsten exposure to neon plasma leads to the formation of wavy nanostructures on the surface. Subsequent exposure to high-flux deuterium plasma leads to blister formation of micrometer size on top of the wavy structures. The total deuterium retention is decreased by neon pre-irradiation for all surface temperatures used in the present experiments. It is suggested that a barrier of trapped Ne is formed that interrupts the D transport and reduces D retention.

  5. Systematic study of pre-irradiation effects in high efficiency CVD diamond nuclear particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Paoletti, A; Pillon, M; Tucciarone, A; Verona-Rinati, G

    2002-01-01

    Many outstanding properties of diamond can, in principle, lead to the development of radiation detectors with interesting capabilities. In particular, diamond-based nuclear particle detectors are good candidates to replace silicon-based detectors in several fields, e.g. in high-flux applications such as next generation particle-accelerator experiments or beam monitoring. However, the high concentration of defects (grain boundaries, impurities) in synthetic diamond films can strongly limit the detector's performance. A significant increase in the efficiency of CVD diamond detectors is achieved by means of pre-irradiation (pumping) with beta particles. We report here on a systematic study of the effects of pumping in high-quality microwave CVD diamond films. The efficiency (eta) and charge collection distance (CCD) of nuclear particle detectors based on these films depend on the methane content in the growth gas mixture and on the film thickness. Both efficiency and CCD behave in a markedly different way in the...

  6. Controlling Chaos of Hybrid Systems by Variable Threshold Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Ueta, Tetsushi; Kousaka, Takuji; Imura, Jun'ichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    We try to stabilize unstable periodic orbits embedded in a given chaotic hybrid dynamical system by a perturbation of a threshold value. In conventional chaos control methods, a control input is designed by state-feedback, which is proportional to the difference between the target orbit and the current state, and it is applied to a specific system parameter or the state as a small perturbation. During a transition state, the control system consumes a certain control energy given by the integration of such perturbations. In our method, we change the threshold value dynamically to control the chaotic orbit. Unlike the OGY method and the delayed feedback control, no actual control input is added into the system. The state-feedback is utilized only to determine the dynamic threshold value, thus the orbit starting from the current threshold value reaches the next controlled threshold value without any control energy. We obtain the variation of the threshold value from the composite Poincaré map, and the controller is designed by the linear feedback theory with this variation. We demonstrate this method in simple hybrid chaotic systems and show its control performances by evaluating basins of attraction.

  7. Controlled stochastic networks in heavy traffic: Convergence of value functions

    CERN Document Server

    Budhiraja, Amarjit; 10.1214/11-AAP784

    2012-01-01

    Scheduling control problems for a family of unitary networks under heavy traffic with general interarrival and service times, probabilistic routing and an infinite horizon discounted linear holding cost are studied. Diffusion control problems, that have been proposed as approximate models for the study of these critically loaded controlled stochastic networks, can be regarded as formal scaling limits of such stochastic systems. However, to date, a rigorous limit theory that justifies the use of such approximations for a general family of controlled networks has been lacking. It is shown that, under broad conditions, the value function of the suitably scaled network control problem converges to that of the associated diffusion control problem. This scaling limit result, in addition to giving a precise mathematical basis for the above approximation approach, suggests a general strategy for constructing near optimal controls for the physical stochastic networks by solving the associated diffusion control problem...

  8. Calculation of One-Valued Control Limits by Control Chart of Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元生; 方英; 朱险峰

    2001-01-01

    The data we use to express angle or direction are entitled directional data. In a plan right-an-gled coordinate system the traditional control chart can't solve the quality control problem which the characteristic value is angle. This paper analyses and calculates the one-valued control limits by control chart of angles.

  9. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lang; J.G. Verwer

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach ba

  10. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, J.; Verwer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  11. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  12. Grafting poly(vinyl alcohol) onto polybutadiene rubber latex particles by pre-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Dong, Wei; Liu, Yuguang

    2017-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was grafted on polybutadiene rubber latex (PBL) particles (PB-g-PVA) by pre-irradiation via emulsion grafting copolymerization. The grafting degree (G%) increased almost linearly with the reaction time and the weight ratio of PVA to the PB latex, while decreased gradually when the irradiation dose is over 30 kGy and the reaction temperature is higher than 60 °C. The grafting efficiency (GE%) has the same trend of the G% but the weight ratio of PVA to PBL, GE% decreased with increasing of PVA adding to PB latex. FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the PVA was grafted onto the PB particles. The dynamic light scattering measurement showed that the particle size of PB-g-PVA particles was larger than that of the pristine PBL particles, and it increased with increment of G%. Transmission electron microscopy images of the PB-g-PVA latex particles demonstrated that the size of PB-g-PVA particle was enlarged by the layer of grafted PVA surrounding the PBL particles. Thermal behavior exhibited the phase separation in the PB-g-PVA films, Tg1 and Tg2 related to the PB and PVA respectively, both of which shifted to a higher temperature with increasing of G%, but the Tg2 was still lower than that of the virgin PVA. The increment of the surface free energy of PB-g-PVA films was attributed to the incorporation of the polar PVA, which also resulted in improvement of the hydrophilic properties.

  13. Function-valued adaptive dynamics and optimal control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinen, Kalle; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    In this article we further develop the theory of adaptive dynamics of function-valued traits. Previous work has concentrated on models for which invasion fitness can be written as an integral in which the integrand for each argument value is a function of the strategy value at that argument value only. For this type of models of direct effect, singular strategies can be found using the calculus of variations, with singular strategies needing to satisfy Euler's equation with environmental feedback. In a broader, more mechanistically oriented class of models, the function-valued strategy affects a process described by differential equations, and fitness can be expressed as an integral in which the integrand for each argument value depends both on the strategy and on process variables at that argument value. In general, the calculus of variations cannot help analyzing this much broader class of models. Here we explain how to find singular strategies in this class of process-mediated models using optimal control theory. In particular, we show that singular strategies need to satisfy Pontryagin's maximum principle with environmental feedback. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by studying the evolution of strategies determining seasonal flowering schedules.

  14. Pre-irradiation grafting of styrene and maleic anhydride onto PVDF membrane and subsequent sulfonation for application in vanadium redox batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jingyi; Zhai, Maolin; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhou, Henghui; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Science (BNLMS), Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Long [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Gunma University, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membrane was grafted with styrene (St) and maleic anhydride (MAn) using an electron-beam-induced pre-irradiation grafting technique. The grafted membrane (PVDF-g-PS-co-PMAn) was then sulfonated and hydrolyzed to give an ion exchange membrane (denoted as PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc) for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) use. Micro-FTIR analysis indicated that PVDF was successfully grafted and sulfonated at the above condition, and the membrane with a high grafting yield (GY) can be easily prepared in a St/MAn binary system at low dose due to a synergistic effect. The water uptake and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane increased with GY, so too did the conductivity. At a GY of 33.6%, the resulting PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane showed a much higher IEC and conductivity than a conventional Nafion117 membrane, and a much lower permeability of vanadium ions: ca. 1/11 to 1/16 of that through Nafion117. Open circuit voltage measurements showed that the VRB assembled with the PVDF-g-PSSA-co-PMAc membrane maintained values above 1.3 V after a period of 33 h, which was much longer than that with the Nafion117 membrane. It is expected that this work provides a new approach for the fabrication of ion exchange membranes for VRB. (author)

  15. Effects of the pre-irradiation storage procedure on the dose response of a Fricke xylenol orange gel dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liosi Giulia Maria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fricke xylenol orange (FX gel system is a chemical dosimeter characterized by good sensitivity, linear dose response, tissue equivalence, no toxicity, easy preparation, reproducibility and low cost. Thanks to the presence of the gelatinous matrix, the system is particularly suitable to perform reliable 3D mapping of the absorbed dose spatial distribution via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or optical techniques. The aim of this work is to study in a systematic way the influence of the pre-irradiation storage procedure upon sensitivity, dose response stability and lifetime of use of a FX gel system made with gelatin from porcine skin subjected to homogeneous irradiation. For this purpose, different pre-irradiation storage procedures, in terms of temperature and duration of each storage step, were investigated. In order to evaluate the dose response stability, the optical analyses of the samples were performed up to 6 hours after irradiation. Moreover, the samples were irradiated at time intervals of 24 hours for up to 7 days after preparation in order to evaluate the system lifetime of use. Regardless of their thermal and temporal life, the samples show linear dose responses in the investigated dose range (3-24 Gy and an increase of sensitivity with the time elapsed between preparation and irradiation. Among the three pre-irradiation storage procedures considered here, a procedure that provides the best dose response stability and lifetime of use was identified and recommended for further use. The analyzed dosimetric system possesses good properties that make it promising for medical application, particularly concerning the evaluation of pre-treatment plan quality assurance within the conformational external beam radiotherapy

  16. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  17. Effect of Pre-Irradiation Annealing and Laser Modification on the Formation of Radiation-Induced Surface Color Centers in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Novikov, A. N.; Radkevich, A. V.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.; Tarasenko, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that surface color centers of the same type are formed in the surface layer and in regions with damaged crystal structure inside crystalline lithium fluoride after γ-irradiation. Results are presented from a study of the effect of pre-irradiation annealing on the efficiency with which surface centers are formed in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. Raising the temperature for pre-irradiation annealing from room temperature to 250°C leads to a substantial reduction in the efficiency with which these centers are created. Surface color centers are not detected after γ-irradiation for pre-irradiation annealing temperatures of 300°C and above. Adsorption of atmospheric gases on the crystal surface cannot be regarded as a necessary condition for the formation of radiation-induced surface centers.

  18. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the value of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2016-09-27

    Debates over the function(s) of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) have persisted for decades. So too have demonstrations of the region's association with cognitive control. Researchers have struggled to account for this association and, simultaneously, dACC's involvement in phenomena related to evaluation and motivation. We describe a recent integrative theory that achieves this goal. It proposes that dACC serves to specify the currently optimal allocation of control by determining the overall expected value of control (EVC), thereby licensing the associated cognitive effort. The EVC theory accounts for dACC's sensitivity to a wide array of experimental variables, and their relationship to subsequent control adjustments. Finally, we contrast our theory with a recent theory proposing a primary role for dACC in foraging-like decisions. We describe why the EVC theory offers a more comprehensive and coherent account of dACC function, including dACC's particular involvement in decisions regarding foraging or otherwise altering one's behavior.

  19. Pre-irradiation and surgical intervention in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx: Results of a study conducted from 1973 to 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, D.; Sack, H.; Stuetzer, H.; Rose, K.G.

    1987-11-01

    In collaboration with the Radiotherapeutic Hospital, 87 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated by combined pre-irradiation and surgical intervention at the University ORL Hospital of Cologne. The study was supposed to improve the five-year survival of patients suffering from advanced carcinomas of the head and neck area. The male and female patient's ratio was 4,5 to 1. Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, 21 patients had tumors of the floor of the mouth, and another 21 had tumors of the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The tumor and lymph node status was classified according to the UICC regulations (1979). In the pre-irradiation, 40 to 50 Gy were applied to the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes. Surgery was executed generally four weeks after pre-irradiation. The tumor remission following to pre-irradiation was very good. 27% of the patients showed little or moderate post-operative disturbances in wound healing. An osteoradionecrosis was found in 4,6%. Almost 25% of the patients developed local recurrences. The cumulated five-year survival of all patients is 32%. In dependence on TNM stages, the three-year survival rates are as follows: stage I and II 80%, stage III 44%, and stage IV 40%.

  20. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 {+-} 7 cal/g{center_dot}fuel (0.93 {+-} 0.03 kJ/g{center_dot}fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 {+-} 5 cal/g{center_dot}fuel (0.70 {+-} 0.02 kJ/g{center_dot}fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author).

  1. The Conception of the Value-Oriented Controlling Based on the Criterion of Economic Value Added (EVA®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko Tetiana Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations and elaborating practical recommendations on introduction of the system of value-oriented controlling in the enterprise, using the common in practice conception of economic value added (EVA®. Approaches to calculation and directions for securing growth of the value of economic value added have been defined. Expedience of building a value-oriented controlling system based on this criterion has been substantiated. A regression analysis has been carried out, existence of a relationship between the market value and the value of the indicator of economic value added has been proved. A classification of the accounting adjustments when calculating the indicator values has been provided, allowing to reflect the actual performance and to minimize the disadvantages of the economic value added as an accounting indicator of effectiveness. Proposals to providing by enterprises the value-oriented reporting have been elaborated, which will help transforming the opportunities and prospects for growth in the real value by improving communications with investors and minimizing the information asymmetry between company and participants in the capital markets.

  2. Savings education: Learning the value of self-control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Hutton

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move from poverty to middle class status as adults. Time orientation is associated with low educational investments, poor educational outcomes, out-of wedlock and teenage childbirth, criminality, and poverty, and nothing better characterizes the role of time preferences in distinguishing socioeconomic classes than attitudes and behavior with respect to money income. In poverty, money income is to be spent whereas in the middle class and the wealthy, money is to be managed and invested and children are taught the value of self-control and delayed gratification through the accumulation, savings and investment of regular allowances. We propose a model program parameterized in a way that children, given complete freedom of choice, should develop more future oriented preferences resulting in greater effort and skills acquisition in school, and the habits of conduct necessary for productive work life. Program cost, which cannot exceed program design, can be reasonably anticipated and is directly related to the benefit - the more that a child saves, the higher the cost, but the more likely that the child has acquired a future time orientation. We present evidence that even if the estimated maximum disbursements occurred and only a minimal percent of participating students changed their lives, the estimated benefits should outweigh disbursement costs.

  3. Social Desirability Scale Values of Locus of Control Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Joel M.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects rated each item in Rotter's I-E Scale for its social desirability value. Social desirability scale values (SDSV) of paired items were compared with one another. Results indicate that paired items are not similar in their SDSV, thus enabling subjects to respond on the basis of social desirability. (Author/DEP)

  4. An interdisciplinary approach to valuing water from brush control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemberg, B.; Mjelde, J.; Conner, J; Griffin, R.; Rosenthal, W; Stuth, J

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper develops an integrated model to assess the viability of increasing water yields in the Frio River basin of Texas through brush control. The presented method accounts for the effect of brush control on forage productivity and water supply by incorporating ecological, hydrologic, and economic models. The simulation of water yields suggests that brush control would increase water yields on 35% of the land area, but the costs usually would exceed the financial b...

  5. The value of peripheral nodes in controlling multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the controllability of a two-layer network, where driver nodes can be chosen only from one layer. Each layer contains a scale-free network with directed links. The dynamics of nodes depends on the incoming links from other nodes (reputation dynamics). We find that the controllable part of the network is larger when choosing peripherial nodes to connect the two layers. The control is as efficient for peripherial nodes as driver nodes as it is for more central nodes. If we assume a cost to utilize nodes which is proportional to their degree, utilizing peripherial nodes to connect the two layers or to act as driver nodes is not only the most cost-efficient solution, it is also the one that gives us the best performance in controlling the two-layer network.

  6. [Influence on measurements of pre-irradiation due to differences in ionization chamber shape or frequency in use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Tetsunori; Nambu, Hidekazu; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Gomi, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Ionization chamber measurements in radiation therapy should be repeatedly performed until a stable reading is obtained. Ionization chambers exhibit a response which depends on time elapsed since the previous irradiation. In this study, we investigated the response of a set of two Farmer-style, one Plane parallel, and seven small ionization chambers, which are exposed to 4, 6, 10, and 14 MV. The results show that Farmer-style and Plane parallel ionization chambers settle quickly within 9-20 min. On the other hand, small ionization chambers exhibit settling times of 12-33 min for 6, 10, and 14 MV. It will take longer for a settling time of 4 MV. The settling time showed time dependent irradiation. The first reading was up to 0.76% lower in the Farmer-style and Plane parallel ionization chambers. The small ionization chambers had a 2.60% lower first reading and more gradual response in reaching a stable reading. In this study, individual ionization chambers can vary significantly in their settling behavior. Variation of the responses on ionization chambers were confirmed not only when radiation was not used for a week but also when it was halted for a month. Pre-irradiation of small ionization chambers is clearly warranted for eliminating inadvertent error in the calibration of radiation beams.

  7. Preparation and characterization of mono-sheet bipolar membranes by pre-irradiation grafting method for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yingjie; Fang, Jun; Fu, Tao; Zhou, Huili; Wang, Xin; Deng, Zixiang; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-09-01

    A new method for the preparation of the mono-sheet bipolar membrane applied to fuel cells was developed based on the pre-irradiation grafting technology. A series of bipolar membranes were successfully prepared by simultaneously grafting of styrene onto one side of the poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) base film and 1-vinylimidazole onto the opposite side, followed by the sulfonation and alkylation, respectively. The chemical structures and microstructures of the prepared membranes were investigated by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS. The TGA measurements demonstrated the prepared bipolar membranes have reasonable thermal stability. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake and ionic conductivity of the membranes were also characterized. The H2/O2 single fuel cells using these membranes were evaluated and revealed a maximum power density of 107 mW cm-2 at 35 °C with unhumidified hydrogen and oxygen. The preliminary performances suggested the great prospect of these membranes in application of bipolar membrane fuel cells.

  8. Influence of grafting solvents on the properties of polymer electrolyte membranes prepared by {gamma}-ray preirradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Yosuke [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376 8515 (Japan)], E-mail: yosuke.kimura@jaea.go.jp; Asano, Masaharu; Chen, Jinhua; Maekawa, Yasunari [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370 1292 (Japan); Katakai, Ryoichi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376 8515 (Japan); Yoshida, Masaru [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370 1292 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of grafting solvents, such as isopropanol (iPrOH), tetrachloroethane (TCE), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and toluene, on the preparation of poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene)-graft-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (ETFE-g-PSSA) electrolyte membranes by the {gamma}-ray preirradiation grafting method was investigated. It was found that the iPrOH can drastically accelerate the grafting, resulting in a higher degree of grafting. However, for an appropriate degree of grafting of about 50%, the sulfonic acid groups in the ETFE-g-PSSA membrane prepared with the iPrOH were mainly distributed near the membrane surface, as shown by low proton conductivity in the membrane thickness direction. In contrast to this result, the ETFE-g-PSSA membranes prepared with the THF, toluene and TCE exhibited uniform distribution of the sulfonic acid groups in the membrane. Especially, in the case of the TCE grafting solvent, the chemical stability of the resultant electrolyte membrane was clearly higher than those prepared with the other grafting solvents.

  9. [The diagnostic value of tests for mental control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, J; Koene, T; Matto, D

    1993-06-01

    Designated as Mental Control, the recitation of word lists and arithmetic progressions is often used for a cursory examination of attention and concentration in elderly patients. We studied the psychometric properties of the EMCT (Expanded Mental Control Test), which consists of 12 mental control tasks. The test was given to 174 residents of rest homes and semi-independent housing projects (aged 68 to 94) and 74 neurologic patients (aged 65 to 87) who had been referred for neuropsychological assessment. The reliability of the EMCT was satisfactory. Performance was related to education level but not to sex or age. In healthy subjects the EMCT score was associated with the backward digit span score. The correlations between the EMCT and subtests of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening (Ads6) in patients appeared to depend on the complexity of the target behavior. Performance on the EMCT may reflect the functioning of the Supervisory Attentional System postulated by Shallice.

  10. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement meth

  11. AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO VALUING WATER FROM BRUSH CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical methodology utilizing models from three disciplines is developed to assess the viability of brush control for wate yield in the Frio River Basin, TX. Ecological, hydrologic, and economic models are used to portray changes in forage production and water supply result...

  12. Mean Value SI Engine Model for Control Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Sorenson, Spencer C

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematically simple nonlinear three state (three differential equation) dynamic model of an SI engine which has the same steady state accuracy as a typical dynamometer measurement of the engine over its entire speed/load operating range (± 2.0%). The model's accuracy for l....... The model can easily be run on a Personal Computer (PC) using a ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrating routine or package. This makes the model is useful for control system design and evaluation....

  13. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. CONCLUSIONS: International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of

  14. 低剂量辐射对环磷酰胺化疗毒性作用的影响%Effects of low dose pre-irradiation on the toxicity of cyclophosphamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongsheng Yu; Li Yu; Aiqin Song; Zimin Liu; Yeling Zhang; Xinjia He

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to investigate the effects as well as the possible mechanisms of low dose y-ray pre-irradiation on hepatic damage, DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Kunming strain male mice were randomly divided into five groups:control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiation group (LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group (CTX group) and low close irradiation combined with chemotherapy group (LDR + CTX group). Having being raised for one week,all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left inguen (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11,mice of LDR and LDR + CTX groups were given 75 mGy whole-body y-irradiation, 30 h later mice of CTX and LDR + CTX groups were injected I.p. 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE); ALT activity, total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB)of the plasma were analyzed using automatic biochemistry analyzer; MDA content, SOD and GSH-PX activity of the hepatic homogenate were analyzed using chromometry; genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency (MNF)of polychromatoerythrocytes (PCE) in bone marrow. Results: 1. Differences of MDA contents, SOD and GSH-PX activity of hepatic homogenate between 5 groups had notable statistical significance (P 0.05). Differences of TP and ALB of plasma between 5 groups had statistical sig-nificance (F = 12.879 and 6.336 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion:1. CTX can damage the hepatic tissue through oxidative stress; 75 mGy y-irradiation before CTX chemotherapy can induce activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, promote elimination of free radicals, so as to alleviate the damaging effects of oxidative stress to hepatic tissue caused by high-close chemotherapy. 2. A 75 mGy y-irradiation before CTX chemotherapy has no obvious

  15. Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Sheng Zang

    Full Text Available Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

  16. Simulation Study on Heat Value Control System of Natural Gas Used for Color TV Tubes Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin

    2006-01-01

    In order to know the character of the heat value control system, determine the influence of natural gas quality and flow on the heat value, and learn how to adjust the parameters of control system, the model of the whole system is established, and simulation of the system is adopted in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation result shows that the feedback system with feed-forward block controls the heat value very well, and the simulation result can effectively guide the engineering design of the heat value control system, and the efficiency of engineering is improved.

  17. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  18. Ultimate Government Control Structures and Firm Value:Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Wang; Xing Xiao

    2009-01-01

    We show that 70% of Chinese listed companies are ultimately controlled by government agencies, thereby indicating that state ownership remains widespread in China’s stock markets. Three questions are considered that are related to government control structures and their impact on firm value:(1) how do government agencies maintain their control of listed companies;(2) what are the impacts of different government control structures on firm value; and(3) are these impacts different in local government and central government-controlled firms? We find that the Chinese government controls listed companies directly or indirectly through solely state-owned enterprises(SSOEs). Taking into account the trade-off between political and agency costs, we show that firm value increases when some control rights are decentralized from the government to state-owned enterprises(SOEs). Moreover, decentralization improves significantly the performance of local government- controlled, but not central government-controlled firms.

  19. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  20. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  1. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  3. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  4. Value congruence, control, sense of community and demands as determinants of burnout syndrome among hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Martínez, Ángela; Leiter, Michael P; Gascón, Santiago; Gumuchian, Stephanie; Masluk, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Albesa, Agustín; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-07

    Employees working in the hospitality industry are constantly exposed to occupational stressors that may lead employees into experiencing burnout syndrome. Research addressing the interactive effects of control, community and value congruence to alleviate the impact of workplace demands on experiencing burnout is relatively limited. The present study examined relationships among control, community and value congruence, workplace demands and the three components of burnout. A sample of 418 employees working in a variety of hospitality associations including restaurants and hotels in Spain were recruited. Moderation analyses and linear regressions analyzed the predictive power of control, community and value congruence as moderating variables. Results indicate that control, community and value congruence were successful buffers in the relationships between workplace demands and the burnout dimensions. The present findings offer suggestions for future research on potential moderating variables, as well as implications for reducing burnout among hospitality employees.

  5. Founder Control,Ownership Structure and Firm Value:Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-01-01

    In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders’ voting rights and their cash flow rights(hereafter "DVC") in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders’ opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families(hereafter "entrepreneurial firms") for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  6. Founder Control, Ownership Structure and Firm Value: Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders' voting rights and their cash flow rights (hereafter “DVC” in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders' opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families (hereafter “entrepreneurial firms” for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  7. Value Iteration Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Optimal Control of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Lin, Hanquan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a value iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve infinite horizon undiscounted optimal control problems for discrete-time nonlinear systems. The present value iteration ADP algorithm permits an arbitrary positive semi-definite function to initialize the algorithm. A novel convergence analysis is developed to guarantee that the iterative value function converges to the optimal performance index function. Initialized by different initial functions, it is proven that the iterative value function will be monotonically nonincreasing, monotonically nondecreasing, or nonmonotonic and will converge to the optimum. In this paper, for the first time, the admissibility properties of the iterative control laws are developed for value iteration algorithms. It is emphasized that new termination criteria are established to guarantee the effectiveness of the iterative control laws. Neural networks are used to approximate the iterative value function and compute the iterative control law, respectively, for facilitating the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithm. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the performance of the present method.

  8. A mild method of amine-type adsorbents syntheses with emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on polyethylene non-woven fabric by pre-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjuan; Yao, Side; Li, Jingye; Cao, Changqing; Wang, Min

    2012-09-01

    A mild pre-irradiation method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene (PE) non-woven fabric (NF). The polymer was irradiated by electron beam in air atmosphere at room temperature. The degree of grafting (Dg) was determined as a function of reaction time, absorbed dose, monomer concentration and temperature. After 30 kGy irradiation, with 5% GMA, surfactant Tween 20 (Tw-20) of 0.5% at 55 °C for 15 min, the trunk polymer was made grafted with a Dg of 150%. Selected PE-g-PGMA of different Dg was modified with aminated compounds such as ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The obtained amine-type adsorbents were prepared to remove copper and uranium ions from solution. It was shown that at least 90% of copper and 60% of uranium with the initial concentration from 3 to 1000 ppb can be removed from water.

  9. Preirradiation Graft Polymerization of Styrene in a Poly(tetrafluoroethylene Film Investigated by Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Iwase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preirradiation graft polymerization of styrene in a poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE film was examined by time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS. A crosslinked PTFE film, thickness of which is about 50 μm, was irradiated by γ-ray and immersed in a mixed solvent of styrene monomer and toluene. SANS elucidated that graft polymerization proceeds by two reaction processes (I and (II. In process (I at 0<<200 min, graft polymerization occurs at an interface between crystalline and amorphous PTFE domains and the grafted polystyrene segregates from PTFE, forming a thin layer with a sharp interface. In process (II at 200<<600 min, grafted PS layer starts to bridge between crystalline domains. At the end of process (II, 40% of total crystalline PTFE domain is covered by the grafted PS chains.

  10. Two-Valued Control for a Second-Order Plant with Additive External Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rincon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a two-valued state feedback control for a plant of second order with known constant coefficients and an additive bounded disturbance is designed. In this controller the control signal can take only two possible values. The controller design is based on Lyapunov-like function method, achieving the convergence of the tracking error to a user-defined residual set. A boundedness condition for the user-defined reference signal is defined, which is necessary to allow out-put tracking. The developed scheme avoids large commutation rate of the control input. The controller design and stability analysis have important contributions with respect to closely related controllers based on the direct Lyapunov method, namely, (i conditions to guarantee the expected convergence of the tracking error are established. These conditions are imposed on the reference signal and the extreme values of the control input. The stability analysis is developed by means of the Lyapunov-like function method and the Barbalat's Lemma and includes (ii the bounded nature of the Lyapunov function, (iii the monotonic convergence of the Lyapunov function to a residual set, and (iv the asymptotic convergence of the tracking error to a residual set of user-defined size.

  11. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the...

  12. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Mirzamani Ph.D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran .Methods: The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test.Results: The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001. Discussion: This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes .

  13. A Software Architecture for Control of Value Production in Federated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Bayne

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Federated enterprises are defined as interactive commercial entities that produce products and consume resources through a network of open, free-market transactions. Value production in such entities is defined as the real-time computation of enterprise value propositions. These computations are increasingly taking place in a grid-connected space – a space that must provide for secure, real-time, reliable end-to-end transactions governed by formal trading protocols. We present the concept of a value production unit (VPU as a key element of federated trading systems, and a software architecture for automation and control of federations of such VPUs.

  14. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

  15. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  16. Reward value-based gain control: divisive normalization in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Kenway; Grattan, Lauren E; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-07-20

    The representation of value is a critical component of decision making. Rational choice theory assumes that options are assigned absolute values, independent of the value or existence of other alternatives. However, context-dependent choice behavior in both animals and humans violates this assumption, suggesting that biological decision processes rely on comparative evaluation. Here we show that neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal cortex encode a relative form of saccadic value, explicitly dependent on the values of the other available alternatives. Analogous to extra-classical receptive field effects in visual cortex, this relative representation incorporates target values outside the response field and is observed in both stimulus-driven activity and baseline firing rates. This context-dependent modulation is precisely described by divisive normalization, indicating that this standard form of sensory gain control may be a general mechanism of cortical computation. Such normalization in decision circuits effectively implements an adaptive gain control for value coding and provides a possible mechanistic basis for behavioral context-dependent violations of rationality.

  17. The reference model of supply chain operational controlling in value management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The systemic approach of the controlling function to supporting the operations management results from its complex analysis of the supply chain business and operating results and from influencing the operations management factors - products, processes and resources that determine the achieved result (revenues, costs, profitability and assets turnover as well as the return on invested capital. All product features which stand for customer value and its competitiveness are the basis for designing, planning and controlling the interconnected processes responsible for manufacturing and delivery of products. The effectiveness of methods applied in developing products, processes and resources depends on the precise analysis and appraisal of the operating conditions that justify their application. Supporting the operations management, focused on the product value and improving the company's financial result, apart from financial, technical and economic analyses requires transferring the product value to activities control methods and to developing the resources in the product supply chain already at the stage of planning. As a result of an analysis of requirements supporting the development of processes and resources in the supply chain, a reference model of operational controlling in product value management was developed. The multicriterion selection and appropriate application of material flow management methods in the supply chain is each time preceded by an operating and financial analysis as well as by an appraisal of operating conditions that influence the choice of control methods.

  18. PDE-based random-valued impulse noise removal based on new class of controlling functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Tang, Chen

    2011-09-01

    This paper is concerned with partial differential equation (PDE)-based image denoising for random-valued impulse noise. We introduce the notion of ENI (the abbreviation for "edge pixels, noisy pixels, and interior pixels") that denotes the number of homogeneous pixels in a local neighborhood and is significantly different for edge pixels, noisy pixels, and interior pixels. We redefine the controlling speed function and the controlling fidelity function to depend on ENI. According to our two controlling functions, the diffusion and fidelity process at edge pixels, noisy pixels, and interior pixels can be selectively carried out. Furthermore, a class of second-order improved and edge-preserving PDE denoising models is proposed based on the two new controlling functions in order to deal with random-valued impulse noise reliably. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed PDEs via application to five standard test images, corrupted by random-valued impulse noise with various noise levels and comparison with the related second-order PDE models and the other special filtering methods for random-valued impulse noise. Our two controlling functions are extended to automatically other PDE models.

  19. The Mixed Instrumental Controller: Using Value of Information to Combine Habitual Choice and Mental Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePezzulo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental behavior depends on both goal-directed and habitual mechanisms of choice. Normative views cast these mechanisms in terms of model-free and model-based methods of reinforcement learning, respectively. An influential proposal hypothesizes that model-free and model-based mechanisms coexist and compete in the brain according to their relative uncertainty. In this paper we propose a novel view in which a single Mixed Instrumental Controller produces both goal-directed and habitual behavior by flexibly balancing and combining model-based and model-free computations. The Mixed Instrumental Controller performs a cost-benefits analysis to decide whether to chose an action immediately based on the available "cached" value of actions (linked to model-free mechanisms or to improve value estimation by mentally simulating the expected outcome values (linked to model-based mechanisms. Since mental simulation entails cognitive effort and increases the reward delay, it is activated only when the associated "Value of Information" exceeds its costs. The model proposes a method to compute the Value of Information, based on the uncertainty of action values and on the distance of alternative cached action values. Overall, the model by default chooses on the basis of lighter model-free estimates, and integrates them with costly model-based predictions only when useful. Mental simulation uses a sampling method to produce reward expectancies, which are used to update the cached value of one or more actions; in turn, this updated value is used for the choice. The key predictions of the model are tested in different settings of a double T-maze scenario. Results are discussed in relation with neurobiological evidence on the hippocampus - ventral striatum circuit in rodents, which has been linked to goal-directed spatial navigation.

  20. The mixed instrumental controller: using value of information to combine habitual choice and mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Chersi, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental behavior depends on both goal-directed and habitual mechanisms of choice. Normative views cast these mechanisms in terms of model-free and model-based methods of reinforcement learning, respectively. An influential proposal hypothesizes that model-free and model-based mechanisms coexist and compete in the brain according to their relative uncertainty. In this paper we propose a novel view in which a single Mixed Instrumental Controller produces both goal-directed and habitual behavior by flexibly balancing and combining model-based and model-free computations. The Mixed Instrumental Controller performs a cost-benefits analysis to decide whether to chose an action immediately based on the available "cached" value of actions (linked to model-free mechanisms) or to improve value estimation by mentally simulating the expected outcome values (linked to model-based mechanisms). Since mental simulation entails cognitive effort and increases the reward delay, it is activated only when the associated "Value of Information" exceeds its costs. The model proposes a method to compute the Value of Information, based on the uncertainty of action values and on the distance of alternative cached action values. Overall, the model by default chooses on the basis of lighter model-free estimates, and integrates them with costly model-based predictions only when useful. Mental simulation uses a sampling method to produce reward expectancies, which are used to update the cached value of one or more actions; in turn, this updated value is used for the choice. The key predictions of the model are tested in different settings of a double T-maze scenario. Results are discussed in relation with neurobiological evidence on the hippocampus - ventral striatum circuit in rodents, which has been linked to goal-directed spatial navigation.

