WorldWideScience

Sample records for prehistoric research section

  1. Discoveries from La Manche: Five Years of Early Prehistoric Research in the Channel Island of Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Pope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a new field project drawn from major UK institutions including the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has focused research on the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic record of the Channel Island of Jersey. In this retrospective of five years of research the history of the project to date, its focus on the Middle Palaeolithic site of La Cotte de St Brelade and its growth into an international research team is charted. The formation of the La Manche Prehistorique research network in 2015 marks a new chapter in the development of this project. With its wider focus, but continued commitment to research in the Channel Islands, the research group are working towards a unified early prehistoric research framework for the English Channel region.

  2. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  3. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  4. Prehistoric sanctuaries in Daunia

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E; Tunzi, A M; Zupone, M Lo

    2013-01-01

    Daunia is a region in northern Apulia with many interesting archaeological sites, particularly of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Beginning from the fifth millennium BC, the farmers living in the wide plain of Daunia dug hypogea and holes in sites that could be considered prehistoric sanctuaries. The characteristics of the rows of holes indicate a ritual use, and the archaeologists tend to exclude other applications, such as post holes and cultivations. The rows have possibly an astronomical orientation, and in the sanctuary discovered near Ordona, some stars of the Centaurus-Crux group (may be alpha Centauri itself) could have been used as targets. In past centuries, astronomers and scholars have remarked this spectacular region of the sky, and its possible relevance for the ancient civilizations was pointed out for example by G.V. Schiaparelli in 1903. In his work on the astronomy in the Old Testament, he mentioned in particular the observations of the astronomer W.S. Jacob and of other scholars. It would be ...

  5. Gerzeh, a prehistoric Egyptian meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.; Grady, Monica; Tyldesley, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the earliest examples of iron used by man was discovered in a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery. The site of Gerzeh, 40 miles south of Cairo, was excavated in 1911-1912, over 300 graves dat-ing from around 3300 BCE were discovered [1]. A few of the graves contained rare and precious materials such as gold and lapis lazuli. Two graves, Tombs 67 and 133, were also found to contain iron beads; at the time of excavation these examples of Egyptian pre-dynastic culture were considered to be the ...

  6. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  7. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  8. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Misra

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide

  9. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era.

  10. Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Plog, Stephen; George, Richard J.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Watson, Adam S.; Skoglund, Pontus; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Stewardson, Kristin; Kistler, Logan; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Reich, David; Perry, George H.

    2017-01-01

    For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United States. We show that nine individuals buried in an elite crypt at Pueblo Bonito, the largest structure in the canyon, have identical mitochondrial genomes. Analyses of nuclear genome data from six samples with the highest DNA preservation demonstrate mother–daughter and grandmother–grandson relationships, evidence for a multigenerational matrilineal descent group. Together, these results demonstrate the persistence of an elite matriline in Chaco for ∼330 years. PMID:28221340

  11. Prehistoric iconography and dance: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudenzio Ragazzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest documentation on the dance consists of images produced with various techniques on a wide range of material supports (rock, ceramic, metal. Due to the nature of the document, in the search for the origins of the dance, the choreutic competence must proceed to the iconographic. The figurative language of prehistoric images is highly formalized, and expresses the limits imposed by the ritual to the rules of communication. Moreover, precisely to the value attributed to the sacral support, to represent an action, as a dance, rather than plowing, or something else, means to activate a mechanism that perpetually produces the effects for which the representation was produced. This mechanism reveals that there is a strong relationship between the representations of prehistoric dance and the cosmological context.

  12. Trajectories and temporalities of later prehistoric embanked field systems in Northwestern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette; Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers the first systematic account of the development of late prehistoric landscape enclosure, in Northwestern Europe. The study provides groundbreaking core research in that it builds on an exceptionally large amount of dated sites as well as highly detailed micro scale evidence, com...

  13. Prehistoric disasters at Lajia Site, Qinghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyan; XIA Zhengkai; YE Maolin

    2003-01-01

    Lajia Site, located near the upper reaches of the Yellow River and theborder of Qinghai Province and Gansu Province, is a large-scale site of the Qijia Culture. In 2000 and 2001, archaeologists excavated an unusual scene of prehistoric dramatic and miserable disasters. Lots of geologic-geographic evidences revealed that the Lajia Site was ruined by coinstantaneous disasters, mainly floods from the Yellow River and earthquakes, accompanying mountainous torrents. Study on these disasters and their driven forces could provide us not only the knowledge on the palaeoenvironment of the area, but also offer us a valuable site toassess the influence of the natural disasters on human civilization development.

  14. Capo Mannu Project 2011 - Prehistoric Pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giandaniele Castangia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the results of a study carried out on the prehistoric pottery from the 2011 survey of the Capo Mannu Project, central-western Sardinia. The chrono-typological analysis of ceramics clearly indicates the presence of different chronological phases of occupation of the area prior to the seventh century BC: Final Neolithic or Ozieri phase, Early, Middle and Recent Bronze Age. This confirms old reports, such as those concerning the presence of a Neolithic settlement on the hill of Monte Benei, but it also raises some important questions that will be investigated in the next campaigns.

  15. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  16. Research and development activities of the Seismology Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, C. A.; Murty, G. S.

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities during 1984 to 1985 of the Seismology Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, are reported in the form of individual summaries. The R and D activities of the section are directed towards development of seismological instruments and methods of analysis of the seismic field data with the main objective of detecting underground nuclear explosions and assessing seismicity and seismic risk of sites considered for nuclear power stations. The section has two field stations, one at Gauribidanur in the southern part of the country and another at Delhi i.e., in the northern part of the country. During the report period, a total of 62 events out of the detected ones were identified as underground explosions. The expertise of the section is also made available for outside organizations.

  17. GIS based reconstruction of the prehistoric communities' territories of the northern and central Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Glavaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for reconstructing prehistoric territories implementing the geographic information systems (GIS is presented in this article. We focused our research on Iron Age communities of northern and central Velebit Mountain (Croatia, but traces of their territorial extent are very scarce or nonexistent. Territories of the communities in question were modeled using GIS according to the relief characteristics and the time scale of a two-hour walk from the central hill forts using Tobler’s Hiking Equation.

  18. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical...... knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  19. Craniometric variation and homogeneity in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) regional populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V H

    1999-12-01

    Discrete cranial morphological traits of prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui (Easter Island) inhabitants have been examined and have illustrated distinct regional or tribal differences; however, craniometric traits have not been as extensively evaluated to determine if similar regional population differences exist. This study examines the range of variability of Rapa Nui craniometrics and utilizes population genetic techniques to evaluate the level of homogeneity/heterogeneity within the island populations. The data consist of 50 cranio-facial measurements of Rapanui (Easter Islanders) skeletal material from the Late Prehistoric (1680-1722) and Protohistoric (1722-1868) periods. The sample was divided into five tribal regions: North, Northeast, South, Southwest, and West. General linear models (GLM) statistical analyses revealed one variable significant for males and 10 for females across tribal regions, totaling 11 regionally significant variables. Discriminant function analyses utilizing crossvalidation provided classification error rates of 55.8% males and 59.0% for females when utilizing those eleven significant variables. Minimum F(ST) values for males (0.06378) and females (0.09409) were calculated from unbiased Mahalanobis D(2) values. These values indicate that males have greater between-group homogeneity than females. The determinant ratio for the Northeast tribal region was the only significant ratio, yet all but one of the regional determinant ratios displayed a pattern of greater male than female mobility. These results indicate that significant craniometric differences between the tribal regions did not exist in prehistoric/protohistoric Rapa Nui populations, supporting the findings of previous research which has documented the homogeneity of the craniometrics of those tribal populations. The calculated minimum F(ST) values indicate the existence of different levels of heterogeneity between the male and female Rapa Nui regional populations resulting

  20. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  1. Research on relation between cortical functional section and acupuncture point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwang; Li, Chunhua; Liang, Guozhuang; Wang, Shuhai

    2008-02-01

    The application of the infrared imaging using in the brain cognition and the acupuncture is introduced. Acupuncturing a certain point of the healthy experimental cats, observing the responds of the cerebral cortical temperature by using of infrared imaging, and researching the corresponding relation between the acupuncture points with the active sections of the cerebral cortex, so the effect of the acupuncture is obtained. The theory of the refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick is approved. The method of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick" can promote the metabolize renovation, improve the living function and increase the healing rate. However, the relations between the points and the cortical functional sections have not the last word still. After removing the skulls on the head, full of the cerebral cortex of a cat are exposed. Observing the infrared imaging and measuring the temperatures of the visual cerebral cortex during the process of acupuncturing the points to judge the activation position. During the process of acupuncture, the trend of the rising temperature on cerebral cortex is primary in terms of the phenomena in the infrared pictures. The cortical hemogram variety is measured in terms of the infrared pictures and the temperature values, so the characteristic curve of the temperature for a corresponding position on the cerebral cortex and the acupuncture point can be obtained. When the acupuncture point is changed, the position where temperature varied on cerebral cortex is different correspondingly. The variety in the cortical functional sections is corresponding to the result of the acupuncture point in terms of the imaging and the temperatures. The experimental results accord with the theoretic model, so they validate the correctness of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick". According to the experimental results, we know that the variety of a cortical functional section is corresponding to a special acupuncture

  2. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  3. Neutron resonance capture applied to some prehistoric bronze axes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.; Butler, J. J.; Schillebeeckx, P.; van Eijk, C. W. E.

    2007-01-01

    The elemental analysis of materials and objects on the basis of neutron resonance capture by nuclei as a function of neutron energy is briefly explained. The feasibility of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is demonstrated with five prehistoric '' bronze '' axes of different kinds and comple

  4. The seasonal factor at the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses moa hunters` seasonality at the Shag River Mouth site. A two meters section in layer 4 of the SM/C: Dune site was left as a baulk in 1988 to enable the stratigraphic profile ({approx}2m) to be more carefully investigated. Within the baulk, detailed lensing and microstrata could be identified. Claassen (1991) has suggested that one of the most important variables in determining seasonal and prehistoric shell-bearing site formation more accurately is emphasizing finer stratigraphic resolution and more rigorous attention to retrieving midden components. At Shag River Mouth, seven sub-layers, or spits, were excavated within the 2m baulk to refine the precision of subsequent seasonal analyses and enable a detailed assessment of the components of each and their season of deposition. A variety of seasonal methods were utilised including {sup 18}O analysis of blue mussel shell carbonate and growth ring analysis of estuarine bivalves. In addition, sagital otoliths of red cod excavated from the site were sectioned and the annual and seasonal growth rings formed during the fishes` life were analysed for seasonal information. This has enabled a detailed analysis of the seasonality of this discrete area of the Shag River Mouth site. The significance of the results for understanding the prehistoric seasonal round of activities within the site and its wider orbit is presented. Paper no.40; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  5. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  6. Special Section: A Debate on Research Techniques in Economic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, George G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Dawson introduces three articles which debate merits of research techniques in undergraduate economic education. William E. Becker criticizes John C. Soper's models, multicollinearity argument, and student incentives in a research project; Soper replies; Robert Highsmith critically analyzes strengths and weaknesses of each argument. (AV)

  7. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  8. Searching for long-term trends in prehistoric manuring practice. δ15N analyses of charred cereal grains from the 4th to the 1st millennium BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Holst, M.K.; Jensen, Peter Mose

    2014-01-01

    investigation of long term trends in δ15N values of charred cereal grains, which previous research have proposed as an indicator for prehistoric manuring practice. Our study suggests a long-term (3900–500 BC) decrease of manuring intensity in emmer cropping. Conversely the long-term (2300 BC – AD 1) trend...

  9. Mössbauer studies of prehistoric Cherokee pottery sherds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, K. M.; McKenzie, K. P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is a very useful tool in the examination and characterization of ancient pottery sherds. In this study, Mössbauer spectra for sherds and clay from the Warren Wilson Site, a prehistoric Native American (Cherokee) settlement in western North Carolina, were measured. Data from one sherd and samples from two clay beds indicate that the sherd was not made from local clays and was originally fired to 350 ‡C.

  10. Modelling prehistoric populations : the case of Neolithic Brittany.

    OpenAIRE

    Scarre, Chris

    2001-01-01

    The study of prehistoric demography draws inevitably on evidence both imperfect and incomplete, yet is essential for a satisfactory understanding of past communities. It is particularly valuable in addressing controversial questions such as the nature of early farming communities in western Europe, in the period between the adoption of domestic plants and animals and the establishment, centuries or millennia later, of permanent villages and regular field systems. In this article the demograph...

  11. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  12. Prehistoric tuberculosis in America: adding comments to a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Gómez i Prat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a prehistoric American human disease. This paper reviews the literature and discusses hypotheses for origins and epidemiological patterns of prehistoric tuberculosis. From the last decades, 24 papers about prehistoric tuberculosis were published and 133 cases were reviewed. In South America most are isolated case studies, contrary to North America where more skeletal series were analyzed. Disease was usually located at the deserts of Chile and Peru, Central Plains in USA, and Lake Ontario in Canada. Skeletal remains represent most of the cases, but 16 mummies have also been described. Thirty individuals had lung disease, 19 of them diagnosed by the ribs. More then 100 individuals had osseous tuberculosis and 26 also had it in other organs. As today, transmission of the infection and establishment of the disease were favored by cultural and life-style changes such as sedentarization, crowding, undernutrition, use of dark and insulated houses, and by the frequency of interpersonal contacts. The papers confirm that despite previous perceptions, tuberculosis seems to have occured in America for millennia. It only had epidemiological expression when special conditions favored its expansion. Occurring as epidemic bursts or low endemic disease, it had differential impact on groups or social segments in America for at least two millennia.

  13. New Development in the Study of Pre-Qin Seismological Archaeology and Its Inspiration to Prehistoric Seismological Archaeology in the Longmen Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years , China has a-chieved series of new findings and new understand-ing about seismological archaeology in the prehis-toric and Shang Zhou periods .These findings pro-vide an important theoretical and methodological base, and a reference for the archaeological re-search on prehistoric seismology in the Longmen mountain area -an area , which has many earth-quake faults and a high rate of earthquakes .The archaeological research on prehistoric seismology in the area of the Longmen mountains should avoid the predicament of “liangzhangpi” or “two pieces of leather” ( meaning that although something re-fers to the same thing or same phenomenon , it nonetheless , can be s interpreted by two on more representations ) .Hence , field work and integrated research require multi -disciplinary participation and integration , including archaeology and geolo-gy.The scientific wisdom in settlement -site se-lection made by our prehistoric ancestors in the Longmen mountain areas is worthy of our learning and we can take them as a model today .

  14. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  15. Recognizing and dating prehistoric liquefaction features: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), which experienced severe liquefaction during the great New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 as well as during several prehistoric earthquakes, is a superb laboratory for the study of world-class, arthquake-induced liquefaction features and their use in paleoseismology. In seismically active regions like the NMSZ, frequent large earthquakes can produce a complex record of liquefaction events that is difficult to interpret. Lessons learned studying liquefaction features in the NMSZ may help to unravel the paleoseismic record in other seismically active regions. Soil characteristics of liquefaction features, as well as their structural and sratigraphic relations to Native American occupation horizons and other cultural features, an help to distinguish prehistoric liquefaction features from historic features. In addition, analyses of artifact assemblages and botanical content of cultural horizons can help to narrow the age ranges of liquefaction features. Future research should focus on methods for defining source areas and estimating magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes from liquefaction features. Also, new methods for dating liquefaction features are needed.

  16. Structure, functions, and activities of a research support informatics section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael D; Smith, Faye E; Fox, Joanne; Teal, Evgenia Y; Kesterson, Joseph G; Stiffler, Troy A; Ambuehl, Roberta J; Wang, Jane; Dibble, Maria; Benge, Dennis O; Betley, Leonard J; Tierney, William M; McDonald, Clement J

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a research group that supports the needs of investigators seeking data from an electronic medical record system. Since its creation in 1972, the Regenstrief Medical Records System has captured and stored more than 350 million discrete coded observations on two million patients. This repository has become a central data source for prospective and retrospective research. It is accessed by six data analysts--working closely with the institutional review board--who provide investigators with timely and accurate data while protecting patient and provider privacy and confidentiality. From January 1, 1999, to July 31, 2002, data analysts tracked their activities involving 47,559 hours of work predominantly for physicians (54%). While data retrieval (36%) and analysis (25%) were primary activities, data analysts also actively collaborated with researchers. Primary objectives of data provided to investigators were to address disease-specific (35.4%) and drug-related (12.2%) questions, support guideline implementation (13.1%), and probe various aspects of clinical epidemiology (5.7%). Outcomes of these endeavors included 117 grants (including 300,000 US dollars per year salary support for data analysts) and 139 papers in peer-reviewed journals by investigators who rated the support provided by data analysts as extremely valuable.

  17. Prehistoric Life, Science (Experimental): 5311.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Lois

    Presented is a survey course of the biological and geological history of the earth which includes: (1) theories of the formation of the earth, (2) theories of the formation of life, (3) geological eras (calendar), (4) fossil formation and fossil fuels, and (5) modern-day research. This course is intended for junior high level and no previous…

  18. 76 FR 11939 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Confirmation of regulations. SUMMARY... Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...

  19. Research on Flipping College Algebra: Lessons Learned and Practical Advice for Flipping Multiple Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative research compares five sections of College Algebra using flipped classroom methods with six sections using the traditional lecture/homework structure and its effect on student achievement as measured through a common final exam. Common final exam scores were the dependent variables. Instructors of flipped sections who had…

  20. Research on Flipping College Algebra: Lessons Learned and Practical Advice for Flipping Multiple Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative research compares five sections of College Algebra using flipped classroom methods with six sections using the traditional lecture/homework structure and its effect on student achievement as measured through a common final exam. Common final exam scores were the dependent variables. Instructors of flipped sections who had…

  1. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application...... of organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  5. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [TD 9539] RIN 1545-BI09 Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal... dates of applicability, see Sec. 1.280C- 4(c). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Selig, (202) 622... research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking...

  6. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern.

  7. Prehistoric (Chalcolithic) Eastern Mediterranean tsunami deposit identified offshore central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuleneva, Natalia; Braun, Yael; Suchkov, Igor; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2017-04-01

    The shallow shelf area ( 15-30 m water depth) offshore Israel, bears great potential for paleo-tsunami studies. It was shown in the course of previous research that in these offshore marine deposits, tsunami generated sedimentary layers can be well preserved and readily identified; unlike in onshore sedimentary sequences, which experience continuous exogenous natural and anthropogenic influence. A sediment core, 219 cm long, was obtained from 15.3 m water depth, in about 4 km north of Caesarea. Grain size at 1 cm interval as well as XRD and XRF analyses at coarser resolution were performed. Previously carried out research allowed correlation of two anomalous layers in this core with well described sediment sequences offshore Caesarea. These two events correspond best with the proposed events of 749 AD and 1500 BC. Identified unusual layers in this core bear certain set of proxies that are characteristic for tsunami generated deposits and easily distinguished from the local normal marine setting. The latter is characterized by three dominating mineralogical components, such as carbonaceous sand derived either from biogenic material, namely shell fragments or from eroded limestones and dolomites that outcrop the mountains to the east; siliciclastic quartz for the sand fraction and mineral smectite for the clays. The supply of the two latter terrigenous sedimentary components comes from the Nile River, which has been a stable and predominant source of sediments for the past 8 ka. The aim of this study is to characterize the earliest unusual sedimentary layer found down core between 191 and 211 cm. This layer was attributed to a tsunami-generated sedimentary sequence in the studied core. Absolute age determination based on 14C gave the time frame from 5.6 to 6 ka BP, making this event the oldest identified in the Eastern Mediterranean to date. This tsunami corresponds to the Chalcolithic ('Copper Age') cultural period of the region. Prehistoric age of these sediments

  8. Prehistoric Archaeology and Poetic Wisdom%史前考古学与诗性智慧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户晓辉

    2001-01-01

    Archaeological remains of the prehistoric times are the results of poetic wisdom of the prehistoric people. They are spiritual rather than material remains. Thus archaeological studies need not only giving explanations on the materials but also understanding them in a multidiscipline background.

  9. From I to D: Pronominal Discourse Functions Across the Sections of Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Chávez Muñoz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic writing has been recently defined as a social activity in disciplinary communities and cultures. As a result, there has been an increasing interest in the study of self as author, focusing on the way writers represent themselves in texts and how writers interact with readers. Additionally, authorial presence has been analysed across languages and across sections of the research article. This study explores the usage pattern of pronominal discourse functions across sections of 60 research articles in the fields of linguistics, psychology and educational research in English and Spanish. Drawing on a modified version of Tang and John’s (1999 taxonomy of pronouns, I explain the frequency and usage of pronouns in each section of the research articles. The analysis of items revealed some differences and similarities in terms of linguistic choices writers make in a specific section of the research article in both languages. Keywords: research articles, text analysis, personal pronouns, metadiscourse, contrastive linguistics

  10. Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Bellwood, Peter; Nguyen, Kim Dung; Bellina, Bérénice; Silapanth, Praon; Dizon, Eusebio; Santiago, Rey; Datan, Ipoi; Manton, Jonathan H

    2007-12-11

    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines.

  11. The Historical Development of Italian Prehistoric Archaeology: A Brief Outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allesandro Guidi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years ago Marcel Desittere, a Belgian prehistorian who works and lives in northern Italy, published the first important monograph about the origins of Italian prehistoric archaeology (Desittere 1985. Beginning with the history of one of the main prehistory museums, Reggio Emilia, created in the second half of the nineteenth century, Desittere tried to reconstruct a socio-political and intellectual biography of the pioneers of the discipline. Over the following years since 1985, many scholars have dedicated monographs, articles, papers in congress proceedings and exhibition catalogues, to the subject of the history of Italian prehistoric archaeology (see, among others: Bernabò and Mutti 1994; Cuomo Di Caprio 1986; Desittere 1988, 1996; Del Lucchese 2008; Guidi 1987, 1988, 1996a, 1996b, 2000, 2008, forthcoming; Peroni 1992; Skeates 2000; Tarantini 1998–2000, 2000, 2000–2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2005. All of these works contributed to the profile of a discipline that, in our country, comprises some peculiar characteristics.

  12. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coastal, and island communities did not just gaze across the sea, but physically engaged with it, through the daily practices of seafaring and fishing. This article argues that the sea was not merely a neutral backdrop for human action, but was an active medium through which prehistoric communities lived, experienced and ordered their world. It will be argued that a consideration of the social construction of prehistoric seascapes is central to an understanding of the archaeological record of island and coastal communities in British Prehistory. The article draws upon recent studies within landscape archaeology, maritime archaeology and maritime anthropology in order to construct a framework for exploring prehistoric seascapes. The archaeological evidence for the prehistoric use of the sea will be summarised for Western Britain and Ireland and key themes for further study identified. These themes will be examined through a detailed case study exploring the prehistoric archaeology of the Isles of Scilly. The case study will consider how we might begin to study the seascape and journeys made within it and how such journeys might be linked to the prehistoric archaeology of island and coastal landscapes. The social and symbolic meanings of the archaeological record will be investigated through an examination of their distribution, configuration and relationship to marine and terrestrial topography. It will be shown that the construction of the archaeological record

  13. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  14. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  15. A Genre-Based Investigation of Discussion Sections of Research Articles in Dentistry and Disciplinary Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…

  16. Erratics and Re-cycled Stone: scholarly irrelevancies or fundamental utilities to lithic studies in prehistoric Britain and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many theories explaining later prehistoric 'trade' and 'exchange systems' in stone artefacts. Evidence matching the petrographic information of transported implements with the country rock (local bedrock where 'factories' produced flaked stone axes is felt to be compelling. Consequently, across Europe it is widely believed that the only way 'factory' rock could have reached the places where artefacts have been found was by human carriage. The discovery of implement working floors, or 'factories' in montane areas (c. 1900-1970 on primary exposures of stone, lithologically almost identical to polished axes found considerable distances from them, has led to a belief in the industrial, economic or social processing and carriage of finished products. There are caveats to this proof of evidence, however. Natural processes constantly redistribute incalculable numbers of durable erratic pebble- to boulder-sized clasts, so why could these not have been used for making prehistoric artefacts? There is abundant evidence in the archaeological record that artefacts were crafted from such material. And although there is now an archive of petrographic thin-sections available to help to identify the origins of the artefacts, no comparable data are available on re-cycled stone. Implement provenancing is therefore unlikely to be of lasting scientific value until investigative programmes have accumulated far more accurate petrographic data on pebbles and erratics from superficial deposits. Comparisons between some British-Irish implement distribution patterns with those of glacial erratics suggests the available evidence already better fits an interpretation of deterministic and opportunistic stone procurement rather than one involving long-distance travel by prehistoric peoples. Extensive, long-term sampling and provenancing programmes are now needed to address this requirement.

  17. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  18. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  19. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  20. 75 FR 61589 - Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1219 Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Section 610 Review AGENCY... results of an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) review of the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research,...

  1. Attachment Theory and Psychotherapy Research - Editor's Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B M

    2000-12-01

    This article introduces the special section dealing with research on attachment and psychotherapy. Although John Bowlby conceptualized his theory as a tool for clinicians to acquire a better understanding of the development of psychopathology and emotional distress, it took a long time until clinical researchers started to make use of Bowlby's theory. During the last decade, a large number of studies have been published showing that attachment theory could be very useful within different fields of psychotherapy research, such as differentiating psychopathology, therapist characteristics, and aspects of the therapeutic alliance. These fields are briefly stressed and related to the articles in the special section emphasizing some future directions of attachment response within psychotherapy.

  2. From Stone Graves to Churchyards. Burial traditions in the Late Prehistoric and Early Medieval Island of Saaremaa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Mägi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though pre-historic burials have been the favourite topic of research of Estonian archaeologists at least for the past century, the focus has been on their appearance, chronology, ethnic context and objects discovered in them. Burial tradition, as it reflects in the archaeological remnants, has hardly been studied. Research in the field over the past few years, as well as osteological analysis of bone material, which was first carried out in the 1990s, has introduced new findings in the funeral customs of our ancestors. The article examines funeral customs on the island of Saaremaa, and the ideology behind it. The main focus is on the final centuries of the prehistoric period and the beginning of the Middle Ages – more specifically, on changes brought along by Christianity, although the study also provides an overview of earlier customs. A separate chapter discusses the partial distribution of bones and objects in graves, objects determining the boundaries of graves, and traces of funeral rituals. This evidently reflects a set of traditions, and thus also conceptions about the otherworld, composed of multiple layers and differing considerably from the modern funeral tradition. Christianisation of the population of Saaremaa in the 13th century changed these conceptions beyond recognition over a very short period of time.

  3. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Robinson

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coas...

  4. The Problems of Dating Prehistoric Axe Factories and Neolithisation in Turkish Thrace:

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogu, Burçin

    2000-01-01

    Prehistoric axe factories or manufacturing areas have been found in the Sarköy region of turkish Thrace. So far, they are unique in the prehistoric record of the Balkans and Anatolia. A typological and petrological analysis of the stone axe factories and investigations of their distributions are in progress. Earlyresults show that all the axes are manufactured from the same rock - metabsit. The source of metabasite is the Western outcrops of Ganos Mountain. At the early neolithic settlement o...

  5. Pollen diagrams and prehistoric fields: the case of Bronze Age Haarlem, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakels

    2000-05-01

    The excavation of a Bronze Age field surrounded by peat in the vicinity of the Dutch town of Haarlem afforded a good opportunity to study the pollen rain released by such prehistoric fields. Pollen analysis of a core obtained from a peat deposit at a distance of 10m from the field's border revealed only a weak signal of a possible field. The conclusion is that the presence of prehistoric fields is difficult to detect by means of pollen analysis alone.

  6. Adverbial stance marking in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Adams

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although scientific research articles have traditionally been taken as examples of an objective style of writing that aims to minimise researchers’ voices in their texts (Gilbert and Mulkay, 1984:42, authors inevitably adopt stances towards the information presented and the target audience when writing their papers. This article explores authorial stance as expressed by adverbial markers in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research papers. Following Biber et al. (1999, and Conrad and Biber (1999, our aim is to identify the most frequent adverbial markers of stance present in each section as indicators of (i epistemicity, (ii attitude, and (iii style. We will try to show whether or not there are functional differences in the use of adverbial stance markers, and whether or not these are derived from the different communicative purposes of these sections.

  7. Caesarean Section--A Density-Equalizing Mapping Study to Depict Its Global Research Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Löhlein, Lena-Katharina; Louwen, Frank; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-11-17

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure. Although it has been performed in a modern context for about 100 years, there is no concise analysis of the international architecture of caesarean section research output available so far. Therefore, the present study characterizes the global pattern of the related publications by using the NewQIS (New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science) platform, which combines scientometric methods with density equalizing mapping algorithms. The Web of Science was used as a database. 12,608 publications were identified that originated from 131 countries. The leading nations concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific h-Index were the USA and the United Kingdom. Relation of the research activity to epidemiologic data indicated that Scandinavian countries including Sweden and Finland were leading the field, whereas, in relation to economic data, countries such as Israel and Ireland led. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked Sweden, Norway and Finland in the top positions. International caesarean section research output continues to grow annually in an era where caesarean section rates increased dramatically over the past decades. With regard to increasing employment of scientometric indicators in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with the improvement of scientific achievements.

  8. Cognitive Genre Structures in Methods Sections of Research Articles: A Corpus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus investigation of the Methods sections of research-reporting articles in academic journals. In published pedagogic materials, Swales and Feak [Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (2000). English in today's research…

  9. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D

    1995-03-14

    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  10. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F

    2004-08-05

    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  11. Ageing of low-firing prehistoric ceramics in hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zemenová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Remains of a prehistoric ceramic object, a moon-shaped idol from the Bronze Age found in archaeological site Zdiby near Prague in the Czech Republic, were studied especially in terms of the firing temperature. Archaeological ceramics was usually fired at temperatures below 1000 °C. It contained unstable non-crystalline products, residua after calcination of clay components of a ceramic material. These products as metakaolinite can undergo a reverse rehydration to a structure close to kaolinite. The aim of this work was to prove whether the identified kaolinite in archaeological ceramics is a product of rehydration. The model compound containing high amount of kaolinite was prepared in order to follow its changes during calcination and hydrothermal treatment. Archaeological ceramics and the model compound were treated by hydrothermal ageing and studied by XRF, XRD and IR analyses. It was proved that the presence of kaolinite in the border-parts of the archaeological object was not a product of rehydration, but that it originated from the raw materials.