  1. Solvability for a Class of Abstract Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Derived from Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lianwen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability for a class of abstract two-point boundary value problems derived from optimal control is discussed. By homotopy technique existence and uniqueness results are established under some monotonic conditions. Several examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

  2. Solvability for a Class of Abstract Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Derived from Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwen Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability for a class of abstract two-point boundary value problems derived from optimal control is discussed. By homotopy technique existence and uniqueness results are established under some monotonic conditions. Several examples are given to illustrate the application of the obtained results.

  3. Floodplain restoration with flood control: fish habitat value of levee borrow pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthen flood control levees are often built using soil excavated from borrow pits lying parallel to and riverward of the finished levee. After construction, these pits can provide valuable floodplain habitats, and their value is well established along corridors of larger rivers. However, levee bo...

  4. Computing interval-valued reliability measures: application of optimal control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures given partial statistical information on the occurrence of failures. We apply methods of optimal control theory, in particular, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum to solve the non-linear optimisation problem and derive...

  5. Corporate governance and firm value: Evidence from Chinese state-controlled listed firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel; W.Leung; Mei-Ai; Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The association between corporate governance and firm value has been extensively studied in Chinese listed firms. Based on the characteristics of their ultimate shareholders, Chinese listed firms can be categorised as(1) central statecontrolled,(2) local state-controlled or(3) non-state-controlled. Some scholars have described Chinese government policy as ‘zhuada fangxiao’, thus suggesting that the corporate governance mechanisms(CGMs) of central state-controlled listed firms(SCLFs) are better than those of local state-controlled listed firms. Therefore, this paper specifically examines the influence of CGMs on the value of central SCLFs and local SCLFs. Analysis of 2006 firm-year observations from 2007 to 2009 suggests that the aggregate ownership of other large shareholders and the remuneration of top executives exhibit different effects on firm value in central and local SCLFs. The results also provide evidence that there is no endogenous effect of firm value on the ownership of the largest shareholder in central and local SCLFs.

  6. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of automatic flight control systems using singular value concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vaillard, A.; Paduano, J.; Downing, D.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis is presented that can be used to judge the impact of vehicle dynamic model variations on the relative stability of multivariable continuous closed-loop control systems. The sensitivity analysis uses and extends the singular-value concept by developing expressions for the gradients of the singular value with respect to variations in the vehicle dynamic model and the controller design. Combined with a priori estimates of the accuracy of the model, the gradients are used to identify the elements in the vehicle dynamic model and controller that could severely impact the system's relative stability. The technique is demonstrated for a yaw/roll damper stability augmentation designed for a business jet.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of automatic flight control systems using singular value concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vaillard, A.; Paduano, J.; Downing, D.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis is presented that can be used to judge the impact of vehicle dynamic model variations on the relative stability of multivariable continuous closed-loop control systems. The sensitivity analysis uses and extends the singular-value concept by developing expressions for the gradients of the singular value with respect to variations in the vehicle dynamic model and the controller design. Combined with a priori estimates of the accuracy of the model, the gradients are used to identify the elements in the vehicle dynamic model and controller that could severely impact the system's relative stability. The technique is demonstrated for a yaw/roll damper stability augmentation designed for a business jet.

  9. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  10. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  11. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelio Alves

    Full Text Available Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  12. Combining independent, weighted P-values: achieving computational stability by a systematic expansion with controllable accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Given the expanding availability of scientific data and tools to analyze them, combining different assessments of the same piece of information has become increasingly important for social, biological, and even physical sciences. This task demands, to begin with, a method-independent standard, such as the P-value, that can be used to assess the reliability of a piece of information. Good's formula and Fisher's method combine independent P-values with respectively unequal and equal weights. Both approaches may be regarded as limiting instances of a general case of combining P-values from m groups; P-values within each group are weighted equally, while weight varies by group. When some of the weights become nearly degenerate, as cautioned by Good, numeric instability occurs in computation of the combined P-values. We deal explicitly with this difficulty by deriving a controlled expansion, in powers of differences in inverse weights, that provides both accurate statistics and stable numerics. We illustrate the utility of this systematic approach with a few examples. In addition, we also provide here an alternative derivation for the probability distribution function of the general case and show how the analytic formula obtained reduces to both Good's and Fisher's methods as special cases. A C++ program, which computes the combined P-values with equal numerical stability regardless of whether weights are (nearly) degenerate or not, is available for download at our group website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/CoinedPValues.html.

  13. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, E., E-mail: maelena@ucalgary.ca; Chan, B. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary AB T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect.

  14. Stabilization of prescribed values and periodic orbits with regular and pulse target oriented control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E.; Chan, B.

    2014-03-01

    Investigating a method of chaos control for one-dimensional maps, where the intervention is proportional to the difference between a fixed value and a current state, we demonstrate that stabilization is possible in one of the two following cases: (1) for small values, the map is increasing and the slope of the line connecting the points on the line with the origin is decreasing; (2) the chaotic map is locally Lipschitz. Moreover, in the latter case we prove that any point of the map can be stabilized. In addition, we study pulse stabilization when the intervention occurs each m-th step and illustrate that stabilization is possible for the first type of maps. In the context of population dynamics, we notice that control with a positive target, even if stabilization is not achieved, leads to persistent solutions and prevents extinction in models which experience the Allee effect.

  15. Economic Value of LFC Substitution by Charge Control for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    There are lots of global warming countermeasures. In the power sector, nuclear power plants play an important role because they do not produce CO2 emissions during production of electricity. However, if the generation share of nuclear is too high at nighttime, it becomes difficult to keep enough capacity of Load Frequency Control (LFC) because nuclear power plants do not change the output (i.e., without load following operation) in Japan. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. The electric energy of PHEV is charged mainly during nighttime when the electricity price is low. Therefore, we have proposed a charging power control of PHEVs to compensate LFC capacity in nighttime. In this study, we evaluated the economic value of charging power control by using an optimal generation planning model, and obtained the following results. Charging power control is effective in reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of economic efficiency of power system. Particularly, even in the low market share of PHEVs, the charge control has a high economic value because it substitutes nuclear power plant, base-load provider with low fuel cost, for LNG-CC, LEC provider with high fuel cost.

  16. Application of reiteration of Hankel singular value decomposition in quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewski, Michał; Skorupa, Agnieszka; Boguszewicz, Łukasz; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wereszczyński, Kamil; Wicher, Magdalena; Konopka, Marek; Sokół, Maria; Polański, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Medical centres are obliged to store past medical records, including the results of quality assurance (QA) tests of the medical equipment, which is especially useful in checking reproducibility of medical devices and procedures. Analysis of multivariate time series is an important part of quality control of NMR data. In this work we proposean anomaly detection tool based on Reiteration of Hankel Singular Value Decomposition method. The presented method was compared with external software and authors obtained comparable results.

  17. P-value based analysis for shared controls design in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaykin, Dmitri V; Kozbur, Damian O

    2010-11-01

    An appealing genome-wide association study design compares one large control group against several disease samples. A pioneering study by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium that employed such a design has identified multiple susceptibility regions, many of which have been independently replicated. While reusing a control sample provides effective utilization of data, it also creates correlation between association statistics across diseases. An observation of a large association statistic for one of the diseases may greatly increase chances of observing a spuriously large association for a different disease. Accounting for the correlation is also particularly important when screening for SNPs that might be involved in a set of diseases with overlapping etiology. We describe methods that correct association statistics for dependency due to shared controls, and we describe ways to obtain a measure of overall evidence and to combine association signals across multiple diseases. The methods we describe require no access to individual subject data, instead, they efficiently utilize information contained in P-values for association reported for individual diseases. P-value based combined tests for association are flexible and essentially as powerful as the approach based on aggregating the individual subject data.

  18. Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test for Children (CARATKids): Validation in Brazil and cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Rita; Carneiro, Ana C; Wandalsen, Gustavo; Fonseca, João A; Sole, Dirceu

    2017-05-01

    The Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test for Children (CARATKids) assesses asthma and allergic rhinitis control in children younger than 12 years. To validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CARATKids and to define the cutoff values for identifying uncontrolled disease. Children aged 6 to 12 years with asthma and allergic rhinitis were studied (n = 102). CARATKids, childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT), total nasal symptom score (TNSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained at baseline and after 4 to 6 weeks. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, responsiveness, and validity of the Brazilian CARATKids were assessed according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurements Instruments checklist. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was evaluated using distribution and anchor methods. Spearman correlations were used to compare CARATKids scores with external measures of control. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish cutoff values. Fifty children completed both visits. The Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficient of CARATKids were 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. The Guyatt responsiveness index was -1.34, and within-patient change in clinically unstable patients (n = 31) was significant (P = .02). As for cross-sectional and longitudinal validity, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.58 to 0.77 (P asthma and allergic rhinitis control in Brazilian children. A score of 6 or higher on CARATKids identifies uncontrolled disease, and a score of 3 or lower excludes poor disease control. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  20. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: Effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Msetfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not values relevant to control - individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272 were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  1. Prognostic value of radiobiological hypoxia during fractionated irradiation for local tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zips, Daniel; Böke, Simon; Kroeber, Theresa; Meinzer, Andreas; Brüchner, Kerstin; Thames, Howard D; Baumann, Michael; Yaromina, Ala

    2011-05-01

    Previous experiments showed that the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells (rHF) in un-treated tumors did not accurately predict local tumor control after fractionated irradiation. Thus, the prognostic value of rHF determined during fractionated irradiation was investigated. Six human squamous cell carcinoma lines were transplanted into nude mice and then irradiated with 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Thereafter, single dose irradiation under normal and clamped blood flow was given. Local tumor control rates were used to calculate the rHF and the TCD₅₀, i.e., the radiation dose necessary to control 50% of the tumors, after single dose irradiation. These values were compared with the in parallel determined TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. The rHF after 15 fractions varied between 28% and 100%. No correlation was found with the TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. Single dose top-up TCD₅₀ under ambient and clamp conditions after 15 fractions significantly correlated with TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. rHF after 15 fractions is not a prognostic parameter for the outcome after fractionated irradiation. In contrast, the radiobiological parameters number of tumor stem cells, intrinsic radiosensitivity, and number of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells appear promising to predict outcome after fractionated irradiation.

  2. Prognostic value of radiobiological hypoxia during fractionated irradiation for local tumor control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zips, Daniel; Boeke, Simon; Kroeber, Theresa; Meinzer, Andreas; Bruechner, Kerstin; Yaromina, Ala [OncoRay National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thames, Howard D. [Texas Univ., M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Div. of Quantitative Sciences; Baumann, Michael [OncoRay National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany). Experimental Center

    2011-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Previous experiments showed that the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells (rHF) in untreated tumors did not accurately predict local tumor control after fractionated irradiation. Thus, the prognostic value of rHF determined during fractionated irradiation was investigated. Materials and Methods: Six human squamous cell carcinoma lines were transplanted into nude mice and then irradiated with 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Thereafter, single dose irradiation under normal and clamped blood flow was given. Local tumor control rates were used to calculate the rHF and the TCD{sub 50}, i.e., the radiation dose necessary to control 50% of the tumors, after single dose irradiation. These values were compared with the in parallel determined TCD{sub 50} after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. Results: The rHF after 15 fractions varied between 28% and 100%. No correlation was found with the TCD{sub 50} after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. Single dose top-up TCD{sub 50} under ambient and clamp conditions after 15 fractions significantly correlated with TCD{sub 50} after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. Conclusion: rHF after 15 fractions is not a prognostic parameter for the outcome after fractionated irradiation. In contrast, the radiobiological parameters number of tumor stem cells, intrinsic radiosensitivity, and number of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells appear promising to predict outcome after fractionated irradiation. (orig.)

  3. P2P network traffic control mechanism based on global evaluation values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-long; WANG Ru-chuan

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing technology has been widely used on the Internet to exchange data. However, it occupies much network bandwidth, and thus greatly influences traditional business on the Interact. Besides, problems about free-riders and 'tragedy of the commons' in the P2P environment estrange from it P2P users who constantly contribute to the network with quality resources. This article proposes a new P2P network traffic control mechanism based on global evaluation values. It aims to help individual users to avoid peak traffic time as much as possible, ease network congestion and protect traditional business on the Interact, as well as differentiating priority grades of peers according to their contributions and stimulating them to share their valuable resources actively. This article first analyzes the current state of network traffic, and then elaborates on P2P network traffic control policies and proposes the peer's priority level differentiation mechanism based on global evaluation values. Finally,after the testing results and analysis of the proposed P2P network traffic control mechanism are discussed, conclusions are drawn.

  4. Wheel-slip Control Method for Seeking Maximum Value of Tangential Force between Wheel and Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiichiro; Yasuoka, Ikuo; Yamazaki, Osamu; Toda, Shinichi; Nakazawa, Yosuke

    A method for reducing motor torque in proportion to wheel slip is applied to an inverter-driven electric locomotive. The motor torque at wheel-slip speed is less than the torque at the maximum tangential force or the adhesion force. A novel anti-slip control method for seeking the maximum value of the tangential force between the wheel and rail is proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the proposed method are analyzed theoretically to design the torque reduction ratio and the rate of change of the pattern between the wheel-slip speed and motor current. In addition, experimental tests are also carried out to verify that the use of the proposed method increases the traction force of an electric locomotive driven by induction motors and inverters. The experimental test results obtained by using the proposed control method are compared with the experimental results obtained by using a conventional control method. The averaged operational current when using the proposed control method is 10% more than that when using the conventional control method.

  5. Out of Control!? How Loss of Self-Control Influences Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Power and Moral Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Anne; van Dijke, Marius; Van Hiel, Alain; De Cremer, David

    2015-01-01

    Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people’s level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees. PMID:26024380

  6. Out of control!? How loss of self-control influences prosocial behavior: the role of power and moral values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Anne; van Dijke, Marius; Van Hiel, Alain; De Cremer, David

    2015-01-01

    Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people's level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees.

  7. Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    and Isolation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of wind turbines, by taking advantage of the recent advances in SVO theory for model invalidation. A simple wind turbine model is presented along with possible faulty scenarios. The FDI algorithm is built on top of the described model, taking into account......Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection...

  8. Probabilistically Controlled Teleportation of an Arbitrary Two-Qubit State via Positive Operator-Valued Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-Feng; HAN Lian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    We propose a tripartite scheme for probabilistically teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state with a fourqubit duster-class state and a Bell-class state as the quantum channels.In the scheme,the sender and the controller make Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on their respective qubit pairs.With their measurement results,the receiver can reconstruct the original state probabilistically by introducing two auxiliary particles and making appropriate unitary operations and positive operator-valued measure (POVM) instead of usual projective measurement.Moreover,the total success probability and classical communication cost of the present protocol are also worked out.

  9. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  10. Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure

  11. Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs, eight (Lindane soil RGVs, or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major

  12. Validation of Flight Control Law Based on LFT and Structured Singular Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi; LIU Lin; CHEN Zong-ji; DUAN Hai-bin

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of flight clearance is to use the structured singular value (μ) analysis of the flight control system when some parameters in the system vary in a certain range. As theμ-analysis can only be done on a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model, the first step of flight clearance is to generate the LFT model of the flight control system. In this paper, based on the introduction of basic theory of LFT and μ-analysis, an X-fighter is chosen as an example to utilize the proposed methods. In order to realize the flight clearance process automatically, a novel software package based on MATLAB programming language is developed. The results of simulation experiments validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the novel methods proposed in this paper.

  13. Robust Stability Analysis of the Space Launch System Control Design: A Singular Value Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing; Newsome, Jerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Classical stability analysis consists of breaking the feedback loops one at a time and determining separately how much gain or phase variations would destabilize the stable nominal feedback system. For typical launch vehicle control design, classical control techniques are generally employed. In addition to stability margins, frequency domain Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the robustness of the design. However, such techniques were developed for Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) systems and do not take into consideration the off-diagonal terms in the transfer function matrix of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Robust stability analysis techniques such as H(sub infinity) and mu are applicable to MIMO systems but have not been adopted as standard practices within the launch vehicle controls community. This paper took advantage of a simple singular-value-based MIMO stability margin evaluation method based on work done by Mukhopadhyay and Newsom and applied it to the SLS high-fidelity dynamics model. The method computes a simultaneous multi-loop gain and phase margin that could be related back to classical margins. The results presented in this paper suggest that for the SLS system, traditional SISO stability margins are similar to the MIMO margins. This additional level of verification provides confidence in the robustness of the control design.

  14. Diagnostic value of the copper/zinc ratio in digestive cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, J L; Romero, R R; Robles, J A; Montemayor, A C; Isoard, F; Estanes, A; Uribe, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn ratio) in the evaluation of a large group of patients with digestive cancer compared to gender and age-matched control subjects. A total of 282 patients was studied and separated into three groups: group I (n = 75), patients with digestive cancer, group II (n = 112), patients with benign digestive disease, and group III (n = 95), healthy subjects. Serum levels of copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the serum levels of copper (mg/dL) in patients with digestive cancer (91.6 +/- 27.3, p cancer (1.45 +/- .58, p copper/zinc ratio was 82.2%, with a specificity of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, Cu/Zn ratio was found to be considerably higher in patients with digestive cancer compared to age- and gender-matched controls, with a sensitivity of 82.2% that might be useful in the evaluation of suspected malignancy.

  15. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  16. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  17. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  18. Phase II trial of pre-irradiation and concurrent temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytomas: long term results of RTOG BR0131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelbaum, Michael A; Hu, Chen; Peereboom, David M; Macdonald, David R; Giannini, Caterina; Suh, John H; Jenkins, Robert B; Laack, Nadia N; Brachman, David G; Shrieve, Dennis C; Souhami, Luis; Mehta, Minesh P

    2015-09-01

    We report on the long-term results of a phase II study of pre-irradiation temozolomide followed by concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Pre-RT temozolomide was given for up to 6 cycles. RT with concurrent temozolomide was administered to patients with less than a complete radiographic response. Forty eligible patients were entered and 32 completed protocol treatment. With a median follow-up time of 8.7 years (range 1.1-10.1), median progression-free survival (PFS) is 5.8 years (95 % CI 2.0, NR) and median overall survival (OS) has not been reached (5.9, NR). 1p/19q data are available in 37 cases; 23 tumors had codeletion while 14 tumors had no loss or loss of only 1p or 19q (non-codeleted). In codeleted patients, 9 patients have progressed and 4 have died; neither median PFS nor OS have been reached and two patients who received only pre-RT temozolomide and no RT have remained progression-free for over 7 years. 3-year PFS and 6-year OS are 78 % (95 % CI 61-95 %) and 83 % (95 % CI 67-98 %), respectively. Codeleted patients show a trend towards improved 6-year survival when compared to the codeleted procarbazine/CCNU/vincristrine (PCV) and RT cohort in RTOG 9402 (67 %, 95 % CI 55-79 %). For non-codeleted patients, median PFS and OS are 1.3 and 5.8 years, respectively. These updated results suggest that the regimen of dose intense, pre-RT temozolomide followed by concurrent RT/temozolomide has significant activity, particularly in patients with 1p/19q codeleted AOs and MAOs.

  19. Expression of genes involved in mouse lung cell differentiation/regulation after acute exposure to photons and protons with or without low-dose preirradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, WeiLing; Tian, Sisi; Slater, James M; Deng, Zhiyong; Gridley, Daila S

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of acute 2 Gy irradiation with photons (0.8 Gy/min) or protons (0.9 Gy/min), both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate γ rays (0.01 Gy at 0.03 cGy/h), on 84 genes involved in stem cell differentiation or regulation in mouse lungs on days 21 and 56. Genes with a ≥1.5-fold difference in expression and P photons in modulating the genes. More genes were affected by protons than by photons (22 compared to 2 and 6 compared to 2 on day 21 and day 56, respectively) compared to 0 Gy. Preirradiation with low-dose-rate γ rays enhanced the acute photon-induced gene modulation on day 21 (11 compared to 2), and all 11 genes were significantly downregulated on day 56. On day 21, seven genes (aldh2, bmp2, cdc2a, col1a1, dll1, foxa2 and notch1) were upregulated in response to most of the radiation regimens. Immunoreactivity of Clara cell secretory protein was enhanced by all radiation regimens. The number of alveolar type 2 cells positive for prosurfactant protein C in irradiated groups was higher on day 56 (12.4-14.6 cells/100) than on day 21 (8.5-11.2 cells/100) (P photons and protons induced different gene expression profiles in the lungs and that pre-exposure to low-dose-rate γ rays sometimes had modulatory effects. In addition, proteins associated with lung-specific stem cells/progenitors were highly sensitive to radiation.

  20. In vitro hemocompatibility of sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric prepared via a facile γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Ye, Yin, E-mail: yeyin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated PP{sub NWF} was successfully fabricated via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS method with the aid of AAm. • Compared with the pristine PP{sub NWF}, the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} material presented outstanding hydrophilicity. • The sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. - Abstract: Sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was successfully prepared via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of sodium styrenesulfonate (SSS) and acrylamide (AAm). The effect of pre-irradiation dose, reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of binary monomer on the degree of grafting (DG) was studied. The chemical structure of the original and modified PP{sub NWF} materials were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the successful introduction of sulfonated (−SO{sub 3}{sup −}) group. The wettability was examined via measurement of de-ionized water adsorption percentage, which demonstrated that the hydrophilicity of PP{sub NWF} was greatly enhanced after graft modification. A little amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and nearly no platelet adhesion on the surface of modified PP{sub NWF} and low hemolytic ratio of the modified PP{sub NWF} revealed that the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. Besides, blood clotting time measurement indicated that the anticoagulant property of PP{sub NWF} was effectively enhanced via SSS modification. Consequently, the hydrophilicity, in vitro hemocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of PP{sub NWF} were significantly improved by γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS.

  1. Entrance in value-oriented distribution control. Methodical inventory of value proposition; Einstieg in die wertorientierte Vertriebssteuerung. Systematische Bestandsaufnahme des Wertbeitrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmeyer, D. [YourSales Unternehmensberatung, Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-01-10

    Value-oriented distribution control means consequent adjustment of distribution processes to optimize the revenue. Main tool of value-oriented distribution control is the consumer value analysis. The consultancy YourSales has developed an audit-tool, which analyses systematically the actual state of value proposition of the energy distribution. The results are compared with the nominal condition of the distribution, the integration in the power utility and his position in the market. The biggest deficits of success factors and value adding are analyzed according to urgency and importance and result in a road-map of measures for the distribution systems. [German] Wertorientierte Vertriebssteuerung ist die konsequente Ausrichtung der Vertriebsarbeit auf die Optimierung der Wertschoepfung. Leitinstrument der wertorientierten Vertriebssteuerung ist die Kundenwertanalyse. Die Unternehmensberatung YourSales hat ein Audit-Instrument entwickelt, mit dem systematisch der Status des Energievertriebs hinsichtlich seines heutigen Wertbeitrags analysiert wird. Das Ergebnis wird mit dem Sollzustand des Vertriebs, seiner Einbindung in das EVU und seiner Position im Markt verglichen. Die groessten Abweichungen bei Erfolgsfaktoren und Werttreibern werden nach Dringlichkeit und Wichtigkeit analysiert und in einem Massnahmenkatalog mit Handlungsfahrplan fuer den Vertrieb umgesetzt. (orig.)

  2. Carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) values of urinary steroids for doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Adam T; Trout, Graham J; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Howe, Christopher J; George, Adrian V

    2009-03-01

    The detection of steroids originating from synthetic precursors in relation to their chemically identical natural analogues has proven to be a significant challenge for doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Endogenous steroid abuse may be confirmed by utilising the atomic specificity of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) that enables the precise measurement of differences in stable isotope ratios that arise as a result of fractionation patterns inherent in the source of steroids. A comprehensive carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) profiling study (n=1262) of urinary ketosteroids is reported that demonstrates the inter-individual variation that can be expected from factors such as diet, ethnicity, gender and age within and between different populations (13 countries). This delta(13)C distribution is shown by principal component analysis (PCA) to provide a statistical comparison to delta(13)C values observed following administration of testosterone enanthate. A limited collection of steroid diol data (n=100; consisting of three countries) is also presented with comparison to delta(13)C values of excreted testosterone to validate criteria for WADA accredited laboratories to prove doping offences.

  3. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  4. Market Forces and Technological Substitutes Cause Fluctuations in the Value of Bat Pest-Control Services for Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Laura López-Hoffman; Ruscena Wiederholt; Chris Sansone; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Paul Cryan; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Joshua Goldstein; Kelsie Lasharr; John Loomis; Gary McCracken; Rodrigo A. Medellín; Amy Russell; Darius Semmens

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the south...

  5. THE EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL VALUE OF APOPTOSIS CONTROL GENE Bcl-2 AND Bax IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun; YAO Zhen-xiang; ZHANG Jing

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and clinical value of apoptosis control gene bcl-2 and bax in breast cancer.Methods: Protein bax and bcl-2 in 41 breast cancers obtained from operations in our hospital in 1996 were detected using ABC immunohistochemical stain assay and compared with 10 cases with normal breast tissues.Results: The positive rate of bax in normal breast tissue was 90% and in breast cancer was 59%, with a significant statistical difference between them (P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in bcl-2 protein expression. Among the 41 breast cancer, the group with lymph node metastasis (21 cases) had obviously low bax expression (43%) and high bcl-2 expression (76%), showing significant difference to the group without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).Conclusion: The antiapoptosis function of bcl-2 was stronger than bax in breast cancer. Protein bax and bcl-2 assay may be useful in understanding the biological behaviors of breast cancer.

  6. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  7. Cosmogenic He and Ne in chondrules from clastic matrix and a lithic clast of Murchison: No pre-irradiation by the early sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, My E. I.; Huber, Liliane; Metzler, Knut; Busemann, Henner; Luginbuehl, Stefanie M.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    other regolithic meteorites for which large occasional excesses of cosmogenic noble gases have been reported. Considering pre-irradiation in a regolith (2π exposure), the pre-exposure times for these four chondrules are at least between some 4 and 40 Ma near the very surface of the parent body, and even longer if they were buried deeper in the regolith.

  8. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of values-based training to promote autonomously held recovery values in mental health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Virginia; Deane, Frank P; Oades, Lindsay G; Crowe, Trevor P; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Andresen, Retta

    2016-02-02

    The implementation and use of evidence-based practices is a key priority for recovery-oriented mental health service provision. Training and development programmes for employees continue to be a key method of knowledge and skill development, despite acknowledged difficulties with uptake and maintenance of behaviour change. Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy, or a sense that behaviour is self-generated, is a key motivator to sustained behaviour change, in this case practices in mental health services. This study examined the utility of values-focused staff intervention as a specific, reproducible method of autonomy support. Mental health workers (n = 146) were assigned via cluster randomisation to either a values clarification condition or an active problem-solving control condition. Results demonstrated that a structured values clarification exercise was useful in promoting integrated motivation for the changed practice and resulted in increased implementation planning. Structured values clarification intervention demonstrates utility as a reproducible means of autonomy support within the workplace. We discuss future directions for the study of autonomous motivation in the field of implementation science. ACTRN12613000353796.

  9. Value-based HR practices, i-deals and clinical error control with CSR as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Tuan; Rowley, Chris; Siengthai, Sununta; Thanh Thao, Vo

    2017-05-08

    Purpose Notwithstanding the rising magnitude of system factors in patient safety improvement, "human factors" such as idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) which also contribute to the adjustment of system deficiencies should not be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of value-based HR practices in catalyzing i-deals, which then influence clinical error control. The research further examines the moderating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the effect of value-based HR practices on i-deals. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from middle-level clinicians from hospitals in the Vietnam context. Findings The research results confirmed the effect chain from value-based HR practices through i-deals to clinical error control with CSR as a moderator. Originality/value The HRM literature is expanded through enlisting i-deals and clinical error control as the outcomes of HR practices.

  10. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  11. Increasing valued behaviors precedes reduction in suffering: Findings from a randomized controlled trial using ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Eifert, Georg; Sonntag, Rainer; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Psychological flexibility theory (PFT) suggests three key processes of change: increases in value-directed behaviors, reduction in struggle with symptoms, and reduction in suffering. We hypothesized that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) would change these processes and that increases in valued action and decreases in struggle would precede change in suffering. Data were derived from a randomized clinical trial testing ACT (vs. waitlist) for treatment-resistant patients with primary panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (n = 41). Valued behavior, struggle, and suffering were assessed at each of eight sessions. Valued actions, struggle, and suffering all changed over the course of therapy. Overall changes in struggle and suffering were interdependent whereas changes in valued behavior were largely independent. Levels of valued behaviors influenced subsequent suffering, but the other two variables did not influence subsequent levels of valued action. This finding supports a central tenet of PFT that increased (re-)engagement in valued behaviors precedes reductions in suffering. Possible implications for a better understanding of response and non-response to psychotherapy are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-affirmation and self-control: affirming core values counteracts ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Vohs, Kathleen

    2009-04-01

    Research has established that acts of self-control deplete a resource required for subsequent self-control tasks. The present investigation revealed that a psychological intervention-self-affirmation-facilitates self-control when the resource has been depleted. Experiments 1 and 2 found beneficial effects of self-affirmation on self-control in a depleted state. Experiments 3 and 4 suggested that self-affirmation improves self-control by promoting higher levels (vs. lower levels) of mental construal. Self-affirmation therefore holds promise as a mental strategy that reduces the likelihood of self-control failure. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Some optimal considerations in attitude control systems. [evaluation of value of relative weighting between time and fuel for relay control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.

  14. A Comparison of Shewhart Control Charts based on Normality, Nonparametrics, and Extreme-Value Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ion, R.A.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Klaassen, C.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Several control charts for individual observations are compared. The traditional ones are the well-known Shewhart control charts with estimators for the spread based on the sample standard deviation and the average of the moving ranges. The alternatives are nonparametric control charts, based on emp

  15. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemot

  16. Two-point boundary value problems and exact controllability for several kinds of linear and nonlinear wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Dexing [Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Sun Qingyou, E-mail: qysun@cms.zju.edu.cn [Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-04-01

    All articles must In this paper we introduce some new concepts for second-order hyperbolic equations: two-point boundary value problem, global exact controllability and exact controllability. For several kinds of important linear and nonlinear wave equations arising from physics and geometry, we prove the existence of smooth solutions of the two-point boundary value problems and show the global exact controllability of these wave equations. In particular, we investigate the two-point boundary value problem for one-dimensional wave equation defined on a closed curve and prove the existence of smooth solution which implies the exact controllability of this kind of wave equation. Furthermore, based on this, we study the two-point boundary value problems for the wave equation defined on a strip with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions and show that the equation still possesses the exact controllability in these cases. Finally, as an application, we introduce the hyperbolic curvature flow and obtain a result analogous to the well-known theorem of Gage and Hamilton for the curvature flow of plane curves.

  17. Assessment of Service Value of Ecosystem in Karst Ecological Control Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of service value of the karst rocky desertification ecosystem,we take water conservation,soil conservation,carbon-fixation and oxygen-production,production of organic matter,and purification of atmospheric environment as function indicators,to conduct quantitative assessment and analysis of service function value of ecosystem in Bijie Yachi,Qingzhen Hongfenghu and Guanling-Zhenfeng Huajiang demonstration areas in Guizhou Province,using remote sensing and field monitoring data in 2006. The results show that the rate of contribution of water conservation,soil conservation,carbon-fixation and oxygen-production functions to regional service value is high ( 37. 05%,36. 68% and 23. 15%,respectively) ; the rate of contribution of production of organic matter and purification of atmospheric environment functions to regional service value is low ( 2. 80% and 0. 32%,respectively) . The ranking of landscape in terms of service value per unit area is as follows: forestland ( 23.353 9 million yuan) > shrub land ( 10.630 1 million yuan) > grassland ( 5.036 7 million yuan) > dry land ( 3.381 2 million yuan) > farmland ( 2.508 8 million yuan) . The ranking of demonstration areas in terms of service value per unit area is as follows: Yachi Demonstration Area ( 12.44 million yuan) > Hongfenghu Demonstration Area ( 5. 91 million yuan) > Huajiang Demonstration Area ( 4. 4 million yuan) . It is negatively correlated with rocky desertification incidence within the region. The results also indicate that in the process of restoring and reconstructing the ecological environment in rocky desertification areas,increasing the area of forest vegetation,promoting the conversion of dry land and farmland into forestland, shrub land and grassland,will contribute to enhancement in ecological service value.

  18. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy (n=47), breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (n=32) and in healthy women (n=58) at 3, 9 and 15 months after diagnosis. Results indicate that personal control was affected only in patients treated with chemotherapy, particularly right after the completion of treatment. Furthermore, the cross-sectional and longitudinal results provide modest support for the stress-buffering potential of control. The findings and future directions of research on the role of personal control in the adjustment to cancer will be discussed. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Contrasting burnout, turnover intention, control, value congruence and knowledge sharing between Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Jackson, Nicole J; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the contrasting role of work values for nurses from two generations: Baby Boomers and Generation X. Differences among nurses regarding core values pertaining to their work has a potential to influence the quality of their work life. These differences may have implications for their vulnerability to job burnout. The analysis is based upon questionnaire surveys of nurses representing Generation X (n = 255) and Baby Boomers (n = 193) that contrasted their responses on job burnout, areas of work life, knowledge transfer and intention to quit. The analysis identified a greater person/organization value mismatch for Generation X nurses than for Baby Boomer nurses. Their greater value mismatch was associated with a greater susceptibility to burnout and a stronger intention to quit for Generation X nurses. The article notes the influence of Baby Boomer nurses in the structure of work and the application of new knowledge in health care work settings. Implications for recruitment and retention are discussed with a focus on knowledge transfer activities associated with distinct learning styles. Understanding value differences between generations will help nursing managers to develop more responsive work settings for nurses of all ages.