  12. Teeth size reduction in the prehistoric populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Tina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anthropological studies show craniofacial changes with a reduction in teeth size during evolution of the human population. Objective. The objective was to measure and compare the sizes of teeth in the population of the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Iron Gate Gorge and the population from the Early Bronze Age site of Mokrin. Methods. The study included teeth without advanced wear near the pulp. The material was divided according to the site of the skeletal population in two groups. Group 1 comprised 107 teeth from the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites Lepenski Vir and Vlasac. Group 2 included 158 teeth from the Mokrin graveyard dated in the Early Bronze Age. The mesio-distal diameter was measured in all teeth, while the vestibulo-oral diameter was measured in the molars only. Using the two-factor analysis of variance, the influence of sex, site and their interaction on the size of the teeth were investigated. Results. The vestibulo-oral diameter of the upper third molar was significantly higher in males compared to females. The comparison between the groups showed that the vestibulooral diameter of the lower first molar was significantly higher in group 1. Conclusion. The present difference in teeth size indicates the existence of reduction during the prehistoric times. However, the time period between the populations studied is probably too short to be manifested on a large number of teeth.

  13. Diet adaptation in dog reflects spread of prehistoric agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, M; Cairns, K M; Ballard, J W O; Savolainen, P; Axelsson, E

    2016-11-01

    Adaptations allowing dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, including a significant AMY2B copy number gain, constituted a crucial step in the evolution of the dog from the wolf. It is however not clear whether this change was associated with the initial domestication, or represents a secondary shift related to the subsequent development of agriculture. Previous efforts to study this process were based on geographically limited data sets and low-resolution methods, and it is therefore not known to what extent the diet adaptations are universal among dogs and whether there are regional differences associated with alternative human subsistence strategies. Here we use droplet PCR to investigate worldwide AMY2B copy number diversity among indigenous as well as breed dogs and wolves to elucidate how a change in dog diet was associated with the domestication process and subsequent shifts in human subsistence. We find that AMY2B copy numbers are bimodally distributed with high copy numbers (median 2nAMY2B=11) in a majority of dogs but no, or few, duplications (median 2nAMY2B=3) in a small group of dogs originating mostly in Australia and the Arctic. We show that this pattern correlates geographically to the spread of prehistoric agriculture and conclude that the diet change may not have been associated with initial domestication but rather the subsequent development and spread of agriculture to most, but not all regions of the globe.

  14. Some thoughts on the beginning of prehistoric archery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco Javier

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the possible origin of prehistoric archery during the Upper Solutrean in Mediterranean Iberia. From analysis of the light arrowheads of the Extracantabrian Solutrean (barbed and tanged point and the shouldered points of Mediterranean type are established the ballistics characteristic of this type of tool kit. These characteristics permit us to establish some hypothesis on the function in relation to their mounting and propulsion.

    En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen de la arquería prehistórica durante el Solutrense Superior en la vertiente mediterránea de la Península Ibérica. A partir del análisis de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense Extracantábrico (punta de aletas y pedúnculo y punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo se establecen las características balísticas de este tipo de utillaje. Estas características permiten establecer algunas hipótesis sobre su funcionalidad en relación a los sistemas de engaste y propulsión.

  15. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    The significance of soil erosion due to pre-historic land use and possible feedback mechanisms had been hardly recognized in the Southeastern USA. Here, the agricultural practices only began in the second half of the Holocene. Sedentary hunters and gatherers started to domesticate squash and sunflowers. Associated with the expansion of maize cultivation in the Mississippian period between AD 800 and 1100, significant forest clearings took place on the river floodplains. During this time, central settlements with up to 30,000 residences existed and the surrounding ridge and furrow fields extended to up to 30 ha. It is still open to question why these groups already declined in the 14/15th centuries already before the arrival of the Europeans. However, around AD 1540 the conquistador de Soto still reports extended fields with intensive cultivation of maize in the uplands of Northern Mississippi. Despite of this intensive land use by Native Americans, current research gives no indication that these activities had any significant impact on river channel form. Also, no clear evidence exists for distinct channel change occurring in response to any sort of middle Holocene Hypsithermal, Medieval warm period, or the Little Ice Age. We will present results of a project which aims to explore erosion forms, colluvial sediments and buried soils in selected 0-order and 1st-order watersheds in the southeastern USA in order to gain, solidify, and evaluate general data on soil erosion during the Native American land use period and its respective long-term effects on the environment. This will be achieved by 1) recording the stratigraphy of colluvial and alluvial sediments and buried soils, 2) mapping the extent of erosional and colluvial forms, 3) analyzing chemical and physical soil and sediment properties, 4) establishing chronological control using various dating techniques including radiocarbon and OSL dating, and 5) quantifying soil erosion using hillslope sediments. The

  16. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (pself-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (pNarcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  17. Commenting on Findings in Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles’ Discussion Sections in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dobakhti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research articles have received a wide interest in discourse studies particularly in genre analysis over the last few decades. A vast number of studies have focused on identifying the organizational patterns of research articles in various fields. However, to date, no study has been conducted on generic structure of qualitative and quantitative research articles. This study investigates the importance of commenting on findings in Discussion section of qualitative and quantitative research articles and the strategies that these two types of articles employ in making comments. The analysis shows that while commenting on findings is an important feature in both sets of articles, different strategies of commenting are favored in each type of articles. The differences can be attributed to the different epistemology of qualitative and quantitative research.

  18. General practitioners' attitudes towards research in primary care: qualitative results of a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background Research in General Practice requires the participation of General practitioners (GPs). In Germany there is little tradition of research in this field, and GPs are not used to be participants in research. Little is known about German GPs attitudes towards research. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess the willingness of German General Practitioners to participate in primary care research and their attitude towards research in general practice. The results should enable a more successful approach to GPs in further studies. Methods Cross sectional study using semi-structured interviews with a random sample of 76 General Practitioners who participate in the teaching of medical students at the University of Heidelberg. Results Despite little experience, over 85 % of GPs appreciated research in their field. Important reasons for scepticism about research were the gap between theoretical research and practical work of GPs and the domination of research by specialists. Main barriers for participation are clinical workload, administrative overload and the newly introduced Disease Management Programs. The highest motivation for GPs to participate in research emanates from the will to substantiate their quality of care with solid research data. Conclusions Financial incentives and personal support e.g. with study nurses are certainly necessary to establish a research culture and to overcome main barriers against participation. The most successful approach to motivate GPs to participate is to convince them that research documents their quality of care. This data may reflect the facts on which the financial resources are provided in the future health care system. PMID:15613246

  19. Generic Structure of Discussion Sections in ESP Research Articles across International and Iranian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. Applying Kanoksilapatham's (2007 model to the compiled corpus, it was found that contextualizing the study (Move 1 and consolidating results (Move 2 were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones. Related discussion of these findings prepares the researchers for publishing in international and Iranian ESP journals. Keywords: ESP, Discussion section, Move, Step, Author presence, Generic structure

  20. The Study of Prehistoric Artefacts in National Context: Belgian Archaeologists and the Problem of Ancient Stone Implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Goodrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the early nineteenth century European archaeologists were formulating new ideas about the significance of ancient stone artefacts. Some, such as Christian Thomsen in Copenhagen, believed that in Scandinavia, a Stone Age had preceded the Bronze and Iron Ages. In France some excavations had retrieved stone artefacts from deep levels of peat and cave deposits that suggested that these objects were of very great antiquity. While the collection and study of stone artefacts occurred across much of Europe, there were regional variations in their interpretation. Assisted by local institutions and motivated by patriotism, Belgian archaeologists who participated in this research, had much in common with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, but the nature of local archaeological sites and the ideas of local researchers had an impact on the development and contributions of Belgian prehistoric archaeology.

  1. Environmental productivity predicts migration, demographic, and linguistic patterns in prehistoric California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codding, Brian F; Jones, Terry L

    2013-09-03

    Global patterns of ethnolinguistic diversity vary tremendously. Some regions show very little variation even across vast expanses, whereas others exhibit dense mosaics of different languages spoken alongside one another. Compared with the rest of Native North America, prehistoric California exemplified the latter. Decades of linguistic, genetic, and archaeological research have produced detailed accounts of the migrations that aggregated to build California's diverse ethnolinguistic mosaic, but there have been few have attempts to explain the process underpinning these migrations and why such a mosaic did not develop elsewhere. Here we show that environmental productivity predicts both the order of migration events and the population density recorded at contact. The earliest colonizers occupied the most suitable habitats along the coast, whereas subsequent Mid-Late Holocene migrants settled in more marginal habitats. Other Late Holocene patterns diverge from this trend, reflecting altered dynamics linked to food storage and increased sedentism. Through repeated migration events, incoming populations replaced resident populations occurring at lower densities in lower-productivity habitats, thereby resulting in the fragmentation of earlier groups and the development of one of the most diverse ethnolinguistic patterns in the Americas. Such a process may account for the distribution of ethnolinguistic diversity worldwide.

  2. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  3. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  4. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  5. Guest Editorial: The Nexus of Violence, Violence Research, and Development. Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Imbusch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This focus section of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence is dedicated to violence and violence research in the Global South. It examines the causes, forms, perpetrators, processes, and outcomes of violence. While the contributions go into detail on what is commonly understood as politically motivated violence, they also examine societal, criminal, urban, and gendered violence, as well as the involvement of youth. Four articles explore the significance of violence in specific regions: Africa south of the Sahara, West Asia and North Africa, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors describe and assess the state of research within and about the different countries. Two further articles review the body of research on the causes of civil war, which has
    been the dominant issue in much violence-related research on the global South since the end of the Cold War.

  6. Introduction to the special section on "Hormones and cognition: perspectives, controversies, and challenges for future research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-01

    The research of the past two decades has firmly established that hormones modulate numerous aspects of cognitive function, including memory, attention, decision-making, and sensory processing. That such a wide variety of hormones influence cognition mediated by multiple nonhypothalamic brain regions illustrates the critical importance of hormones to neural and cognitive function. The diversity of hormonal effects on cognition is evident in the collection of reviews and original research articles assembled for this special section. Together, these articles provide an overview of recent research on varied topics in hormones and cognition, address controversial issues in the field, and discuss challenges that must be overcome in future research to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms through which hormones modulate cognitive function.

  7. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L

    2017-08-28

    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  8. Introduction to the special section "Big'er' Data": Scaling up psychotherapy research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac E

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the special section on utilizing large data sets to explore psychotherapy processes and outcomes. The increased use of technology has provided new opportunities for psychotherapy researchers. In particular, there is a rise in large databases of tens of thousands clients. Additionally, there are new ways to pool valuable resources for meta-analytic processes. At the same time, these tools also come with limitations. These issues are introduced as well as brief overview of the articles.

  9. Development of a perioperative medicine research agenda: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadia A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-operative complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing surgery. However, there is little research in the emerging field of perioperative medicine beyond cardiac risk stratification. We sought to determine the research priorities for perioperative medicine using a cross sectional survey of Canadian and American general internists. Methods Surveys were electronically sent to 312 general internists from the Canadian Society of Internal Medicine and 130 internists from the perioperative medicine research interest group within the US based Society of General Internal Medicine. The questionnaire contained thirty research questions and respondents were asked to rate the priority of these questions for future study. Results The research topics with the highest ratings included: the need for tight control of diabetes mellitus postoperatively and the value of starting aspirin on patients at increased risk for postoperative cardiac events. Research questions evaluating the efficacy and safety of perioperative interventions had higher ratings than questions relating to the prediction of postoperative risk. Questions relating to the yield of preoperative diagnostic tests had the lowest ratings (p Conclusion The results of this survey suggest that practicing general internists believe that interventions studies are a priority within perioperative medicine. These findings should help prioritize research in this emerging field.

  10. Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Perry, George L. W.; Smith, Ian W. G.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Austin, Jeremy J.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2015-03-01

    Prehistoric faunal extinctions dramatically reshaped biological assemblages around the world. However, the timing of such biotic shifts is often obscured by the fragmentary nature and limited temporal resolution of fossil records. We use radiocarbon-dating and ancient-DNA analysis of prehistoric (ca A.D. 1450-1834) Megadyptes penguin specimens to assess the time-frame of biological turnover in coastal New Zealand following human settlement. These data suggest that the final extirpation of the endemic Megadyptes waitaha, and subsequent replacement by the previously sub-Antarctic-limited Megadyptes antipodes, likely occurred within a narrow temporal window (e.g. a century or less). This transition represents one of the most rapid prehistoric faunal turnover events documented, and is likely linked to human demographic and cultural transitions during the 15th Century. Our results suggest that anthropogenic forces can trigger rapid biogeographic shifts.

  11. Present messages from the past: Archaeology didactics at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Central Portugal and the example of the Andakatu Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage education, although still often set aside, has assumed an increasing role in current mindsets, regardless of the different realities in terms of geography and socio-cultural frame. The Andakatu Project based at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Portugal is aimed at wide audience and presents a programme, activities and contents arising from multiple archaeological research programmes conducted at the Museum and its partners (namely universities and research centres. Archaeology, being the starting point, is intertwined with various scientific and artistic aspects in order to encourage questioning, learning and citizenship through a communication based on interactive experimentation.

  12. Analytical Validation of AmpliChip p53 Research Test for Archival Human Ovarian FFPE Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Matthew J; McNamara, Andrew R; Nikoloff, D Michele; Nakao, Aki; Cheng, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) is reported to be mutated in nearly half of all tumors and plays a central role in genome integrity. Detection of mutations in p53 can be accomplished by many assays, including the AmpliChip p53 Research Test. The AmpliChip p53 Research Test has been successfully used to determine p53 status in hematologic malignancies and fresh frozen solid tissues but there are few reports of using the assay with formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The objective of this study was to describe analytical performance characterization of the AmpliChip p53 Research Test to detect p53 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from archival FFPE human ovarian tumor tissues. Method correlation with sequencing showed 96% mutation-wise agreement and 99% chip-wise agreement. We furthermore observed 100% agreement (113/113) of the most prevalent TP53 mutations. Workflow reproducibility was 96.8% across 8 samples, with 2 operators, 2 reagent lots and 2 instruments. Section-to-section reproducibility was 100% for each sample across a 60 μm region of the FFPE block from ovarian tumors. These data indicate that the AmpliChip p53 Research Test is an accurate and reproducible method for detecting mutations in TP53 from archival FFPE human ovarian specimens.

  13. Orthopaedic nurses' attitudes towards clinical nursing research - A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-05-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire. The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack of acceptance from colleagues and section head nurses and a shortage of time. This study forms a baseline as a part of a larger study and contributes knowledge useful to other orthopaedic departments with an interest in optimizing nursing research to improve orthopaedic nursing care quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical Validation of AmpliChip p53 Research Test for Archival Human Ovarian FFPE Sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Marton

    Full Text Available The p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53 is reported to be mutated in nearly half of all tumors and plays a central role in genome integrity. Detection of mutations in p53 can be accomplished by many assays, including the AmpliChip p53 Research Test. The AmpliChip p53 Research Test has been successfully used to determine p53 status in hematologic malignancies and fresh frozen solid tissues but there are few reports of using the assay with formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. The objective of this study was to describe analytical performance characterization of the AmpliChip p53 Research Test to detect p53 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from archival FFPE human ovarian tumor tissues. Method correlation with sequencing showed 96% mutation-wise agreement and 99% chip-wise agreement. We furthermore observed 100% agreement (113/113 of the most prevalent TP53 mutations. Workflow reproducibility was 96.8% across 8 samples, with 2 operators, 2 reagent lots and 2 instruments. Section-to-section reproducibility was 100% for each sample across a 60 μm region of the FFPE block from ovarian tumors. These data indicate that the AmpliChip p53 Research Test is an accurate and reproducible method for detecting mutations in TP53 from archival FFPE human ovarian specimens.

  15. Information Technology for Clinical, Translational and Comparative Effectiveness Research. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Clinical Research Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2015-08-13

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook's section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their daily practice. All the recent research and

  16. Student research activities in the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division, Summer 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Roberts, D.A.

    1981-08-01

    Reports summarizing activities of students assigned to the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division for the summer 1980 are presented. Unless indicated otherwise, each report was written by the student whose work is being described. For each student, the student's supervisor, the name of the program under which the student was brought to ORNL, the academic level of the student, and the name of the ORNL project to which the student was assigned are tabulated. The reports are presented in alphabetical order of the students' last names.

  17. Decision-making capacity for research participation among addicted people: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Luna, Aurelio; Sánchez-Muñoz, Maria; Aguilera-Alcaraz, Beatriz; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria D

    2016-01-13

    Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Addicted population may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. However, very little research has focused on their comprehension of consent forms. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of addicted individuals to provide consent to research. 53 subjects with DSM-5 diagnoses of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and 50 non psychiatric comparison subjects (NPCs) participated in the survey from December 2014 to March 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a community-based Outpatient Treatment Center and at an urban-located Health Centre in Spain. A binary judgment of capacity/incapacity was made guided by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) and a clinical interview. Demographics and clinical characteristics were assessed by cases notes and the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Global Assessment Functional Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. NPCs performed the best on the MacCAT-CR, and patients with SUD had the worst performance, particularly on the Understanding and Appreciation subscales. 32.7% SUD people lacked research-related decisional capacity. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of capacity to consent to research. The findings of our study provide evidence that a large proportion of individuals with SUD had decisional capacity for consent to research. It is therefore inappropriate to draw conclusions about capacity to make research decisions on the basis of a SUD diagnosis. In the absence of advanced cognitive impairment, acute withdrawal or intoxication, we should assume that addicted persons possess decision-making capacity. Thus, the view that people with SUD would ipso facto lose decision-making power for research consent is flawed and stigmatizing.

  18. A Brief Study, Research, Design, Analysis on Multi Section Variable Camber Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArimalaParamasivamSruthi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing fuel consumption is one of the major concerns in the aviation industry. In the past decade, there have been many attempts to improve the fuel efficiency of aircraft. One of the methods proposed is to vary the lift-to-drag ratio of the aircraft in different flight conditions. To achieve this, the wing of the airplane must be able to change its configuration during flight, corresponding to different flight regimes.In the research presented in this thesis, the aerodynamic characteristics of a multisection, variable camber wing were investigated. The model used in this research had a 160mm chord and a 200mm wingspan, with the ribs divided into 4 sections. Each section was able to rotate approximately 5 degrees without causing significant discontinuity on the wing surface. Two pneumatic actuators located at the main spar were used to morph the wing through mechanical linkages. The multi-section variable camber wing model could provide up to 10 percent change in camber from the baseline configuration, which had a NACA0015 section.The wing was tested in the free-jet wind tunnel at three different Reynolds numbers: 322000, 48000, and 636000. Static tests were performed to obtain lift and drag data for different configurations. Two rigid wings in baseline and camber configuration were built and tested to compare the test data with variable camber wing. The wind tunnel test results indicated that the multisection variable camber wing provided a higher lift than the rigid wing in both configurations whereas high drag was also generated on the variable camber wing due to friction drag on the wing skin. The larger drag value appeared on variable camber wing in baseline configuration than in cambered configuration resulting in lower lift-to-drag ratio as compared to the baseline rigid wing whereas the variable camber wing in cambered configuration had higher lift-to-drag ratio than the cambered rigid wing.

  19. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Redesigning a Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Multiple Sections: An Action Research Project to Engage Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Jones, Brett D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our action research project was to improve students' motivation in a multi-section introductory neuroscience laboratory course. In this paper, we present: (a) how we collected data related to students' motivation and engagement, (b) how we analyzed and used the data to make modifications to the courses, (c) the results of the course modifications, and (d) some possible explanations for our results. Our aim is not only to provide the results of our study, but also to explain the process that we used, with the hopes that other instructors can use similar approaches to improve students' motivation in their courses. Our attempts to improve students' motivation-related perceptions were successful in some instances, but not in others. Of particular note was our finding that some of the students' perceptions varied even though the course syllabus was the same across sections. We attributed this variation to the learning environment developed by the teaching assistants (TAs) who taught the different sections. We provide some strategies that faculty instructors can use to redesign courses with high enrollments and help TAs motivate their students.

  1. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  2. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment and the...

  3. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  4. On the remains of some Carnivora found in a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1961-01-01

    The excavation of a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, about 10 km W. of Rotterdam, yielded among ceramics and other man-made objects, many remains of zoological origin (GLASBERGEN, 1960). Mr. P. J. VAN DER FEEN and Miss M. R. WALVIUS, who were in charge of the zoological material found at

  5. A site for all seasons? Prehistoric coastal subsistence in northwest Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mannino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate about the role of marine resources, including shellfish, in prehistoric human diets, but there have been few studies that combine archaeological and present-day ecological investigations of coastal sites. This dual approach is being applied in a new field- and laboratory-based project that focuses on a group of coastal sites in northwest Sicily.

  6. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  7. Design and Calibration of the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Closed Loop Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) Propagation Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ARL-TR-7860 ● OCT 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Design and Calibration of the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Closed Loop...ARL-TR-7860 ● OCT 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Design and Calibration of the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Closed Loop Laboratory... Design and Calibration of the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Closed Loop Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) Propagation Section 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  8. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January--March 1997. Created in March 1997 when the CTD Chemical Development and Energy Research sections were combined, the Chemical and Energy Research Section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within seven major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Solution Thermodynamics, and Biotechnology Research. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described in the report, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  9. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January-March 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies.

  10. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  11. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis.

  12. Cross-sectional research into counselling for non-physician assisted suicide: who asks for it and what happens?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hagens, Martijn; Pasman, H Roeline W; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this cross-sectional research was to obtain information about clients receiving counselling for non-physician assisted suicide, and the characteristics and outcome of the counselling itself...

  13. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: April-June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during th eperiod April-June 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  14. Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-December 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  15. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Saul

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb Cavara & Grande. As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  16. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  17. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  19. A Genre-Based Analysis on Discussion Section of Research Articles in Indonesian Written by Indonesian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the genre of research article (RA) discussion section written in Indonesian by Indonesian writer aiming at exploring how Indonesian writers discuss their research findings in their RAs. The corpus for this study consists of 47 selected RAs published mainly in university-based journals in Indonesia from social science and…

  20. Impact of prehistoric cooking practices on paleoenvironmental proxies in shell midden constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Staudigel, Philip; Murray, Sean T.; Westphal, Hildegard; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental proxy records such as oxygen isotopes of calcareous skeletal structures like fish otoliths or mollusk shells provide highest-resolution information about environmental conditions experienced by the organism. Accumulations of such skeletal structures by ancient coastal populations in so called "shell midden" deposits provide us with sub-seasonally resolved paleoclimate records covering time spans up to several millennia. Given their high temporal resolution, these deposits are increasingly used for paleoclimate reconstructions and complement our understanding of ancient climate changes. However, gathered as comestibles, most of these skeletal remains were subject to prehistoric cooking methods prior to deposition. The associated alteration of the chemical proxy signatures as well as the subsequent error for paleoenvironmental reconstructions remained almost entirely neglected so far. Here, we present clumped isotope, conventional oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as element:Ca ratios measured in modern bivalve shells after exposing them to different prehistoric cooking methods. Our data show that most cooking methods considerably alter commonly used paleoclimate proxy systems which can lead to substantial misinterpretations of ancient climate conditions. Since the magnitude of chemical alteration is not distinguishable from natural temperature variability in most coastal settings, the alteration of shell midden constituents by prehistoric cooking remains likely unnoticed in most cases. Thus, depending on the cooking method, pre-depositional heating might have introduced considerable errors into previous paleoclimate studies. However, our data also show that clumped isotope thermometry represents a suitable diagnostic tool to detect such pre-depositional cooking events and also allows differentiating between the most commonly applied prehistoric cooking methods.

  1. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ(15) N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ(15) N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  3. Personality traits are associated with research misbehavior in Dutch scientists : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdink, Joeri; Bouter, Lex; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; van de Ven, Peter; Wicherts, J.M.; Smulders, Yvo; Dorta-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research

  4. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July--September 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  5. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical and Energy Research Section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Solution Thermodynamics, biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  6. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical and Energy Research Section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Solution Thermodynamics, biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  7. A Dynamical Analysis of the Suitability of Prehistoric Spheroids from the Cave of Hearths as Thrown Projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Zhu, Qin; Barham, Lawrence; Stanistreet, Ian; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-10

    Spheroids are ball-shaped stone objects found in African archaeological sites dating from 1.8 million years ago (Early Stone Age) to at least 70,000 years ago (Middle Stone Age). Spheroids are either fabricated or naturally shaped stones selected and transported to places of use making them one of the longest-used technologies on record. Most hypotheses about their use suggest they were percussive tools for shaping or grinding other materials. However, their size and spherical shape make them potentially useful as projectile weapons, a property that, uniquely, humans have been specialised to exploit for millions of years. Here we show (using simulations of projectile motions resulting from human throwing) that 81% of a sample of spheroids from the late Acheulean (Bed 3) at the Cave of Hearths, South Africa afford being thrown so as to inflict worthwhile damage to a medium-sized animal over distances up to 25 m. Most of the objects have weights that produce optimal levels of damage from throwing, rather than simply being as heavy as possible (as would suit other functions). Our results show that these objects were eminently suitable for throwing, and demonstrate how empirical research on behavioural tasks can inform and constrain our theories about prehistoric artefacts.

  8. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  9. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  10. Report style guide for subcontractors of the Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, T.A.; Bennett, M.N.

    1992-09-01

    This document has been paraphrased from the ORNL Document Preparation Guide (DPG). It is intended for use by Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, Energy Division, ORNL subcontractor reports so that review and editing effort can be minimized. Topics covered are typing instructions, document format, usage, abbreviations and acronyms, and standard editing marks.

  11. Awareness about medical research among resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatray B Pawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Every medical practitioner should strive to contribute to the generation of evidence by conducting research. For carrying out research, adequate knowledge, practical skills, and development of the right attitude are crucial. A literature review shows that data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices toward medical research, among resident doctors in India, is lacking. Aims: This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among resident doctors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, structured, and pre-validated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: With approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee and a verbal consent, a cross-sectional survey among 100 resident doctors pursuing their second and third years in the MD and MS courses was conducted using a structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The concept of research hypothesis was known to 58% of the residents. Ninety-eight percent of the residents were aware of the procedure to obtain informed consent. Seventy-six percent agreed that research training should be mandatory. Although 88% of the residents were interested in conducting research in future, 50% had participated in research other than a dissertation project, 28% had made scientific presentations, and only 4% had publications. Lack of time (74%, lack of research curriculum (42%, and inadequate facilities (38% were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusions: Although resident doctors demonstrated a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude toward research, it did not translate into practice for most of them. There is a need to improve the existing medical education system to foster research culture among resident doctors

  12. Research on the Arc Interpolation for the Nonstandard Section Curve of the Piston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦月霞; 胡德金

    2004-01-01

    The transverse section of piston skirt is not a standard circle and is with high precision. So the section curve should be interpolated through the high accuracy method of circular are interpolation before NC machining. In order to smooth the connection of adjacent arcs and shorten the NC machining program, an interpolation method based on Chebyshev theory of function approximation is proposed here. According to the analysis of the interpolation error, the algorithm is simple and with high precision. By this way the fewest interpolating circular arc segments can be got, and the manufacture requirement is satisfied with the circular arc interpolating curves.

  13. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida T Miró-Herrans

    Full Text Available Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102 and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing

  14. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  15. Human Migration Patterns in Yemen and Implications for Reconstructing Prehistoric Population Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T.; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  16. The Future of Research on Evidence-based Developmental Violence Prevention in Europe – Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eisner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Across Europe, there is an increasing demand for good evidence that can inform policies aimed at reducing violence against and among children and adolescents. However, there is still a paucity of high-quality research on effective prevention of bullying and violence, and researchers from different parts of Europe rarely discuss their findings. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence brings together work by prominent preventionscholars from across Europe, who show that significant progress is being made. The introduction presents nine recommendations about how prevention research could be further strengthened in Europe.

  17. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  18. An Investigation of Proposed Revisions to Section 3 of the TOEFL Test. TOEFL Research Report 47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Mary; And Others

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) program is exploring a change in Section 3 of the TOEFL test that would replace the vocabulary subpart with additional reading comprehension questions. This study investigated the proposed revision in terms of the length and timing that would be necessary to address concerns of test speededness of…

  19. Radiocarbon dates from Wairau Bar and their implications for the prehistoric colonisation of New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand); Anderson, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A set of thirteen moa eggshell samples from burial features at the Wairau Bar site were used for dating. The samples were obtained from the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch where they have been displayed as part of a permanent exhibition.Three marine shell samples were also analysed. Radiocarbon dating of the samples was carried out using conventional and AMS techniques. The results will be presented and the archaeological implications for the prehistoric colonization of New Zealand will be discussed. Paper no. 39; Extended abstract. 7 refs.

  20. Moroccan mitochondrial genetic background suggests prehistoric human migrations across the Gibraltar Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouda, Taha; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Elmtili, Noureddine; Idaomar, Mouhamed; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Montoya, Julio; López-Pérez, Manuel José; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    Migrations into Africa from the Levant have greatly determined the mitochondrial genetic landscape of North Africa. After analyzing samples from North Morocco to Spain, we show that three fourths of the Moroccan individuals belong to Western Eurasian haplogroups and the frequencies of these are much more similar to those of the Iberian Peninsula than to those of the Middle East. This is particularly true for the mitochondrial haplogroups H1, H3 and V, which experienced a late-glacial expansion from this region, that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe. Iberian Peninsula was also a source for prehistoric migrations to North Africa.