  20. IFCC recommendation: The theory of reference values. Part 4. Control of analytical variation in the production, transfer and application of reference values

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Helge Erik; Stamm, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of Recommendations on the Theory of Reference Values. The others cover: Part 1. The Concept of Reference Values [1]. Part 2. Selection of Individuals for the Production of Reference Values [2]. Part 3. Preparation of Individuals and Collection of Specimens for the Production of Reference Values [3]. Part 5. Statistical Treatment of Collected Reference Values. Determination of Reference Limits [4]. Part 6. Presentation of Observed Values Related to Referenc...

  1. Statistical testing procedure for the interaction effects of several controllable factors in two-valued input-output systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Masami

    2007-01-01

    Suppose several two-valued input-output systems are designed by setting the levels of several controllable factors. For this situation, Taguchi method has proposed to assign the controllable factors to the orthogonal array and use ANOVA model for the standardized SN ratio, which is a natural measure for evaluating the performance of each input-output system. Though this procedure is simple and useful in application indeed, the result can be unreliable when the estimated standard errors of the...

  2. Stronger Together: Aggregated Z-values of Traditional Quality Control Measurements and Patient Medians Improve Detection of Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietenbeck, Andreas; Thaler, Markus A; Luppa, Peter B; Klawonn, Frank

    2017-08-01

    In clinical chemistry, quality control (QC) often relies on measurements of control samples, but limitations, such as a lack of commutability, compromise the ability of such measurements to detect out-of-control situations. Medians of patient results have also been used for QC purposes, but it may be difficult to distinguish changes observed in the patient population from analytical errors. This study aims to combine traditional control measurements and patient medians for facilitating detection of biases. The software package "rSimLab" was developed to simulate measurements of 5 analytes. Internal QC measurements and patient medians were assessed for detecting impermissible biases. Various control rules combined these parameters. A Westgard-like algorithm was evaluated and new rules that aggregate Z-values of QC parameters were proposed. Mathematical approximations estimated the required sample size for calculating meaningful patient medians. The appropriate number was highly dependent on the ratio of the spread of sample values to their center. Instead of applying a threshold to each QC parameter separately like the Westgard algorithm, the proposed aggregation of Z-values averaged these parameters. This behavior was found beneficial, as a bias could affect QC parameters unequally, resulting in differences between their Z-transformed values. In our simulations, control rules tended to outperform the simple QC parameters they combined. The inclusion of patient medians substantially improved bias detection for some analytes. Patient result medians can supplement traditional QC, and aggregations of Z-values are novel and beneficial tools for QC strategies to detect biases. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    Full Text Available Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  4. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  5. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  6. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M

    2015-01-01

    by dose-maps from EBRT and IGABT. All PET/CT scans were re-evaluated and nodal maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) was determined. Nodal failures were registered to planning scans and related to boosted nodes and treated volume. Relation between SUVmax and nodal control as well as the pattern...

  7. A Control-Value Theory Approach: Relationships between Academic Self-Concept, Interest, and Test Anxiety in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on test anxiety of elementary school children has mainly focused on prevalence rates and gender differences. Less work has addressed predictors of test anxiety in elementary school children. According to the control-value theory developed by Pekrun ("Educ Psychol Rev" 18:315-341. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9,…

  8. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  9. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  10. Estimating the confidence bounds for projected ozone design values under different emissions control options

    Science.gov (United States)

    In current regulatory applications, regional air quality model is applied for a base year and a future year with reduced emissions using the same meteorological conditions. The base year design value is multiplied by the ratio of the average of the top 10 ozone concentrations fo...

  11. Master-slave exponential synchronization of delayed complex-valued memristor-based neural networks via impulsive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Fang, Jian-An; Li, Huiyuan

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates master-slave exponential synchronization for a class of complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays via discontinuous impulsive control. Firstly, the master and slave complex-valued memristor-based neural networks with time-varying delays are translated to two real-valued memristor-based neural networks. Secondly, an impulsive control law is constructed and utilized to guarantee master-slave exponential synchronization of the neural networks. Thirdly, the master-slave synchronization problems are transformed into the stability problems of the master-slave error system. By employing linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique and constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some sufficient synchronization criteria are derived. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ON UNBOUNDED OPTIMAL CONTROLS IN COEFFICIENTS FOR ILL-POSED ELLIPTIC DIRICHLET BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Horsin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem associated to Dirichlet boundary valueproblem for linear elliptic equations on a bounded domain Ω. We take the matrixvalued coecients A(x of such system as a control in L1(Ω;RN RN. One of the important features of the admissible controls is the fact that the coecient matrices A(x are non-symmetric, unbounded on Ω, and eigenvalues of the symmetric part Asym = (A + At=2 may vanish in Ω.

  13. Natural products for pest control: an analysis of their role, value and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, B Clifford; Sparks, Thomas C

    2014-08-01

    Natural products (NPs) have long been used as pesticides and have broadly served as a source of inspiration for a great many commercial synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides that are in the market today. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, NPs continue to be a source of models and templates for the development of new pest control agents. Interestingly, an examination of the literature suggests that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means, suggesting that, had circumstances been different, these NPs could have served as inspiration for the discovery of a great many more of today's pest control agents. Here, an attempt is made to answer questions regarding the existence of an NP model for existing classes of pesticides and what is needed for the discovery of new NPs and NP models for pest control agents.

  14. Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP): Is It Value-Added for Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Susan E; Miller, Melissa B; Hindler, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) recently published their Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP [https://www.cms.gov/regulations-and-guidance/legislation/CLIA/Individualized_Quality_Control_Plan_IQCP.html]), which will be the only option for quality control (QC) starting in January 2016 if laboratories choose not to perform Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) [U.S. Statutes at Large 81(1967):533] default QC. Laboratories will no longer be able to use "equivalent QC" (EQC) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards alone for quality control of their microbiology systems. The implementation of IQCP in clinical microbiology laboratories will most certainly be an added burden, the benefits of which are currently unknown.

  15. Singular Value Decomposition-Based Method for Sliding Mode Control and Optimization of Nonlinear Neutral Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Heli Hu; Dan Zhao; Qingling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The sliding mode control and optimization are investigated for a class of nonlinear neutral systems with the unmatched nonlinear term. In the framework of Lyapunov stability theory, the existence conditions for the designed sliding surface and the stability bound ${\\alpha }^{\\ast }$ are derived via twice transformations. The further results are to develop an efficient sliding mode control law with tuned parameters to attract the state trajectories onto the sliding surface in finit...

  16. Funnel plot control limits to identify poorly performing healthcare providers when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun

    2014-04-17

    There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals. Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care.

  17. The decision to engage cognitive control is driven by expected reward-value: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Dixon

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is a fundamental skill reflecting the active use of task-rules to guide behavior and suppress inappropriate automatic responses. Prior work has traditionally used paradigms in which subjects are told when to engage cognitive control. Thus, surprisingly little is known about the factors that influence individuals' initial decision of whether or not to act in a reflective, rule-based manner. To examine this, we took three classic cognitive control tasks (Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Go/No-Go task and created novel 'free-choice' versions in which human subjects were free to select an automatic, pre-potent action, or an action requiring rule-based cognitive control, and earned varying amounts of money based on their choices. Our findings demonstrated that subjects' decision to engage cognitive control was driven by an explicit representation of monetary rewards expected to be obtained from rule-use. Subjects rarely engaged cognitive control when the expected outcome was of equal or lesser value as compared to the value of the automatic response, but frequently engaged cognitive control when it was expected to yield a larger monetary outcome. Additionally, we exploited fMRI-adaptation to show that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC represents associations between rules and expected reward outcomes. Together, these findings suggest that individuals are more likely to act in a reflective, rule-based manner when they expect that it will result in a desired outcome. Thus, choosing to exert cognitive control is not simply a matter of reason and willpower, but rather, conforms to standard mechanisms of value-based decision making. Finally, in contrast to current models of LPFC function, our results suggest that the LPFC plays a direct role in representing motivational incentives.

  18. Why Don't We Move Slower? The Value of Time in the Neural Control of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berret, Bastien; Jean, Frédéric

    2016-01-27

    To want something now rather than later is a common attitude that reflects the brain's tendency to value the passage of time. Because the time taken to accomplish an action inevitably delays task achievement and reward acquisition, this idea was ported to neural movement control within the "cost of time" theory. This theory provides a normative framework to account for the underpinnings of movement time formation within the brain and the origin of a self-selected pace in human and animal motion. Then, how does the brain exactly value time in the control of action? To tackle this issue, we used an inverse optimal control approach and developed a general methodology allowing to squarely sample infinitesimal values of the time cost from experimental motion data. The cost of time underlying saccades was found to have a concave growth, thereby confirming previous results on hyperbolic reward discounting, yet without making any prior assumption about this hypothetical nature. For self-paced reaching, however, movement time was primarily valued according to a striking sigmoidal shape; its rate of change consistently presented a steep rise before a maximum was reached and a slower decay was observed. Theoretical properties of uniqueness and robustness of the inferred time cost were established for the class of problems under investigation, thus reinforcing the significance of the present findings. These results may offer a unique opportunity to uncover how the brain values the passage of time in healthy and pathological motor control and shed new light on the processes underlying action invigoration. Movement time is a fundamental characteristic of neural motor control, but the principles underlying its formation remain little known. This work addresses that question within the inverse optimal control framework where the challenge is to uncover what optimality criterion underlies a system's behavior. Here we rely on the "cost of time" theory that finds its roots into the

  19. Study on the pH Value Control Method%pH值控制方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红霞; 刘磊

    2012-01-01

    由于pH过程的非线性和滞后性,pH值的检测和控制在化工生产过程中并非易事,本文主要分析了pH值曲线的非线性特点,应用分段式变增益PID的处理方法,提出了pH过程的分段式变增益PID控制设计方法,设计了一种分段式变增益PID控制算法,利用MATLAB仿真技术对pH值控制系统进行了仿真研究并与常规的PID控制算法进行了仿真对比,有效的实现了对pH值的控制.%Due to nonlinear and hysteresis quality of pH process, detection and control of pH value is not easy in chemical production process. This paper mainly analyzed the nonlinear features of pH value curve, applied the processing method of segment type variable gain PID, made the segment type variable gain PID control design method of pH process, designed a segment type variable gain PID control algorithm, used MATLAB simulation technology to make simulation research on pH value control system and made simulation comparison to the general PID control algorithm. At last the control of the pH value is effectively implemented.

  20. Control Mechanism and Value of Firm: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herdinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about the roles of institutional ownership and leverage as control mechanism over agency conflict and how it affects corporate performance. Agency conflict is a result of expropriation via tunneling on asset utilization. This study uses panel data with a sample of 136 companies in Indonesia between 2001-2012. Simultaneous model testing using Three Stage Least Square estimation technique is also used in this study. Results suggest that institutional ownership and leverage have a non-linear effect on asset utilization. Institutional ownership can be used as a control mechanism at higher levels of ownership. However, when the ownership surpasses certain level, institutional owners will be able to conduct expropriation through tunneling. Low-level leverage will result in expropriation through tunneling by institutional owners. On the other hand, higher level of leverage makes it possible to use leverage as control mechanism. This study also suggests that there is a substitutional correlation between the implementation of control mechanism and leverage. This research also proves that the effect of control mechanism on asset utilization will improve corporate performance. This research does not specifically investigate the proportions of institutional ownership and leverage as borderline threshold which shows that the two variables can be used as control mechanism. It also implies that the control mechanism over agency conflict which happens as a result of expropriation through tunneling can be done using institutional ownership and leverage. Institutional ownership and leverage must, in this case, be conducted properly to-wards asset utilization so that it can improve corporate performance. This research provides evidence and solutions for agency conflicts that happen as a result of expropriation through tunneling. This study also contributes to the agency theory testing model by using simultaneous equation and considering non

  1. Control Mechanism and Value of Firm: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herdinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about the roles of institutional ownership and leverage as control mechanism over agency conflict and how it affects corporate performance. Agency conflict is a result of expropriation via tunneling on asset utilization. This study uses panel data with a sample of 136 companies in Indonesia between 2001-2012. Simultaneous mo-del testing using Three Stage Least Square estimation technique is also used in this study. Results suggest that institutional ownership and le-verage have a non-linear effect on asset utilization. Institutional ownership can be used as a control mechanism at higher levels of ownership. However, when the ownership surpasses certain level, institutional owners will be able to conduct expropriation through tunneling. Low-level leverage will result in expropriation through tunneling by institutional owners. On the other hand, higher level of leverage makes it possible to use leverage as control mechanism. This study also sug-gests that there is a substitutional correlation between the implementation of control mechanism and leverage. This research also proves that the effect of control mechanism on asset utilization will improve corporate performance. This research does not specifically investigate the proportions of institutional ownership and leverage as borderline threshold which shows that the two variables can be used as control mechanism. It also implies that the control mechanism over agency conflict which happens as a result of expropriation through tunneling can be done using institutional ownership and leverage. Institutional ownership and leverage must, in this case, be conducted properly towards asset utilization so that it can improve corporate performance. This research provides evidence and solutions for agency conflicts that happen as a result of expropriation through tunneling. This study also contributes to the agency theory testing model by using simultaneous equation and considering

  2. Personal Values as a Mediator of Relations Between Perceived Parental Support and Control and Youth Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Gabriella; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Keller, Peggy; Haak, Eric; Begotti, Tatiana

    2017-10-15

    Tobacco and marijuana smoking are very popular in adolescence and there is a high rate of comorbidity between them, even in young adulthood. Parental support and control may hinder involvement in the use of these substances by promoting conventional values among adolescents. The present study investigates the relations between family functioning (parental support and control) and psychoactive substance use (tobacco and marijuana smoking) and determines whether these relationships are mediated by personal values (in terms of disapproval of deviance and beliefs about the importance of school, health and religion). 175 Italian late adolescents (17 to 20 years old) participated in this two-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected at school through an anonymous questionnaire. Greater parental control and support were directly associated with lower adolescent tobacco and marijuana use; adolescent acceptance of conventional values mediated the association between parenting and adolescent marijuana use. Findings emphasize the influence of family relationships throughout adolescence. The transmission of conventional values to adolescents may be a critical mechanism through which parenting protects adolescents from substance use, especially marijuana use.

  3. Normative values for a video-force plate assessment of postural control in athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Meehan, William P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide normative data for young athletes during the three stances of the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS) using an objective video-force plate system. Postural control was measured in 398 athletes between 8 and 18 years of age during the three stances of the mBESS using a video-force plate rating system. Girls exhibited better postural control than boys during each stance of the mBESS. Age was not significantly associated with postural control. We provide normative data for a video-force plate assessment of postural stability in pediatric athletes during the three stances of the mBESS.

  4. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    horizontal vs. vertical. • According to the theory of Planned Behavior ( Ajzen , 1988, 2002) attitude, subjective norms and perceived control...determines intention which may end in behavior . 7 Defining Human Values Cross-cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main...attitudes with social structure. 4 Defining Human Values • According to Parsons (Parsons & Shils, 1951), values instigate behavior . • In line

  5. Predictive Value of Morphological Features in Patients with Autism versus Normal Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, H.; Hellemann, G. S.; de Jonge, M. V.; Beemer, F. A.; van Engeland, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the predictive power of morphological features in 224 autistic patients and 224 matched-pairs controls. To assess the relationship between the morphological features and autism, we used the receiver operator curves (ROC). In addition, we used recursive partitioning (RP) to determine

  6. Choice of Appropriate Control Values for Effective Analyses of Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglár, Michal; Sokol, Milan

    2017-03-01

    The article is devoted to a suitable choice of input parameters for the efficient running of a self-developed code used for damage detection. The code was prepared in Office Excel VBA, which used a non-destructive vibration-based method. The primary aim of the code is to determine the change in bending stiffness by using the FE model updating method, and the aim of the paper is to determine the effect of the input data on the bending stiffness calculations. The code was applied for a numerical model of a steel bar. The steel bar was a simply supported beam with a span of 3.5 m. The time of the calculations and precision of the identification were investigated. The values of the time consumption depend on the input values, the desired limit of the accepted error, and the length of the step in every iteration. Data from an experimental model was analysed. The model was made of wooden and plaster boards. The calculations were done in accordance with suitable input data from a parametric study.

  7. Choice of Appropriate Control Values for Effective Analyses of Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venglár Michal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a suitable choice of input parameters for the efficient running of a self-developed code used for damage detection. The code was prepared in Office Excel VBA, which used a non-destructive vibration-based method. The primary aim of the code is to determine the change in bending stiffness by using the FE model updating method, and the aim of the paper is to determine the effect of the input data on the bending stiffness calculations. The code was applied for a numerical model of a steel bar. The steel bar was a simply supported beam with a span of 3.5 m. The time of the calculations and precision of the identification were investigated. The values of the time consumption depend on the input values, the desired limit of the accepted error, and the length of the step in every iteration. Data from an experimental model was analysed. The model was made of wooden and plaster boards. The calculations were done in accordance with suitable input data from a parametric study.

  8. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  9. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Michael

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  10. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  11. Reduced-order model based active disturbance rejection control of hydraulic servo system with singular value perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwen; Quan, Long; Zhang, Shijie; Meng, Hongjun; Lan, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Hydraulic servomechanism is the typical mechanical/hydraulic double-dynamics coupling system with the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems, which hinder direct applications of many advanced control approaches in the hydraulic servo fields. In this paper, by introducing the singular value perturbation theory, the original double-dynamics coupling model of the hydraulic servomechanism was reduced to a integral chain system. So that, the popular ADRC (active disturbance rejection control) technology could be directly applied to the reduced system. In addition, the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems are avoided. The validity of the simplified model is analyzed and proven theoretically. The standard linear ADRC algorithm is then developed based on the obtained reduced-order model. Extensive comparative co-simulations and experiments are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. A double-blind, controlled evaluation of the value of sarapin in neural blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Kavita N; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; McManus, Carla D

    2004-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of Sarapin in prolonging the action of neural blockade with improved pain relief. Prospective, continuous, double-blind trial including 500 consecutive patients undergoing either caudal epidural injections; cervical, thoracic, lumbosacral facet joint nerve blocks; and/or intercostal nerve blocks or a combination thereof. Sarapin has been reported as an agent to provide pain relief without motor weakness with an excellent risk/ benefit ratio in neural blockade. Sarapin is a suspension of powdered Sarracenia purpurin (pitcher plant) in alkaline solution. Researchers theorize that the distillate contained an unidentified biological substance that potentiates the action of the ammonium ion. Modest but significant benefits were demonstrated with diagnostic blocks, with diagnostic lumbar medial branch blocks, therapeutic lumbar medial branch blocks, and caudal epidural injections. In an experimental study in the horse, no benefits were seen by injection of Sarapin. The authors proposed that there may not be any benefits in other species as well. Multiple therapeutic agents utilized in neural blockade, including local anesthetics, steroids, and neurolytic agents, have been evaluated extensively. Sarapin has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Five hundred consecutive patients undergoing either caudal epidural injections; cervical, thoracic, or lumbosacral facet joint nerve blocks; or intercostal nerve blocks or a combination thereof were included in the study. Each patient was treated with two blocks. The treatments were dou-ble-blind and prospective. Each patient acted as their own control. The results showed that 500 patients received a total of 828 treatments, once with Sarapin and once without. There were no significant differences between these groups, either with pain relief measured by numeric pain scale or duration of significant relief defined as 50% or greater relief. This prospective, double-blind trial of 500 patients

  13. Improved cost monitoring and control through the Earned Value Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard; Fitzgerald, Richard; Barlow, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    As economic pressure and competition for budget among federal agencies has increased, there has been an increasing need for more granular data and robust management information systems. This is especially true for the execution of major civilian space programs. This need has resulted in new program management requirements being implemented in an attempt to limit cost and schedule growth. In particular, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120.5D requires the implementation of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) compliant with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748-B. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program management team at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) made a decision to implement an EVMS on RBSP during Phase B—a year earlier than specified in the contractual Phase C reporting requirement as defined in the NPR. This decision was made so that the project would have the benefit of 12 months of training and hands-on implementation during Phase B. Although there were a number of technical and process hurdles encountered during Phase B and into Phase C, the system was working well when the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) was held in August 2009. The IBR was a success because it met the review requirements. It was also clear to all IBR participants that the EVMS was providing value to the project management team. Although the IBR pointed out some areas of concern regarding process and ANSI compliance, the system had markedly improved the project's ability to monitor cost and schedule. This, in turn, allowed the project team to foresee problems in advance, formulate corrective actions, and implement course corrections without causing significant adverse impact to the project. Opponents of EVMS systems often communicate the unfavorable opinion that EVMS systems create unnecessary cost and administration. Although it is undeniable that EVMS

  14. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost.......58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million...... and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against...

  15. Inserting the tap values of the tap changer transformers into the Jacobian matrix as control variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Series and shunt admittance values of under load tap changer transformers are changed according to tap changing. As this situation changes the structure of bus admittance matrix, it causes the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case in power flow studies. In this paper, a new approach that includes the tap changing effects into the Jacobian matrix. By this approach, the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case during power flow study is prevented. So, fast convergence is achieved for the power flow algorithm. Although there are similar studies for this aim in the literature, apart from these studies, including the tap changing effects to the Jacobian matrix when more than one under load tap changer transformers are connected to the same bus with different connection combinations is provided by the proposed approach. For this aim, new power equations and new Jacobian matrix component calculation equations are obtained. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 57-bus test system and its accuracy is proved.

  16. Haematological values in homozygous sickle cell disease in steady state and haemoglobin phenotypes AA controls in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Akinsegun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease is a genetic abnormality involving the haemoglobin. Although, it is primarily a red cell disorders, the white blood cells and platelets are also affected by the mutation. The consequent haemoglobin S causes polymerization of haemoglobin resulting in haemolysis and anaemia. This study aims to provide baseline haematological values in sickle cell disease patients in steady state and compare the deviation from haemoglobin phenotype AA control values. Methods A case–control study was conducted amongst homozygous sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. About 4.5mls of blood sample was collected from each participant for full blood count analysis. All blood samples were screened for HIV and haemoglobin phenotypes confirmed using cellulose acetate haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Results A total of 103 cases and 98 controls were enrolled. The overall mean haemoglobin concentration for cases was 7.93 ± 1.47 g/dl, packed cell volume 24.44 ± 4.68%, mean cell volume 81.52 ± 7.89 fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 26.50 ± 3.20 pg. While for controls, mean haemoglobin concentration was 13.83 ± 1.32 g/dl, packed cell volume 43.07 ± 3.95%, mean cell volume 86.90 ± 4.69 fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 28.50 ± 1.34 pg. The overall mean white blood cell counts for the cases was 10.27 ± 3.94 *103/μl and platelet counts of 412.71 ± 145.09*103/μl. While white blood cell count for the controls was 5.67 ± 1.59*103/μl and platelet counts of 222.82 ± 57.62*103/μl. Conclusion Homozygous sickle cell disease patients have lower values of red cell parameters, but higher values of white cell and platelets counts compared to haemoglobin phenotype AA controls.

  17. The value of renal scintigraphy during controlled diuresis in children with hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, D.; Klett, R.; Bauer, R. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Steiss, J.O.; Rascher, W. [Children`s Hospital, Justus-Liebig Univ. Giessen (Germany); Miller, J.; Weidner, W. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Chirurgie, Anaesthesiologie und Urologie

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) during controlled diuresis is the method of choice to diagnose the functional relevance of urinary tract obstruction in children with sonographically demonstrated hydronephrosis. However, there are no commonly accepted scintigraphic criteria for surgical intervention. On the basis of our findings, we propose four stages of washout (WO) of tracer following diuresis: in stage I, WO>50%, neither further diagnosis nor intervention is necessary; in stage II, 50%{>=}WO{>=}12%, repetition of DRS is advised within 3-4 months; and in stage III, 12%>WO{>=}5%, DRS should be repeated within 1-2 months. Only in stage IV, WO<5%, should surgery be done immediately. This procedure reduces surgical interventions by 50% without increasing the risk of residual renal damage. (orig.) With 5 figs., 13 refs.

  18. The predictive value of the dexamethasone suppression test. A placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, E D; Stanley, M; Filippi, A M; Barouche, F; Goodnick, P; Fieve, R R

    1989-11-01

    We evaluated the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) as a predictor of response to drugs and placebo in 105 patients, in a large double-blind placebo-controlled out-patient trial to determine the efficacy of paroxetine HCl, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, compared with that of imipramine HCl and placebo. The presence of a positive or negative DST did not predict response to either paroxetine or imipramine. However, a positive DST predicted a poorer response to placebo: only 3 out of 18 patients who showed DST non-suppression responded to placebo, as opposed to 11 out of 21 who exhibited DST suppression (P less than 0.05). A positive DST was associated with a 61% response to drugs and a 16% response to placebo. This finding suggests that the presence of a positive DST implies the need for active somatic treatment.

  19. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    studies in the Ph.D. project will evaluate whether early spirometry measurements can be used to predict future lung disease and describe the follow up of patients with abnormal spirometry measurements at the general practitioner. Disclosure of interest: None to declare. Key words: early spirometry......Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...

  20. [Examination of the knee joint. The value of clinical findings in arthroscopic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrück, K; Wiehmann, J C

    1988-01-01

    Purely clinical examination of the knee joint can, at best, only be regarded as a "screening procedure". Diagnosis with the aid of apparatus (sonography, arthrography, CT, NMR) produces better results. However, arthroscopy performed by an experienced examiner confirms the diagnosis in cases of suspected meniscus injury or isolated lesions of the cruciate ligaments and leads to early and therefore optimal therapy. In a retrospective study 300 arthroscopies performed in 1985 were selected and evaluated. In 1986/87, a further 300 patients were clinically examined prospectively, according to the same criteria, and findings were compared with the arthroscopy performed the following day. Clinically, in 287 patients with multiple diagnoses, internal meniscus lesions were diagnosed in 162 cases (54%), external meniscus lesions in 38 (13%), chondropathia patellae in 54 (18%), and old ruptures of the cruciate ligaments in 46 (15%). In 13 patients no diagnosis could be established. Arthroscopically, pathology of the internal meniscus was found in 98 (33%) of the 300 patients, of the external meniscus in 40 (13%), cartilage damage in 103 (34%), old cruciate ligament ruptures in 51 (17%), and recent anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in 156 (52%); in 40 cases findings were normal. At 78%, the highest positive predictive value (proportion of tentative clinical diagnoses confirmed by arthroscopy) was found in cases of old ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament, followed by external meniscus lesions (61%) and internal meniscus lesions (55%); i.e., only 55 out of 100 clinically suspected internal meniscus lesions are diagnosed by arthroscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dyfrig A; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000-12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin's Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin's Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin's Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases.

  2. Preventing birth defects: The value of the NBDPS case-control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolk, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Birth Defect Registries provide a basis for epidemiological research into risk factors, thus facilitating a growing understanding of what causes congenital anomalies and how one might target preventive public health actions and reduce inequalities. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) has used 10 U.S. registries as a basis for a large case-control study. This commentary reviews its methodology and selected areas of output. The strengths of NBDPS lie in the quality of diagnostic coding and classification of birth defects and its size. The sources of bias in NBDPS data relate particularly to retrospective exposure ascertainment entailing a long period of recall, incomplete ascertainment of terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, and unknown bias in case selection. NBDPS results have shown the protective effect of healthy dietary patterns, but have not been as informative as expected in relation to furthering understanding of the protective effect of folic acid. NBDPS medication studies are making important contributions to addressing the gap in existing evidence systematically across a wide range of birth defects, but are challenged by the quality of information on exposure, dose and underlying disease condition, and the interpretation of results of multiple testing. Studies of environmental contaminants in collaboration with experts in exposure assessment have linked addresses to residential exposure measures, using the advantages of information on residential history and confounders, but are challenged by the need to consider exposure mixtures. NBDPS could increase its public health impact by placing more emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Data on individual PCR efficiency values as quality control for circulating miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet-Vega, Anna; Pericay, Carles; Quílez, María Elisa; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Calvet, Xavier; Lario, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled "Variability in microRNA recovery from plasma: Comparison of five commercial kits, doi:10.1016/j.ab.2015.07.018" Brunet-Vega (2015) [1]. PCR efficiency, along with RNA and cDNA quality, are the most important factors affecting the quality of qPCR results. Constant amplification efficiency in all compared samples is indispensable when relative quantification is used to measure changes in gene expression. An easy way to measure PCR efficiency, without the need of a standard curve, is LinRegPCR software. Individual PCR efficiency can be determined as a part of qPCR quality control. This is especially important when the initial RNA quantity is so low that cannot be accurately quantified, such as in circulating RNA extractions. This data article reports the Cqs and PCR efficiencies of 5 miRNAs quantified in RNA isolated from 4 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 4 healthy donors using five commercially available kits.

  4. Optimal control of soybean aphid in the presence of natural enemies and the implied value of their ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M

    2012-04-15

    By suppressing pest populations, natural enemies provide an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural ecosystems systems and potentially mitigates producers' pest control costs. Integrating natural control services into decisions about pesticide-based control has the potential to significantly improve the economic efficiency of pesticide use, with socially desirable outcomes. Two gaps have hindered the incorporation of natural enemies into pest management decision rules: (1) insufficient knowledge of pest and predator population dynamics and (2) lack of a decision framework for the economic tradeoffs among pest control options. Using a new intra-seasonal, dynamic bioeconomic optimization model, this study assesses how predation by natural enemies contributes to profit-maximizing pest management strategies. The model is applied to the management of the invasive soybean aphid, the most significant serious insect threat to soybean production in North America. The resulting lower bound estimate of the value of natural pest control ecosystem services was estimated at $84 million for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota in 2005.

  5. Influence of the metabolic control on latency values of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanovic, Dragana; Popovic, Srdjan; Parapid, Biljana; Petronic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana; Nikolic, Dejan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the metabolic control parameters of diabetes mellitus (glycemia and HbA1c) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) latency values. The study included 61 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 that were hospitalized at the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases due to the poor metabolic control. All patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of patients on conventional insulin therapy (CT); Group 2 included patients on CT at the moment of hospitalization, with a change towards intensified insulin therapy (IIT); and Group 3 consisted of patients on IIT. Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) were excluded from the study. Metabolic control (glycemia and HbA1c) and VEP parameters were compared at the beginning of the study and six months later. After six months of strict glycoregulation, significant improvement in VEP parameters was followed by significant improvement of evaluated parameters of metabolic control. We found statistically significant reduction in frequency of pathological VEP findings, prolonged P100 latency and low amplitude potentials in Group 2, while in Groups 1 and 3 we found that these parameters did not significantly changed but the frequencies were lower. The VEP testing is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure which may help in early diagnosis of DR, prognosis during the metabolic control and treatment. If changes in the retina could be detected before DR is noticed using this noninvasive diagnostic procedure and include patients in a strict glycoregulation, we could be in the position to prevent serious complications that may cause blindness.

  6. The investigation of usage of fluorapatite mineral (Ca{sub 5}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) in tooth enamel under the different pre-irradiation thermal treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktamiş, Hüseyin, E-mail: toktamis@gantep.edu.tr [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Toktamiş, Dilek; Yilmaz, S. Merve; Yazici, A. Necmeddin [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Yildirim, Cihan [University of Gaziantep, Faculty of Dentistry, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Özbiçki, Özlem [Dentalazer Hospital, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2015-01-20

    Highlights: • The fluorapatite mineral extracted from tooth enamel shows TL properties. • The pre-irradiation annealing process affects the TL glow curve shape. • A huge increase was observed in maximum TL for sample annealed at 1100 °C. • Annealing about 120 min causes a huge enhancement in maximum TL peak intensity • The best reproducibility is obtained at 1000 °C of annealing temperature. - Abstract: Fluorapatite Ca{sub 5}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a kind of important thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) material, because the effective atomic number of fluorapatite is close to that of human bones and teeth. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of fluorapatite mineral in tooth enamel under the different annealing temperatures with various annealing times were investigated. This study reveals that the fluorapatite in tooth enamel exhibits TL properties. Annealing of the sample affects extremely the TL glow curve and causes a huge enhancement in the sensitization of TL peak. The sample annealed at 1000 °C about 120 min gives best TL peak intensity (150 factors than un-annealed sample) and has a distinct peak around 230 °C. Also, the best reproducibility was observed for 1000 °C annealed sample temperature while un-annealed sample shows the worst reproducibility. Moreover, a good linearity in dose response is observed in the samples annealed at 400 °C and 700 °C.

  7. Controllability and observability of k-valued control networks%k-值控制网络的可控性与可观性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓磊; 赵建立; 刘华; 李莹

    2015-01-01

    利用矩阵的半张量积,研究了 k-值控制网络的可控性与可观性问题。通过特征函数构造出可控性矩阵,得到了新的可控性充分和必要条件,简化了原有条件的计算复杂性,矩阵的最高阶数由原来的 kn +m降到 kn。另外,还得到了检验 k-值控制网络可观性的条件,该条件更容易计算检验。%By using the method of semi-tensor product of matrices,the controllability and observability of k-valued con-trol networks were investigated.Controllability matrix was constructed by eigenfunction and a novel necessary and suffi-cient condition for controllability was given.The new conditions simplify computational complexity of original condi-tions,and the highest power of matrix is reduced from kn +m to kn .Aslo,a sufficient condition for observabilitywas ob-tained,which can be computed easily.