  1. Research use and support needs, and research activity in social care: a cross-sectional survey in two councils with social services responsibilities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Bacigalupo, Ruth; Halladay, Linsay; Norwood, Hayley

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of research activity, research use, research interests and research skills in the social care workforce in two UK councils with social service responsibilities (CSSRs). A cross-sectional survey was conducted of the social care workforce in two CSSRs (n = 1512) in 2005. The sample was identified in partnership with the councils, and included employees with professional qualifications (social workers and occupational therapists); staff who have a role to assess, plan and monitor care; service managers; commissioners of services; and those involved with social care policy, information management and training. The survey achieved a response rate of 24% (n = 368). The Internet was reported as an effective source of research information; conversely, research-based guidelines were reported to have a low impact on practice. Significant differences were found in research use, by work location, and postgraduate training. Most respondents saw research as useful for practice (69%), and wanted to collaborate in research (68%), but only 11% were planning to do research within the next 12 months. Having a master's degree was associated with a greater desire to lead or collaborate in research. A range of research training needs, and the preferred modes of delivery were identified. Support to increase research activity includes protected time and mentorship. The study concludes that a range of mechanisms to make research available for the social care workforce needs to be in place to support evidence-informed practice. Continual professional development to a postgraduate level supports the use and production of evidence in the social care workforce, and promotes the development of a research culture. The term research is used to include service user consultations, needs assessment and service evaluation. The findings highlight a relatively large body of the social care workforce willing to collaborate and conduct research

  2. Porphyrins as Theranostic Agents from Prehistoric to Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiao Zhang, Jonathan F. Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long before humans roamed the planet, porphyrins in blood were serving not only as indispensable oxygen carriers, but also as the bright red contrast agent that unmistakably indicates injury sites. They have proven valuable as whole body imaging modalities have emerged, with endogenous hemoglobin porphyrins being used for new approaches such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging. With the capability for both near infrared fluorescence imaging and phototherapy, porphyrins were the first exogenous agents that were employed with intrinsic multimodal theranostic character. Porphyrins have been used as tumor-specific diagnostic fluorescence imaging agents since 1924, as positron emission agents since 1951, and as magnetic resonance (MR contrast agents since 1987. Exogenous porphyrins remain in clinical use for photodynamic therapy. Because they can chelate a wide range of metals, exogenous porphyrins have demonstrated potential for use in radiotherapy and multimodal imaging modalities. Going forward, intrinsic porphyrin biocompatibility and multimodality will keep new applications of this class of molecules at the forefront of theranostic research.

  3. 78 FR 14909 - Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1230 Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program... Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program (Program), commonly known as the Pork...). Based upon this review, AMS concluded that there is a continued need for the Pork Promotion,...

  4. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this study…

  5. 75 FR 7986 - Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders; Section 610 Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Orders... mail: Maureen.Pello@ams.usda.gov regarding avocados. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Blueberry...

  6. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  7. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  8. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  9. Beliefs and attitudes towards participating in genetic research – a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerath Samantha M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a

  10. Calibration of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    recently upgraded the Low Speed Wind Tunnel electrical control and model support systems. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1468 UNCLASSIFIED...1073. Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Melbourne, Australia. Erm, L. P. 2003 Calibration of the flow in the extended test section...of the low-speed wind tunnel at DSTO. DSTO-TR-1384. Defence Science and Technology Organisation , Melbourne, Australia. Erm, L. P. 2015

  11. Individual characteristics and student's engagement in scientific research: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salgueira, Ana; Costa, Patrício; Gonçalves, Mónica; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2012-01-01

    ... of undergraduate medical students. For this study, all undergraduate students and alumni of the School of Health Sciences in Minho, Portugal were invited to participate in a survey about voluntary engagement in scientific research activities...

  12. 青海民和喇家史前遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Prehistoric Lajia Site in Minhe,Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所; 青海省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The excavation of the Lajia site in Minhe, Qinghai, preliminarily revealed a lot of previously-unknown phenomena. The results include the discovery of wide ditches, a small-sized square, and human sacrifices and victims, the ascertainment of the existence of a settlement consisting of cave dwellings, and the revelation of vestiges of the disasters caused by an earthquake and flood happening 4,000 years ago. These aspects combine to bring to light links of prehistoric disasters with a settlement of that time, which constitutes an unprecedented achievement. Providing new material for researching into the origin of ancient civilization, the work marks a great breakthrough in the study of the Qijia culture in the upper Yellow River valley, and calls for furthering multidisciplinary study in archaeology.

  13. Approaches and new data on the interpretation of prehistoric landscapes from the River Tagus sector of Extremadura (Spain: the Alconétar area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique CERRILLO CUENCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement of the inner area of Tagus at Extremadura region (Spain was often defined by the megalithic tombs spread along the region. In the present time some statements about the territorial behaviour of prehistoric societies are being revised, and consequently the landscape dimension of megalithic sites. In this context we present the preliminary results of a research project focused on the surface survey of the margins of Tagus River, where we have been working in two different, but near, sectors. In this paper we present an assessment of the first results of the surveys, that have varied the picture of an area just defined by the presence of megalithic tombs.

  14. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  15. Cross-sectional online survey of research productivity in young Japanese nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yumiko; Fukahori, Hiroki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Narama, Miho; Kono, Ayumi; Atogami, Fumi; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Okaya, Keiko; Takamizawa, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the factors affecting the research productivity of young nursing faculty in Japan. An online survey targeting young nursing scholars (aged ≤ 39 years) who were members of the Japan Academy of Nursing Science was conducted from October to November 2012. Of 1634 potential respondents, 648 completed the survey (39.7%), and 400 full-time faculty of a baccalaureate degree program were selected for the analysis. The numbers of English-language and Japanese publications in the past 3 years were regressed onto personal characteristics, such as academic degree and type of university. The mean numbers of publications in English and Japanese in the past 3 years were 0.41 and 1.63, respectively. Holding a doctoral degree was significantly related to a higher number of publications in English and Japanese (e(β) = 5.78 and e(β) = 1.89, respectively). Working at a national university (e(β) = 2.15), having a research assistant (e(β) = 2.05), and the ability to read research articles in English (e(β) = 2.27) were significantly related to more English-language publications. Having the confidence to conduct quantitative research (e(β) = 1.67) was related to a larger number of Japanese publications. The lack of mentoring (e(β) = 0.97) and university workload (e(β) = 0.96) were associated with a lesser number of Japanese publications. The research productivity of young nursing faculty appeared to be quite low. Strategies to enhance research productivity in young nursing faculty, such as encouraging the achievement of a doctoral degree or enrichment of research resources, should be undertaken. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  17. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, E. E-mail: elisa@wis.weizmann.ac.il; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S.K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the {sup 14}C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1x10{sup -14}, in isotopic abundances for both {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al respectively (corresponding to {approx}5 x 10{sup 5} atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  18. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and 26Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and 26Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and 26Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and 26Al respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and 26Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  19. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  20. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Alam; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; B Capaccioni; P Manetti; P B Santo

    2004-12-01

    Although Barren Island (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) witnessed several volcanic eruptions during historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. It is still active and currently in the fumarolic stage. Its volcanic evolution appears to be characterized by a constructive phase with the piling up of lava flows and scoria deposits and Strombolian activities, followed by a sudden collapse of the main cone. Deposits of a possible caldera-forming eruption were not recognized earlier. After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took place. A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized. Petrographically the lava flows and dyke are similar but they differ in their chemical composition (viz., SiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr) significantly. Similarity in major, minor and trace element composition (viz., K/La, K/Nb, K/Rb, K/Ti ratios) of these rocks together with Chondrite normalized trace element (Rb, Ba, Sr, P, Zr, Ti and Nb) and REE (La, Ce, Nd and Y) patterns of the Barren Island prehistoric lava flows and dyke and low-K lavas of Sunda Arc indicates that Barren Island must have evolved from a source similar to that of Sunda Arc lavas during the Quaternary Period.

  1. Approaching prehistoric skills: experimental drilling in the context of bead manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From the very Early Neolithic in the Balkans two categories of objects are recognized as having been involved in prehistoric drilling activities. The first is beads and other decorative and prestigious items made of bone, shell, pottery and various minerals. The second comprises toolkits of micro-perforators/borers found among the flint assemblages of several sites. This paper presents experiments in drilling different materials with the aim of testing several practical issues. A series of micro-borers were produced and used for manual and mechanical drilling (with a pump drill. Various samples (mainly prepared thin plates of minerals and rocks were used, ranging in hardness (on Mohs scale from 3 (marble, limestone, calcite to 6.5 (amazonite, nephrite. Biominerals were also used: aragonite (shells and apatite (bones. Actual bead production was approached by manufacturing 16 delicate beads of 5 different materials using fine sand and water abrasion. Though not conclusive, the experimental work was instructive in many of the parameters, procedures and technical details of prehistoric drilling.

  2. Observational research methods—Cohort studies, cross sectional studies, and case–control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Mann

    2012-03-01

    Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. Because they measure events in chronological order they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect. Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes. They are often used to generate hypotheses that can then be studied via prospective cohort or other studies.

  3. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  4. Importance of Intelligence for Strategic Scenario Building: The Information Section Role in Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamizaki, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Product development of Japanese companies has changed greatly from the post-war revival period, when it was promoted mainly to provide low-cost, high-quality products. In recent years, it has become necessary to develop products and services that correspond to social issues. Research and development has shifted from a technological basis to a…

  5. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ross JS; Blount KL; Ritchie JD; Hodshon B; Krumholz HM

    2015-01-01

    Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate po...

  6. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

  7. A comparative analysis of interactional metadiscourse markers in the Introduction and Conclusion sections of mechanical and electrical engineering research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Estaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic writing, particularly writing research articles, is an indispensable part of every major in higher education. Hyland (2004 argued that a valuable means of exploring academic writing, and comparing the rhetorical features and preferences of different discourse communities, is through the metadiscourse analysis of the text. The present study examines the differences in the use, type, and frequency of interactional metadiscourse markers in the introduction and conclusion sections of research papers across the two disciplines of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. To this end, 42 research articles (21 Mechanical and 21 Electrical Engineering written by English native speakers were randomly selected from two major international journals. The current study made use of Hyland’s (2005 model for analyzing the interactional metadiscourse markers used in the selected corpus, consisting of 41484 words. To analyze the data, the frequency, patterns of use, and type of interactional metadiscourse markers were elicited both through a manual corpus analysis and concordance package. Furthermore, to examine whether there is any significant difference in the use of metadiscourse markers in the introduction and conclusion sections of these papers, a Chi-square analysis was run. The results of the quantitative analysis revealed that although there were some minor differences in the frequency and type of these metadiscourse markers, there was no statistically significant difference across the disciplines, which can be attributed to the close nature of these fields. The findings of this study may render some pedagogical implications for ESP courses and especially writing research papers.

  8. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  9. Heathland and the palynology of prehistoric barrows. Reflections on the interrelation between soil formation and pollen infiltration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman-van Waateringe, W; Spek, Mattheus

    2016-01-01

    In the sandy areas of the Netherlands, heather (Calluna vulgaris) played an important role in the construction of prehistoric barrows, although, as will be shown in this paper, not in all periods as was recently asserted by Doorenbosch (2013). Since the mineralogical composition and the texture of t

  10. The prehistoric mines of Gavà: an example of a comprehensive approach to the study and public presentation of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco, Mònica

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prehistoric Mines of Gavà used to provide variscite about 6000 years ago. This mineral was used for decorative purposes! For the last ten years, the Gavà Museum has been implementing a comprehensive intervention (research, conservation and information dissemination campaign for the mines. This programme is financed by many different institutions, such as the city hall, the Generalitat de Cataluña (the Catalan Government, the Diputación de Barcelona (the city council and lNEM (employment office. The museum leads and coordinates an interdisciplinary team and has established cooperation agreements with some universities. The Prehistoric Mines can be visited since 1993, and meet the visitors´ safety, mobility and understanding requirements, without affecting their conservation and scientific rigor Visits are guided and their goal is to make people experience emotions. Although they have got a varied target group, they are especially aimed at students. Thus, there is a number of activities planned only for them. The visits to the Prehistoric Mines have been considered an accepted educational resource in Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The main future project of the museum is the Archaeological Park of the Prehistoric Mines. It will be a centre aimed at interpreting the Neolithic period and the origin of the mining industry. Its objectives are to maintain intervention and to attract the cultural tourism in Barcelona.

    Las Minas Prehistóricas de Gavá proporcionaron variscita, un material ornamental, hace 6000 años. Desde hace diez años el Museo de Gavá impulsa una intervención integral (investigación, conservación y difusión, financiada por diversas instituciones (Ayuntamiento, Generalitat de Cataluña, Diputación de Barcelona e INEM, lidera y coordina un equipo interdisciplinar y mantiene convenios de colaboración con diferentes universidades. Las minas están abiertas al público desde 1993 y

  11. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  12. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  13. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    2001-04-16

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-September 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within ten major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Physical Properties Research, Biochemical Engineering, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structures and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of the Cell Operations involved the testing of two continuously stirred tank reactors in series to evaluate the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium and transuranics from supernatant. Within the area of Process Chemistry, various topics related to solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge were addressed. Saltcake dissolution efforts continued, including the development of a predictive algorithm. New initiatives for the section included modeling activities centered on detection of hydrogen in {sup 233}U storage wells and wax formation in petroleum mixtures, as well as support for the Spallation Neutron Source (investigation of transmutation products formed during operation). Other activities involved in situ grouting and evaluation of options for use (i.e., as castable shapes) of depleted uranium. In a continuation of activities of the preceding

  14. The role of changing childhood diets in the prehistoric evolution of food production: An isotopic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Powell, Mary Lucas

    2005-03-01

    Earlier weaning has often been suggested as a cause for population growth after the evolution of food production. However, evidence for weaning-time reduction is largely circumstantial. Collagen stable nitrogen- and carbon-isotope ratios from juvenile and adult burials from four sites in eastern North America were measured to estimate weaning onsets and durations before and after the appearance of intensive food production. Two preagricultural Late Archaic sites (Indian Knoll and Carlston Annis) are compared with two highly agricultural Middle Mississippian sites (Angel and Tinsley Hill). Isotopic data and paleodemographic measures of birth rates provide no evidence for changes in weaning behavior or fertility with the development of food production in the prehistoric Lower Ohio Valley. Birth rates and weaning behavior appear to have been roughly the same at all four sites. These results indicate that models attributing population growth after the appearance of food production to earlier weaning are not universally applicable.

  15. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  16. [The mystery of prehistoric trepanations: Is neurosurgery the world eldest profession?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Boch, A-L

    2010-10-01

    Trepanation is known to be the first surgical procedure ever performed. Its origins date from the Neolithic Age in Europe and the operation was particularly performed in South America at the Pre-Colombian era, a few thousand years later. Based on many archeological studies on trepanned skulls, we compare the differences and similarities of these two periods through epidemiological, topographical, and technical approaches. Signs of bony regeneration are assessed in an attempt to understand the postoperative survival of trepanned patients. The literature in surgery and archeology does not mention the possible relation between trepanations and growing skull fractures. However, it is reasonable to think that these cranial holes, occurring after a pediatric skull fracture, could mimic real trepanation orifices. The possible connections between these two entities are discussed. The etiological hypotheses on prehistoric trepanation are reviewed.

  17. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals trace of prehistoric migration in the east Pamir by pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Deng, Boping; Zheng, Hongxiang; Wei, Dong; Lv, Haoze; Li, Hongjie; Song, Li; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2016-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of one 700-year-old individual found in Tashkurgan, Xinjiang was target enriched and sequenced in order to shed light on the population history of Tashkurgan and determine the phylogenetic relationship of haplogroup U5a. The ancient sample was assigned to a subclade of haplogroup U5a2a1, which is defined by two rare and stable transversions at 16114A and 13928C. Phylogenetic analysis shows a distribution pattern for U5a2a that is indicative of an origin in the Volga-Ural region and exhibits a clear eastward geographical expansion that correlates with the pastoral culture also entering the Eurasian steppe. The haplogroup U5a2a present in the ancient Tashkurgan individual reveals prehistoric migration in the East Pamir by pastoralists. This study shows that studying an ancient mitochondrial genome is a useful approach for studying the evolutionary process and population history of Eastern Pamir.