  8. Integrated vendor-buyer inventory models with inflation and time value of money in controllable lead time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global critical economic scenario, inflation plays a vital role in deciding optimal pricing of goods in any business entity. This article presents two single-vendor single-buyer integrated supply chain inventory models with inflation and time value of money. Shortage is allowed during the lead-time and it is partially backlogged. Lead time is controllable and can be reduced using crashing cost. In the first model, we consider the demand of lead time follows a normal distribution, and in the second model, it is considered distribution-free. For both cases, our objective is to minimize the integrated system cost by simultaneously optimizing the order quantity, safety factor, lead time and number of lots. The discounted cash flow and classical optimization technique are used to derive the optimal solution for both cases. Numerical examples including the sensitivity analysis of system parameters is provided to validate the results of the supply chain models.

  9. Controlling for P-value inflation in allele frequency change in experimental evolution and artificial selection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Petri; Rønning, Bernt; Kvalnes, Thomas; Hagen, Ingerid J; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Billing, Anna M; Pärn, Henrik; Lien, Sigbjørn; Husby, Arild; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evolution studies can be used to explore genomic response to artificial and natural selection. In such studies, loci that display larger allele frequency change than expected by genetic drift alone are assumed to be directly or indirectly associated with traits under selection. However, such studies report surprisingly many loci under selection, suggesting that current tests for allele frequency change may be subject to P-value inflation and hence be anticonservative. One factor known from genomewide association (GWA) studies to cause P-value inflation is population stratification, such as relatedness among individuals. Here, we suggest that by treating presence of an individual in a population after selection as a binary response variable, existing GWA methods can be used to account for relatedness when estimating allele frequency change. We show that accounting for relatedness like this effectively reduces false-positives in tests for allele frequency change in simulated data with varying levels of population structure. However, once relatedness has been accounted for, the power to detect causal loci under selection is low. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of P-value inflation in allele frequency change in empirical data spanning multiple generations from an artificial selection experiment on tarsus length in two free-living populations of house sparrow and correct for this using genomic control. Our results indicate that since allele frequencies in large parts of the genome may change when selection acts on a heritable trait, such selection is likely to have considerable and immediate consequences for the eco-evolutionary dynamics of the affected populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Water-Saving and High-Yielding Irrigation for Lowland Rice by Controlling Limiting Values of Soil Water Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an irrigation system could be established to save water and increase grain yield to enhance water productivity by proper water management at the field level in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using two field-grown rice cultivars, two irrigation systems; conventional irrigation and water-saving irrigation, were conducted.In the water-saving irrigation system, limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages were proposed as irrigation indices. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times,the water-saving irrigation increased grain yield by 7.4% to 11.3%, reduced irrigation water by 24.5% to 29.2%, and increased water productivity (grain yield per cubic meter of irrigation water) by 43.1% to 50.3%. The water-saving irrigation significantly increased harvest index, improved milling and appearance qualities, elevated zeatin +zeatin riboside concentrations in root bleedings and enhanced activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains. Our results indicate that water-saving irrigation by controlling limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages can enhance physiological activities of roots and grains,reduce water input, and increase grain yield.

  11. Using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the energetic value of corn for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Zhang, L; Mi, B M; Zhang, H F; Hou, S S; Zhang, Z Y

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a computer-controlled digestion system to simulate the digestion process of duck for predicting the concentration of ME and the metabolizability of gross energy (GE) in corn. In a calibration experiment, 30 corn-based calibration samples with a previously published ME concentration in 2008 were used to develop the prediction models for in vivo energetic values. The linear relationships were established between in vivo ME concentration and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) concentration, and between in vivo metabolizability of GE (ME/GE) and in vitro digestibility of GE (IVDE/GE), respectively. In a validation experiment, 6 sources of corn with previously published ME concentration in 2008 randomly selected from the primary corn-growing regions of China were used to validate the prediction models established in the calibration experiment. The results showed that in calibration samples, the IVDE concentration was positively correlated with the AME (r = 0.9419), AMEn (r = 0.9480), TME (r = 0.9403), and TMEn concentration (r = 0.9473). Similarly, the IVDE/GE was positively correlated with the AME/GE (r = 0.95987), AMEn/GE (r = 0.9641), TME/GE (r = 0.9588), and TMEn/GE (r = 0.9637). The coefficient of determination greater than 0.88 and 0.91, and residual SD less than 45 kcal/kg of DM and 1.01% were observed in the prediction models for ME concentrations and ME/GE, respectively. Twenty-nine out of 30 calibration samples showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2.4% between determined and predicted values for 4 ME (AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn) and for 4 ME/GE (AME/GE, AMEn/GE, TME/GE, and TMEn/GE), respectively. Using prediction models developed from 30 calibration samples, 6 validation samples further showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2% between determined and predicted values for ME and ME/GE, respectively. Therefore, the computer-controlled simulated digestion system can be used to predict the ME and ME

  12. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  13. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    , 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I......Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  14. 废水处理中pH值的PLC自动控制系统%PLC automatic control system of pH value in wastewater treatment.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安峰; 张志群; 丁庭华; 王绍堂

    2001-01-01

    The pH value automatic control is a key link in the treatment of industrial wastewater. Based on much literature review, a new PLC automatic control system, suitable for pH value control in the wastewater treatment, is developed with simple structure and good control effect, which offers a practical approach for pH value automatic control in the treatment of industrial wastewater.%pH值自动控制是工业废水处理过程中的关键环节.在查阅大量文献的基础上,研究出一套新的适于污水处理pH值控制的结构简单且控制效果良好的PLC自动控制系统,为工业废水处理的pH值自动控制提供了一条切实可行的途径.

  15. Stratospheric ozone chemistry in the Antarctic: what controls the lowest values that can be reached and their recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, J.-U.; Brautzsch, K.; Pommrich, R.; Solomon, S.; Müller, R.

    2011-08-01

    Balloon-borne observations of ozone from Antarctic stations have been reported to reach ozone mixing ratios as low as about 10 ppbv at the 70 hPa level by late September. After reaching a minimum, ozone mixing ratios then increase to the ppmv level by late December. While the basic mechanisms causing the ozone hole have been known for more than 20 yr, the detailed chemical processes controlling how low the local concentration can fall, and how it recovers from the minimum have not been explored so far. Both of these aspects are investigated here by analysing results from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). We discuss the processes responsible for stopping of the catalytic ozone depletion. We show that an irreversible chlorine deactivation into HCl can occur either when ozone drops to very low values or by temperatures increasing above the PSC threshold in these simulations. As a consequence, the timing and mixing ratio of the minimum depends sensitively on model parameters including the ozone initialisation. The subsequent observed ozone increase between October and December is linked not only to transport, but also to photochemical ozone production, caused by oxygen photolysis and by the oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane.

  16. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were signifi-cantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30%-60%, 20%-130% and 30%-70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  17. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Wenjian; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Yi; Hao, Jifang; Min, Fengling; Zhou, Qingming; Duan, Xin

    2007-04-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30% 60%, 20% 130% and 30% 70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  18. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; DUAN Xin; ZHANG Hong; LI WenJian; LI Qiang; ZHOU GuangMing; XIE Yi; HAO JiFang; MIN FengLing; ZHOU QingMing

    2007-01-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOl of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30%-60%, 20% -130% and 30%-70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  19. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of values with personal examples in altering the functions of pain: comparison between acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Blarrina, Marisa; Luciano, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Valdivia, Sonsoles; Ortega, José; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, to compare the effect of establishing a motivational context of values on pain tolerance, believability, and reported pain, with three experimental conditions: pain acceptance (ACT condition), pain control (CONT condition), or no values (untrained condition). Second, the study aimed to isolate the impact of adding the corresponding coping strategies to both the ACT and the CONT conditions. Thirty adults were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. The participants went through the pain task in two occasions (Test I and Test II). In Test I, the effects of the ACT-values protocol (which established pain as part of valued action), the CONT-values protocol (which established high pain as opposed to valued action), and the no-values protocol, were compared. In Test II, the effect of adding the corresponding coping strategy to each condition (defusion for ACT vs. suppression for CONT) was examined. Test I showed a clear superiority of the ACT-values protocol in increasing tolerance and lowering pain believability. In Test II, the superiority of the ACT protocol was replicated, while the CONT protocol proved useful to reduce reported pain, in accordance with previous studies.

  1. Using E-Portfolios in a Field Experience Placement: Examining Student-Teachers' Attitudes towards Learning in Relationship to Personal Value, Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Trent, John; Ng, Eugenia M. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study extends the ownership of learning model by using e-portfolios in a field experience placement to examine student-teachers' attitudes towards learning in relationship to personal value, feeling in control and taking responsibility. A research model is presented based on research into ownership of learning. The student e-portfolio…

  2. Using E-Portfolios in a Field Experience Placement: Examining Student-Teachers' Attitudes towards Learning in Relationship to Personal Value, Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Trent, John; Ng, Eugenia M. W.

    2013-01-01

    This study extends the ownership of learning model by using e-portfolios in a field experience placement to examine student-teachers' attitudes towards learning in relationship to personal value, feeling in control and taking responsibility. A research model is presented based on research into ownership of learning. The student e-portfolio…

  3. 基于价值链管理的内部控制构建思想%Constructing Thoughts of Internal Control Based on Value Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其镇

    2011-01-01

    Development and application of information technology and value chain theory provide a good opportunity to improve the management level of enterprise and gain a competitive advantage. This paper, combining with the value chain theory, analyzes the key steps to build the internal control which can adapt to the management of value chain under the guidance of the internal control structure. This paper .argues that internal control should be value-added activities which take getting a competitive advantage as the strategic goal, take theall kinds of "flow" in business as the main line of control and constantly self-perfect.%信息技术与价值链理论的发展与应用,为提高企业管理水平,获得竞争优势提供了一个良好的契机.本文结合价值链理论,分析了在内部控制结构指导下构建一个能适应价值链管理的内部控制的关键步骤.本文认为,内部控制应是一个以获取竞争优势为战略目标,以企业内各种"流"为控制主线并能不断自我完善的增值活动.

  4. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  5. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  6. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  7. 内部控制、公司诉讼和公司价值%Internal Control,Corporate Lawsuits and Firm Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌; 周美华; 舒伟; 刘春丽

    2013-01-01

    Five Chinese government authorities and regulatory bodies jointly issued the Basic Standard for Enterprise Internal Control (C-SOX)in June 2008,which requires listed companies established within the territory of mainland China to establish,evaluate and assess the effectiveness of their internal controls,and encourage large and medium-sized Chinese en-terprises which are non-listed to fulfill these requirements.C-SOX stipulates that one of the internal control objectives is to provide reasonable assurance to realize the compliance of laws and regulations.However,whether the internal control can achieve this objective and im-prove firm value is still full of doubt.Considering these factors,we use corporate lawsuits data in Chinese capital market from 2000 to 2007 to investigate the relationship among inter-nal control,corporate lawsuits and firm value. Based on the contract theory,internal control is an important internal mechanism to en-sure the contract implementation.If internal control is not effective enough,there is of great probability that the stakeholders will seek for external mechanism to protect their own inter-est,such as lawsuits.As a result,companies with weaker internal control are more likely to be involved in litigation,which will influence firm value. We use empirical research method to solve these issues and find that:(1 )Compared to the firms with better internal control,the probability of being litigated is higher in firms with worse internal control;(2)Compared to other firms,the litigated firms have lower firm val-ue;(3)Further,among the litigated firms,the worse the internal control quality,the lower the firm value.In summary,internal control could enhance the compliance activity in firm’s operation,avoid the loss caused by lawsuit,and further improve firm value. Our paper makes three primary contributions.First,we extend the literature of lawsuit. There are few studies on the causes of lawsuit,and our results offer a new angle to discover

  8. Sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated parametric valuation and control signals in the midbrain during value-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Mareike M; Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan

    2012-05-16

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has detrimental effects on cognition, but the affected psychological processes and underlying neural mechanisms are still essentially unclear. Here we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational modeling to examine how SD alters neural representation of specific choice variables (subjective value and decision conflict) during reward-related decision making. Twenty-two human subjects underwent two functional neuroimaging sessions in counterbalanced order, once during rested wakefulness and once after 24 h of SD. Behaviorally, SD attenuated conflict-dependent slowing of response times, which was reflected in an attenuated conflict-induced decrease in drift rates in the drift diffusion model. Furthermore, SD increased overall choice stochasticity during risky choice. Model-based functional neuroimaging revealed attenuated parametric subjective value signals in the midbrain, parietal cortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex after SD. Conflict-related midbrain signals showed a similar downregulation. Findings are discussed with respect to changes in dopaminergic signaling associated with the sleep-deprived state.

  9. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2014-05-01

    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Value for money: economic evaluation of two different caries prevention programmes compared with standard care in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Vermaire; C. van Loveren; W.B.F. Brouwer; M. Krol

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  11. Value for Money: Economic Evaluation of Two Different Caries Prevention Programmes Compared with standard Care in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Loveren, C. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  12. Value for Money: Economic Evaluation of Two Different Caries Prevention Programmes Compared with standard Care in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Loveren, C. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  13. Value for money: economic evaluation of two different caries prevention programmes compared with standard care in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; van Loveren, C.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  14. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy does not provide any additional value in agoraphobic patients: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbroker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in specific phobias, but research in seriously impaired patients with agoraphobia is lacking. In this randomized controlled trial with patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder, VRET and expo

  15. Information Management Utilizing Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT) as Applied to a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    information. JIT relies on physical inventory control queues referred to by the Japanese name of kanban to signal the need to move raw materials from a...will notify the PE of a change in identified conditions. Suppliers of raw materials interface closely with their customers to implement kanban

  16. 食品的 pH 值与微生物控制%PH value and microbial control of food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君哲

    2015-01-01

    介绍了食品中 pH 值对微生物的影响;酸性食品与低酸性食品的不同,以及对微生物控制的操作差异。%The effect of the pH value of food on microbial was introduced. The difference of acid food and low acidity food and the different operation of microbial control were studied.

  17. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  18. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  19. The Invisible and Indeterminable Value of Ecology: From Malaria Control to Ecological Research in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Albert G

    2015-06-01

    This essay tells the story of the Emory University Field Station, a malaria research station in southwest Georgia that operated from 1939 to 1958. Using the tools of environmental history and the history of science, it examines the station's founding, its fieldwork, and its place within the broader history of malaria control, eradication, and research. A joint effort of Emory University, the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Communicable Disease Center (CDC), this station was closely aligned with a broader movement of ideas about tropical diseases across the globe, but it also offers a case study of how science in the field can veer from mainstream thinking and official policy. As the CDC and other disease-fighting organizations were moving toward a global strategy of malaria eradication through the use of DDT, the Emory Field Station developed a postsanitarian approach to malaria. Drawing on resistance among American conservationists to environmental transformation in the name of malaria control, the station's staff embraced the science and worldview of ecology in an effort to lighten public health's hand on the land and to link human health to the environment in innovative, if sometimes opaque, ways. This essay, then, argues that the Emory Field Station represents an early confluence of ecology with the biomedical sciences, something very similar to what is now the important discipline of disease ecology.

  20. Value of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity according to DEXA in well-controlled RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Winniczuk, Nina; Vega-Morales, David; García-Hernandez, Pedro A; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Arana-Guajardo, Ana C

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an indirect effect on body composition. Body mass index (BMI) is not a valid predictor of body fat in RA patients. To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obesity diagnosed according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in well-controlled RA patients. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. We used 3 different cutoffs for obesity as determined by DXA: >35% total fat, >40% total fat, and >35% central fat mass (central obesity). One hundred one patients were included. We found that 35% total fat corresponded to a BMI of 24kg/m(2), with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.917); 40% total fat to a BMI of 25kg/m(2), with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 39% (AUC 0.822); and 35% central fat mass to a BMI of 22kg/m(2), with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 84% (AUC 0.951). Obesity according to DXA was underdiagnosed when the classic BMI cutoffs were used in well-controlled RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. The Health Economic Value of Changes in Glycaemic Control, Weight and Rates of Hypoglycaemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Phil; Bennett, Hayley; Fellows, Jonathan; Priaulx, Jennifer; Bergenheim, Klas

    2016-01-01

    Aims Therapy-related consequences of treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), such as weight gain and hypoglycaemia, act as a barrier to attaining optimal glycaemic control, indirectly influencing the incidence of vascular complications and associated morbidity and mortality. This study quantifies the individual and combined contribution of changes in hypoglycaemia frequency, weight and HbA1c to predicted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) within a T1DM population. Materials and methods We describe the Cardiff Type 1 Diabetes (CT1DM) Model, originally informed by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and updated with the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study and Swedish National Diabetes Registry for microvascular and cardiovascular complications respectively. We report model validation results and the QALY impact of HbA1c, weight and hypoglycaemia changes. Results Validation results demonstrated coefficients of determination for clinical endpoints of R2 = 0.863 (internal R2 = 0.999; external R2 = 0.823), costs R2 = 0.980 and QALYs R2 = 0.951. Achieving and maintaining a 1% HbA1c reduction was estimated to provide 0.61 additional discounted QALYs. Weight changes of ±1kg, ±2kg or ±3kg led to discounted QALY changes of ±0.03, ±0.07 and ±0.10 respectively, while modifying hypoglycaemia frequency by -10%, -20% or -30% resulted in changes of -0.05, -0.11 and -0.17. The differences in discounted costs, life-years and QALYs associated with HbA1c 6% versus 10% were -£19,037, 2.49 and 2.35 respectively. Conclusions Using a model updated with contemporary epidemiological data, this study presents an outcome-focused perspective to assessing the health economic consequences of differing levels of glycaemic control in T1DM with and without weight and hypoglycaemia effects. PMID:27632534

  2. 一种基于用户评价值的动态访问控制模型%Dynamic access control model based on user evaluation value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 陈小辉; 张永恒

    2015-01-01

    In consideration of the problem that a lot of different users of the shopping websites have the same permissions though they have different credit rating,a dynamic access control model based on the user evaluation value is proposed. Assess permission authorization in RBAC and user evaluation value are combined in this model. By comprehensive evaluation of user evaluation value for shopping website,the permission scope of user is adjusted dynamically to achieve dynamic access control. The result of analyzing an example by this model shows that this access control model can improve the accuracy of user evalua⁃tion value. By the model,the dynamic permission assignment for the same roles with different permission was realized,and safe⁃ty and reliability of resources in shopping website were enhanced.%针对购物网站中大量信誉等级不同的用户却拥有相同权限的问题,提出一种依据用户评价值进行动态访问控制的模型。该模型将RBAC中权限的授权与用户的评价值相结合,通过综合评估购物网站用户评价值,对角色的权限范围进行动态调整,从而达到动态访问控制的目的。通过应用该模型对一个实例进行分析的结果表明,该访问控制模型能够提高用户评价值的准确性,实现了相同角色不同权限的动态分配,增强了购物网站中资源的安全性和可靠性。

  3. Predictive value of ovarian stroma measurement for cardiovascular risk in polycyctic ovary syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loverro Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To verify the feasibility of ovarian stromal evaluation and correlate ovarian parameteres (echogenicity and volume with hyperandrogenism, and both cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in PCOS. Methods Twenty four young PCOS patients and twelve age-matched control women were enrolled. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Ultrasound ovarian study included ovarian volume, stromal volume, stromal area and stromal area/total ovarian area ratio (S/A. Concerning hormones, insulin, LH, FSH, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, DHEAS, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, and SHBG were measured during the early follicular phase (days 2-5. Cardiovascular risk factors were represented by fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids (total and HDL-cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, von-Willebrand factor (vWF, and adiponectin. Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT was measured as a parameter of cardiovascular risk. Results A positive correlation between the S/A ratio and plasma levels of testosterone (p Conclusions This study shows that the ultrasound measurement of ovarian stroma is a predicting factor of hyperandrogenism degree, prothrombotic factors and cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS.

  4. Can an alternative backround-corrected [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG standard uptake value (SUV be used for monitoring tumor local control following lung cancer stereotactic body radiosurgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although [18F] FDG-positron emission tomography (PET provides vital information in diagnosing lung malignancies, the inherent uncertainties of standard uptake value (SUV compromises its confidence. People have attempted to reduce this uncertainty by comparing the normal tissues, such as liver and spleen. However, those common reference structures may be inappropriate in some cases when pathological conditions exist. Hence, using alternative reference structures becomes valuable in such practice.  The purpose of this study is to explore an alternative reference-correction method to reduce the inherent variation of SUV in the tumor or irradiated region. Methods: 106 analyzable FDG-PET scans from 49 cases who received lung SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The follow-up time ranges from 14.5 weeks to 113.2 weeks. The maximal SUV (SUVmax was measured within the lung lesion or its corresponding region in post-SBRT. SUVmax was then corrected (or divided by a reference SUV, or the mean SUV of the adjacent aorta, and results in the new SUVcmax. Results: SUVcmax of the positive group are significant higher than that of locally controlled cases (5.82 ± 3.10 vs. 1.45 ± 0.55, p = 0.026, while inconsequential differences were identified between the groups (p = 0.086. Respectively 85.2% and 96.3% of locally controlled cases post SBRT showed decreased values in the latter PET using SUVmax and SUVcmax. PET taken 24 weeks or sooner post-SBRT yielded higher uncertainties.Conclusion: Comparing with the conventional SUVmax, the alternative regional background-corrected SUV indicator, SUVcmax of PTV suggests a stronger correlation between low (<2.5 - 3.0 values and the local tumor control post lung SBRT for NSCLC. However, FDG-PET images taken earlier than 24 weeks post-SBRT presents larger variations in SUV of the irradiated region due to underlying radiation induced inflammatory changes, and is not recommended for

  5. Research on Economics and Management%Executives' Salary Control of State-owned Enterprises Based on Internal Performance and Market Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐炜; 曹腾飞

    2016-01-01

    本文以A股上市公司为样本数据,运用因子分析法构建企业内部绩效综合指标和企业市场价值综合指标,将高管薪酬与综合指标相结合,构成与企业业绩相联系的业绩薪酬指标,然后将国有企业与非国有企业的业绩薪酬指标进行对比,实证检验国有企业高管薪酬管控的必要性。同时,本文认为国有企业高管薪酬管控应参考高管为企业创造的市场价值,企业实际经营状况与市场估值差距越大,则国有企业高管经营成果与市场预期差距越大,通过构建企业内部绩效和市场价值对高管薪酬影响的模型,发现企业市场价值对高管薪酬有负向影响,进而可以以企业市场价值作为高管薪酬管控的参考依据。%By designing the comprehensive indexes of internal performance and market value with the factor analysis method based on A-share listed companies' data,this paper combines the executives' salary index with the comprehensive index to create a performance-salary index.Next,by comparing the comprehensive index between state-owned enterprises and private enterprises,it concludes that it is necessary to control salary in state-owned enterprises.Then,the salary control should accord with the market value created by executives.If the difference between the actual operating results and market valuation is large,the gap between the result of executive operation and market expectation will be big.By constructing the model of which internal performance and market value influence executive salary,this paper concludes that market value has a negative effect on executive salary,so market value index can be an instruction for salary controlling.

  6. Values, Challenges and Implementation of Legalization of Macro-control%宏观调控法治化:价值、难题与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新红

    2015-01-01

    Legalization of macro-control, the key to the rule of law, is designed to regulate, ensure and control the power of macro-control. Legalization of macro-control is of great values in improving the performance of macro-control, reducing the risk of macro-control, and preventing it from becoming a profit-making tool of the interest group, etc. But, there are at least three challenges, such as concept challenge, system challenge and technology challenge, in implementing the legalization of macro-control. These challenges constitute our environment of macro-control law. So, we should take methods which are combined with hardness and softness, according to discretion which is the characteristic of macro-control, based on the environment, to achieve the legalization of macro-control gradually.%宏观调控法治化旨在规范、保障和控制宏观调控权的行使,是依法治国的题中之义。宏观调控法治化对提高宏观调控的绩效、降低宏观调控的风险、预防宏观调控沦为利益集团牟利的工具等均具有重要价值。但是,宏观调控法治化的实现,至少面临三大难题:观念难题、制度难题和技术难题。这些难题构成我国实现宏观调控法治化的环境。立足于这一环境,结合宏观调控相机抉择的特点,采取柔中带刚、从柔至刚和刚柔相济的方法,逐步实现宏观调控法治化。

  7. Leaf wax n-alkane δD values are determined early in the ontogeny of Populus trichocarpa leaves when grown under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Dawson, Todd E; Vieth, Andrea; Sachse, Dirk

    2011-10-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of leaf wax n-alkanes record valuable information on plant and ecosystem water relations. It remains, however, unknown if leaf wax n-alkane δD values record only environmental variation during the brief period of time of leaf growth or if leaf wax n-alkane δD values are affected by environmental variability throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. To resolve these uncertainties, we irrigated Populus trichocarpa trees with a pulse of deuterium-enriched water and used compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope analyses to test if the applied tracer could be recovered from leaf wax n-alkanes of leaves that were at different stages of their development during the tracer application. Our experiment revealed that only leaf wax n-alkanes from leaves that had developed during the time of the tracer application were affected, while leaves that were already fully matured at the time of the tracer application were not. We conclude from our study that under controlled environmental conditions, leaf wax n-alkanes are synthesized only early in the ontogeny of a leaf. Our experiment has implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values in an environmental context, as it suggests that these compounds record only a brief period of the environmental variability that a leaf experiences throughout its life.

  8. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p < 0.001), the correlation coefficients were comparable. Finally, better motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  9. A Novel Choice Procedure of Magnetic Component Values for Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converters with a Variable Dead-Time Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output capacitances of switches. Dead-time is usually calculated under a given set of pre-defined load condition which results in that the available energies are insufficient and ZVS capability is lost at light loads. In this paper, the PSFB converter is controlled by variable dead-time method and thus full advantage can be taken of the energies stored in magnetic components. Considering that dead-time has a great effect on ZVS, the relationship between available energies and magnetic component values is formulated by analyzing the equivalent circuits during dead-time intervals. Magnetic component values are chosen based on such relationship. The proposed choice procedure can make the available energies greater than the required energies for ZVS operation over a wide range of load conditions. Moreover, the burst mode control is adopted in order to reduce the standby power loss. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis. The proposed method is a simple and practical solution to extend the ZVS range.

  10. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  11. Analysis of a calculation method for the determination of the value of safety or control bars; Analisis de un metodo de calculo para la determinacion del valor de barras de seguridad o control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Torres A, C.; Filio L, C. [ININ, Gcia. de Reactores, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1982-09-15

    Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the R{phi} Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)

  12. Ultimate Controller,Government Intervention and Corporate Diversified Value%终极控制人、政府干预与公司多元化价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裕; 刘东博

    2012-01-01

    考察我国转轨经济背景下政府干预与公司多元化价值的关系。研究发现,政府对经济干预程度越高,上市公司多元化价值越低,且当终极控制人性质为国有时,这种现象更为明显。政府干预下的公司多元化经营,由于更多地出于政治目标和社会职能的考虑,降低了公司价值,特别是国有控股公司,政府更容易影响公司多元化价值。研究增进了对经济转型时期政企关系的认识,对理解新兴市场公司的多元化价值影响也提供了新的视角。%This paper investigates the relationship between government intervention and corporate diversified value in the context of transition economy of our country.The results show that the corporate diversified value becomes lower as the level of government intervention increases,and this appears more significant when the ultimate controller is a state owner.Because of government intervention,corporations adopt diversified management Considering more of political targets and social function,they reduces firm value.This case is still true when it comes to the state owned holding companies.This study promotes our cognition on the relation between corporate and government in the time of transition economy and provides new perspectives on the corporate diversified value in the emerging market economy.

  13. Improved noninvasive prediction of liver fibrosis by liver stiffness measurement in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease accounting for controlled attenuation parameter values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Salvatore; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Cammà, Calogero; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Marra, Fabio; Vergniol, Julien; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Di Marco, Vito; Merrouche, Wassil; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Barbara, Marco; Le-Bail, Brigitte; Arena, Umberto; Craxì, Antonio; de Ledinghen, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) frequently overestimates the severity of liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a new parameter provided by the same machine used for LSM and associated with both steatosis and body mass index, the two factors mostly affecting LSM performance in NAFLD. We aimed to determine whether prediction of liver fibrosis by LSM in NAFLD patients is affected by CAP values. Patients (n = 324) were assessed by clinical and histological (Kleiner score) features. LSM and CAP were performed using the M probe. CAP values were grouped by tertiles (lower 132-298, middle 299-338, higher 339-400 dB/m). Among patients with F0-F2 fibrosis, mean LSM values, expressed in kilopascals, increased according to CAP tertiles (6.8 versus 8.6 versus 9.4, P = 0.001), and along this line the area under the curve of LSM for the diagnosis of F3-F4 fibrosis was progressively reduced from lower to middle and further to higher CAP tertiles (0.915, 0.848-0.982; 0.830, 0.753-0.908; 0.806, 0.723-0.890). As a consequence, in subjects with F0-F2 fibrosis, the rates of false-positive LSM results for F3-F4 fibrosis increased according to CAP tertiles (7.2% in lower versus 16.6% in middle versus 18.1% in higher). Consistent with this, a decisional flowchart for predicting fibrosis was suggested by combining both LSM and CAP values.

  14. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  16. Comparison of myocardial T1 and T2 values in 3 T with T2* in 1.5 T in patients with iron overload and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriel C; Rothstein, Tamara; Junqueira, Flavia P; Fernandes, Elsa; Greiser, Andreas; Strecker, Ralph; Pessoa, Viviani; Lima, Ronaldo S L; Gottlieb, Ilan

    2016-05-01

    Myocardial iron quantification remains limited to 1.5 T systems with T2* measurement. The present study aimed at comparing myocardial T2* values at 1.5 T to T1 and T2 mapping at 3.0 T in patients with iron overload and healthy controls. A total of 17 normal volunteers and seven patients with a history of myocardial iron overload were prospectively enrolled. Mid-interventricular septum T2*, native T1 and T2 times were quantified on the same day, using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence at 1.5 T and T1 and T2 mapping sequences at 3.0 T, respectively. Subjects with myocardial iron overload (T2* iron overload quantification.

  17. 品管圈提高产妇纯母乳喂养率的价值探讨%Quality control circle improve maternal exclusive breastfeeding rate value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈提高产妇纯母乳喂养率的价值。方法选取我院2014年4月~2015年7月收治产科分娩产妇126例研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和实验组,各63例。对照组采取常规母乳喂养教育与指导,实验组在此基础上实施品管圈活动。对两组产妇的母乳喂养情况进行记录与分析。结果实验组产妇的母乳喂养成功率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组产妇的乳腺炎及乳房胀痛发生率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对产科产妇在常规母乳教育与指导的基础上实施品管圈活动,能有效提升产妇的产母乳喂养率,对于降低乳腺炎等疾病的发病风险作用重大,值得临床推广。%Objective To study the quality control circle of improving maternal exclusive breastfeeding rate value.Methods Select our hospital 126 cases of maternal obstetric delivery analysis and research, in accordance with the principle of random number average divide the 63 cases of patients as control group and observation group. Control group 63 cases take regular breastfeeding education and guidance, observation group 63 cases on the basis of the implementation of quality management circle activity.On two groups of maternal breastfeeding for recording and analysis.Results Observation group of maternal breastfeeding success rate is signiifcantly higher than the control group,(P< 0.05); Observation group of mastitis and maternal breast tenderness incidence was signiifcantly lower than the control group, (P< 0.05.)Conclusion Of obstetrical maternal in regular breast education and guidance on the basis of the implementation of quality management circle activity, can effectively improve the yield of maternal breastfeeding rate, to reduce the risk of diseases such as mastitis effect, worth clinical promotion.

  18. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts.......The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  19. The value of adding transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim) to traditional therapy for post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Li, Y; Huang, R; Yin, J; Shen, Y; Shi, J

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is not uncommon after stroke. Dysphagia may delay the functional recovery and substantially affects the quality of life after stroke, mainly if lest untreated. To detect and treat dysphagia as early as possible is critical for patients' recovery after stroke. Electrical stimulation has been reported as a treatment for pharyngeal dysphagia in recent studies, but the therapeutic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) therapy lacks convincing supporting evidence, needs further clinical investigation. To investigate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) and traditional swallowing therapy on recovery of swallowing difficulties after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. 135 stroke patients who had a diagnosis of dysphagia at the age between 50-80. 135 subjects were randomly divided into three groups: traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45), VitalStim® therapy (N. = 45), and VitalStim® therapy plus traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45). The traditional swallowing therapy included basic training and direct food intake training. Electrical stimulation was applied by an occupational therapist, using a modified hand-held battery-powered electrical stimulator (VitalStim® Dual Channel Unit and electrodes, Chattanooga Group, Hixson, TN, USA). Surface electromyography (sEMG), the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA), Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess swallowing function before and 4 weeks after the treatment. The study included 118 subjects with dysphagia, 40 in the traditional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim® therapy group, 38 in the VitalStim and traditional swallowing therapy group. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA and VFSS scores in each group after the treatment (P sEMG value (917.1 ± 91.2), SSA value (21.8 ± 3.5), oral transit time (0.4 ± 0.1) and pharyngeal transit time (0.8 ± 0.1) were

  20. Establishing an adjusted p-value threshold to control the family-wide type 1 error in genome wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey-Wilson Joan E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By assaying hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, genome wide association studies (GWAS allow for a powerful, unbiased review of the entire genome to localize common genetic variants that influence health and disease. Although it is widely recognized that some correction for multiple testing is necessary, in order to control the family-wide Type 1 Error in genetic association studies, it is not clear which method to utilize. One simple approach is to perform a Bonferroni correction using all n single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the genome; however this approach is highly conservative and would "overcorrect" for SNPs that are not truly independent. Many SNPs fall within regions of strong linkage disequilibrium (LD ("blocks" and should not be considered "independent". Results We proposed to approximate the number of "independent" SNPs by counting 1 SNP per LD block, plus all SNPs outside of blocks (interblock SNPs. We examined the effective number of independent SNPs for Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS panels. In the CEPH Utah (CEU population, by considering the interdependence of SNPs, we could reduce the total number of effective tests within the Affymetrix and Illumina SNP panels from 500,000 and 317,000 to 67,000 and 82,000 "independent" SNPs, respectively. For the Affymetrix 500 K and Illumina 317 K GWAS SNP panels we recommend using 10-5, 10-7 and 10-8 and for the Phase II HapMap CEPH Utah and Yoruba populations we recommend using 10-6, 10-7 and 10-9 as "suggestive", "significant" and "highly significant" p-value thresholds to properly control the family-wide Type 1 error. Conclusion By approximating the effective number of independent SNPs across the genome we are able to 'correct' for a more accurate number of tests and therefore develop 'LD adjusted' Bonferroni corrected p-value thresholds that account for the interdepdendence of SNPs on well-utilized commercially available SNP "chips

  1. The diagnostic value of controlled oral word association test-FAS and category fluency in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Small, Brent J; Raj, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that decreases in both letter fluency and category fluency may be present in addition to memory impairment in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the clinical utility of these fluency measures is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine what, if any, diagnostic value letter and category fluency provide in differentiating single-domain aMCI from normal cognition. Data from 66 individuals [33 cognitively normal (CN) and 33 aMCI] between the ages of 66 and 87 years participating in the Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were compared on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)-FAS and Category Fluency test, both in terms of raw and scaled scores. Participants were matched on age, education and sex. Two-tailed independent sample t-tests found statistically significant differences between the CN and aMCI groups for both raw and scaled scores of COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency (p Fluency did not significantly improve diagnostic accuracy when combined with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall. Although decreased COWAT-FAS and Category Fluency performance may be present in single-domain aMCI, these tests do not improve the ability of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised delayed recall to differentiate aMCI from CN individuals. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Fair Value or Market Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies reg...

  3. A double-blinded randomised controlled study of the value of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium therapy in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, A A; Al-deeb, A E

    2013-03-01

    Persistent mechanical irritation of the nerve root sets up a series of events mediating sensitisation of the dorsal roots and dorsal horns in the spinal cord. Current evidence supports the role of magnesium in blocking central sensitisation through its effect on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. We studied the role of sequential intravenous and oral magnesium infusion in patients with chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component. We recruited a cohort of 80 patients with chronic low back pain with a Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms pain scale score ≥ 12, who were receiving a physical therapy programme. All patients were treated with anticonvulsants, antidepressants and simple analgesics; in addition 40 patients received placebo for 6 weeks (control group), while the other 40 patients received an intravenous magnesium infusion for 2 weeks followed by oral magnesium capsules for another 4 weeks (magnesium group). Patients were asked to rate their pain using a numerical rating scale. Lumbar spine range of motion was also determined using a long-arm goniometer. In the magnesium group, the patients' numerical rating scales revealed a significant reduction in pain intensity. The mean (SD) pre-treatment value was 7.5 (2.2) compared with 4.7 (1.8) at 6 months (p = 0.034). The reduction in pain intensity was accompanied by significant improvement in lumbar spine range of motion during the follow-up period. The mean (SD) values of flexion, extension and lateral flexion movements before treatment and at 6-month follow up were 22.2 (8.4) vs 34.7 (11.5) (p = 0.018), 11.8 (3.4) vs 16.9 (3.5) (p = 0.039), 11.4 (3.6) vs 17.2 (4.4) (p = 0.035), respectively. Our findings show that a 2-week intravenous magnesium infusion followed by 4 weeks of oral magnesium supplementation can reduce pain intensity and improve lumbar spine mobility during a 6-month period in patients with refractory chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component.

  4. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  5. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  6. The clinical value of membranes in bone augmentation procedures in oral implantology: 
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Brend P; Roeloffs, Maarten W K; Wolvius, Eppo B; Pijpe, Justin

    To determine the clinical value of membranes in bone augmentation procedures such as ridge augmentation with simultaneous (one-stage) and delayed (two-stage) implant placement, sinus augmentation surgery, ridge preservation and immediate implant placement. In April 2016, Embase, Medline (Ovid-SP), Cochrane Central, Web of Science and PubMed (as supplied by the publisher) were searched. There were no restrictions regarding language or publication date. Randomised controlled trials that reported membranes in bone augmentation procedures with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months after implant loading or that described geometrical changes of the bone graft at re-entry were included. Membrane placement had to be the only variable in the procedure. Outcomes were implant failure, complications, horizontal bone gain and resorption, graft resorption, defect height reduction, marginal bone loss around implants, aesthetic results and patient satisfaction. The results were pooled using fixed-effect models with mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes and odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous outcomes. After screening the titles and abstracts of 1843 papers, 32 potentially eligible articles were selected. Seventeen articles involving 10 trials were included in this review. These studies presented outcome data for 355 patients. Seven trials were considered to be at a high risk of bias, two at a low risk of bias and one at an unclear risk of bias. Insufficient evidence was found to determine whether there were differences in implant failure rates, marginal bone level changes, aesthetic results or patient satisfaction. For one-stage ridge augmentation (two trials; n = 52), there was evidence of more horizontal bone gain (MD: 0.84 mm, 95% CI: 0.46 to 1.21, P interest and source-of-funding statement: The authors declare that they have no possible conflicts of interest. No funding for this review was received.

  7. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  8. Controlled assembly of high-order nanoarray metal structures on bulk copper surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wanwan; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    We report a new one-step maskless method to fabricate high-order nanoarray metal structures comprising periodic grooves and particle chains on a single-crystal Cu surface using femtosecond laser pulses at the central wavelength of 400 nm. Remarkably, when a circularly polarized infrared femtosecond laser pulse (spectrally centered at 800 nm) pre-irradiates the sample surface, the geometric dimensions of the composite structure can be well controlled. With increasing the energy fluence of the infrared laser pulse, both the groove width and particle diameter are observed to reduce, while the measured spacing-to-diameter ratio of the nanoparticles tends to present an increasing tendency. A physical scenario is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms: as the infrared femtosecond laser pulse pre-irradiates the target, the copper surface is triggered to display anomalous transient physical properties, on which the subsequently incident Gaussian blue laser pulse is spatially modulated into fringe-like energy depositions via the excitation of ultrafast surface plasmon. During the following relaxation processes, the periodically heated thin-layer regions can be transferred into the metastable liquid rivulets and then they break up into nanodroplet arrays owing to the modified Rayleigh-like instability. This investigation indicates a simple integrated approach for active designing and large-scale assembly of complexed functional nanostructures on bulk materials.

  9. Reinforcement Learning by Value Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Fairbank, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the value-gradient is introduced and developed in the context of reinforcement learning. It is shown that by learning the value-gradients exploration or stochastic behaviour is no longer needed to find locally optimal trajectories. This is the main motivation for using value-gradients, and it is argued that learning value-gradients is the actual objective of any value-function learning algorithm for control problems. It is also argued that learning value-gradients is significantly more efficient than learning just the values, and this argument is supported in experiments by efficiency gains of several orders of magnitude, in several problem domains. Once value-gradients are introduced into learning, several analyses become possible. For example, a surprising equivalence between a value-gradient learning algorithm and a policy-gradient learning algorithm is proven, and this provides a robust convergence proof for control problems using a value function with a general function approximator.

  10. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  11. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of a single bolus intravenous alfentanil in CT colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boellaard Thierry N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although CT colonography is a less invasive alternative for colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer, procedural pain is common. In several studies, CT colonography pain and burden is higher than in colonoscopy. Apart from discomfort, anxiety and its related stress-induced peri- procedural side effects, this may influence the adherence for CT colonography as a possible screening tool for colorectal cancer. We hypothesize that a single bolus intravenous alfentanil will give a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain defined as at least 1.3 point reduction on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS. Methods/Design A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which patients scheduled for elective CT colonography in a single tertiary centre are eligible for inclusion. The first 90 consenting patient will be block-randomized to either the alfentanil group or the placebo group. Before bowel insufflation, the alfentanil group receives a single bolus intravenous alfentanil 7.5 μg/kg dissolved in 0.9% NaCl, while the placebo group receives an intravenous bolus injection of pure 0.9% NaCl. For both groups an equal amount of fluid per kilogram (75 μL/kg is injected. The primary outcome is the difference in maximum pain on an 11-point NRS. Secondary outcomes include: pain and burden of different CT colonography aspects, side effects, procedural time and recovery time. For the primary outcome an independent samples t-test is performed and a P value Discussion This study will provide evidence whether a single bolus intravenous alfentanil gives a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain during CT colonography. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2902 This trial will be conducted in accordance with the protocol and in compliance with the moral, ethical, and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989 and Good Clinical Practice

  12. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay using bench top flow cytometer for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation in fertility laboratories: protocol, reference values, and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Ahmad, Gulfam; Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed protocol and quality control steps for measuring sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay using a new bench top flow cytometer, determine the reference value of SDF, and assess sensitivity, specificity, and distribution of SDF in infertile men and controls with proven and unproven fertility. Semen specimens from 95 controls and 261 infertile men referred to a male infertility testing laboratory were tested for SDF by TUNEL assay using Apo-Direct kit and a bench top flow cytometer. Percentage of cells positive for TUNEL was calculated. Inter- and intraobserver variability was examined. TUNEL cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, and distribution of different cutoff values in controls and infertile patients were calculated. The reference value of SDF by TUNEL assay was 16.8 % with a specificity of 91.6 % and sensitivity of 32.6 %. The positive and negative predictive values were 91.4 and 33.1 %, respectively. The upper limit of DNA damage in infertile men was significantly higher (68.9 %) than that in the controls (19.6 %). TUNEL assay using flow cytometry is a reproducible and easy method to determine SDF. At a cutoff point of 16.8 %, the test showed high specificity and positive predictive value. The results of this test could identify infertile men whose sperm DNA fragmentation does not contribute to their infertility and confirm that a man who tests positive is likely to be infertile due to elevated sperm DNA fragmentation.

  13. The value of completion axillary treatment in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients undergoing a mastectomy : A Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, L.M.; de Wilt, J.H.; van Dalen, T.; van der Hage, J.A.; Strobbe, L.J.; Boersma, L.J.; Linn, S.C.; Lobbes, M.B.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; van de Vijver, K.K.; Westenberg, A.G.; Kessels, A.G.; Smidt, M.L.; de Vries, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trials failed to demonstrate additional value of completion axillary lymph node dissection in case of limited sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. It has been suggested that the low regional recurrence rates in these trials might

  14. The value of completion axillary treatment in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients undergoing a mastectomy : a Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roozendaal, L. M.; de Wilt, J. H. W.; van Dalen, T.; van der Hage, J. A.; Strobbe, L. J. A.; Boersma, L. J.; Linn, S. C.; Lobbes, M. B. I.; Poortmans, P. M. P.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; Van de Vijver, K. K. B. T.; de Vries, J.; Westenberg, A. H.; Kessels, A. G. H.; Smidt, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trials failed to demonstrate additional value of completion axillary lymph node dissection in case of limited sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. It has been suggested that the low regional recurrence rates in these trials might

  15. The value of completion axillary treatment in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients undergoing a mastectomy : A Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, L.M.; de Wilt, J.H.; van Dalen, T.; van der Hage, J.A.; Strobbe, L.J.; Boersma, L.J.; Linn, S.C.; Lobbes, M.B.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; van de Vijver, K.K.; Westenberg, A.G.; Kessels, A.G.; Smidt, M.L.; de Vries, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trials failed to demonstrate additional value of completion axillary lymph node dissection in case of limited sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. It has been suggested that the low regional recurrence rates in these trials might

  16. The value of completion axillary treatment in sentinel node positive breast cancer patients undergoing a mastectomy: a Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, L.M. van; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Dalen, T. van; Hage, J.A. van der; Strobbe, L.J.A.; Boersma, L.J.; Linn, S.C.; Lobbes, M.B.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.; Vijver, K.K. Van de; Vries, J de; Westenberg, A.H.; Kessels, A.G.; Smidt, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trials failed to demonstrate additional value of completion axillary lymph node dissection in case of limited sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy. It has been suggested that the low regional recurrence rates in these trials might

  17. THE WORK OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTACTOR WITH A MINIMUM VALUE OF THE VOLTAGE OF THE RINGS CONTROL THE ROLLING STOCK OF RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marenych

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on securing of the main contacts with normalized opening and their pressing under minimal voltage (allowed in operation in the control circuits have been developed.

  18. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  19. Variation of flux control coefficient of cytochrome c oxidase and of the other respiratory chain complexes at different values of protonmotive force occurs by a threshold mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarato, Giovanni; Piccoli, Claudia; Scrima, Rosella; Capitanio, Nazzareno

    2011-09-01

    The metabolic control analysis was applied to digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell line to assess the flux control exerted by cytochrome c oxidase on the mitochondrial respiration. Experimental conditions eliciting different energy/respiratory states in mitochondria were settled. The results obtained show that the mitochondrial electrochemical potential accompanies a depressing effect on the control coefficient exhibited by the cytochrome c oxidase. Both the components of the protonmotive force, i.e. the voltage (ΔΨ(m)) and the proton (ΔpH(m)) gradient, displayed a similar effect. Quantitative estimation of the ΔΨ(m) unveiled that the voltage-dependent effect on the control coefficient of cytochrome c oxidase takes place sharply in a narrow range of membrane potential from 170-180 to 200-210mV consistent with the physiologic transition from state 3 to state 4 of respiration. Extension of the metabolic flux control analysis to the NADH dehydrogenase and bc(1) complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulted in a similar effect. A mechanistic model is put forward whereby the respiratory chain complexes are proposed to exist in a voltage-mediated threshold-controlled dynamic equilibrium between supercomplexed and isolated states. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is a Mass Prevention and Control Program for Pandemic (H1N1 2009 Good Value for Money? Evidence from the Chinese Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyan Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide guidance on the efficient allocation of health resources when handling public health emergencies in the future, the study evaluated the H1N1 influenza prevention and control program in Hubei Province of China using cost-benefit analysis.Methods: The costs measured the resources consumed and other expenses incurred in the prevention and control of H1N1. The assumed benefits include resource consumption and economic losses which could be avoided by the measures for the prevention and control of H1N1. The benefit was evaluated by counterfactual thinking, which estimates the resource consumption and economic losses could be happened without any measures for the prevention and control, which have been avoided after measures were taken to prevent and control H1N1 in Hubei Province, these constitutes the benefit of this project.Results: The total costs of this program were 38.81 million U.S. dollars, while the total benefit was assessed as 203.71 million U.S. dollars. The net benefit was 164.9 million U.S. dollars with a cost-effectiveness ratio of 1:5.25.Conclusions: The joint prevention and control strategy introduced by Hubei for H1N1 influenza is cost-effective.

  1. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  2. Calibration of Difference Value for the Method of Quality Control to the Sample Being Tailed Inspection%对样本接力跟踪检测质量控制法的差值校正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志武

    2012-01-01

    目的 在“样本接力跟踪检测质量控制法的初步应用”一文方法的基础上,针对在实际应用中可能出现的WBC计数“集中值质控样本(Z样本)”“集中度”不可控的情况,创建“差值校正”方案,以使该法能在更自然宽限的范围择选“Z样本”,使“累积差值(Si)”更准确灵敏地跟踪于“0”偏差.方法 对“接力法”原理及检测原理、偏差本质作进一步延伸分析解读,创建差值校正公式,即:校正差值(当批次Z样本)+当批次Z样本差值+(首批次Z样本首测值一当批次Z样本首测值)×当批次Z样本偏差%;以校正差值来计算Si.结果 接力法系列Z样本原始差值经校正后,均相当于在首批次Z样本含量值水平下产生的“差值”,即时消除了Z样本含量值“集中度”低时对Si可信度及灵敏度的影响.结论 差值校正公式具有合理性,可解决因系列Z样本值的不统一性而引入的“差值干扰”;差值校正后可提高Z样本同时开展多项目质控的适用性.%Objective On method from the basis of "initial application of quality control method for the sample tailed inspection" aimed at the incontrollable situation of "collection degree" for "collection value quality controlled sample (Z sample)" during the period of counting WBC which maybe appear in the actual application, set up a plan "calibration of difference value" to make the method could had a nature wider selection scope in"Z sample" for the purpose of "cumulation of difference value( Si)"could tail more nicety and sensitive to the"O"difference. Methods By more extension analysis to the method theory, test principle and deviation reason, the calibration formula could be set up. Namely,difference value of calibration (Z sample of actual bench )= actual bench difference value of Z sample+(the first value of the first Z sample-first value of actual bench Z sample) X difference value of actual bench Z sample%, Si was

  3. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays.

  4. Risk governance for infectious diseases : Exploring the feasibility and added value of the IRGC-framework for Dutch infectious disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenrijs, J. C M; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, M. M.; Van Den Kerkhof, J. H T C; Runhaar, H. A C

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Dutch system for control of infectious diseases is considered to be high. However, sometimes (e.g. during the Mexican flu and HPV vaccination in 2009, during the Q-fever outbreak from 2008 to 2011) the system encounters problems in terms of perceived effectiveness and public

  5. Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Edith; Jia, Beibei; Fusheng, Guo; FrancoDixon, Mary Ann; DeHaan, Nicoline; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the poultry sector in China went through a phase of tremendous growth as well as rapid intensification and concentration. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong province, South China and started spreading throughout Asia in early 2004. Since then, control of the disease in China has relied heavily on wide-scale preventive vaccination combined with movement control, quarantine and stamping out. This strategy has been successful in drastically reducing the number of outbreaks during the past 5years. However, HPAIV H5N1 is still circulating and is regularly isolated in traditional live bird markets (LBMs) where viral infection can persist, which represent a public health hazard for people visiting them. The use of social network analysis in combination with epidemiological surveillance in South China has identified areas where the success of current strategies for HPAI control in the poultry production sector may benefit from better knowledge of poultry trading patterns and the LBM network configuration as well as their capacity for maintaining HPAIV H5N1 infection. We produced a set of LBM network maps and estimated the associated risk of HPAIV H5N1 within LBMs and along poultry market chains, providing new insights into how live poultry trade and infection are intertwined. More specifically, our study provides evidence that several biosecurity factors such as daily cage cleaning, daily cage disinfection or manure processing contribute to a reduction in HPAIV H5N1 presence in LBMs. Of significant importance is that the results of our study also show the association between social network indicators and the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in specific network configurations such as the one represented by the counties of origin of the birds traded in LBMs. This new information could be used to develop more targeted and effective control interventions.

  6. Predictive value of the heart rate reserve in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation treated according to a strict rate-control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Nicolas; Scavée, Christophe; Marchandise, Sébastien; Pasquet, Agnès; de Meester, Christophe; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît

    2014-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated according to a rate-control strategy seem to have excellent outcomes as long as their ventricular response is kept low. However, the stringency of the rate control to adopt with pharmacologic agents is not clearly defined. In particular, the clinical importance of preserving a heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) during exercise has not yet been investigated. We prospectively analysed the HR response profiles during exercise of 202 patients with permanent AF for whom a strict rate-control strategy was the preferred treatment option. Patients were asked to perform an exercise test on a cycle ergometer until exhaustion. The HRR was defined as the difference between the HR at peak exercise and the resting HR before exercise, divided by the resting HR. Patients were followed-up for at least 24 months or until death or hospitalization for heart failure. The mean resting HR was 80 ± 16 b.p.m. After a median follow-up period of 3 ± 1 years, 31 patients (15.3%) of our initial population (80% male, age 72 ± 12 years) presented either a hospitalization for heart failure (n = 13, 6.4%) or a death (n = 18, 8.9%). Using a univariate analysis, we found that these events correlated with a lower exercise capacity [hazard ratio, HR 0.98, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.96; 0.99), P heart failure was better in patients with a preserved HRR (HRR >40%, P rate-control strategy is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Goehl, D R

    2015-08-01

    Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases. The objective of this research was to compare health and performance outcomes using either traditional BRD control (visual observation and metaphylaxis) or REDI during a 60-d postarrival phase in high-risk beef calves. The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 8 replicates at 3 different facilities over a 19-mo period. In each replicate, a single load of calves was randomly allocated to receive either conventional management (CONV; total = 8) or REDI (total = 8) as the method for BRD control. Cattle were monitored with each diagnostic method for the first 30 d on feed and performance variables were collected until approximately 60 d after arrival. Statistical differences ( 0.10) in risk of BRD treatment and REDI calves were not administered antimicrobials at arrival; therefore, REDI calves had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of doses of antimicrobials/calf (0.75 ± 0.1 doses) compared with CONV calves (1.67 ± 0.1 doses). In this trial, the REDI system was comparable to conventional management with the potential advantages of earlier BRD diagnosis and decreased use of antimicrobials. Further research should be performed to evaluate the longer-term impacts of the 2 systems.

  8. The Additional Value of an E-Mail to Inform Healthcare Professionals of a Drug Safety Issue: A Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Sigrid; de Graeff, Pieter A; Straus, Sabine M J M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Mol, Peter G M

    2013-09-01

    The usefulness and the impact of Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs, or 'Dear Doctor letters') in changing the clinical behaviour of physicians have been debated. Changes in the current risk communication methods should preferably be based on the preferences of the healthcare professionals, to optimize the uptake of the message. The aim of this study was to assess whether safety issues are communicated more effectively with an additional e-mail sent by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) than with the DHPC only. A randomized controlled trial was conducted amongst ophthalmologists and hospital pharmacists in the Netherlands, who were the target group of a DHPC that was issued for pegaptanib, a drug that is administered intra-ocularly in patients with macular degeneration. The intervention group (N = 110) received the pegaptanib DHPC, as well as the MEB e-mail. The control group (N = 105) received the traditional paper-based DHPC only. Two weeks later, the study population received an invitation to fill out an online questionnaire. Questions were asked about the respondents' knowledge and attitude regarding the pegaptanib issue, and any action they had consequently taken. Additional questions were asked about their satisfaction with the DHPC and the e-mail, and their preferred source of such information. Forty respondents (18.6%) completed the questionnaire. Eighty-one percent of the respondents in the intervention group (N = 21) and 47% of the control group (N = 19) correctly indicated that a serious increase in intra-ocular pressure could be caused by pegaptanib injections (Fishers' exact test, p = 0.046). Nine respondents in the intervention group versus none of the control group respondents indicated that they had taken action in response to the pegaptanib safety issue (Fishers' exact test, p = 0.01). The majority of both the intervention group and the control group confirmed that they would like to receive an MEB e-mail with safety

  9. The value of antibody-coated bacteria in tracheal aspirates for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Forte, Daniel Neves; Forte, Antonio Carlos; Mimica, Igor; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading type of hospital-acquired infection in ICU patients. The diagnosis of VAP is challenging, mostly due to limitations of the diagnostic methods available. The aim of this study was to determine whether antibody-coated bacteria (ACB) evaluation can improve the specificity of endotracheal aspirate (EA) culture in VAP diagnosis. We conducted a diagnostic case-control study, enrolling 45 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Samples of EA were obtained from patients with and without VAP (cases and controls, respectively), and we assessed the number of bacteria coated with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (IgA, IgM, or IgG) or an FITC-conjugated polyvalent antibody. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we determined the proportion of ACB among a fixed number of 80 bacteria. The median proportions of ACB were significantly higher among the cases (n = 22) than among the controls (n = 23)-IgA (60.6% vs. 22.5%), IgM (42.5% vs. 12.5%), IgG (50.6% vs. 17.5%), and polyvalent (75.6% vs. 33.8%)-p microscopia de imunofluorescência, foi determinada a proporção de BRA em um número fixo de 80 bactérias. A mediana das proporções de BRA foi significativamente maior nos casos (n = 22) que nos controles (n = 23) - IgA (60,6% vs. 22,5%), IgM (42,5% vs. 12,5%), IgG (50,6% vs. 17,5%) e polivalente (75,6% vs. 33,8%) - p 95,0% e > 93,3%, respectivamente. O número de BRA em amostras de AT foi maior nos casos que nos controles. Nossos achados indicam que a avaliação de BRA no AT é uma ferramenta promissora para aumentar a especificidade do diagnóstico de PAVM. A técnica pode ser custo-efetiva e, portanto, útil em locais com poucos recursos, com as vantagens de minimizar resultados falso-positivos e evitar o tratamento excessivo.

  10. 生物质酶催化过程中pH值的非线性控制%Nonlinear control of pH value in biomass catalytic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何献忠

    2013-01-01

    The pH neutralization process has the highly nonlinear characteristic, when you add neutralizer or interference, pH value near the neutralization point changes a lot, while the pH value in the else points are opposite. It is very difficult to control. According to the characteristics of the pH controls in enzyme catalysis, using a parameter adaptive state controller and Hammerstein model control strategies, employing recursive least squares parameter estimation, static nonlinear characteristics of the controller upside down process non-linear part of the compensation and Hammerstein model is used to design the nonlinear model predictive control algorithm. Compared with other controller state for a difficult to control process this has a very good effect. The system engages in uncertainties real-time compensation, so as to improve the enzyme catalytic process in the stability of the enzyme activity. When the temperature random variation occurred, we carried out various controls in the field experimental study, in the enzyme-catalyzed process in the pilot test. Due to the mutual coupling of the temperature and pH in the catalytic process. The enzyme catalysis in the process of test, and the reaction time of 30 minutes and the simple PID control of the pH value of the large fluctuation, resulting in a big decrease in enzyme activity. The model reference adaptive controller under the control of the pH value of the wave is small, thus leading to a small decline in the range of enzyme activity, so as to enhance the catalytic process of the stability of the enzyme activity. In this way, converted into an approximate linear control for the pH of the enzyme catalysis process control not only enables the pH value highly nonlinear control, and automatically changes the controller tuning parameters, and solves the high degree of pH neutralization process linear control difficulties, but also improves the accuracy of the pH control in the enzyme catalysis process. p

  11. The Application of Earned Value Management in Engineering Project Cost Control%赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金连

    2013-01-01

    本文对赢得值法的三个基本参数和四个评价指标的确定与关系进行分析,提出相应的处理措施,并结合某工程项目成本控制进行案例分析,为赢得值法在工程项目成本控制中的应用提供一定的参考。%This paper analyzes the determinations and relationships of earned value management's three basic parameters and four evaluations, then proposes appropriate measures, and analyzes the case combined with an engineering project's cost control, which provides some references for the application of earned value management in engineering projects' cost control.

  12. Application of Earned Value Management in Material Life Cycle Cost Control%挣值管理在装备寿命周期费用控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米裕; 贺波; 郝晶; 王宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Base of the concept and the evaluating index system about earned value measure? We established three-dimensional model about earned value Management Applied in material life cycle cost control, and connected the each landmark in schedule dimension to the process of material life cycle, then we applied the ABC measure to account plan value of each landmark. Last, this paper give an example to illuminate earned value measure can forecast and control effectively to material life cycle cost.%在阐述挣值法的概念以及评价指标体系的基础上,建立了挣值管理在装备寿命周期费用控制中的三维模型,并将进度维中的各个里程碑与寿命周期过程结合起来,应用作业成本法对各个里程碑计划价值进行求解,最后举例说明,挣值法能够对装备寿命周期费用进行有效的预测和控制.

  13. Research on Step-wise Control pH Value in the First-step Fermentation Process of Vitamin C%维生素C一步发酵过程阶梯式控制pH值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海晨; 齐代鹏

    2011-01-01

    Currently change of the pH value was mainly adjusted by calcium carbonate during the first-step fermentation process of Vitamin C(referred to as VC).Through adding sodium carbonate,to step-wise control the pH value of the VC fermentation process.The results showed that pre-fermentation was controled the pH value at 6.0,post-fermentation pH value at 5.0 by adding the sodium carbonate,the fermentation period could be shortened further 33%.%目前维生素C(简称VC)第一步发酵过程中pH值的变化主要由CaCO3来调解。研究了Na2CO3代替CaCO3,并采用阶梯式控制发酵过程的pH值。结果表明:通过Na2CO3来控制发酵过程中pH值[前期控制pH值为6.0(8 h前),后期控制pH值为5.0],可以缩短一步发酵周期33%。

  14. On Correlation between Ownership Concentration,Disclosure of Internal Control Information and Enterprise Value%股权集中、内部控制信息披露与公司价值相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱红光; 邓格

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the ultimate enterprise value,the key to the disclosure of internal control information is to reduce the moral hazard and agency costs.The paper studied AGshare lisG ted companies issued from 201 1 to 2014 in Shenzhen Stock Exchange,by analyzing the relationG ship between the disclosure of internal control information and enterprise value.And through the further study of the impact of the ownership concentration on the relationship,the paper reveals the source of the relationgship between disclosure of internal control information and enterprise value.Through empirical research,it is found that the disclosure of internal control information has a significant impact on the increase of enterprise value,while the ownership concentration is negatively correlated with this relationship significantly .The study reveals the essence of subG stantial shareholder or actual controller to influence the enterprise value by affecting the discloG sure of internal control information.%内部控制信息披露的关键在于降低道德风险和代理成本,最终实现公司价值最大化。以2011—2014年深市 A 股上市公司为样本数据,分析内部控制信息披露对公司价值产生的影响,并通过进一步考察股权集中对这种关系的影响程度,揭示内部控制信息披露影响公司价值的根源。实证结果发现,内部控制信息披露与公司价值呈显著正相关关系,股权集中会降低内部控制信息披露对公司价值的提升作用。研究揭示了大股东或实际控制人通过影响内部控制信息披露从而影响公司价值的本质。

  15. 急诊科品管圈管理的应用价值%Application value of quality control circle management of emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓昊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈管理对急诊患者优质护理服务的影响。方法共纳入2014年6月至12月500例急诊患者作为对照组,同时应用QCC的管理理念和先进的管理方法选择2015年1月至6月500例急诊患者作为观察组,比较两组患者对护理服务的评价,并对无形成果进行分析。结果观察组患者对护理服务的满意率及满意度评分明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组护理人员无形成果责任心、自信心、积极性、沟通能力及解决问题能力评分均高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论急诊实施QCC管理不仅有效提升了优质护理服务质量,提高了急诊患者对护理的满意度,而且无形中提高了急诊护理人员多方面的能力,为以后更好的服务患者打下基础。%Objective to explore effect of quality control circle management on quality nursing service of emergency patients. Methods 500 cases emergency patients were included in control group from June 2014 to December 2014, and choose 500 cases emergency patients with QCC management concepts and advanced management methods from January 2015 to June 2015 as observation group. Compare nursing service evaluation of two groups and analyze the intangible results.Results satisfaction rate and degree scores of observation group were significantly higher than control group for nursing service(P<0.05). Nursing staff of observation group had higher scores than than control group with invisible achievement of responsibility, self-confidence, enthusiasm, communication skills and problem-solving ability scores (P<0.05).Conclusion applying QCC management not only can effectively improve quality nursing service for emergency department and emergency patients satisfaction for nursing, but improve intangible abilities of nursing staff of emergency department, which will a lay a better basis for service to patients.

  16. 浅谈产业园价值链工程成本控制策略%On the Cost Control Strategy of Industrial Park Value Chain Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马改芝

    2013-01-01

    In the overall cost of new investment projects, land development cost is the largest cost, followed by the construction and installation cost. Construction and installation cost includes two parts of construction and equipment installation cost, and it is refers to the costs incurred in the process of construction and installation works. Thus, once the good control of construction and installation cost has a decisive influence in the entire project cost control.%  在新建投资项目总体成本中,土地开发成本为最大的成本,其次就是建安成本。建安费用,包括建筑施工及设备安装两大部分,是指在建筑安装工程施工过程中发生的费用。由此可见,一旦控制好建安成本,对整个项目投资建设的成本控制具有决定性影响。

  17. The value of education and self-monitoring in the management of warfarin therapy in older patients with unstable control of anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tayyaba Irfan; Kamali, Farhad; Kesteven, Patrick; Avery, Peter; Wynne, Hilary

    2004-08-01

    Of 125 patients aged 65 years or over, with atrial fibrillation taking warfarin for at least 12 months, with a standard deviation (SD) of prothrombin time, expressed as the International Normalized Ratio (INR) >0.5 over the previous 6 months, 40 were randomized to continue with usual clinic care and 85 to receive education about warfarin. Of these, 44 were randomized to self-monitor their INR and 41 returned to clinic. Compared with the previous 6 months there was a significant increase in percentage time within the therapeutic range for the 6 months following education [61.1 vs. 70.4; mean difference 8.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.2-17.8; P = 0.054] and following education and self-monitoring (57 vs. 71.1; mean difference 14.1; 95% CI: 6.7-21.5; P control group. Inter-group differences were not statistically significant (intervention groups 0.26 +/- 0.30 vs. control 0.16 +/- 0.3, P = 0.10). Quality-of-life measurements and health beliefs about warfarin were unchanged (apart from emotional role limitation) with education or education and self-monitoring. Patient education regarding anticoagulation therapy could be a cost-effective initiative and is worthy of further study.