  18. Growth and Stability Among Complex Societies in Prehistoric Lingnan, Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Allard

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available One significant advance in the field of Chinese archaeology over past decades has been the identification of numerous prehistoric societies characterized by unequal access to status and wealth (henceforth referred to a 'complex societies' in areas peripheral to the Yellow River valley, a region traditionally regarded as the cradle of Chinese civilization. Lingnan, an area which comprises the two modern provinces of Guangdong and Guanxi in Southeast China, also witnessed the emergence of small-scale complex societies prior to its incorporation into the unified Qin and Han states during the last centuries of the pre-Christian era (Allard 1995. This paper examines the circumstances and features of five instances of complex socio-political development in Lingnan over a period from the late Neolithic to the early Iron Age (ca. 3000-200 B.C. with each of these trajectories tested against recent models dealing with the issues of societal types, complexity, growth and stability.

  19. [The evolutionist fallacy of early visitors. Analogies between 'primitive peoples' and prehistoric man in medical historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Accounts of 'prehistoric medicine' and 'ethnomedicine' have sometimes led to conclusions by analogy in medical historiography that are seen as highly problematic in modern cultural anthropology. However, this review of medical historical writings of the last three centuries shows that evolutionist identifications of early with foreign medicine were not a permanent trait of medical historiography. This approach flourished mainly in the climate of certain movements or periods that were characterised by fanatical belief in progress and by social utopias: the French Revolution, Darwinism and the period of industrial expansion in Germany, and National Socialism. Medical historiography shared this problematic approach with contemporary (social and cultural) anthropology, and - despite this methodological misuse - both acknowledged the legitimacy or even requirement of studying also similarities in the development of different periods and cultures.

  20. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  1. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  2. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  3. Examining Sexual Dysfunction in Non‐Muscle‐Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of Cross‐Sectional Mixed‐Methods Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Kowalkowski, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Survivors' sexual symptoms may result from NMIBC, comorbidities, or both. These results inform literature and practice by raising awareness about the frequency of symptoms and the impact on NMIBC survivors' intimate relationships. Further work is needed to design symptom management education programs to dispel misinformation about contamination post‐treatment and improve quality of life. Kowalkowski MA, Chandrashekar A, Amiel GE, Lerner SP, Wittmann DA, Latini DM, and Goltz HH. Examining sexual dysfunction in non‐muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: Results of cross‐sectional mixed‐methods research. Sex Med 2014;2:141–151.

  4. 论高校教学团队与教研室建设%Research on the Building of Teaching Teams and Teaching & Research Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明; 孟君

    2011-01-01

    教学团队的建立是提高高等学校教师素质、教学能力以及教学质量的有效途径,在高校的教学、师资队伍建设和人才培养等方面都发挥了重要的作用。实践中,我校世界史教研室于2010年被遴选为国家级教学团队。本文拟就教学团队与教研室之间的关系、教学团队与教研室建设的实践与心得做一初步研究,以其为高校教学团队和教研室建设提供一定的借鉴。%Teaching team building is to improve the teachers' quality,ability and teaching quality the effective way in Colleges and universities have played an important role in college teaching,teacher team construction and personnel training and other aspects.In practice,our World History Teaching Research Section was selected for the national team in 2010.This paper discusses the relationship between teaching team and teaching research section teaching,teaching and practice of the construction of experience to do a preliminary study,the college teaching team and the construction of teaching and research section to provide a reference.

  5. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center hot section cascade test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5 x 1 million to 2.5 x 1 million based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage film cooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  6. Changes in research on language barriers in health care since 2003: A cross-sectional review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Del Pozo, Sam; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Alvarado-Little, Wilma; Bagchi, Ann; Chen, Alice Hm; Diamond, Lisa; Gany, Francesca; Wong, Doreena; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how to mitigate language barriers is becoming increasingly important for health care providers around the world. Language barriers adversely affect patients in their access to health services; comprehension and adherence; quality of care; and patient and provider satisfaction. In 2003, the United States (US) government made a major change in national policy guidance that significantly affected limited English proficient patients' ability to access language services. The objectives of this paper are to describe the state of the language barriers literature inside and outside the US since 2003 and to compare the research that was conducted before and after a national policy change occurred in the US. We hypothesize that language barrier research would increase inside and outside the US but that the increase in research would be larger inside the US in response to this national policy change. We reviewed the research literature on language barriers in health care and conducted a cross sectional analysis by tabulating frequencies for geographic location, language group, methodology, research focus and specialty and compared the literature before and after 2003. Our sample included 136 studies prior to 2003 and 426 studies from 2003 to 2010. In the 2003-2010 time period there was a new interest in studying the providers' perspective instead of or in addition to the patients' perspective. The methods remained similar between periods with greater than 60% of studies being descriptive and 12% being interventions. There was an increase in research on language barriers inside and outside the US and we believe this was larger due to the change in the national policy. We suggest that researchers worldwide should move away from simply documenting the existence of language barriers and should begin to focus their research on documenting how language concordant care influences patient outcomes, providing evidence for interventions that mitigate language barriers

  7. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents.

  8. Vision science and schizophrenia research: toward a re-view of the disorder. Editors' introduction to special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Keane, Brian P

    2011-07-01

    This theme section on vision science and schizophrenia research demonstrates that our understanding of the disorder could be significantly accelerated by a greater adoption of the methods of vision science. In this introduction, we briefly describe what vision science is, how it has advanced our understanding of schizophrenia, and what challenges and opportunities lay ahead regarding schizophrenia research. We then summarize the articles that follow. These include reviews of abnormal form perception (perceptual organization and backward masking) and motion processing, and an article on reduced size contrast illusions experienced by hearing but not deaf persons with schizophrenia. These articles reveal that the methods of basic vision research can provide insights into a number of aspects of the disorder, including pathophysiology, development, cognition, social cognition, and phenomenology. Importantly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia make it clear that there are impairments in the functioning of basic neural mechanisms (e.g., center-surround modulation, contextual modulation of feedforward processing, reentrant processing) that are found throughout the cortex and that are operative in multiple forms of cognitive dysfunction in the illness. Such evidence allows for an updated view of schizophrenia as a condition involving generalized failures in neural network formation and maintenance, as opposed to a primary failure in a higher level factor (e.g., cognitive control) that accounts for all other types of perceptual and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, studies of vision in schizophrenia can identify sensitive probes of neural functioning that can be used as biomarkers of treatment response.

  9. Vision Science and Schizophrenia Research: Toward a Re-view of the Disorder Editors’ Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Keane, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    This theme section on vision science and schizophrenia research demonstrates that our understanding of the disorder could be significantly accelerated by a greater adoption of the methods of vision science. In this introduction, we briefly describe what vision science is, how it has advanced our understanding of schizophrenia, and what challenges and opportunities lay ahead regarding schizophrenia research. We then summarize the articles that follow. These include reviews of abnormal form perception (perceptual organization and backward masking) and motion processing, and an article on reduced size contrast illusions experienced by hearing but not deaf persons with schizophrenia. These articles reveal that the methods of basic vision research can provide insights into a number of aspects of the disorder, including pathophysiology, development, cognition, social cognition, and phenomenology. Importantly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia make it clear that there are impairments in the functioning of basic neural mechanisms (eg, center-surround modulation, contextual modulation of feedforward processing, reentrant processing) that are found throughout the cortex and that are operative in multiple forms of cognitive dysfunction in the illness. Such evidence allows for an updated view of schizophrenia as a condition involving generalized failures in neural network formation and maintenance, as opposed to a primary failure in a higher level factor (eg, cognitive control) that accounts for all other types of perceptual and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, studies of vision in schizophrenia can identify sensitive probes of neural functioning that can be used as biomarkers of treatment response. PMID:21700588

  10. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Lauer

    Full Text Available Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰, giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces

  11. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Franziska; Prost, Katharina; Gerlach, Renate; Pätzold, Stefan; Wolf, Mareike; Urmersbach, Sarah; Lehndorff, Eva; Eckmeier, Eileen; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii) at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰), giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure) input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces-containing manure).

  12. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  13. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliskandar Ramli; Nik H.S.N. Abdul Rahman; Adnan Jusoh; Yunus Sauman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and ele...

  14. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    This reports summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January--March 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within eight major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included column loading of cesium from Melton Valley Storage Tank supematants using an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate. A second task was to design and construct a continuously stirred tank reactor system to test the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium, and transuranics from supematant. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed, including issues such as pipeline plugging and viscosity measurements. Investigation of solution conditions required to dissolve Hanford saltcake was also continued. MSRE Remediation Studies focused on recovery of {sup 233}U and its transformation into a stable oxide and radiolysis experiments to permit remediation of MSRE fuel salt. In the area of Chemistry Research, activities included studies relative to molecular imprinting for

  15. Combining ER and GPR surveys for evidence of prehistoric landscape construction: case study at Mound City, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B. B.; Mandel, R. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.; De Vore, S. L.; Lynott, M.

    2016-06-01

    Mound City, located at the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in south-central Ohio, USA, is a prehistoric earthwork (200 BC-500 AD) that consists of 24 mounds enclosed in a square embankment wall and is surrounded by eight pits. Recent excavation of two of these pits resulted in the discovery of a clay loam liner that appears to have been placed on the floor of the pits by a prehistoric society known as the Hopewell. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial pattern of this liner in one of the pits using non-invasive geophysical techniques, specifically electrical resistivity and ground-penetrating radar. Minimally invasive soil augers and a test trench yielded information that was used to corroborate interpretations of the geophysical data. The geophysical methods proved to be useful in locating and defining the remnants of the prehistoric clay loam liner, and the results of our investigation indicate that almost 50% of the liner still remains in the pit today. This discovery supports a new interpretation that the Hopewell excavated and preserved the pits at the Mound City site because they served as cultural landscape features.

  16. Environmental Impact Research Program: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Section 7.3.1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    ADAl?3 141 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESEARCH PROGRAM: ALFALFA 1/1 ( MEDICAGO SATIVA ) SECTION 7..(U) ARMY ENGINEER7F R ?’ 4 N OM ENRATERWAYS EXPERIMENT... Medicago sativa ) Section 7.3.1, US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANUAL CV) P% by Clinton H. Wasser Colorado State University Fort...20314-1000 EIRP 31631.. 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ): Section 7.3.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife

  17. A cross-sectional multicenter study of osteogenesis imperfecta in North America - results from the linked clinical research centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R M; Nagamani, S C S; Cuthbertson, D; Campeau, P M; Krischer, J P; Shapiro, J R; Steiner, R D; Smith, P A; Bober, M B; Byers, P H; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F; Lee, B H; Hart, T; Sutton, V R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n = 544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean lumbar spine area bone mineral density (LS aBMD) was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answering questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of 'phenotypic expansion' driven by next-generation sequencing.

  18. A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of Osteogenesis Imperfecta in North America – Results from the Linked Clinical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Cuthbertson, David; Campeau, Philippe M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Shapiro, Jay R; Steiner, Robert D; Smith, Peter A; Bober, Michael B; Byers, Peter H; Pepin, Melanie; Durigova, Michaela; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank; Lee, Brendan H; Smith, Tracy; Sutton, V. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n=544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean LS aBMD was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answer questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of “phenotypic expansion” driven by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24754836

  19. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded

  20. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric rock paintings by selective oxidation of organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, J.; Hyman, M.; Shafer, H.J.; Rowe, M.W. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA))

    1990-12-27

    Dating of prehistoric rock paintings (pictographs) has traditionally relied on indirect evidence. This includes inferences based on the archaeological context, such as superpositions of pictorial styles and the depiction of images that constrain their ages, as well as dating of deposits that either cover the art in situ or contain separated fragments of the painted surface. Migration of ions between the bulk rock and the natural coatings that form on a newly exposed surface has also been exploited to date petroglyphs (rock carvings) in desert regions. Until recently, however, direct dating (by radiocarbon techniques) of pictographs has not been possible, mainly because of the problem of separating inorganic carbon from the organic material in the pigments. Here we report on a new technique which allows this separation to be effected by using a low-temperature, low-pressure oxygen plasma to oxidize selectively the organic component; this may then be analysed using standard {sup 14}C methods. We have applied this technique to a portion of a pictograph from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas. The date obtained, 3,865{plus minus}100 yr BP (before present) is consistent with that expected on the basis of archaeological inference. As organic carbon is a ubiquitous component of pictograph paints, this technique should be applicable to rock paintings throughout the world. (author).

  1. Breast cancer surgery: an historical narrative. Part I. From prehistoric times to Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cancer was known as a disease since prehistoric times. Management of breast cancer evolved slowly through centuries in the ancient world up to the Renaissance. This period is marked by the absence of any scientifically verifiable understanding of the true nature of cancer and its natural history and consequently by a lack of effective treatment. Breast has been considered as a symbol of femininity, fertility and beauty. Hippocrates proposed that breast cancer, among other neoplasms, was a 'systemic disease' caused by an excess of black bile. The humoral theory was further supported by Galen and dominated for centuries in medicine. Fulguration and breast amputation by using various instruments to achieve a rapid operation were widely used up to the 18th century. The Renaissance was a revolutionary period, since it stimulated medical practice; at that time physicians started to scientifically study medicine. Vesalius greatly contributed in the advancement of surgery, and he vigorously opposed Galen's doctrines. Many great surgeons of that time (including Paré, Cabrol, Servetto, Scultetus, Tulp, Fabry von Hilded, etc.) advanced the science of surgery. Interestingly, Bartoleny Gabrol (1590) in Montpellier advocated radical mastectomy, which was popularised by Halsted, 300 years later. However, the lack of anaesthesia and the problem of wound infections (due to the lack of the aseptic techniques) generated significance and often problems for the surgeons of that time. Surgery was often 'heroic' but primitive and even inhumane by current standards. Therapeutic nihilism was the prevailing altitude regarding breast cancer, at least among the vast majority of surgeons.

  2. Prehistoric land use and Neolithisation in Europe in the context of regional climate events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, C.; Wirtz, K. W.; Gronenborn, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple, adaptation-driven, spatially explicit model of pre-Bronze age socio-technological change, called the Global Land Use and Technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES). The socio-technological realm is described by three characteristic traits: available technology, subsistence style ratio, and economic diversity. Human population and culture develop in the context of global paleoclimate and regional paleoclimate events. Global paleoclimate is derived from CLIMBER-2 Earth System Model anomalies superimposed on the IIASA temperature and precipitation database. Regional a forcing is provided by abrupt climate deteriorations from a compilation of 138 long-term high-resolution climate proxy time series from mostly terrestrial and near-shore archives. The GLUES simulator provides for a novel way to explore the interplay between climate, climate change, and cultural evolution both on the Holocene timescale as well as for short-term extreme event periods. We sucessfully simulate the migration of people and the diffusion of Neolithic technology from the Near East into Europe in the period 12000-4000 a BP. We find good agreement with recent archeological compilations of Western Eurasian Neolithic sites. No causal relationship between climate events and cultural evolution could be identified, but the speed of cultural development is found to be modulated by the frequency of climate events. From the demographic evolution and regional ressource consumption, we estimate regional land use change and prehistoric greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Quiros, F.B. de (Universidad de Leon (Spain). Area de Prehistoria); Clottes, J. (Ministere de la Culture et de la Communication, Foix (France)); Valdes, V.C. (UNED, Madrid (Spain). Departmento de Prehistoria e Historia Antigua); Uzquiano, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34 -Montpellier (France). Laboratoire de Paleobotanique)

    1992-05-07

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 {+-} 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 {+-} 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 {+-} 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author).