  18. Genetic control of the leaf angle and leaf orientation value as revealed by ultra-high density maps in three connected maize populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Li

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is a key factor for high productivity maize because ideal plant architecture with an erect leaf angle and optimum leaf orientation value allow for more efficient light capture during photosynthesis and better wind circulation under dense planting conditions. To extend our understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in leaf-related traits, three connected recombination inbred line (RIL populations including 538 RILs were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS method and phenotyped for the leaf angle and related traits in six environments. We conducted single population quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping and joint linkage analysis based on high-density recombination bin maps constructed from GBS genotype data. A total of 45 QTLs with phenotypic effects ranging from 1.2% to 29.2% were detected for four leaf architecture traits by using joint linkage mapping across the three populations. All the QTLs identified for each trait could explain approximately 60% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTLs were located on small genomic regions where candidate genes were found. Genomic predictions from a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP model explained 45±9% to 68±8% of the variation in the remaining RILs for the four traits. These results extend our understanding of the genetics of leaf traits and can be used in genomic prediction to accelerate plant architecture improvement.

  19. What do patients value about spinal manipulation and home exercise for back-related leg pain? A qualitative study within a controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiers, M.; Hondras, M. A.; Salsbury, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    exercise with advice (HEA). Design Qualitative study in a controlled clinical trial. Method Semi-structured interviews conducted after 12 weeks of treatment asked participants about satisfaction with care and whether treatment was worthwhile. An interdisciplinary research team conducted content analysis...... contributors to both their satisfaction and the worthwhile nature of treatment. HEA was liked for its convenience and ability to foster an exercise habit. SMT was liked for specific aspects of the modality (e.g. manipulation, stretching) and provider competency. Most participants reported no dislikes for SMT...... or HEA, but some noted the dose/time commitment for SMT and discipline of HEA as least liked aspects of the interventions. Conclusions The quality of patient–provider interactions, perceived treatment effects, and information sharing influenced BRLP patients’ satisfaction with care. Qualitative research...

  20. Method to determine initial value of local optimization for neural network predictive control%神经网络预测控制局部优化初值确定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊兆峰; 马小平; 邵晓根

    2014-01-01

    To deal with the performance degradation caused by improper initial values in neural network local optimiza-tion predictive control, we propose a method to dynamically determine the initial values. In each optimization cycle the minimum output error point is selected by calculating the inverse neural network. The existence of the minimal value of the objective function between this point and the current control point can be ensured and proved through modifying the weighting factor. Finally, a simulation experiment is carried out to verify the proposed method using a back propagation (BP) neural network as the predictive model, and the Newton-Raphson algorithm is employed as the receding horizon op-timization strategy. The results show that the initial value problem can be solved to improve the reliability of the control system.%为解决局部优化算法初值选取不当造成神经网络预测控制性能下降的问题,本文提出了一种动态确定初值的方法。在每次优化时通过逆网络将初值选在输出误差最小点,通过修正目标性能函数中的权重因子来确保初值与当前控制量之间存在极值,并在理论上进行了证明。以BP神经网络预测控制为例,采用牛顿拉夫逊算法实现滚动优化,对所提方法进行了仿真实验,结果表明能够解决初值问题,提高控制系统的可靠性。

  1. Delivery of iron-fortified yoghurt, through a dairy value chain program, increases hemoglobin concentration among children 24 to 59 months old in Northern Senegal: A cluster-randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnes; Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Birba, Ousmane; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to enhance the nutritional impact of agriculture. Value chain approaches, which use supply chains to add value (usually economic) to products as they move from producers to consumers, can be used to increase access to nutritious foods and improve nutritional status. This study tested whether a dairy value chain could be used to distribute a micronutrient-fortified yoghurt (MNFY) (conditional upon the producer supplying a minimum amount of cow milk/day) to improve hemoglobin and reduce anemia among preschool children in a remote area in Northern Senegal. A cluster randomized control trial was used to compare 204 children (24 to 59 months of age at baseline) from households who received the MNFY coupled to a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign focusing on anemia prevention to 245 children from a control group (receiving BCC only) after one year. Randomization was done at the level of the family concession (households from the same family) (n = 321). Eligible households had a child of the target age and were willing to deliver milk to the dairy factory. Changes in anemia and hemoglobin between groups were assessed using mixed regression models. Anemia prevalence was very high at baseline (80%) and dropped to close to 60% at endline, with no differences between intervention groups. Hemoglobin increased by 0.55 g/dL, 95%CI (0.27; 0.84) more in the intervention compared to the control group after one year, in models that controlled for potentially confounding factors. The impact was greater (0.72 g/dL, 95%CI (0.34; 1.12)) for boys, compared to girls (0.38 g/dL, 95%CI (-0.03; 0.80)). The dairy value chain was a successful strategy to distribute MNFY among pastoralists in Northern Senegal, and increase Hb concentrations among their children. This study is one of the first proofs of concept showing that a nutrition-sensitive agriculture value chain approach can contribute to improved child nutrition in a remote pastoralist

  2. Delivery of iron-fortified yoghurt, through a dairy value chain program, increases hemoglobin concentration among children 24 to 59 months old in Northern Senegal: A cluster-randomized control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnes; Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Birba, Ousmane; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Innovative strategies are needed to enhance the nutritional impact of agriculture. Value chain approaches, which use supply chains to add value (usually economic) to products as they move from producers to consumers, can be used to increase access to nutritious foods and improve nutritional status. This study tested whether a dairy value chain could be used to distribute a micronutrient-fortified yoghurt (MNFY) (conditional upon the producer supplying a minimum amount of cow milk/day) to improve hemoglobin and reduce anemia among preschool children in a remote area in Northern Senegal. Methods A cluster randomized control trial was used to compare 204 children (24 to 59 months of age at baseline) from households who received the MNFY coupled to a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign focusing on anemia prevention to 245 children from a control group (receiving BCC only) after one year. Randomization was done at the level of the family concession (households from the same family) (n = 321). Eligible households had a child of the target age and were willing to deliver milk to the dairy factory. Changes in anemia and hemoglobin between groups were assessed using mixed regression models. Key findings Anemia prevalence was very high at baseline (80%) and dropped to close to 60% at endline, with no differences between intervention groups. Hemoglobin increased by 0.55 g/dL, 95%CI (0.27; 0.84) more in the intervention compared to the control group after one year, in models that controlled for potentially confounding factors. The impact was greater (0.72 g/dL, 95%CI (0.34; 1.12)) for boys, compared to girls (0.38 g/dL, 95%CI (-0.03; 0.80)). Conclusion The dairy value chain was a successful strategy to distribute MNFY among pastoralists in Northern Senegal, and increase Hb concentrations among their children. This study is one of the first proofs of concept showing that a nutrition-sensitive agriculture value chain approach can contribute to improved child

  3. SUBSCAPULAR AND TRICEPS SKINFOLDS REFERENCE VALUES OF HISPANIC AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH THE REFERENCE OF CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; González-Montero de Espinosa, Marisa; Herráez, Ángel; Alfaro, Emma Laura; Felipe Bejarano, Ignacio; Carmenate, María Margarita; Prado, Consuelo; Beatriz Lomaglio, Delia; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Martínez, Antonio; Mesa, María Soledad; Méndez Pérez, Betty; Meléndez, Juana María; Moreno Romero, Susana; Pacheco, Jose Luis; Vázquez, Vanessa; Dipierri, José E

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la evaluacion del grosor de los pliegues subcutáneos es una medida objetiva de la adiposidad. Es por tanto una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico nutricional y la prevención del riesgo metabólico asociado al exceso de grasa en la infancia y adolescencia. Objetivo: proporcionar valores percentilares de los pliegues adiposos subcutáneos subescapular y tricipital para escolares hispanoamericanos y compararlos con los valores publicados por los Centros para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de los Estados Unidos, que comunmente se emplean como referencia en estos países. Métodos: se midió el pliegue subescapular y tricipital en 9.973 escolares entre 4 y 19 años procedentes de España, Argentina, Cuba, Venezuela y México con un calibre Holtain de 0,2 mm de precisión. Los percentiles fueron calculados mediante el método estadístico LMS y presentados en tablas divididas en intervalos de seis meses y en gráficos de curvas. La diferencia entre los valores medios hispanoamericanos y los valores del CDC se muestran para el P3, P50 y P97 en mm, y también gráficamente. Resultados: las medidas de los pliegues subcutáneos se incrementan obviamente con la edad pero, en niños, este incremento es mucho más marcado en los percentiles superiores entre los 8 y 13 años; este máximo es alcanzado antes que en la referencia del CDC. En ambos sexos, todos los percentiles analizados fueron superiores en los escolares hispanoamericanos, exceptuando el P97 por encima de los 10 o 13 años, donde resultó notablemente inferior. Conclusiones: los percentiles de pliegues adiposos de los niños y adolescentes hispanoamericanos difieren de la referencia del CDC. Los valores del pliegie subescapular y tricipital proporcionados en este estudio podrían ser aplicados en poblaciones de similar origen étnico, especialmente en estudios comparativos de la composición corporal.

  4. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  5. Application of Value Management in Mining Enterprises Cost Control in China%价值管理在我国矿山企业成本控制中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓明; 何巍

    2015-01-01

    随着市场经济的发展,价值管理已经逐步引入企业管理领域中,改变了以财务指标为核心的管理体系。价值管理的特点正好适应我国矿山企业成本控制发展趋势,有很好的应用前景。%With the development of market economy, the value management has been gradually introduced in the field of business management, and changed the management system with the core of financial indicator. Value management' features just adapt the development trends of the cost control of mining enterprises in China, and has a very good prospect.

  6. Extending the two-process model of burnout in child protection workers: The role of resilience in mediating burnout via organizational factors of control, values, fairness, reward, workload, and community relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Mallett, John; Leiter, Michael

    2017-05-23

    Burnout has been disproportionally reported in child protection social work. This paper presents data from 162 child protection staff in Northern Ireland, assessed for burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Path models were estimated, based on an extension of the two-process demands and values model (Leiter, ) to include additional measures of resilience using the Resilience Scale-14, as well as perceived rewards and sense of community from the Areas of Work Life Scale (Leiter, ). Optimal model fit was achieved by modelling resilience as a mediator of the relationship between organizational factors of control and value congruence and burnout. Resilience also directly predicted emotional exhaustion (β = -.23, p resilience is modelled as both an outcome of some organizational factors whilst also making a unique direct contribution to explaining burnout alongside other organizational factors. Other pathways and mediating relationships are reported and further research directions discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  8. The added value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery (COGUIDE): a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stens, J; Hering, J-P; van der Hoeven, C W P; Boom, A; Traast, H S; Garmers, L E; Loer, S A; Boer, C

    2017-09-01

    There is disagreement regarding the benefits of goal-directed therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of non-invasive cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-based goal-directed therapy would reduce the incidence of postoperative complications in patients having moderate-risk abdominal surgery. In this pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial, we randomly allocated 244 patients by envelope drawing in a 1:1 fashion, stratified per centre. All patients had mean arterial pressure, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation measured continuously. In one group, healthcare professionals were blinded to cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values and were asked to guide haemodynamic therapy only based on mean arterial pressure (control group). In the second group, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values were displayed and kept within target ranges following a pre-defined algorithm (CI-PPV group). The primary endpoint was the incidence of postoperative complications within 30 days. One hundred and seventy-five patients were eligible for final analysis. Overall complication rates were similar (42/94 (44.7%) vs. 38/81 (46.9%) in the control and CI-PPV groups, respectively; p = 0.95). The CI-PPV group had lower mean (SD) pulse pressure variation values (9.5 (2.0)% vs. 11.9 (4.6)%; p = 0.003) and higher mean (SD) cardiac indices (2.76 (0.62) l min(-1) .m(-2) vs. 2.53 (0.66) l min(-1) .m(-2) ; p = 0.004) than the control group. In moderate-risk abdominal surgery, we observed no additional value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation-guided haemodynamic therapy to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy with regard to postoperative complications. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.I. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1999-08-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of {sup u}se scarcity{sup .} The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  10. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  11. Internal Control and Enterprise Value Correlation Research---Based on the Listed Companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen%内部控制与企业价值相关性研究--基于沪深上市公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪艳; 台玉红

    2014-01-01

    This paper took data from 97 listed companies in food and beverage industry in A-shares as samples and concluded the principal component analysis (PCA) principal component factors that affecting the internal control of the food and beverage industry, combining which with the enterprise value measure earnings per share for the correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Then the study reached to the conclusion that the enterprise value correlates internal control, the company size, and ownership concentration positively and negatively with the capital structure. The author puts forward to three suggestions to strengthen the internal control of food and beverage industry, improve the enterprise value: establish the perfect internal control evaluation system for food and beverage industry; expand enterprise scale through merger or strategic alliance for improving the equity concentration; control the asset-liability ratio appropriate level.%以沪深A股食品饮料行业97家上市公司2013年数据为样本,通过主成分分析法得出影响食品饮料行业内部控制的主成分因子,并将其与企业价值衡量指标每股收益进行相关性分析和多元回归分析。研究得出企业价值与内部控制,与公司规模,与股权集中度呈正相关,与资本结构呈负相关。提出建立完善的食品饮料行业内部控制评价体系;通过兼并或战略联盟扩大企业规模,提高股权集中度;将资产负债率控制在适当水平三点建议,来加强食品饮料行业的内部控制,提高企业价值。

  12. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  13. Using Dissolved Oxygen,Oxidation Reduction Potential and pH Value for Control Nitrogen Removal in SBR Process%以DO、ORP、pH控制SBR法的脱氮过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高景峰; 彭永臻; 王淑莹; 曾薇; 隋铭皓

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve on-line fuzzy control of nitrogen removal inSBR,a brewery wastewater was treated in a SBR.Variation patterns of ORP,DO and pH value during the removal of organic matters,nitrification and denitrification were studied in detail with different influent concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.The results show that the characteristic points and platforms of DO,ORP and pH value are repeated very well,and can be used as process control parameters for the removal of organic matters,nitrification and denitrification in a SBR process.%为实现SBR法脱氮在线模糊控制,以啤酒废水为研究对象,通过不同进水混合液氨氮浓度的试验,详细地研究了SBR法在去除有机物和硝化、反硝化过程中DO、ORP、pH的变化规律。试验表明,DO、ORP、pH的特征点和平台的重现性很好,可以作为SBR法去除有机物,硝化,反硝化的过程控制参数。

  14. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  15. Fair value accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  16. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  17. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  18. 控制黑棒和灰棒对AP1000反应堆Keff值影响的M-C模拟%M-C Simulation on Keff Value for Control and Gray Rod Effect in AP1000 Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强林; 刘义保; 杨波; 吴和喜

    2013-01-01

    采用正在三门建造的AP1000核电厂堆芯参数,使用MCNP5程序建立AP1000堆芯数学模型.考虑了燃料棒、黑棒与灰棒7种不同排布方式,分3种情况通过调节黑棒和灰棒在堆芯中的深度来研究有效增值因数Keff值的变化情况.模拟结果表明:随着黑棒和灰棒在反应堆堆芯中的插入,Keff值在1.44-1.22之间变化.为了验证其合理性,并用1 000 x10-6(ppm)的硼酸溶液进行了化学补偿模拟试验,计算得Keff值在1.17-1.07之间,基本能够满足降低过剩反应性的要求.%Reactor core parameter of API000 nuclear power plant is used. Taking into account 7 different ways arrangement of the fuel rod, control and gray rod, AP1000 reactor core mathematical model is established by the MCNP5 code. The effective multiplication factor Keff is studied through 3 different ways by adjusting the depth of control and gray rod in the reactor core. Simulated results show that the Keff value changed between 1.44 and 1. 22 with insertion of control and gray rod, In order to verify the reasonableness, the simulation experiment of chemical compensation is done by using 1 000 × 10-6 (ppm) boric acid, and the experiments show the Keff values changed between 1.17 and 1.07 , which could basically meet the requirements of reducing the excess reactivity.

  19. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  20. Clinical Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy and Clinical Analysis of Blood Pressure Control Critical Values%探讨糖尿病肾病的临床风险因素及血压控制临界值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文渊

    2015-01-01

    that the critical value of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diastolic blood pressure control critical value 79mmHg,systolic blood pressure control critical value 140mmHg.Conclusion Systolic blood pressure,cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other factors associated with diabetic nephropathy is closely control ed in 79mmHg diastolic blood pressure below 140mmHg systolic blood pressure levels can significantly improve the clinical safety of patients with diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  2. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory for solving two-point boundary value problems: Theory and numerics with application to spacecraft formation flight, optimal control and the study of phase space structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibout, Vincent M.

    This dissertation has been motivated by the need for new methods to address complex problems that arise in spacecraft formation design. As a direct result of this motivation, a general methodology for solving two-point boundary value problems for Hamiltonian systems has been found. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi theory in conjunction with the canonical transformation induced by the phase flow, it is shown that generating functions solve two-point boundary value problems. Traditional techniques for addressing these problems are iterative and require an initial guess. The method presented in this dissertation solves boundary value problems at the cost of a single function evaluation, although it requires knowledge of at least one generating function. Properties of this method are presented. Specifically, we show that it includes perturbation theory and generalizes it to nonlinear systems. Most importantly, it predicts the existence of multiple solutions and allows one to recover all of these solutions. To demonstrate the efficiency of this approach, an algorithm for computing the generating functions is proposed and its convergence properties are studied. As the method developed in this work is based on the Hamiltonian structure of the problem, particular attention must be paid to the numerics of the algorithm. To address this, a general framework for studying the discretization of certain dynamical systems is developed. This framework generalizes earlier work on discretization of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems on tangent and cotangent bundles respectively. In addition, it provides new insights into some symplectic integrators and leads to a new discrete Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Most importantly, it allows one to discretize optimal control problems. In particular, a discrete maximum principle is presented. This dissertation also investigates applications of the proposed method to solve two-point boundary value problems. In particular, new techniques for designing

  3. Simulation Study of Double Values Dynamic Matrix Control of the Nuclear Reactor Neutron Flux Density%核反应堆中子通量密度的双值动态矩阵控制仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小平; 伞冶

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a sort of non-parameter model is constructed with the unit step response of the nuclear reactor neutron kinetics system. Furthermore, a sort of constant neutron flux density control law is presented using the double values dynamic matrix control principle. In contrast to the other control methods based on the accurate model, the method presented in this paper has good tracking performance and robustness. It can work despite the existence of un-measurable disturbances. The simulation experiment testifies the correctness and effectiveness of the method.%利用核反应堆中子动力学系统的单位阶跃响应数据,获得了该系统的非参数模型,且提出了一种中子通量密度恒值问题的双值动态矩阵控制新方法。与基于精确模型的控制方法相比,此方法不必苛求模型的具体形式,且实时控制的计算量小、跟踪调节性能好、鲁棒性强、能消除不可测干扰。仿真结果验证了这种控制律的有效性和优越性。

  4. Tracing Public Values Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    in several directions; b) job ads develop into platforms for organizational branding with an emphasis on HR-related values although national logos enter the scene (the Danish royal crown, the Dutch national emblem); c) New Public Management values do not crowd out other values, rather value intensity...

  5. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  6. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  7. The Value of Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Arjo

    1997-01-01

    Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the u

  8. Values and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  9. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  10. On value and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Value stands for the significance of things,and concepts of value are ideas,opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant.Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture.Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people.The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture.Developing culture,providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people's possession of the correct concept of value.

  11. Value activity monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promises (but not assurances) of value creation. Hence there is a need to extend current value modeling ontologies with a monitoring ontology. This ontology will enable business practitioners ...

  12. 用赢得值法进行测绘项目进度和费用控制%Mapping the Project Schedule and Cost Control with the Earned Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉忱; 王敬华

    2016-01-01

    基于工程项目管理理论,主要探讨了用赢得值法进行测绘项目进度和费用控制的方法,对测绘工程项目进行有效管理,从而实现项目目标,提高项目管理水平。%In this paper, based on the theory of project management, mainly discusses using earned value management to control the schedule and cost of Surveying and mapping project, effective management of Surveying and mapping engineering project, in order to achieve the project objectives, improve the level of project management.

  13. Value of welfare loss associated with agreements of controlled power cuts. An economic valuation using Discrete Choice Experiment; Mael af velfaerdstab ved kontrollerede stroemafbrydelser. En vaerdisaetningsundersoegelse udfoert vha. metoden Discrete Choice Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, Christa; Lund Jensen, Kirsten

    2005-06-01

    Flexible electricity consumption has potential to become an important step towards achieving an economically efficient electricity supply. One way to obtain flexible electricity consumption is to establish agreements with private consumers regarding power-cuts during periods of peak consumption. Whether these agreements are economically efficient depends on how big a welfare loss the consumers experience during controlled power-cuts. This loss has so far not been estimated; hence the objective of this rapport is to indicate the level of such welfare loss. This rapport aims to analyse and quantify the private consumer's preferences for a number of characteristics relating to 'controlled power-cuts' of washing machine, dish-washer and dry-tumbler respectively. These characteristics are decisive factors in determining loss of utility the consumer associate with the power-cuts. Additionally, these characteristics are significant for the application of power-cuts. The selected characteristics investigated are duration and frequency. The consumers required compensation for acceptance of changes to the various characteristics is derived. (A combination of number of power cuts per year with a given duration is to be considered as an agreement) Data was collected through questionnaires and analysed using Discrete Choice Experiment. This method is based on the consumers choice between various combinations of controlled power-cut agreements. Apart from providing the possibility to value a change to each of the specified characteristics, the method can also estimate a total value of a changed agreement. The survey shows that the consumers experience an increasing welfare loss the longer duration of the power-cuts and the greater the frequency. Preferences and compensation for the various agreements are shown not to be dependent on whether the consumer has received information regarding the environmental benefits of the agreement. A lower compensation threshold

  14. Analysis and Disposal of Problem Concerning Regulation System Occurred High Value of Pressure Control Regulating Valve Servo%汽轮机调节系统二次脉动油压异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军龙; 黄潜; 张福海; 胡冬清; 姜剑峰; 郭光宗

    2014-01-01

    针对田湾核电站汽轮机夏季运行工况时出现调节系统二次脉动油压高且波动问题,采用两台机组汽轮机调节系统静态试验曲线以及热力系统参数对比分析的方法,阐述了循环冷却水温度、二次脉动油压拐点、调节阀空行程对二次脉动油压的影响。根据研究结果,通过提高二次脉动油压拐点及减小高压调节阀油动机空行程的纠正措施,有效解决了此问题,提高了调节系统的稳定性。对机组的运行和维修具有一定的借鉴意义。%Based on the problem concerning regulation system occurred high value and fluctuation of pressure-control regulating valve servo in operation condition of spring for steam turbine in Tianwan Nuclear Power Station, method of comparative analysis are adopted for static test curve of regulation system and parameter of thermal system of two units. It is expatiated that the temperature of circulation cooling water, the knee of pressure-control regulating valve servo and idle stroke of regulation valve servo influenced on pressure-control regulating valve servo. According to result of study, corrective measures are taken to increase the knee of pressure control regulating valve servo and to decrease the idle stroke of regulation valve, which is effective to solve the problem and improve the stability of regulation system. It will be good reference for unit’s operation and maintenance.

  15. Application of Value Engineering in Controlling Construction Project Cost%浅析价值工程在控制建筑工程造价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良

    2011-01-01

    Currently, with continuous enlargement of China's construction investment scale and the increasing investment quota, we need a more perfect management theory to guide the engineering project management. Through the systematical value management, we make enterprises obtain more economic benefits, and make people get more social benefits. In 1982 value management theory is first applied to the construction project. The complexity of the construction project makes the application of value engineering theory in construction projects difficult. However, we have achieved some results. This paper attempts to present its application in controlling construction project cost.%当前随着我国建设投资规模的不断扩大和投资额度的不断增加,我们需要一种更加完善的管理理论来指导工程项目管理,通过系统的价值管理来使企业获得更大的经济效益,使人们获得更多的社会效益.在1982年价值管理理论首次应用于建设工程项目.建设工程项目的复杂性特点使得价值工程理论在建设工程项目中运用的难度比较大,但也取得了一定的成效.本文试就价值工程在控制建筑工程造价方面的应用做简要介绍.

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, basic fibroblast growth factor and copper as angiogenic markers in premenopausal breast cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, T I; Abd El-Moneim, N A; Ebied, S Abd El-Moneim; Sheta, M I; Soliman, K; Abu-Elenean, A

    2010-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that increased microvessel density (MVD) surrounding primary tumour is associated with decreased overall survival in patients with breast cancer. This study compares the diagnostic and prognostic values of the angiogenic serum factors nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and copper with those of serum CA15-3 as the standard tumour marker in breast cancer patients. Microvessel density was estimated in CD31-immunostained sections from breast cancer patients. Before surgery, NO, TNFalpha, bFGF, copper and CA 15-3 were measured in serum samples from 30 premenopausal breast cancer patients in comparison with 15 healthy controls. The diagnostic values of the assayed parameters were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate survival analysis of patients was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Breast cancer tissues showed higher MVD than did normal breast tissues adjacent to the tumour (P = 0.008). Before surgery, tumour MVD correlated significantly with serum NO, TNFalpha, bFGF and copper (r = 0.458, P = .011; r = 0.379, P = .039; r = 0.513, P = .004 and r = 0.613, P = 0.000, respectively). Serum NO, TNFalpha, bFGF, copper and CA 15-3 levels in patients were significantly elevated compared with controls (P = 0.011, P = 0.004, P = 0.039, P = 0.000 and P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with elevated serum TNFalpha, CA 15-3 and copper (P = 0.035, P = 0.040, P = 0.0339, respectively) had an overall survival significantly shorter than those who had lower levels of these parameters. These data suggest that serum TNFalpha, CA 15-3 and copper are useful predictive markers for overall survival in premenopausal breast cancer patients.

  17. Complex-Valued Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2012-01-01

    This book is the second enlarged and revised edition of the first successful monograph on complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) published in 2006, which lends itself to graduate and undergraduate courses in electrical engineering, informatics, control engineering, mechanics, robotics, bioengineering, and other relevant fields. In the second edition the recent trends in CVNNs research are included, resulting in e.g. almost a doubled number of references. The parametron invented in 1954 is also referred to with discussion on analogy and disparity. Also various additional arguments on the advantages of the complex-valued neural networks enhancing the difference to real-valued neural networks are given in various sections. The book is useful for those beginning their studies, for instance, in adaptive signal processing for highly functional sensing and imaging, control in unknown and changing environment, robotics inspired by human neural systems, and brain-like information processing, as well as interdisciplina...

  18. Line chronic disease prevention and control of hypertension health education for community application value%针对社区慢性病防治行高血压健康教育的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝霞

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveIn view of our country community health education to hypertension in chronic disease prevention and control of application value.MethodsSelecting treated 200 cases of hypertension patients in community were studied, and according to the stochastic indicator method divided the patients into control group and research group, 100 cases each. Control patients treated with routine, and the team on the basis of conventional treatment for health education, psychological guidance, guidance, knowledge interpretation and teaching behavior, etc.).ResultsThe incidence of complications and blood pressure control group patients compared with the control group patients, has obvious difference, and the difference has statistical significance (P<0.05); Two groups of patients after 2 years of investigation, the team patients' blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride level index, physical changes and behavior and so on were significantly better than control group, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionAccording to our country community prevention and control of chronic diseases, hypertension, health education has important application value and is worth popularizing widely application.%目的:针对我国社区慢性病防治中采取高血压健康教育的应用价值探讨。方法选取2013年6月~2015年10月社区收治的高血压患者200例作为研究对象,按随机数表法将其分为对照组和研究组,各100例。对照组患者采取常规治疗,而研究组在常规治疗的基础上进行健康教育(心理引导、行为指导、知识讲解以及行为教导等)。结果研究组患者并发症发生率以及血压控制与对照组患者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者经2年后的调查,研究组患者血压值、胆固醇和甘油三酯水平、体质变化指数以及行为方式等均明显优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针对我国

  19. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  20. 可燃固体废弃物的高值化预处理调质和源头控污机理%High Value Pretreatment and Source Control Quenching Mechanism of Combustible Solid Waste Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁浩然; 廖艳芬; 汪小憨; 王小波

    2016-01-01

    我国可燃固体废弃物热处置过程中污染物的排放控制基本停留在过程和末端处理水平,导致固体废弃物焚烧处理为“先生成、后治理和控制”,导致诸多问题。由于可燃固体废弃物是多尺度跨度大、成份复杂多变的复杂混合物,具有组分复杂多变、含水率高、热值变化幅度大等特点。目前利用较多的可燃固废的直接焚烧处理导致燃烧不充分、效率低、二次污染严重等问题,因此针对可燃固废多形态(固态、液态、气态)高值化转化再利用技术日益受到关注。开展此类研究需要针对我国可燃固废高含水率、组分复杂、尺度变化大、热值多变的特点,研究热化学、机械、干化、不同成分配比调质等源头调质模式,分析预处理工艺的系统节能以及多形态高值化产物的二次污染排放问题,探索低能耗、低排放、高值化转化的方法和途径。该研究从可燃固废源头多形态(固态、液态、气态)高值化及控污入手,开展可燃固废源头多形态热转化调质、污染物源头富集表征、生物化学法污染物源头控制、各元素交替影响规律等系列研究,以期建立各类形态下高值化产物的净化调质方法,获得可燃固体废弃物多形态高值化产物中污染物的富集表征和交互影响规律,从而探索出可燃固体废弃物的源头控污机制,为近零排放能源化利用提供支撑。%Emission control of contaminants during combustible solid waste thermal disposal stays at process and end treatment levels, resulting in solid waste incineration as“early production, later governance and control”issue in our country. Combustible solid waste is a complex mixture of multi-scale, which is usually characterized by variable components, high moisture, high degree of heat value variability and so on. Currently direct incineration of combustible solid waste causes

  1. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  2. 轨道交通列车主控手柄或 ATC 参考值处理研究%Study of vehicle master controller handle or ATC reference value processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小兵

    2015-01-01

    The principle of driving and brake force setpoint production is made in this article.VCU transfer the master controller/ATC reference value into acceleration setpoint,the selection of acceleration setpoint,acceleration closed loop control,limitation of driving and brake characteristic curves,jerk limitation and load compensation are made,and therefore driving and brake force setpoint is produced.The study indicates the safety,accuracy and passengers’comfort of the vehicle can be guaranteed during driving or braking .%研究了轨道交通列车运行所需牵引/制动力设定值的产生原理,研究表明,列车控制单元 VCU 对司控器或者 ATC系统输出的模拟参考值进行了加速度设定值转换和选择、加速度闭环控制、牵引/制动特性曲线约束、冲击极限约束和车重补偿等处理,进而产生出列车牵引/制动力设定值,由此保证了列车牵引和制动时的安全、精确和舒适。

  3. “虚拟”社区犯罪防控的价值及其实现%On the Value of the Prevention and Control for"Virtual"Community Crime and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧三任

    2014-01-01

    The"virtual"community is the digital existence of the entity community with the homologous characteristics. Due to the different functions, it has various types. The "Virtual" community contains various resource values for the crime prevention and control such as cultural identity intelligence information and organizing etc. It also has the functional values such as the intelligence collection, the organizing, the policing information and the neighborhood watching etc. To improve the recognition of its functions, we must set up the application platform, reform technologies and cultivate the forces for the crime prevention and control. The work mode of building up the two-way interaction is the basic way for the implementation of the crime prevention and control in the"virtual"community.%“虚拟”社区是实体社区的数字化存在,具有与真实社区同源异体的特征。“虚拟”社区因承载功能不同而具有不同的类型。“虚拟”社区蕴藏有犯罪防控所需的文化认同、情报信息、组织动员等资源性价值,也具有情报搜集、组织动员、警情通报、邻里守望等功能价值。提高“虚拟”社区犯罪防控价值的认识,搭建“虚拟”社区犯罪防控应用平台,创新“虚拟”社区犯罪防控新技术,培养“虚拟”社区犯罪防控力量,建构双向互动的工作模式,是“虚拟”社区犯罪防控价值实现的基本途径。

  4. A Search for Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  5. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  6. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Fernandez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is a measure of the maximum potential change in value of a portfolio of financial assets with a given probability over a given time horizon. VaR became a key measure of market risk since the Basle Committee stated that banks should be able to cover losses on their trading portfolios over a ten-day horizon, 99 percent of the time. A common practice is to compute VaR by assuming that changes in value of the portfolio are normally distributed, conditional on past in-formation. However, assets returns usually come from fat-tailed distri-butions. Therefore, computing VaR under the assumption of conditional normality can be an important source of error. We illustrate this point with Chilean and U.S. returns series by resorting to extreme value theory (EVT and GARCH-type models. In addition, we show that dynamic estimation of empirical quantiles can also give more accurate VaR estimates than quantiles of a standard normal.

  7. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Matusov; Jay Lemke

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to a...