  4. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos, E-mail: cavalcanteufpi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Luz, Maria de Fatima da; Guidon, Niede [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano (Brazil); Domingos Fabris, Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Domingos Ardisson, Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09 Degree-Sign 14 Prime 65.3 Double-Prime S 43 Degree-Sign 55 Prime 62.5 Double-Prime W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusoes National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piaui, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 {+-} 40 to 6,610 {+-} 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Moessbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) whereas goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  5. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  6. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  7. The relative stability of prehistorical geographic environment in China's tropics on the basis of archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to archaeological data from about sixty samples the relative stability ofphysical and human geographical environment in the tropical zone of China is discussed in thispaper. Because of the superior natural environment, sufficient food resources and a sparsepopulation resulting in the absence of social requirement to transform the productive forces, theadvancement of economy and society was stagnated during prehistorical period in China's tropics.Compared with northern China, the appearance of ground stone tool stagnated about 3,000 years,the beginning of Bronze Age, about 1,000 years, and the agriculture, 2,500-3,000 years. The noceramics age continued till the early Neolithic Age and the appearance of colour or white ceramicswas 2,000 years later than that in northern China. The life form of migration to gather and to huntcontinued till the middle Neolithic Age, and the fixed settlement based on agriculture 1,000-2,000years stagnated. The clan commune just appeared at the end of the Neolithic Age which was 2,000-3,000 years later than that in northern China.

  8. Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Álvaro; Callaghan, Richard T; Fitzpatrick, Scott M

    2016-10-24

    The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve. To address these issues, we have harnessed the power of high-resolution climatic and oceanographic datasets in multiple seafaring simulation platforms to examine major pulses of colonization in the region. Our analysis, which takes into consideration currents, land distribution, wind periodicity, the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and "shortest-hop" trajectories, demonstrate that (i) seasonal and semiannual climatic changes were highly influential in structuring ancient Pacific voyaging; (ii) western Micronesia was likely settled from somewhere around the Maluku (Molucca) Islands; (iii) Samoa was the most probable staging area for the colonization of East Polynesia; and (iv) although there are major differences in success rates depending on time of year and the occurrence of ENSO events, settlement of Hawai'i and New Zealand is possible from the Marquesas or Society Islands, the same being the case for settlement of Easter Island from Mangareva or the Marquesas.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  10. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  11. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  12. 1 MA Breech Upgrade for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- x-44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    1 MA Breech Upgrade for the U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- × 44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun by Miguel A. Del...Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Rectangular 22- × 44-mm In-bore Cross Section Railgun Miguel A. Del Güercio and Alexander Michlin Weapons and Materials Research...bore Cross Section Railgun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Miguel A. Del Güercio and Alexander

  13. Investigating the archaeointensity determination success of prehistoric ceramics through a multidisciplinary approach: new and re-evaluated data from Greek collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondopoulou, D.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Aidona, E.; Rathossi, Ch.; Carvallo, C.; Tema, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.; Polymeris, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Balkan area provides an almost continuous record of the geomagnetic field variations during the last eight millennia but important data dispersion and chronological gaps are still observed. In order to improve this pattern, we oriented our research towards the study of Greek prehistoric ceramics and pottery collections. We present here new archaeointensity and mineralogical results from pottery and ceramics collected in two Bronze Age sites in Northern Greece, corresponding to the middle third and middle second millennium BC. Thermal demagnetization experiments, thermomagnetic curves, thermal demagnetization measurements of three axes composite isothermal magnetization and first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagrams were performed in order to define the main magnetic carriers and select the most promising samples for archaeointensity determination. The results suggest that the majority of the studied materials are dominated by a mixture of superparamagnetic and stable single domain grains, with very little magnetic interactions. In almost all samples the main magnetic carrier observed is a low coercivity mineral, most probably magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite. Classical Thellier experiments, including both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate corrections were performed on the selected samples. Two new archaeointensities were obtained and compared with previous data available for Greece and neighbouring countries and with global geomagnetic field models results. In order to investigate the causes of the high rate of failure observed in our archaeointensity experiments, we re-examined the results obtained from the study of four collections already published by better characterizing the magnetic and mineralogical properties of the studied fragments. Specific hysteresis curves performed at different layers of ceramic fragments reveal an important degree of inhomogeneity. Mineralogical analysis of selected samples from the totality of six Greek

  14. [Influence and correlation of attitude, availability and institutional support to research implementation in nursing practice – results from an exploratory, cross-sectional quantitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The concrete application of research findings in nursing practice is a multidimensional process. In Austria, there are currently no results available that explain the impact of and association with the implementation of research in hospitals. The aim of the study was to investigate influences and relationships of individual attitudes towards research utilization, availability of research results and institutional support of nurses in Austrian hospitals with respect to research application. In a non-experimental quantitative cross-sectional design a multi-centre study (n = 10) was performed in 2011. The sample comprises 178 certified nurses who were interviewed with a survey questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis shows that a positive attitude towards research use (β = 0.388, p research results (β = 0.470, p research results. The path analysis proves that course attendance in evidence-based nursing has a strong positive influence towards research application (β = 0.464; p research results into the daily nursing practice.

  15. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Mary Jane L; Del Rosario, Christian V; Diño, Michael Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees' length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n = 107) who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent's length of stay and social connectedness (r = 0.224, p = 0.021, α = 0.05). On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1) Taking-In, (2) Taking-Hold, and (3) Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS) provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals.

  16. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane L. Cortez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees’ length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n=107 who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent’s length of stay and social connectedness (r=0.224, p=0.021, α=0.05. On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1 Taking-In, (2 Taking-Hold, and (3 Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals.

  17. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, β blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practices—for example, INR results in

  18. Research on Raman-OTDR sensing based Optical Phase Conductor (OPPC) temperature monitoring and the section temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jie; Yang, Delong; Gao, Qiang; Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi

    2013-12-01

    OPPC (Optical Phase Conductor) is a particular type of electric optical cables which composite the fiber unit into the structure of traditional phase lines. The special design fully leverages the power system's own line resources and achieves dual functions of power transmission and communication simultaneously, particularly in the power distribution networks. Furthermore, Raman optical time domain reflectometry (ROTDR) based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system integrates with OPPC, that is to plant a single or several multimode optical fibers into the fiber unit of OPPC, which can realize the remote, online, continuous measure and location for the conductor's temperature. This kind of monitoring system has many advantages such as anti-electromagnetic interference, information sensing and data transmission unification, long life-cycle, light weight, long transmission distance and non-power supply on site. But nonetheless, there is still a problem has to been resolved, that is whether the temperature of DTS fiber's position represents exactly the one of OPPC's. This article takes the section temperature field of 400/50 OPPC as the research object. Based on the temperature data measured by the Raman distributed temperature optical fiber sensor, a large number of finite element analysis and experiments are developed. The DTS measurement results under different actual working conditions of current-carrying capacity, wind velocity and environment temperature are quantitative analyzed. The changing rules and the relationships among the measurement results of DTS, the maximum and the surface temperatures of OPPC, and the results of numerical simulations and experiments have been proposed and demonstrated. On the whole, the main contributions of this paper are: (1) According to the structure of 400/50 OPPC, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) methodology and the steady section temperature field model are established which can reveal the OPPC's temperature

  19. The Study on Beginning of Martial Arts during the Prehistoric Period%史前时期武术的萌芽探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 周广瑞; 张继合; 王军伟

    2011-01-01

    采用文献法、历史与逻辑分析法对史前时期的武术萌芽进行了深入探究。认为:原始人进化完成、手足分工,是武术萌芽产生的契机;由本能到自觉再到自保意识的演进是武术萌芽产生的内在诉求;原始战争频发成为推动武术萌芽的轴心力量;武与舞"联姻"的运动形式,实现了萌芽期武术的发展历程。%With the methods of literature review and history and logic analysis,this paper made deep research on the beginning of martial arts during the prehistoric period and concludes that the completion of primitive evolution and the division of labour for hand and foot provide the martial arts an opportunity to sprout;The evolution from instinctive self-protection to the conscious self-protection to self-protection is the martial arts' intrinsic appeal;The breakout of the original wars is the axis force to promote the beginning of martial arts;The martial arts and dance's "marriage" form of exercise achieve the development of the martial arts.

  20. Heterogeneity of Taiwan's indigenous population: possible relation to prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Chu, C C; Lee, H L; Chang, S L; Ohashi, J; Tokunaga, K; Akaza, T; Juji, T

    2000-01-01

    Taiwan's 9 indigenous tribes (Tsou, Bunun, Paiwan, Rukai, Atayal, Saisiat, Ami, Puyuma, Yami) are highly homogeneous within each tribe, but diversified among the different tribes due to long-term isolation, most probably since Taiwan became an island about 12,000 years ago. Homogeneity of each tribe is evidenced by many HLA-A,B,C alleles having the world's highest ever reported frequencies, e.g. A24 (86.3%), A26 (18.8%), Cw10 (36.8%), Cw7 (66%), Cw8 (32.1%), B13 (27.9%), B62 (37.4%), B75 (18%), B39 (53.5%), B60 (33.3%), and B48 (24%). Also, all of these tribes have HLA class I haplotype frequencies greater than 10%, with A24-Cw7-B39 in Saisiat (44.5%) being the highest, suggesting Taiwan's indigenous tribes are probably the most homogeneous ( the "purest") population in the world. A24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 found common to many Taiwan indigenous tribes, have also been observed in Maori, Papua New Guinea Highlanders, Orochons, Mongolians, Inuit, Japanese, Man, Buryat, Yakut, Tlingit, Tibetans and Thais. These findings suggest Taiwan's indigenous groups are more or less genetically related to both northern and southern Asians. Principal component analysis and the phylogenetic tree (using the neighbor-joining method) showed close relationship between the indigenous groups and Oceanians. This relationship supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was probably on the route of prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals that most likely took place along the coastal lowland of the Asian continent (which is under the sea today). Cultural anthropology also suggests a relationship between Taiwan's indigenous tribes and southern Asians and to a lesser extent, northern Asians. However, the indigenous groups show little genetic relationship to current southern and northern Han Chinese.

  1. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  2. [Dietary habits and the state of the human oral cavity in the prehistoric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C D

    1990-06-01

    This is an age-by-age summation of literature on over 100 sites (of more than 250 excavated prehistoric ruins on the Korean Peninsula: about 160 places in South Korea--Paleolithic Age 15, Neolithic Age 21, Bronze Age 90 and Iron Age 35--and about 90 places in North Korea) which produced dietary-habit-related devices such as hunting tools, fishing instruments, farming equipments, tools of daily life, and human bones and teeth. 1) Various dietary-habit-related Old Stone-Age tools, instruments and other items were found. Among them were stone axes, stone hand axes, fish spears and hooks made of bone or horn, stone blades, stone scrapers and stone drills believed to have been used in daily life, and charcoal and sites of furnaces used for cooking. Furthermore, it was found that there were severe dental abrasions and dental caries among the inhabitants of the Korean Peninsula in the Old Stone Age. 2) Some evidences were found which lead us to believe that hunting was practiced with stone arrowheads in the New Stone Age. Stone net sinkers, which is the evidence of the use of fish nets, were also found. In addition, farming stone tools and charred cereals, both of which date back to the latter part of this period, were unearthed. Millstones, which began to be used in this age, and livestock bones were found. Where these items were discovered, 23 maxillae and mandibles with teeth and a total of 231 separate teeth of Neolithic period human beings were reported. However, there are no records indicating dental caries, but some records describe severe abrasion.

  3. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  4. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  5. Teaching research methods in nursing using Aronson's Jigsaw Technique. A cross-sectional survey of student satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Riu Camps, Marta

    2016-05-01

    To adapt nursing studies to the European Higher Education Area, new teaching methods have been included that assign maximum importance to student-centered learning and collaborative work. The Jigsaw Technique is based on collaborative learning and everyone in the group must play their part because each student's mark depends on the other students. Home group members are given the responsibility to become experts in a specific area of knowledge. Experts meet together to reach an agreement and improve skills. Finally, experts return to their home groups to share all their findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing student satisfaction with the Jigsaw Technique used in the context of a compulsory course in research methods for nursing. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire administered to students who completed the Research Methods course during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 academic years. The questionnaire was developed taking into account the learning objectives, competencies and skills that should be acquired by students, as described in the course syllabus. The responses were compared by age group (younger or older than 22years). A total of 89.6% of nursing students under 22years believed that this methodology helped them to develop teamwork, while this figure was 79.6% in older students. Nursing students also believed it helped them to work independently, with differences according to age, 79.7% and 58% respectively (p=0.010). Students disagreed with the statement "The Jigsaw Technique involves little workload", with percentages of 88.5% in the group under 22years and 80% in older students. Most believed that this method should not be employed in upcoming courses, although there were differences by age, with 44.3% of the younger group being against and 62% of the older group (p=0.037). The method was not highly valued by students, mainly by those older than 22years, who concluded that they did not learn

  6. The influence of personality traits and social support on male nursing student life stress: a cross-sectional research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Li, Ren-Hau; Yang, Cheng-I; Eng, Cheng-Joo

    2010-06-01

    Understanding how male nursing students alleviate life stress during their academic career is conducive to their development as successful nursing professionals. This study was designed to understand the personality traits, social support, and life stresses of male nursing students. The respective influences of personality traits and social support on life stress were also explored. The study used a cross-sectional research design. A college in central Taiwan was targeted as the site for data collection. A total of 158 questionnaires were dispatched, with 145 valid copies returned (valid response rate = 91.7%). Structured questionnaires were designed to collect data on participant demographics, personality traits, social support, and life stress. Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis were applied to data analysis. Major findings of this study revealed that (a) in general, the personality traits, social support, and life stress of male nursing students scored in the medium to high range. Participants reported encountering more stress from learning and life goals than from interpersonal stress. (b) Male nursing student demographic variables (e.g., parent [father and mother considered separately] education level) and the personality traits of conscientiousness and family support, respectively, were found to impact significantly on participant life stress perceptions. And (c) the only significant predictors of life stress were support from family and education level of participant fathers and mothers, accounting for about 23.7% of variability. It is suggested that nursing students in each year of their academic career should be exposed to courses geared to reduce the life stress perceptions (especially in the areas of learning and career development) of male nursing students. Increased family support is an effective way to decrease male nursing student life stress. This study could be a

  7. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  8. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  9. Investigation of cesarean sections at Konya Training and Research Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Department between 2010 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Zeynep Ozturk; Inal, Hasan Ali; Kucukkendirci, Hasan; Oruc, Ayla Sargin

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the annual distribution of cesarean sections and indications between 2010 and 2015 in our clinic. Medical records of 10,437 cesarean section patients from a total number of 24,283 deliveries performed at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2010-2015 were evaluated retrospectively. The indications for Cesarean section were analyzed and compared based on years. The lowest cesarean section rate was 18.67% in 2011 and the highest rate was 24.5% in 2013, and the annual rates were close to each other in this 6-year period (p > 0.05). History of uterine surgery was the indication with the highest rate of 49.52%, while fetal distress was the second most frequent with 12.53%; presentation anomalies were observed as the most frequent third indication with 7.55%, and umbilical cord prolapse was the least frequent indication with 0.33%. Patient education about normal delivery and providing means for pain control during normal delivery, improvement in physical conditions of the clinics, frequent and regular training of the assisting staff with obstetrics physicians are important to diminish the rates of primary cesarean sections. In addition, a normal delivery after a previous cesarean section must be encouraged.