  8. Values Take Center Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    substantial goals is the prime ingredient of a purposeful life. Studies show that those who prize intrinsic values, such as meaningful work...experience greater happiness than those who esteem extrinsic values like wealth, even when the differences in wealth are large. The integration of values...managers must follow through and to see that behavior and rewards match the organization’s values. Remember, “What get measured gets done.” When

  9. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  10. Value and Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Eleanor Jo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the value of public libraries and what it means to be valuable. Topics include shrinking library budgets; why there is public money for libraries; how to tell whether a service, product, or institution creates public value; political and legal support; administrative and operational feasibility; and enhancing public value. (LRW)

  11. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  12. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  13. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill

  14. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  15. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promi

  16. 临床微生物检验在医院感染控制的临床价值%The value of clinical microbiological examination for the hospital infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫莉梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to explore the hospital infection control situation of the value of clinical microbiological.Methods:We choose 308 cases of patients as the research objects,in our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 in accordance with the principle of randomized patients divided into control group and experimental group 154 cases,respectively,the control of these patients were treated with routine infection control,the experimental group is on the basis of routine infection control in patients with clinical microorganism inspection,com-pared two groups of patients in hospital infection occurred in the process of hospital.Results:the patients in the treatment process of a mild infection in 4 patients,2 patients had moderate infection,1 case of patients with severe infection,the patient's infection rate was 4.55%, control group patients in the treatment of 9 cases of patients with mild infection in the process,5 patients had moderate infection,3 cases of patients with severe infection,the patient's infection rate was 11.03%,the experimental group infection rates significantly lower than the control group,significant difference statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion:combined with clinical microbiology in hospital in-fection control inspection can significantly reduce the incidence of infection,helps to ensure that the patient's treatment,promote patients recover,so as to improve medical quality and the quality of life,is worth popularization and application in clinic.%目的:探究在医院感染控制中临床微生物检验的临床应用价值情况。方法:选取2013年6月~2015年6月308例患者作为研究对象,按照随机分组原则将患者分为实验组和对照组分别154例,其中对照组患者采取常规的感染控制治疗,实验组患者则在常规的感染控制的基础上进行临床微生物检验,对比两组患者在医院就诊过程中的医院感染事件发生情况。结果:实验组患者在治疗过程中有4

  17. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  18. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  19. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  20. Control y generización de los cuerpos durante el peronismo: La educación física como transmisora de valores en el ámbito escolar (1946-1955 The control of bodies gendered under the peronismo: The physical education as value transmitter in the school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cornelis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo tratamos de develar como, durante el peronismo, la práctica de deportes/educación física en la escuela se relacionó con el control sanitario y la transmisión de valores vinculados con el cuidado del cuerpo y la salud (valores que se pretendían enseñar a los niños y a través de estos a sus familias. Y estrechamente vinculado a este tópico exploramos, utilizando la categoría de género, como la educación física permitió un control del cuerpo y una generización de los educandos que asignaba roles diferenciales a mujeres y varones.In this article we try to expose how, during the peronismo, the practice of sports/physical education in the school was related to the sanitary control and the values transmission connected with the body's care and health (values that were intent to teach toward the children, and thorough them to their families. Strongly linked to this topic we explore, using the category of gender, how the physical education al lows the bodies control and generic of the scholars which gave differential roles to men and women.

  1. Monetary value of undisturbed sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Sebastian; Müller-Wenk, Ruedi; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schoch, Otto D

    2008-01-01

    To design a national antinoise policy, we need to know the monetary value that people attach to the reduction of sleep disturbance due to road traffic noise. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) controlled by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) underwent one-to-one structured interviews to determine the monetary value of their resultant undisturbed sleep. This was then converted into a value for sleep undisturbed by noise, using a severity ratio. Outpatient interviews in 67 OSAS patients (54 males, 28 to 73 years old) managed by the Center for Sleep Medicine, Kantonsspital, St. Gallen, Switzerland. The interview questions addressed the outcome and difficulties of nCPAP therapy, the self-rated severity of pretreatment sleep disturbance and self-rated monetary value of sleep improvement. Thirteen OSAS patients who had also experienced noise-related sleep disturbance rated its severity on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean monetary value of nCPAP-controlled sleep disturbance was Swiss francs (CHF) 70/night (CHF1 = US$ 0.877, year end 2004; 25th and 75th percentiles: CHF 35 and CHF 100). Interviewees maintained this high estimate after learning that the actual treatment costs were only approximately 6 CHF/night. A severity ratio ranging from 2.3:1 to 4.7:1 for sleep disturbance resulting from OSAS or from noise was derived from patients' responses and literature. The value of noise-free sleep was CHF 7.45-23.81 per night. Sleep undisturbed by noise has a remarkably high monetary value for people, which should be considered in political decision-making.

  2. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  3. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  4. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly) postmod......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly...... theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least...... in supporting reconciliation (e.g., between critical semiotics-influenced positions and Marxism)....

  5. The role of qualitative research in adding value to a randomised controlled trial: lessons from a pilot study of a guided e-learning intervention for managers to improve employee wellbeing and reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Berney, Lee; Stansfeld, Stephen; Lanz, Doris; Kerry, Sally; Chandola, Tarani; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-09

    Despite the growing popularity of mixed-methods studies and considerable emphasis on the potential value of qualitative research to the trial endeavour, there remains a dearth of published studies reporting on actual contribution. This paper presents a critically reflective account of our experience of the actual value of undertaking qualitative research alongside a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a guided e-learning intervention for managers in an NHS Mental Health Trust to improve employee wellbeing and reduce sickness absence. For the qualitative study we undertook 36 in-depth interviews with key informants, managers and employees. We observed and took in-depth field notes of 10 meetings involving managers and employees at the Trust, and the two qualitative researchers acted as participant observers at steering committee and monthly research team meetings. We adopted a narrative methodological orientation alongside a thematic approach to data analysis, eliciting a rich account of the complexities of managing stress at work. We identified two key overarching roles played by the qualitative research: 'problematising' and 'contextualising'. Specifically, the qualitative data revealed and challenged assumptions embedded in the trial about the nature of the learning process, and exposed the slippery and contested nature of abstracted variables, on which a trial depends. The qualitative data challenged the trial's logic model, and provided a rich understanding of the context within which the trial and intervention took place. While acknowledging the ever-present tension in mixed-methods research between the requirements of quantitative research to represent the social world as abstracted variables, and the goal of qualitative research to explore and document the complexity of social phenomena, we adopted a pragmatic position that enabled us to engage with this tension in a productive and partially integrative way. Our critically reflective account of the

  6. Warning Threshold Value Determination of Team Safety Behavior Risks in Air Traffic Control%空中交通管制班组安全行为风险告警阈值界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智; 罗帆

    2012-01-01

    针对空中变通管制班组安全行为的风险类型,在实地调研的基础上选取班组行为风险指标,结合层次分析法构建指标体系,并在风险危害因子及风险抵御因子的基础上,运用加权综合评价法构建班组安全行为风险的评价模型,在以年龄、职称及学历为控制变量的情况下,通过运用有序聚类的最优分割算法界定班组安全行为风险的阈值,阈值界定过程中以班组安全行为绩效为参照序列.结果表明,空中交通管制班组安全行为风险与职称及年龄变量相关性较高,其告警阈值的划分也相对更为严格,职称及年龄组告警区间明显窄于学历控制组的阈值区间,因而在充分考虑各控制变量的基础上划设空中交通管制班组安全行为风险的阈值将更为合理,可有效避免因阈值划设过松或过严而出现的漏警及虚警的问题.%According to the types of the team safety behavior risks in air traffic control ( ATC) , team behavior risk indexes are selected through practical investigation. Then, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to build an index system. A comprehensive evaluation model is developed by weighting team safety behavior risks described by the risk destruction and resistance factors. In the model, it takes the age, professional level, and education as the control variables. By using the orderly clustering of optimal partition algorithm, we take team's performance as reference sequence to define the risk threshold value of the team safety behavior. Results show that the team's safety risk behavior depends heavily on variable titles and ages in ATC. Its alarm threshold division is relatively stricter and obviously narrower than the part of diploma control- With full consideration of the total control variables by the proposed method, the risk threshold value is reasonable such that the threshold is neither too loose nor too strict, which can reduce both false positive and negative.

  7. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  8. The problem with value

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  9. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  10. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  11. Globalization and Values

    OpenAIRE

    John WHALLEY

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a central element in globalization debate little addressed by economists, namely the interactions at global, national, and community levels between globalization and societally based values. Social values refer to wider notions of collective identity: religious values, attitudes towards materialism, moral beliefs, and a sense of collective awareness and are a broader and more encompassing concept than social capital discussed in recent economics and sociology literature. ...

  12. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  13. 基于风险控制和价值创造的高校财务管理体系%On the Financial Management System Based on the Risk Control and Value Creation at Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童燕军; 刘玉琼

    2012-01-01

    The current accounting modes at universities cannot meet the need for management. Their budget planning is far from being perfect and their practice is relatively weak.' In addition, they have paid less attention to the risk in home loan and lack the mechanism of loan payment. Further, their consciousness of financial management and benefit is not so strong. Accordingly, we should strengthen the budget planning and management of cost, projects, assets, cash flow and accounting. On this base, we can build a perfect system of financial management, which is aimed at controlling the risk and creating value.%当前高校会计核算模式无法满足管理需要,预算编制不完善、执行力弱,对贷款风险的重视程度不够,科学的还贷机制缺失,理财意识差、效益观念淡薄。为此,应从加强财务预算、成本管理、项目管理、资产管理、现金流量管理和管理会计入手,建立以风险控制和价值创造为目标的财务管理体系。

  14. The performance of the etomidate keO values for target-controlled effect site concentration%依托咪酯ke0用于靶控输注系统的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 马正良; 刘礼军; 杜勤芳; 鲍方; 何风勇; 杨初华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the performance of the ke0 derived from TPEAK for targetcontrolled effect site concentration infusion. Methods Sixty-nine patients were equally randomized into 3 groups (n=23) to receive a target concentration of etomidate 400 μg/ml for 15 minutes. Then the plasma concentration was computed using pharmacokinetics. In group Ⅰ, the TCI device controlled the plasma concentration. In groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ, the TCI device controlled the effect site concentration with the ke0s 0. 48/min and 1.02/min, respectively. The time-related etomidate concentration and BIS value were monitored. Blood pressure, heart rate and the time of loss of consciousness (LOC)were measured. Simulation of effect site concentrations was performed at LOC by using two ke0 values in group Ⅰ. Results The time-related etomidate effect was better predicted in group Ⅲ, than group Ⅱ. The median time to LOC was 75 s in group Ⅰ, which was significant longer than 40 s in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ (P<0. 05). With ke0 value of 1.02/min, the simulated effect site concentration of etomidate at LOC was 387 ng/ml in group Ⅰ, which had not significant difference with targetcontrolled effect site concentration 336 ng/ml in group Ⅲ. The lowest systolic pressure and mean lowest systolic pressure had no significant differences among the three groups. Conclusion A targetcontrolled effect site concentration system with ke0 of 1.02/min based on the time to peak effect from BIS may accurately predict the time-related drug effect in patients.%目的 验证由峰效应时间法(TFEAK)计算的依托咪酯血浆-效应室平衡速率常数(ke0)值在效应室浓度(Ce)靶控时的准确性.方法 69例患者随机均分为三组,靶控输注依托咪酯400ng/ml持续15 min,计算血浆浓度.Ⅰ组靶控血浆浓度,Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组分别以ke0为0.48/min和1.02/min的Ce.记录依托咪酯浓度、BIS的经时变化过程,同时监测BP、HR和意识消失(LOC)时间;用两种ke0值分别

  15. Emerging sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Sachdeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred values are different from secular values in that they are often associated with violations of the cost-benefit logic of rational choice models. Previous work on sacred values has been largely limited to religious or territorial conflicts deeply embedded in historical contexts. In this work we find that the Iranian nuclear program, a relatively recent development, is treated as sacred by some Iranians, leading to a greater disapproval of deals which involve monetary incentives to end the program. Our results suggest that depending on the prevalence of such values, incentive-focused negotiations may backfire.

  16. Business Value Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  17. Value-Based Argumentation for Justifying Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    Compliance is often achieved 'by design' through a coherent system of controls consisting of information systems and procedures . This system-based control requires a new approach to auditing in which companies must demonstrate to the regulator that they are 'in control'. They must determine the relevance of a regulation for their business, justify which set of control measures they have taken to comply with it, and demonstrate that the control measures are operationally effective. In this paper we show how value-based argumentation theory can be applied to the compliance domain. Corporate values motivate the selection of control measures (actions) which aim to fulfill control objectives, i.e. adopted norms (goals). In particular, we show how to formalize the dialogue in which companies justify their compliance decisions to regulators using value-based argumentation. The approach is illustrated by a case study of the safety and security measures adopted in the context of EU customs regulation.

  18. VALUES AND VALORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I live with the feeling that, in the past few years, Romania has been a drifting ship. We do not know where is it going, nor the place it will arrive at. Like any individual endowed with reason, I wonder why chaos took over this society and, if I would have the power to change anything, what would be the solution to less troubled waters. I think we lost our way because we forgot to always refer to the values that should guide us ... or because we refer too often to non-values. I think we could find our way and stop wandering if we will rely our evolution on values, if we will teach our children from a young age what values and non-values are and if we could run our existence in the spirit of a real value horizon. People live together, not just coexist, as so deeply professor Gheorghe Mihai highlighted1. Coexistence is specific to herds, packs, hordes; but human community means collaboration, cooperation, consensualisation, which implies a consciousness towards values. "What is missing now to the human society is a behavior that relates to a code of virtue"2. Moral values are the support for the legal values. Unfortunately, today, it seems to me that values are inverted and that the belief in the perfectibility of the individual (and therefore the perfectibility of law is increasingly being questioned. Contemporary society is characterized by lack of motivation, lack of a strategy and the absence of any ideals. In this context, I believe that the individual today feels the necessity of some value referrences more acutely, whilst the society needs a law deeply based on moral values. As morality itself contributes to the valorization of the law, I think that moral appeal is more necessary today than yesterday, as a remedy for the individual and, consequently, the law to overcome their crisis. For all these reasons and also because I share the view that "the concrete law is not viable without values and these values are always expressed in the

  19. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  20. 微生物检验在控制医院感染中的临床应用价值%The clinical value of investigation of microbiological examination in hospital infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚大鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application value of microbiological examination in hospital infection control. Methods:400 cases were selected from January 2011 to December 2013.They were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group with 200 cases in each.The control group were given routine treatment.The experimental group were given regular microbiological examination on the basis of the control group.When out of the hospital,the occurrences of infection of two groups were compared.Results:When the experimental group out of the hospital,6 cases(3%) were mild infection,2 cases(1%) were moderate infection,1 case(0.5%) was severe infection.The infection incidence rate was 4.5%,which was significantly lower than the infection incidence rate of control group.There was significant difference between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:At the same time of routine treatment,the hospital patients were given regular microbiological examination.It can effectively reduce the incidence rate of nosocomial infection of patients.It has important significance on the disease treatment and rehabilitation as well as the improvement of medical quality and living quality of patients.%目的:探讨微生物检验在控制医院感染中的临床应用价值。方法:2011年1月-2013年12月收治患者400例,随机平均分成两组,试验组与对照组,每组200例。对照组给予常规治疗,试验组在对照组的基础上定期进行微生物检验,比较两组出院时感染的发生情况。结果:试验组出院时,轻度感染6例(3.0%),中度感染2例(1.0%),重度感染1例(0.5%),感染发生率4.5%,明显低于对照组感染发生率,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:医院住院患者在常规治疗的同时定期进行微生物检验能够有效降低患者医院感染的发生率,对于疾病的治疗和康复以及患者就医质量和生活质量的提高具有重要意义。

  1. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to avoid teaching values. However, on the other hand, shaping students in some preset molding is apparently non-dialogic and uncritical (Matusov, 2009. In the former case, successful teaching is defined by how well and deeply the students accept and commit to the taught values. In the latter case, successful dialogic teaching may be defined by students’ critical examination of their own values against alternative values in a critical dialogue. Below, Eugene Matusov and Jay Lemke, active participants of this Facebook dialogue, provide their reflection on this important issue and encourage readers to join their reflective dialogue.[1] See in a public Facebook domain: https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/894734337204533, https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/896916850319615

  2. Social Life of Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active

  3. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  4. Looking for Core Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  5. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  6. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  7. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  8. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  9. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  10. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  11. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias S; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated ac...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities.......We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...... across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...

  12. Sustaining NCTE Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  13. Social Life of Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active socia

  14. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  15. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  16. The Prediction Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Kurz, S.; Lindner, I.; Napel, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the prediction value (PV) as a measure of players’ informational importance in probabilistic TU games. The latter combine a standard TU game and a probability distribution over the set of coalitions. Player i’s prediction value equals the difference between the conditional expectations

  17. Value of care - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with an episode of care for heart...

  18. The value of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary. Methods: This paper pre

  19. The value of health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary.\

  20. The value of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary. Methods This paper prese

  1. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias S; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities.......We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...

  2. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  3. The triad value function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to explicate how connectedness of relationships results in varying value potentials of triads. Design/methodology/approach - First connectedness is re-described as an actor-perceived and actor-interpreted phenomenon. The re-description is used to theorize...... the triad value function. Next, the applicability and validity of the concept is examined in a case study of four closed vertical supply chain triads. Findings - The case study demonstrates that the triad value function facilitates the analysis and understanding of an apparent paradox; that distributors...... are not dis-intermediated in spite of their limited contribution to activities in the triads. The results indicate practical adequacy of the triad value function. Research limitations/implications - The triad value function is difficult to apply in the study of expanded networks as the number of connections...

  4. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  5. Cultural Values and Alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia refers to difficulty with reflecting on and articulating emotional states. Previous research has found that Asian groups may tend toward greater alexithymia and that cultural values may mediate this difference, although the content of Asian values that form these pathways is unclear. This study examined the relationship between Confucian values, ethnicity, and alexithymia. A sample of 216 undergraduate students completed the Chinese Value Survey and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Asian Canadians scored more highly on alexithymia than non-Asian Canadians. Individuals who valued trustworthiness, patience, and kindness were found to be less alexithymic. The ability to be a source of kindness and security to others may be tied to the development of reflective awareness. Individuals who valued purity from desire and respect for social order were found to be more alexithymic. Such individuals may tend not to reflect on impure or socially disruptive thoughts and feelings. Values associated with purity and order mediated the difference between Asians and non-Asians on alexithymia. Asian Canadians may therefore score more highly on alexithymia because they prefer not to reflect on emotions associated with impurity or social disorder.

  6. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  7. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    The thesis consists of four papers which address the potential and challenges of the hedonic house price method. The aim of the thesis has been to estimate consistent and efficient parameter estimates of spatial varying regressors in the hedonic house price model. In particular, the articles...... are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  8. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on global value chain configuration, providing an overview of this topic. Specifically, we review the literature focusing on the concept of the global value chain and its activities, the decisions involved in its configuration, such as location, the governance...... modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  9. pH值调控对秸秆两阶段厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of pH Values Control on Biogas Production of Agricultural Straw with Two-phase Anaerobic Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广银; 曹杰; 叶小梅; 杜静; 常志州

    2015-01-01

    , and methanogenesis. Large literature search showed that hydrolysis and acidification is the limiting step of biogas production of biosolid wastes. How to improve the hydrolysis and acidification rate of biosolid wastes? Much work has been done, including pretreatment, co-digestion, high efficient microbial inoculants, fermentation process control, et al. PH value is an important factor to hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes. Much work has been done on characteristics of hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes in acidic environment, but there was little information on characteristics of hydrolysis and acidification of biosolid wastes in alkaline environment. In order to evaluate the effect of alkaline environment control on hydrolysis and acidification and subsequent biogas production of agricultural straw, changes of daily biogas yield, methane content, pH value, COD content of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase and characteristics of biogas production of methanogenic phase were studied. The results showed that two-phase anaerobic fermentation of agricultural straw could be operated normally and TS biogas yield and average methane content were 281.28mL/g TSadded and 47.36%, respectively. Cumulative biogas yield of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase, average methane content and cumulative methane yield of treatment of adjusting pH value of hydrolysate to 8.0 daily was improved by 24.51%. 2.5 percent and 29.39%. Adjusting pH value of hydrolysate to 9.5 and 11.0 daily could inhibit biogas production of hydrolysis and acidogenic phase and increase COD content of hydrolysate, but it was bad for biogas production of hydrolysate and cumulative biogas yield of methanogenic phase were only 89.97% and 17.48% to that of CK. Maintaining hydrolysis and acidogenic phase in alkaline environment was beneficial for dissolving out of hemicellulose and lignin but bad to cellulose.

  10. Comparison of the prognostic value of the 6th and 7th editions of the Union for International Cancer Control TNM staging system in patients with lower esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S P; Jose, P; Mirza, A; Pritchard, S A; Hayden, J D; Grabsch, H I

    2013-01-01

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is classified according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM staging system. The 7th edition of the UICC TNM staging system was published in 2009. This is the first study to compare the prognostic value of the TNM 6th and 7th editions in patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with chemotherapy followed by surgery. Two hundred forty-three patients with esophageal carcinoma were retrospectively selected from two referral centers. All patients received chemotherapy before surgery. Histopathologic data from the resection specimens were retrieved and restaged according to the TNM 7th edition. Disease-specific survival curves were plotted for depth of tumor invasion (ypT), lymph node status (ypN), and ypTNM stage and then compared. Median follow-up after surgery was 2.5 years (range 0.2-9 years). Survival analysis using the log-rank method revealed that there was a significant difference in survival between ypT4 disease and ypT3 disease (P= 0.003), but no difference between ypT0, ypT1, ypT2, and ypT3 categories irrespective of TNM edition used. Survival probability was significantly different between ypN0 and ypN1 (P= 0.001 for TNM 6th and 7th edition), as well as ypN2 and ypN3 (TNM 7th edition, P= 0.004), but not between ypN1 and ypN2 (TNM 7th edition, P= 0.89). Neither the TNM 6th nor 7th edition T staging provides accurate survival probability stratification. However, the advantage of the 7th edition is the introduction of a third tier in survival stratification for patients with nodal involvement. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Impact on the bar value in hot by the introduction of advanced control bars in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant; Impacto sobre el valor de barra en caliente por la introduccion de barras de control avanzadas en la U1 de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ramirez, J.R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In recent dates the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station (CNLV) has acquired new designs of control bars, this new type of bars presents modifications important in their design. For what is important to analyze their performance inside those reactors of this nuclear power station. Presently work is shown the behavior of the nucleus of the reactor in hot condition (HFP) when three different types of control bar are used. The first of them corresponds the one that initially has been used in this power station and that we will call original. The second type of control bars, it corresponds to an advanced type and it is the first design different from the original and it corresponds to a bar design that it includes Hafnium (Hf) like one of their neutronic absorption characteristics. The third, denoted as 2AV, include besides the material of the second type new design characteristics, and it is the last finish bar type that it has been introduced in the operation of the reactors of the CNLV. With base in the studied cases is found that the bars 2AV have a total power value, 7.6 % bigger respect the bars 1AV; and in turn the bars 1AV, 6.1 % bigger with respect the ORG control bars. (Author)

  12. Predicted value of $0 \\, \

    CERN Document Server

    Maedan, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that the lightest neutrino mass $ m_0 $ is measured, we study the influence of error of the measured $ m_0 $ on the uncertainty of the predicted value of the neutrinoless double beta decay ($0 \\, \

  13. Earned Value Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EVMS is a system for measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner by supporting earned value management. EVMS has the ability to combine...

  14. VT Wildlife Crossing Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the...

  15. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    are negatively correlated with each other, both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three-factor model. Global funding liquidity risk is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value...... and momentum jointly across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities.......We find consistent value and momentum return premia across eight diverse markets and asset classes, and a strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum returns correlate more strongly across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes, but value and momentum...

  16. Values in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  17. Moldova - Value Chain Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...

  18. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  19. The value of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    CJR. Alho

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper,...

  20. Values in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve."

  1. Clinical diagnostic value of the control application vertebral fractures Plain radiographs and CT%脊椎骨折应用放射平片与CT的临床诊断价值对照

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To plain radiographs and CT analysis compromise clinical value in the diagnosis of the spine. Methods Se-lect August 2012 to February 2014 in the hospital after surgery in patients diagnosed vertebral fractures, 70 cases underwent pre-operative imaging, radiology plain film row as the control group for the study group underwent CT examination records and analysis of relevant data. Results CT examination of the spinal canal stenosis, bone fragment displacement, canal volume changes and broke into pieces spinal fracture detection rate than the control group, with statistical significance (P<0.05);in column after column of CT and fractures the detection rate of moderate and severe fractures score higher than the control group, there were significant (P<0.05); spinal curvature change between the two methods, the anterior column fracture detection rate and mild fracture score group , the difference was not statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion CT scan can clearly show the involvement of the three-column fracture injury, joint Plain radiograph can improve the diagnosis rate of vertebral fractures.%目的:分析放射平片与CT在诊断脊椎骨折中的临床应用价值。方法选取2012年8月-2014年2月在本院经手术确诊为脊椎骨折的患者70例,术前均行影像学检查,将行放射平片检查作对照组,行CT检查作研究组,记录并分析相关数据。结果CT检查的椎管狭窄、骨折片移位、椎管容积改变与骨折片突入椎管诊断符合率均比对照组高,有统计学意义(P<0.05);CT检查的中柱与后柱骨折诊断符合率、中度与重度骨折评分均比对照组高,有统计学意义(P<0.05);两种检查方法的脊柱曲度改变、前柱骨折诊断符合率以及轻度骨折评分组间比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 CT扫描可清晰显示三柱受累与骨折损伤程度,联合放射平片可提高脊椎骨折确诊率。

  2. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults.

  3. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  4. Getting Value from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  5. Multi-valued fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Yuri L

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the author has studied the model-theoretic aspects of the theory of valued fields and multi-valued fields. Many of the key results included in this book were obtained by the author whilst preparing the manuscript. Thus the unique overview of the theory, as developed in the book, has been previously unavailable. The book deals with the theory of valued fields and mutli-valued fields. The theory of Prüfer rings is discussed from the `geometric' point of view. The author shows that by introducing the Zariski topology on families of valuation rings, it is possible to distinguish two important subfamilies of Prüfer rings that correspond to Boolean and near Boolean families of valuation rings. Also, algebraic and model-theoretic properties of multi-valued fields with near Boolean families of valuation rings satisfying the local-global principle are studied. It is important that this principle is elementary, i.e., it can be expressed in the language of predicate calculus. The most important...

  6. American values and contraceptive acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepka, J R

    1979-07-01

    A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the values underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also valued and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams.

  7. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....... groups, sales, funding and marketing/branding are as important as aesthetic principles. The Killing and The Bridge are used to illustrate how features such as setting, climate, light and language serve strategic as well as aesthetic purposes in the production process. Finally, the authors conclude...

  8. General Sentiment and Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidsson, Adam; Etter, Michael; Colleoni, Elanor

    and underestimates the complexity of the calculative situations in which values are set on financial markets. Based on in-depth interviews with traders, equity analysts and financial tool developers about the real use of reputation measurement tools, we argue that reputation data rather function as interpretative......The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between corporate reputation and financial value. Theories as the resource based view or the contractual view lie ground for the assumption of a linear positive correlation between reputation and financial performance. However......, existing empirical studies have provided conflicting results regarding the direction and strength of this relationship so far. In this paper we claim that the assumption of a direct linear correlation between corporate reputation and financial value misrepresents current financial practices...

  9. General Sentiment and Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidsson, Adam; Etter, Michael; Colleoni, Elanor

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between corporate reputation and financial value. Theories as the resource based view or the contractual view lie ground for the assumption of a linear positive correlation between reputation and financial performance. However......, existing empirical studies have provided conflicting results regarding the direction and strength of this relationship so far. In this paper we claim that the assumption of a direct linear correlation between corporate reputation and financial value misrepresents current financial practices...... and underestimates the complexity of the calculative situations in which values are set on financial markets. Based on in-depth interviews with traders, equity analysts and financial tool developers about the real use of reputation measurement tools, we argue that reputation data rather function as interpretative...

  10. SOURCES OF ENTERPRISE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mădălina Ion

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The value of the enterprise has an increased importance in business valuation, so maximizing it becomes a priority for the interested parties, such as its shareholders or investors. The purpose of this article is the analysis of the sources of enterprise value and its factors, in order to understand the causes of the decrease or the possibilities for maximizing the enterprise value, passing over the main concepts in the literature. The analysis refers to the listed companies on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB from the energy sector, including the largest Romanian company as per its capitalization, OMV Petrom. The research took into account the fact that the analysis of a large company with a long history is facilitated by the existence of multi-annual information, unlike the firms in the early life cycle operating in an emerging market.

  11. Protocol for the value of urodynamics prior to stress incontinence surgery (VUSIS study: a multicenter randomized controlled trial to assess the cost effectiveness of urodynamics in women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence in whom surgical treatment is considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjan Jan H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a common problem. In the Netherlands, yearly 64.000 new patients, of whom 96% are women, consult their general practitioner because of urinary incontinence. Approximately 7500 urodynamic evaluations and approximately 5000 operations for SUI are performed every year. In all major national and international guidelines from both gynaecological and urological scientific societies, it is advised to perform urodynamics prior to invasive treatment for SUI, but neither its effectiveness nor its cost-effectiveness has been assessed in a randomized setting. The Value of Urodynamics prior to Stress Incontinence Surgery (VUSIS study evaluates the positive and negative effects with regard to outcome, as well as the costs of urodynamics, in women with symptoms of SUI in whom surgical treatment is considered. Methods/design A multicentre diagnostic cohort study will be performed with an embedded randomized controlled trial among women presenting with symptoms of (predominant SUI. Urinary incontinence has to be demonstrated on clinical examination and/or voiding diary. Physiotherapy must have failed and surgical treatment needs to be under consideration. Patients will be excluded in case of previous incontinence surgery, in case of pelvic organ prolapse more than 1 centimeter beyond the hymen and/or in case of residual bladder volume of more than 150 milliliter on ultrasound or catheterisation. Patients with discordant findings between the diagnosis based on urodynamic investigation and the diagnosis based on their history, clinical examination and/or micturition diary will be randomized to operative therapy or individually tailored therapy based on all available information. Patients will be followed for two years after treatment by their attending urologist or gynaecologist, in combination with the completion of questionnaires. Six hundred female patients will be recruited for registration from

  12. Recursive Palindromic Smarandache Values

    OpenAIRE

    Earls, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In [1] Recursive Prime Numbers were studied and shown to be finite. This article deals with the same "recursive" topic, but applies the method to numbers whose Smarandache value, S(n), gives a palindromic number. Here, S(n) denotes the Smarandache function of least m such that n divides m!, and a palindrome is an integer that reads the same forwards and backwards (23432, for example). This sequence of recursive palindromic Smarandache values is shown to be finite...

  13. Moral Values In America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珍

    2005-01-01

    Do Americans have any morals? That’s a good question.Many people insist that ideas about right and wrong are merely personal opinions.Some voices,though,are calling Americans back to traditional moral values.William J.Bennett,former U.S.Secretary of Education,edited The Book of Virtues in 1993 to do just that.Bennett suggests that great moral stories can build character.The success of Bennett's book shows that many Americans still believe in moral values.But what are they?

  14. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  15. Processes and equipments for energy saving and emission reduction in dyeing plants (XV)——Control of pH value%印染厂节能减排实用工艺装备技术(十五)——染色pH值的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立秋

    2012-01-01

    以染浴pH值对牛仔服水洗、两相法印花后快速蒸化和活性染料浸染效果的影响等方面为实例,阐述染整加工中pH值测控的重要性;分析了pH值在线检测及控制系统的组成和系统控制器与外围设施的关系.%Taking the influence of pH value on denim washing, rapid ageing after two-phase printing and reactive dip dyeing for examples, the importance of pH value control in textiles wet processing is expounded. The composition of on-line detection and controlling system of pH value, as well as the relationship between control system and peripheral equipments are analyzed.

  16. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  17. Communicating Gospel Values Contextually

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    communication tool in human history, they do not only interrogate ..... teaching values to contextual issues, some of the focus-group ... So with this story I can tell you that the film .... because most members of the community of God's people ..... I feel pain in my heart...” .... Black race hideaway in fear and anxiety is contrasted.

  18. Strong vector valued integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Strong Bochner type integrals with values in locally convex spaces are introduced. It is shown that the strong integral exists in the same cases as the weak (Gelfand-Pettis) integral is known to exist. The strong integral has better continuity properties that the weak integral.

  19. Recognition measured values

    OpenAIRE

    LEITKEP, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    This work deals recognition measured values. The main task is to find suitable method for preprocessing images and create interface to software performing recognition. Created application will be used primarily to analyze the photos on site acquisition. Application is developed in Java and properly documented on javadoc level.

  20. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...

  1. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  2. Technostress and Library Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  3. Value oriented marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of business environment imposes the need for continuous change and reexamination of business marketing strategies of enterprises. Theory and practice of strategic management and marketing show that the activities of marketing, which are closely connected to corporate strategy, are the key drivers of growth. There is a positive correlation between competition intensity, marketing strategy and business performance of companies. Even though, managers of many companies don't see a clear connection between marketing strategy and business performance, numerous empirical research show that the companies which possess and efficiently use marketing resources and capabilities are more successful. In knowledge-based economics, the development of value oriented marketing strategies for all participants in the chain is a supposition of the survival, growth and development of companies. Competitive advantage is the essence of any strategy. Acquisition and maintenance of competitive advantage is more successful if the potentials for value creation are used efficiently. The paper examines the critical factors that influence alignment and transformation of marketing strategies in accordance with changes in value estimation. Superior value, is created in different network classes. Theory and practice researches create a reliable basis for the development of new concepts, marketing strategy business models that will contribute to competitive advantage of enterprises and the economy.

  4. Researching Values in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  5. The value of waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Michel van Dartel; dr. Anne Nigten

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that a first step in finding a sustainable solution for the pressing global issue of ‘waste’, is to consider waste a value attribution rather than a material condition. Doing so means a shift in focus from finding more efficient ways to ‘clean up the mess’ to changing the way in

  6. Historians and Social Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, Joep; Rigney, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Is historical scholarship compatible with commitment to social values? Do professional historians have particular social responsibilities and if so, how can they best exercise them? These are questions which are chronically open to debate in the light of changing historical circumstances and changin

  7. The Probabilistic Representative Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Casas-Mendez, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a new family of solutions for the class of cooperative games with transferable utility, in which the set of players exhibits a structure of a priori unions.This family is deeply connected with the Shapley value for games with transferable utility but, moreover, we assume a so

  8. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  9. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  10. The Value Landscape in Ecosystem Services: Value, Value Wherefore Art Thou Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P. Hejnowicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services has risen to become one of the preeminent global policy discourses framing the way we conceive and articulate environment–society relations, integral to the form and function of a number of far-reaching international policies such as the Aichi 2020 Biodiversity Targets and the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals. Value; its pursuit, definition, quantification, monetization, multiplicity and uncertainty, both in terms of meaning and attribution, is fundamental to the economic foundations of ecosystem services and a core feature driving its inclusion across multiple policy domains such as environmental management and conservation. Distilling current knowledge and developments in this arena are thus highly prescient. In this article, we cast a critical eye over the evidence base and aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis of what values are, why they are important and the methodological approaches employed to elicit them (including their pros and cons and the arguments for and against. We also illustrate the current ecosystem service value landscape, highlight some of the fundamental challenges in discerning and applying values, and outline future research activities. In so doing, we further advance ecosystem valuation discourse, contribute to wider debates linking ecosystem services and sustainability and strengthen connections between ecosystem services and environmental policy.

  11. Making People Feel Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  12. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  13. Value, Valuation, and Valorisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Daan

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge valorisation is the transfer of knowledge from one party to another for economic benefit. The concept of valorisation is based on the underlying metaphor of KNOWLEDGE AS A THING. It is the same metaphor that makes it possible to talk about the value of knowledge. If knowledge is like a ‘th

  14. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  15. The value (driven) web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, N.H.G.; Wiegel, V.; Van Oortmerssen, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on the importance of values and ethical aspects in web science. We create(d) the Internet, but now the Internet (technology) is shaping our world increasingly: the way we experience, interact, transact, conduct business et cetera. The Internet is ubiquitous and vital to

  16. Effect of Values-Clarification Workshop on Value Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlde, Carroll D.; Vinitsky, Michael H.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of self-esteem and values-clarification strategies on value awareness were assessed in an hour values-clarification workshop. Subjects participating in the workshop showed significantly greater gains in value awareness than nonparticipants, confirming that values-clarification strategies are valid means for clarifying personal values of…

  17. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  18. Valuing different human lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

    2014-04-01

    Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy.

  19. New sintering process adjusts magnetic value of ferrite cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinal, A. W.

    1964-01-01

    A two-phase sintering technique based on time and temperature permits reversible control of the coercive threshold of sintered ferrite cores. Threshold coercivity may be controlled over a substantial range of values by selective control of the cooling rate.

  20. Land value 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Cardillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to test the information collected through the Italian FADN survey to analyze the characteristics of Italian land market and was referred to accounting year 2009. The value of land is estimated according to the criterion of the most probable market value and is related to an administrative area and a quality culture. Given the similarity of information obtained, the results have been compared with data of  the INEA survey on Land Market published on the website Institute. The data recorded by the FADN are therefore suitable for the analysis of the characteristics of the Italian agricultural land market and the good quality of the information collected, regardless of the checks carried out, is also an evidence of the rigor with which FADN data collections are performed.

  1. Education: A Core Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences. Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  2. Improving University Research Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley O’Reilly

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the current data management practices of university researchers at an Intermountain West land-grant research university in the United States. Key findings suggest that researchers are primarily focused on the collection and housing of research data. However, additional research value exists within the other life cycle stages for research data—specifically in the stages of delivery and maintenance. These stages are where most new demands and requirements exist for data management plans and policies that are conditional for external grant funding; therefore, these findings expose a “gap” in current research practice. These findings should be of interest to academics and practitioners alike as findings highlight key management gaps in the life cycle of research data. This study also suggests a course of action for academic institutions to coalesce campus-wide assets to assist researchers in improving research value.

  3. Global Value Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  4. THE VALUE OF CREATIVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Previous analysis (Hertel, 2015) indicates that workers doing industrial cleaning in the food industry are forced to be creative in their everyday organizational life. There is (e.g. Richards, 2010) a lack of scientific methods for valuing such everyday creativity. The main question we want...... to address in this conference paper is: how can we not only understand but also evaluate creativity produced in organizations e.g. industrial cleaners? We will conduct a new case analysis in order to clarify whether such creativity can be compared with and understood as a new kind of (cf. Portes, 1998...... & Bourdieu, 1990 & 2002) symbolic capital. In case creativity actually can be regarded a symbolic capital we will discuss methods for valuing such a capital produced by creative industrial cleaners during their work at night....

  5. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  6. Best value for money

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Last week, the Industrial Services and General Infrastructure section of the Procurement and Industrial Services group received dozens of bids in a single day! The bids were submitted in response to four invitations to tender to be adjudicated on a ‘best value for money’ basis. This adjudication method, introduced at CERN in 2008, ensures that quality is given as much priority as cost containment in the process of awarding industrial services contracts.   Members of the Industrial Services and General Infrastructure section with the dozens of bids received in a single day. Until 2008 every contract at CERN was adjudicated on a "lowest compliant bid" basis, i.e. to the firm submitting the cheapest technically compliant tender. Since then, however, the CERN Financial Rules, including the Procurement Rules, have undergone an in-depth revision, and the ‘best value for money’ adjudication basis has been introduced. According to the new adju...

  7. Unaustralia: Strangeness and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the flawed legal regime governing national security in Australia. It focuses on legislation related to anti-terrorism and discusses the negative effects of the bills, particularly in relation to the treatment of refugees and asylum seekers. The author reflects on the harsh political and social climate of Australia during the era of the Howard government and One Nation party, noting that democratic and the liberal values can be in conflict.

  8. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... and consequently, for the advancement of international development. Further use of QVP is recommended and suggestions for future research are provided....

  9. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  10. Teaching and values education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Ochoa Cervantes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our social context suffers profound gaps that have to interact with the ethical dimension. Education is regarded as a one of the basic tools to overcome these shortcomings. Based of the before premise, there was conducted an reserach with 50 teachers from primary level of the city of Querétaro (Mexico. The aim consist on to know if carrying out education in values, the purpose pursued with these themes working thereon and assessment situations generated for that purpose. The result shows that teachers say they are working on values education. However, there is some inconsistency between the purpose pursuing that claim and the efforts to achieve this. The above said implies that the fact of to tray to implement curricular changes, it not necessarily has an impact on the construction of new practices to improve educational processes. It seems that the results of this work can be useful for policy makers of the educational management, it’s because it is necessary to make training in teachers, covering not only the conceptual formation, but also the individual and the process to make values. This should be included as part of the deontological and professional development of teachers

  11. The value of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc.) with their related economic values.

  12. The value of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence, biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc. with their related economic values.

  13. Efficient Smoothing for Boundary Value Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 29, pp. 803-821, 1984. [2] A. Bagchi and H. Westdijk, "Smoothing...and likelihood ratio for Gaussian boundary value processes," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , vol. 34, pp. 954-962, 1989. [3] R. Nikoukhah et...77-96, 1988. [6] H. L. Weinert and U. B. Desai, "On complementary models and fixed- interval smoothing," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control ,

  14. Sciences and Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanes Rakhmat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Pemisahan antara nilai-nilai moral dan sains adalah suatu ilusi yang muncul dari pandangan yang tidak tepat bahwa hanya agama yang dapat menghasilkan moralitas. Dengan keliru dikatakan bahwa sains kena-mengena hanya dengan fakta-fakta  dan teori-teori, bukan dengan nilai-nilai; dan hanya  agama-agama yang dapat menangani nilai-nilai. Kita tahu bahwa moyang kita yang hidup dalam zaman kuno untuk waktu yang sangat panjang dapat hidup bermoral kendatipun mereka tidak punya agama-agama. Dalam zaman modern ini kita, dengan demikian, dapat juga hidup bahkan dengan lebih bermoral lagi sekalipun tanpa agama-agama. Dengan menggunakan berbagai sains modern, pikiran, berbagai pengalaman dalam kehidupan kita, dan intuisi, kita juga dapat merancang bangun pandangan-pandangan moral sekular mengenai segala sesuatu untuk memandu kita dalam kehidupan kita yang kompleks.Keywords : moralitas, manusia, non-manusia, agama, etika sekuler, welas asih, evolusi, pendekatan-pendekatan interdisipliner, intuisi, nalar, sains Abstract : The separation of moral values and sciences is an illusion resulting from the incorrect view that only religions can produce morality. It is said wrongly that sciences concern only with facts and theories, not with values; only religions are able to deal with values. We know that ancient humans for a very long time were able to live morally even though they had no religions. We in the modern era are therefore able too even more. Using our modern sciences, mind, life experiences, and intuition, we too can construct secular moral views regarding everything to direct us in our complex lives. Keywords : human morality, non-human morality, religion, secular ethics, compassion, evolution, interdisciplinary approaches, intuition, reason, science.

  15. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  16. Values in the trash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, S.

    2015-01-01

    and is one of the important contributors to climate change, simply seems wrong. Here we discuss three questions in relation of this almost self-evident fact: (1) different definitions of food waste and the difficulties in reaching a global definition, how desirable it might be; (2) different ways...... of preventing food waste from the individual to the international level and the importance of examining the values behind different strategies; and (3) ethical challenges in relation to food waste and the opportunity to utilize the indignation that many feel when confronted with food waste to re...

  17. The Value of Crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poetz, Marion; Schreier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    (“crowdsourcing”), others have clearly been more skeptical. The authors join this debate by presenting a real-world comparison of ideas actually generated by a firm's professionals with those generated by users in the course of an idea generation contest. Both professionals and users provided ideas to solve...... generated user ideas that score significantly higher in terms of novelty and customer benefit, and somewhat lower in terms of feasibility. However, the average values for feasibility—in sharp contrast to novelty and customer benefit—tended to be relatively high overall, meaning that feasibility did...

  18. Virtual Place Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Justin T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology permeates every aspect of daily life, from the sensors that control the traffic signals to the cameras that allow real-time video chats with family around the world. At times, technology may make life easier, faster, and more productive. However, does technology do the same in schools and classrooms? Will the benefits of technology…

  19. Facts, values, and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  20. Personal Values in HCI Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Corina

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a broad overview of the core values underpinning my research agenda for more than a decade. It draws from value research, research values, and values in HCI, and concludes with some insights on the challenges and opportunities of developing a value-driven personal research agenda.

  1. 价值工程理论在混凝土成本控制中的应用%The application of value engineering theory in concrete cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文丽

    2015-01-01

    Applied the value engineering principle,taking the C35S concrete used in Fuqing nuclear power engineering conventional island as an example,through the analysis on the concrete production process and the main factors influence of concrete cost,selected the raw materials,pro-duction equipment amortization ,equipment operation,production personnel,on-site management as the object of value engineering,through the quantitative calculation,obtained the value coefficient,according to the size of value coefficient,combining with the actual production situation of nuclear power site mixing station,put forward new method to reduce the concrete cost.%应用价值工程原理,以福清核电工程常规岛所用C35S混凝土为例,通过对混凝土生产过程及影响混凝土成本的主要因素的分析,选择原材料、生产设备摊销、设备运行、生产人员、现场管理为价值工程的对象,通过量化计算,得出了价值系数,根据价值系数大小,结合核电现场搅拌站实际生产情况,提出针对性的降低混凝土成本的方法。

  2. Population change and socio-cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The developing countries of the world in general, and those of Asia and the Pacific in particular, recognize that unplanned population growth is a stumbling block to socioeconomic development. Discussion here focuses on population growth and social, economic, and institutional forces, which are referred to as sociocultural values. Generally, sociocultural values change sluggishly over time. The rate at which a country's sociocultural values change depends on several factors such as the stage of economic development and modernization and whether a country has an open or closed door policy. "The Value of Children Study: A Crossnational Study" by Fred Arnold et al. shows that there are positive and negative values attributed to children in the Asian countries. These are: positive general values--emotional benefits, economic benefits and security, self enrichment and development, identification with children, and family cohesiveness and continuity; negative general values--emotional costs, economic costs, restrictions on opportunity costs, physical demands, and family costs; large family values--sibling relationships, sex preferences, child survival; and small family values--maternal health and societal costs. Possibly the most formidable obstacle to the success of antinatalist population policies is that of religious values. It appears that the Muslim world is divided on the issue of fertility control. Conflicting views regarding fertility control is perhaps aggravated by the fact that there is no central international religious official hierarchy that issues out edicts. Despite the presence of a centralized religious hierarchy and a network of churches from the Vatican to the village levels among the Catholics, and a clearer elucidation of the Humanae Vitae, a liberal attitude to population regulation and family planning has emerged, largely because of the declining quality of life of the people resulting from unplanned births. Economic benefits of children include

  3. Measuring social value orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan O. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Narrow self-interest is often used as a simplifying assumption when studying people making decisions in social contexts. Nonetheless, people exhibit a wide range of different motivations when choosing unilaterally among interdependent outcomes. Measuring the magnitude of the concern people have for others, sometimes called Social Value Orientation (SVO, has been an interest of many social scientists for decades and several different measurement methods have been developed so far. Here we introduce a new measure of SVO that has several advantages over existent methods. A detailed description of the new measurement method is presented, along with norming data that provide evidence of its solid psychometric properties. We conclude with a brief discussion of the research streams that would benefit from a more sensitive and higher resolution measure of SVO, and extend an invitation to others to use this new measure which is freely available.

  4. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...

  5. The Value of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrede, Joar

    2014-01-01

    In Oslo, the capital of Norway, several urban development projects are in the making. One such project is the Fjord City project, which involves freeing up waterfront areas for housing, commerce, culture and recreation. It has been decided to relocate The Munch Museum to the area, and a new Opera...... documents and the public debate, it is evident that “culture” is vital in the urban development projects, but it is ambiguous what the value of “culture” consists of. Many citizens are questioning the disruption to historical continuity and they are confused about the political reasoning behind...... the decisions to abandon the old museum buildings. On the other hand, the relocation of the cultural institutions is intended to increase the city’s attractiveness and make it more interesting to investors, tourists and visitors. Against this backdrop, this thesis is devoted to the task of analysing – from...

  6. Multiplicative Valued Difference Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Koushik

    2010-01-01

    The theory of valued difference fields $(K, \\sigma, v)$ depends on how the valuation $v$ interacts with the automorphism $\\sigma$. Two special cases have already been worked out - the isometric case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) = v(x)$ for all $x\\in K$, has been worked out by Luc Belair, Angus Macintyre and Thomas Scanlon; and the contractive case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) > n\\cdot v(x)$ for all $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ and $x\\in K^\\times$ with $v(x) > 0$, has been worked out by Salih Azgin. In this paper we deal with a more general version, called the multiplicative case, where $v(\\sigma(x)) = \\rho\\cdot v(x)$, where $\\rho (> 0)$ is interpreted as an element of a real-closed field. We give an axiomatization and prove a relative quantifier elimination theorem for such a theory.

  7. The value of victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter van den Bos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Auctions, normally considered as devices facilitating trade, also provide a way to probe mechanisms governing one's valuation of some good or action. One of the most intriguing phenomena in auction behavior is the winner's curse --- the strong tendency of participants to bid more than rational agent theory prescribes, often at a significant loss. The prevailing explanation suggests that humans have limited cognitive abilities that make estimating the correct bid difficult, if not impossible. Using a series of auction structures, we found that bidding approaches rational agent predictions when participants compete against a computer. However, the winner's curse appears when participants compete against other humans, even when cognitive demands for the correct bidding strategy are removed. These results suggest the humans assign significant future value to victories over human but not over computer opponents even though such victories may incur immediate losses, and that this valuation anomaly is the origin of apparently irrational behavior.

  8. Energy and American values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  9. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D, and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}. If for every f ∈ F, f(z) = a =■ f (z) = a and f (z) = b =■ f (z) = b, then F is normal. We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk Δ = {|z| < 1} such that for every f ∈ F, f(z) = m + 1  f (z) = m + 1 and f (z) = 1  f (z) = 1 in Δ, where m is a given positive integer. This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu, Pang and Fang.

  10. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JianMing

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D,and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}.If for every f ∈ F,f(z)=a=>(z) = a and f'(z)=b=>f"(z)=b,then F is normal.We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk △= {|z|<1} such that for every f ∈F,f(z) =m+1f'(z) = m+1and f'(z)=1 f"(z) = 1 in △ A,where m is a given positive integer.This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu,Pang and Fang.

  11. The value of reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-07

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  12. The innovation value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  13. Core of values spiritual and moral crisis: definitions, typologies, values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Talanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon spiritual and moral crisis in Russian society. Values are considered as the central core of the structure of spiritual and moral crisis, the problem of determining the values, their typologies, and the problem faced by a sociologist who studies spiritual and moral crisis through a system of values and value orientations.

  14. Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Poul Houman

    Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...

  15. The effectiveness of a value-based EMOtion-cognition-Focused educatIonal programme to reduce diabetes-related distress in Malay adults with Type 2 diabetes (VEMOFIT) : Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, BH; Vos, Rimke C.; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Shamsuddin, Nurainul Hana; Fernandez, Aaron; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ismail, Mastura; Mohd Ahad, Azainorsuzila; Sundram, Narayanan N.; Ali, Siti Zubaidah Mohd; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients experience many psychosocial problems related to their diabetes. These often lead to emotional disorders such as distress, stress, anxiety and depression, resulting in decreased self-care, quality of life and disease control. The purpose of the

  16. The effectiveness of a value-based EMOtion-cognition-Focused educatIonal programme to reduce diabetes-related distress in Malay adults with Type 2 diabetes (VEMOFIT) : Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, BH; Vos, Rimke C.; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Shamsuddin, Nurainul Hana; Fernandez, Aaron; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ismail, Mastura; Mohd Ahad, Azainorsuzila; Sundram, Narayanan N.; Ali, Siti Zubaidah Mohd; Rutten, Guy E H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074622781

    2017-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients experience many psychosocial problems related to their diabetes. These often lead to emotional disorders such as distress, stress, anxiety and depression, resulting in decreased self-care, quality of life and disease control. The purpose of the cu

  17. Equity Structure and Firm Value Based on Control Right Transfer: Evidence from M&A Target Listed Companies%基于控制权转移视角的股权结构与公司价值 ——来自并购中上市目标公司的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 韩立岩

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate into the relationship between equity structure and firm value from the perspective of M&A target listed campanies within the framework of type Ⅰ agency theory focusing on the concept of corporate control. The result demonstrates that M&A on control right transfer will create value for target companies, that the percentage of equity that controlling share holder in the target companies holds have significant impact on the firm value through influencing the returns of control rights (with inverted-U shape); and that this impact will be affected by the counterbalance among block holders.%基于第二类代理理论中公司控制权的概念,本文首次从并购中上市目标公司的视角对股权结构与公司价值之间的关系进行研究.研究结论表明控制权转移型并购为目标公司创造价值,第一大股东持股比例通过影响控制权收益对公司价值产生影响,但是这种影响是非线性的(倒U型),并且这种影响受到股东制衡因素的制约.

  18. The Value of Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Bos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, inclusion and participation have become leading policy concepts within the Dutch chronic care and social welfare sector. People with an intellectual or psychiatric disability ought to get a chance to participate in, and belong to, the mainstream of our society—on the basis of equality and equivalence. Although on an international level this pursuit has been going on for at least five decades, it still raises all kinds of questions and debates. What does it mean if we want people with intellectual and/or psychiatric disabilities to participate in our society? Based on which idea(ls about humanity do we define equality and equivalence? And by doing so, how much space is left for individual differences? In the following dialogue the two authors navigate the tension between similarity and difference in thinking about—and working towards—more space for marginalized people. In an attempt to withstand the contemporary dominance of equality thinking, marked by a strong focus on tenability and autonomy—and by extension an increasing climate of taboo around vulnerability and dependency—both authors stress the importance of recognizing and valuing difference, while discussing encounters between people with and without a severe intellectual and/or multiple disability.

  19. Economic value of walkability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2004-10-12

    Traditional transportation planning and evaluation practices treat walking as a minor transport mode. However, it is evident that walking is a critical component of the transport system. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate the value of walking and walkability, which is defined as the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience. The socio-economic benefits of walking and walkability were discussed, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings and reduced external costs. Efficient land use, community livability, improved public health, economic development and support for equity objectives were also presented as potential benefits. It was concluded that walking receives less than its appropriate share of transportation resources, and that improvements in walkability can provide a high economic return on investment. Increased government funding to walking facilities and programs was recommended. Other recommendations included: shifting road space from traffic and parking lanes to sidewalks and paths; and policies to create more walkable safety and comfort. These recommendations comply with other transport and land use management reforms to reduce automobile dependency and create greater accessibility. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Reference change values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  1. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  2. Application of Value Management in the Control of the Supplies Purchasing in Colleges and Universities%价值管理在高校物资采购控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹怡; 王国平

    2015-01-01

    With the expansion of the education scale of colleges and universities, the investment of supplies purchasing is gradually increasing. How to maximize the investment benefits is the most important problem of the supplies purchasing in colleges and universities at present. This paper brings the theories and methods of value management to the supplies tender and purchasing to build value management model of the supplies purchasing in colleges and universities and realize the optimization of the investment benefits.%随着高校办学规模的扩大,物资采购方面的投入不断加大,如何使得投入效益最大化,是当前高校物资采购中面临的重要难题。本文将价值管理的理论与方法引入到物资的招标采购中,建立高校物资采购的价值管理模型,实现学校投入效益的最优化。

  3. THE BUSINESS VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi DUMITRESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every sales opportunity required us to get involved with ourcustomer`s finance department to develop a business case or costjustification. Business acumen (an understanding of how business works ismore than just knowing words and their definitions; it`s understanding thatpoor inventory control has a negative impact on order fill-rates. When orderfill-rates fall, customer loyalty suffers, as do accounts receivable. Whenaccounts receivable get out hand, cash flow is impacted. Then a companymight have to dip into lines of credit to cover short-term obligations, and theinterest that has to be paid on that borrowed money erodes profitability. Wecall this the “cause and effect of business”.

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  5. 78 FR 78399 - Value Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Value Engineering AGENCY: Office of Federal Procurement... Budget Circular No. A-131, ``Value Engineering''. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP..., Value Engineering, to update and reinforce policies associated with the consideration and use of value...

  6. Value Engineering and Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    provides provisions for a mandatory VE program requirement. VE is implemented by approval of either a Value Engineering Proposal ( VEP ) (an internal...Engineering T&M time and material VE Value Engineering VECP Value Engineering Change Proposal VEP Value Engineering Proposal Standard Form 298 (Rev

  7. 基于价值密度的Job-shop车间生产计划控制%Workshop Production Planning Control Based on the Value Density of Job-shop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔峻华; 陈进; 邓玉锋; 刘琴

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of route uncertainty, inaccuracy of work time, fast changes of the process and fast logistics in the status of discrete production process, a method is proposed that makes the value of production in plan period as the pursuit goals. The completion time node is not needed to be pursued in schedule but the production order. So that enterprise can get the highest value in unit time, namely making production scheduling based on the value density. After determining the bottleneck of workshop equipment, this method ensures that there are enough parts for processing in front of the equipment through scheduling and mixes human resources and equipment in scheduling, making implementation of task changes and lock or refuse of time window in dynamic status. Both the importance of order and time of delivery are considered in order to make full use of the workshop equipment capacity. Each task is computed for only one time, which is especially suitable for rapid production scheduling in dynamics.%针对离散型生产中工艺路线不确定,工时不准确,加工中变化快,物流速度快的生产现状,提出计划期内生产的价值作为追求目标,排产不必追求任务完成的时间节点,而应制定投产的顺序,以保证企业在单位时间内实现的价值最高,即价值密度作为排产依据。确定车间的瓶颈设备之后,通过排产保证该设备前面有足够的零部件等待加工,将人力资源和设备混合排产,在动态中实现任务计划的改变、时间窗口的锁定或拒绝,兼顾了订单的重要性和交货时间,发挥出了车间设备的最大能力。每个任务的计算量仅有一次,特别适合动态中的快速排产。

  8. Adding Production Value Through Application of Value Based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Customer value is a key goal in the Lean philosophy, essentially only actions that adds value should be conducted. In a transformation view, the basic lean approach is to remove waste, which indirectly increases value (or withstand value lose). Lean Construction acknowledges two different types...... of value views. Product value, as stated above and value in relation to cooperation in the construction process. Process values are important when it comes to the comfort (physical and mental wellbeing) of the craftsmen cooperating aligned around the same goal of a smooth process and a great end product....... By increasing the comfort of the craftsmen their productivity could increase. Furthermore, shared process values decrease the needs of managerial standards, structures, and systems. By means of a questionnaire survey this study investigates the connection between scheduling and the comfort achieved through...

  9. Adding production value through application of value based scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Customer value is a key goal in the Lean philosophy, essentially only actions that adds value should be conducted. In a transformation view, the basic lean approach is to remove waste, which indirectly increases value (or withstand value lose). Lean Construction acknowledges two different types...... of value views. Product value, as stated above and value in relation to cooperation in the construction process. Process values are important when it comes to the comfort (physical and mental wellbeing) of the craftsmen cooperating aligned around the same goal of a smooth process and a great end product....... By increasing the comfort of the craftsmen their productivity could increase. Furthermore, shared process values decrease the needs of managerial standards, structures, and systems. By means of a questionnaire survey this study investigates the connection between scheduling and the comfort achieved through...

  10. Adding production value through application of value based scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . By increasing the comfort of the craftsmen their productivity could increase. Furthermore, shared process values decrease the needs of managerial standards, structures, and systems. By means of a questionnaire survey this study investigates the connection between scheduling and the comfort achieved through......Customer value is a key goal in the Lean philosophy, essentially only actions that adds value should be conducted. In a transformation view, the basic lean approach is to remove waste, which indirectly increases value (or withstand value lose). Lean Construction acknowledges two different types...... of value views. Product value, as stated above and value in relation to cooperation in the construction process. Process values are important when it comes to the comfort (physical and mental wellbeing) of the craftsmen cooperating aligned around the same goal of a smooth process and a great end product...

  11. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  12. Positive predictive value of a case definition for diabetes mellitus using automated administrative health data in children and youth exposed to antipsychotic drugs or control medications: a Tennessee Medicaid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo William V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed and validated an automated database case definition for diabetes in children and youth to facilitate pharmacoepidemiologic investigations of medications and the risk of diabetes. Methods The present study was part of an in-progress retrospective cohort study of antipsychotics and diabetes in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 6–24 years. Diabetes was identified from diabetes-related medical care encounters: hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and filled prescriptions. The definition required either a primary inpatient diagnosis or at least two other encounters of different types, most commonly an outpatient diagnosis with a prescription. Type 1 diabetes was defined by insulin prescriptions with at most one oral hypoglycemic prescription; other cases were considered type 2 diabetes. The definition was validated for cohort members in the 15 county region geographically proximate to the investigators. Medical records were reviewed and adjudicated for cases that met the automated database definition as well as for a sample of persons with other diabetes-related medical care encounters. Results The study included 64 cases that met the automated database definition. Records were adjudicated for 46 (71.9%, of which 41 (89.1% met clinical criteria for newly diagnosed diabetes. The positive predictive value for type 1 diabetes was 80.0%. For type 2 and unspecified diabetes combined, the positive predictive value was 83.9%. The estimated sensitivity of the definition, based on adjudication for a sample of 30 cases not meeting the automated database definition, was 64.8%. Conclusion These results suggest that the automated database case definition for diabetes may be useful for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of medications and diabetes.

  13. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  14. Finite Operator-Valued Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Operator-valued frames are natural generalization of frames that have been used in quantum computing, packets encoding, etc. In this paper, we focus on developing the theory about operator-valued frames for finite Hilbert spaces. Some results concerning dilation, alternate dual, and existence of operator-valued frames are given. Then we characterize the optimal operator-valued frames under the case which one packet of data is lost in transmission. At last we construct the operator-valued fram...

  15. 胎头娩出速度控制助产防护产妇会阴裂伤的价值%Value of speed control midwifery fetal head protection for maternal perineal laceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨控制胎头娩出速度助产法在减少产妇会阴裂伤中的价值。方法选择2012年1月至2014年10月行阴道分娩的120例产妇为研究对象,随机将其分为对照组与研究组,每组60例,对照组产妇给予常规阴道助产保护,研究组产妇给予胎头娩出速度控制助产,比较两组会阴裂伤发生率及其裂伤程度、第二产程时间、产后出血量、住院时间。结果研究组会阴裂伤发生率、Ⅱ度裂伤率分别为18.33%、3.33%,对照组分别为40.00%、24.33%,两组比较比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。产后出血量、住院时间研究组分别为(127.60±47.28)ml、(2.40±0.33)d,对照组分别为(179.52±89.35)ml、(3.43±0.62)d,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论控制胎头娩出速度助产能明显减少产妇会阴裂伤发生率,减轻裂伤程度,缩短住院时间,值得临床推广。%Objective To investigate the valye of speed control midwifery fetal head protection for maternal perineal lacera-tion. Methods From Janyary 2012 to October 2014,one hyndrad and twenty patients with vaginal delivery were selected as the research objects,and they were randomly divided into control groyp and stydy groyp with 60 cases in each groyp. The control groyp was given the midwifery of roytine vaginal maternal protection,and the stydy groyp was given the midwifery of controlling the speed of fetal head. The incidence of perineal laceration,the degree of laceration,the second delivery process,the postpar-tym blood loss and the length of hospital stay were compared between the two groyps. Results The incidence of perineal lacera-tion and degree Ⅱ laceration rate of the observation groyp were 18. 33% and 3. 33% respectively,and 40. 00% and 24. 33% in the control groyp,the differences had statistically significant between the two groyps(P < 0. 05). In addition,the postpartym blood loss and the length of hospital

  16. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  17. Value Chain Theory in Agent Construction Project Investment Control:From Construction Agency Perspective%价值链理论在代建项目投资控制中的应用研究--基于代建企业视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逸凡; 刘万琳

    2013-01-01

    From the view of the Construction Agency,this paper used the value chain analysis model to study investment control within the whole process of the Agent Construction Project,proposed to establish a internal value chain which involves two key segments (the optimization of the design choices in the design phase and the control of design changes in construction phase) of the Construction Agency, thus successfully control the project investment. Through the value chain support systems,sort out all the value activities within theses two key segments,draw conclusions of effective measures that control the project investment,thereby improve the management performance of Construction Agency and enable them to gain a competitive advantage during the bidding process that held by government.%  本文从代建企业的角度出发,利用价值链理论分析模型对代建项目全过程的投资控制进行研究,提出以设计阶段设计方案的优化选择和施工阶段设计变更的控制作为企业内部价值链两大关键环节,从而有效地对代建项目进行投资控制。通过价值链中的支持系统,梳理关键环节中的价值活动,得出代建项目投资控制的有效措施,进而提高代建企业的管理绩效,在政府委托招标过程中获得竞争优势。

  18. Corporate Governance, Firm Risk and Shareholder Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wolfswinkel (Michiel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of three studies in the field of corporate governance. The research examines the impact of the way Dutch firms are managed and controlled on risk characteristics and the implications for shareholder value. The first study examines the relation between board int

  19. What is the value of the routine use of patient-reported outcome measures toward improvement of patient outcomes, processes of care, and health service outcomes in cancer care? A systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotronoulas, Grigorios; Kearney, Nora; Maguire, Roma; Harrow, Alison; Di Domenico, David; Croy, Suzanne; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2014-05-10

    The systematic use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) has been advocated as an effective way to standardize cancer practice. Yet, the question of whether PROMs can lead to actual improvements in the quality of patient care remains under debate. This review examined whether inclusion of PROM in routine clinical practice is associated with improvements in patient outcomes, processes of care, and health service outcomes during active anticancer treatment. A systematic review of five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature], PsycINFO, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection [PBSC]) was conducted from database inception to May 2012 to locate randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials of patients receiving active anticancer treatment or supportive care irrespective of type of cancer. Based on prespecified eligibility criteria, we included 26 articles that reported on 24 unique controlled trials. Wide variability in the design and use of interventions delivered, outcomes evaluated, and cancer- and modality-specific context was apparent. Health service outcomes were only scarcely included as end points. Overall, the number of statistically significant findings were limited and PROMs' intervention effect sizes were predominantly small-to-moderate. The routine use of PROMs increases the frequency of discussion of patient outcomes during consultations. In some studies, PROMs are associated with improved symptom control, increased supportive care measures, and patient satisfaction. Additional effort is required to ensure patient adherence, as well as additional support to clinicians who will respond to patient concerns and issues, with clear system guidelines in place to guide their responses. More research is required to support PROM cost-benefit in terms of patient safety, clinician burden, and health services usage.

  20. Transcriptional control of the F0F1-ATP synthase operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum: SigmaH factor binds to its promoter and regulates its expression at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Barreiro, Carlos; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Martín, Juan F

    2013-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum used in the amino acid fermentation industries is an alkaliphilic microorganism. Its F(0)F(1)-ATPase operon (atpBEFHAGDC) is expressed optimally at pH 9.0 forming a polycistronic (7.5 kb) and a monocistronic (1.2 kb) transcripts both starting upstream of the atpB gene. Expression of this operon is controlled by the SigmaH factor. The sigmaH gene (sigH) was cloned and shown to be co-transcribed with a small gene, cg0877, encoding a putative anti-sigma factor. A mutant deleted in the sigH gene expressed the atpBEFHAGDC operon optimally at pH 7.0 at difference of the wild-type strain (optimal expression at pH 9.0). These results suggested that the SigmaH factor is involved in pH control of expression of the F(0) F(1) ATPase operon. The SigmaH protein was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the GST (glutathione-S-transferase) and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on a GSTrap HP column. The fused protein was identified by immunodetection with anti-GST antibodies. DNA-binding studies by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the SigH protein binds to a region of the atpB promoter containing the sigmaH recognition sequence (-35)TTGGAT…18nt…GTTA(-10). SigmaH plays an important role in the cascade of control of pH stress in Corynebacterium.