  10. Preliminary results of the ground penetrating radar (GPR prospection in the area of the prehistoric flint mine Borownia, southeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieszkowski Radosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of GPR field prospection carried out in the area of the prehistoric mining field Borownia (Ćmielów, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski District are presented. This mining field forms a belt (30-50 m wide and 700 m long, starting from the valley edge of the Kamienna River southeastwards. Southeastern and western parts of the site have preserved the original post-exploitation relief. Geology of the Borownia mining field was examined and acquired radiograms revealed three distinct zones of anomaly concentrations. The central zone (B is clearly a fragment of the prehistoric mining field, confirmed not only by the GPR sounding but also by archeological surveys. The other two zones have not yet been investigated in detail yet but their surface and archaeological examination may determine only whether their underground structures are natural or have been created by humans. Data obtained during the GPR prospection at the Borownia archaeological site confirmed usefulness of 100, 250 and 500 MHz antennas. The relatively large depth range and good resolution are due to favorable geological conditions.

  11. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  12. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. General Research Libraries Division: University Libraries Section (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Anthony J.; And Others

    This set of papers presented to the General Research Libraries Division, University Libraries Section, of the International Federation of Library Associations during its 47th annual conference (1981) includes: "SCONUL (Standing Conference of National and University Libraries) and British University Library Standards: Some Observations on the…

  13. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  14. Barriers to Research Utilization among Registered Nurses in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As there might be relevant differences with regard to research utilization in the general hospitals, we aimed to study research utilization among registered nurses working in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. Methods. A total of 648 registered nurses from 4 tertiary-level hospitals in China were recruited for participation. A modified BARRIERS Scale and self-designed questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation analysis. Results. Overall, items which belong to the subscale “Research” were identified as the most important barriers. Among the individual items, the lack of time on the job was ranked as the top barrier, followed by the lack of knowledgeable colleagues and by overwhelming research publications. Clinical experience, working pressure, job satisfaction, and research experience could be identified as associated factors for barriers to research utilization. Conclusions. Registered nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals felt high barriers to research utilization. Reducing registered nurses’ working pressure, promoting their positive attitude to nursing, and improving research training might be helpful for increasing research utilization. Close cooperation between clinical and nursing schools or academic research centres might facilitate the necessary change in nursing education and routine.

  15. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  16. Retrospective Integration of Research Conducted on a Multi-Section Educational Psychology Course over a Fifteen-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    This article integrates a series of studies conducted over a 15-year period in a multi-section educational course taught by the same supervising professor and his GTAs . The purpose of each study was to determine whether particular interventions or student characteristics affected performance levels in the course. Over the extended period of…

  17. Characterisation of Organic Matter Preserved in Earths Using Micromorphological and Chemical Analysis. Initial Results from Two Prehistoric French Sites : Les Bossats and Régismont-le-Haut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, Mathieu; Alexis, Marie; Quenea, Katell; Sellami, Farid; Bodu, Pierre; Naton, Henri-Georges; Vassiliu, Ligia; Dumarçay, Gaëlle; Bon, François; Mensan, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Paleolithic (ca. 40 - 10 Ka BP) of Western Europe coincides with the emergence of what are often termed "fully modern" human cultures in a glacial environment (Late Pleistocene, Weichselian glaciation). During this period the increasing structuration of living-spaces, as well as favorable preservational contexts, allows for the investigation of the spatial organization of habitats. Within this field of research hearths have traditionally played a key interpretational role through the use of ethnographic analogy. While such analyses do provide reasonable hypotheses little is known about the precise use and function of hearths during remote prehistory and thus such analogies should be treated prudently.. Using two open-air sites currently being excavated in France, Régismont-le-Haut (Aurignacian) and Les Bossats (Gravettian), we applied a multi-scale and multi-step analysis to a sample of prehistoric hearths. The main objectives of this study were to underline mechanisms involved in the conservation (taphonomic processes) and the operation (anthropogenic technical processes) of these structures. Ultimately, the aim is both a chronological and evidence based palethnological interpretation of these remains through the integration of our results with ongoing research at sites. As hearths are a ubiquitous archaeological feature spanning a multiplicity of contexts and variables, we concentrated here only on those affected by organic matter conservation in the hopes of revealing activities previously invisible to standard archaeological investigation. Field observations of these hearths show the preservation of structured organic matter (eg. charcoal, burned bones) and in some cases a darkening of the associated sediments.. Micromorphological and experimental investigations led to the attribution of this to an impregnation by amorphous organic matter in a semi-liquid state as it percolates through sediments. Microcontextual observations confirm the in

  18. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  19. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  20. Incomplete quality of life data in lung transplant research: comparing cross sectional, repeated measures ANOVA, and multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Bij Wim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In longitudinal studies on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL it frequently occurs that patients have one or more missing forms, which may cause bias, and reduce the sample size. Aims of the present study were to address the problem of missing data in the field of lung transplantation (LgTX and HRQL, to compare results obtained with different methods of analysis, and to show the value of each type of statistical method used to summarize data. Methods Results from cross-sectional analysis, repeated measures on complete cases (ANOVA, and a multi-level analysis were compared. The scores on the dimension 'energy' of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP after transplantation were used to illustrate the differences between methods. Results Compared to repeated measures ANOVA, the cross-sectional and multi-level analysis included more patients, and allowed for a longer period of follow-up. In contrast to the cross sectional analyses, in the complete case analysis, and the multi-level analysis, the correlation between different time points was taken into account. Patterns over time of the three methods were comparable. In general, results from repeated measures ANOVA showed the most favorable energy scores, and results from the multi-level analysis the least favorable. Due to the separate subgroups per time point in the cross-sectional analysis, and the relatively small number of patients in the repeated measures ANOVA, inclusion of predictors was only possible in the multi-level analysis. Conclusion Results obtained with the various methods of analysis differed, indicating some reduction of bias took place. Multi-level analysis is a useful approach to study changes over time in a data set where missing data, to reduce bias, make efficient use of available data, and to include predictors, in studies concerning the effects of LgTX on HRQL.

  1. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils are essential for human nutrition, as their seeds contain high concentrations of valuable fatty acids. Since prehistoric times plant oils have been used for many more purposes, such as lighting, medicines, and as a binding agent for cosmetics, colours, and putty, amongst other things...

  2. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus by A. Bernard Knapp involves us in a highly creative reading. This is due mainly to the fact that the author engages in a holistic synthesis of Cyprus in the Bronze Age, not by emphasizing the events and descriptions of the material remains, but by concentrating upon the difficult question of the identity of the islanders of this period and the processes by which it was formed. The author's teaching of Mediterranean prehistory at the University of Glasgow fully accounts for his need to produce a comprehensive theoretical work of this kind: the basic questions asked by students give rise to theoretical concerns for any teacher aiming to 'distil' the essential synthesis that forms the starting point for any further detailed archaeological description. This essential answer seems to have troubled Knapp for some time, judging by the long list of his writings seeking to synthesize aspects of Cypriot economy, cult and society; the present book is thus the highly interesting outcome of the mature thinking of an experienced fieldworker as much as a theoretical archaeologist and teacher. What, then, is the essential question that Knapp seeks to answer through this book? His question focuses on the identity of the islanders of Cyprus during the 'most formative periods, from the village based culture to the international, town-centred, even state-level polity' (p. 1), the way in which this identity was formed, and how it is reflected in both any recorded event and the material culture of the island in this specific period. Moreover, he also explores more fully what the distinctive features of island identity in general are, how they are constituted and how they influence the material culture of any island population. In seeking the answers, the author avoids a number of the usual approaches to Cypriot archaeology and turns, instead, to new interpretive directions. The approaches he avoids are the citing of events of Cypriot prehistory, the

  3. New finds from the prehistoric sites in the surrounding of Leskovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Milorad Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New finds, mainly pottery, provide a more complete picture of cultural development in the Leskovac region, during the prehistoric period (localities Kale in Grdelica, Jeremište in Lipovica, Pusto Semče in Semče Sastanci in Bobište, Hisar-plateau in Leskovac, Gornji Guberevac and Grkinje. The pottery from the Aeneolithic period at the site Sastanci in Bobište, indicate that the Leskovac valley developed in the same way during the Copper Age as the nearby Niš valley. This site, for the time being, is the most southerly in the Morava valley where the Kostolac pottery can be found. It is characteristic that at every newly discovered Metal Age site in this region, pottery of the Vatin type, numerous and varied pottery of the Brnjica culture group, pottery of the phase Lanište II - Basarabi, as well as Greek type pottery and that of the Early Iron Age, is found. Among the pottery which is published in this study (Grdelica and Semče, the most typical autochthon pottery of Iron Age III from the Morava valley, east Serbia and the Serbian Danube valley, downstream from Novi Sad, is also included. New locations of the Brnjica cultural group in the Leskovac valley point to the population density in one of the regions of this community and its territorial organization. On the bases of number disposition and topography of the localities it is possible to presume not only the size of population, but its territorial organization as well. Namely, it is obvious that the people of the Brnjica cultural group based their defense on elevated settlements, like those on the plateaus of Hisar in Leskovac, Skobaljić Grad in Vučje, Kale in Grdelica, Pusto Semče in Semče and other similar sites, while the settlements like those in Bobište Lipovac, Gornji Grabovac and others in the valley, had an obvious agricultural character. Numerous sites in Gornja Jablanica, near one of the biggest mines of gold and other metals in the Lece area, where slag has been found

  4. GPR study of a prehistoric archaeological site near Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. B.; Jensen, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) study was performed on the prehistoric Thule cemetery site near Point Barrow, Alaska. The goals of this study were (a) to test this technology in this type of polar environment, and (b) to search for burials and other archaeological features in a location in imminent danger from ocean erosion. The Nuvuk site is currently eroding at an average rate measured at over 6 m/year. Prior archaeological work at the site had recovered over 80 burials with nearly 100 individuals represented, all of which were less than 1 m below surface, and detectable with small test pits. In addition, the first coastal Ipiutak occupation known north of Point Hope had been recently discovered, at a depth of nearly 2m below surface, in the erosion face. The occupation appeared to have been terminated by a large storm which overwashed the site, leaving a strandline immediately superimposed on the living surface. After that, approximately 1.5 m of sterile gravels had been deposited before the surface on which the Thule people were living formed. Both occupations are of considerable scientific interest. The matrix at the site consists of unconsolidated beach gravels, which necessitates opening large surface areas or use of shoring to test even small units to the depths of the Ipiutak deposit (approximately 8m x 8m at the surface to test 1m x 1m at 2m depth). Such excavations promote erosion, and are very costly in terms of time and labor, so a means to detect features buried at depths greater than those exposed by shovel test pits was desirable. GPR seemed a likely candidate, but it had not been used in such conditions before, and thus it was necessary to test it thoroughly prior to relying on GPR to eliminate areas from physical testing. The GPR imaged the subsurface to a depth of 3 meters at a frequency of 500MHz. Meter-deep test pits were placed at 2-meter intervals in the survey area in a grid pattern since the efficacy of the technology had yet to be shown

  5. Barometry of lavas from the 1951 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands: Implications for historic and prehistoric magma plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, Elliot; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2012-03-01

    Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes in the world. The island was affected by a prehistoric giant lateral collapse that decapitated the summit of the former Monte Amarelo volcano. Subsequent volcanism has partly filled the collapse scar and built up the present-day Cha das Caldeiras plain and the Pico do Fogo stratovolcano. We have conducted a thermobarometric study of historic and prehistoric, basanitic to tephritic rocks in order to gain insight into Fogo's magma plumbing system and the impact of the collapse event on fractionation depths. A main focus was the penultimate 1951 eruption, which produced basanites to tephrites (5.0-8.2 wt.% MgO) at two sites south and northwest of Pico do Fogo. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry of phenocrysts yields a well-confined pressure range of 480-650 MPa for the final crystallization level. Microthermometric data of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts yield systematically lower pressures of 250-430 MPa. Inclusions in cumulate xenoliths yield pressures of 100-290 MPa. The combined data indicate pre-eruptive magma storage in the uppermost mantle between 17 and 22 km depth and syn-eruptive short-term magma stalling within the lower crust at 8-13 km depth. The lower pressures revealed by fluid inclusions in xenoliths may indicate that they originate from pre-1951 magma pulses that stalled and crystallized at variable levels in the crust. There is, however, no petrologic evidence for persistent crustal magma chambers. Clinopyroxene-melt barometric data of other historic and prehistoric eruptions indicate that magma storage and differentiation occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures between 420 and 870 MPa (15-30 km depth) throughout the subaerial evolution of Fogo. Our data indicate that fractionation depths decreased significantly during a period of about 100 ka representing a strong growth phase of Fogo edifice leading up to the giant Monte Amarelo flank collapse at 123-62 ka

  6. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. Education and Research Division: Library Theory and Research Section (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejska, Jadwiga; And Others

    Seven of these ten papers are concerned with library research in specific countries; the remaining three deal with library planning and ethics in research. Titles are "The Library as a Cultural Institution," by Jadwiga Kolodziejska, Poland; "The International Seminar 'Book and Library in Society' of the Polish Book and Readers…

  7. Conference on Logistics Management : Contributions of the Section Logistics of the German Academic Association for Business Research

    CERN Document Server

    Spengler, Thomas; Brinkmann, Jan; Grunewald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the selected and thoroughly reviewed research papers presented at the conference on logistics management LM2015 in Braunschweig, Germany. The conference of the special interest group in logistics of the German Academic Association for Business Research (VHB) was held in conjunction with the special interest group on production of the VHB. Thus, the papers reflect the current state-of-the-art in logistics and supply chain management while focusing especially on aspects of production logistics, i.e., facility layout, inventory management, line configuration, or flexible production.

  8. Experimental research on behavior of 460 MPa high strength steel I-section columns under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Shi, Gang; Shi, Yongjiu

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the seismic behavior of I-section columns made of 460 MPa high strength steel (HSS), six specimens were tested under constant axial load and cyclic horizontal load. The specimens were designed with different width-to-thickness ratios and loaded under different axial load ratios. For each specimen, the failure mode was observed and hysteretic curve was measured. Comparison of different specimens on hysteretic characteristic, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity were further investigated. Test results showed that the degradation of bearing capacity was due to local buckling of flange and web. Under the same axial load ratio, as width-to-thickness ratio increased, the deformation area of local buckling became smaller. And also, displacement level at both peak load and failure load became smaller. In addition, the full extent of hysteretic curve, energy dissipation capacity, ultimate story drift angle decreased, and capacity degradation occurred more rapidly with the increase of width-to-thickness ratio or axial load ratio. Based on the capacity of story drift angle, limiting values which shall not be exceeded are suggested respectively for flange and web plate of 460 MPa HSS I-section columns when used in SMFs and in IMFs in the case of axial load ratio no more than 0.2. Such values should be smaller when the axial load ratio increases.

  9. [Research on identification of American ginseng and panax ginseng by near infrared spectra of samples' cross section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-ling; Huang, Ya-wei; Qi, Shu-ye; Shan, Jacqueline J; Lei, Ling; Han, Dong-hai

    2012-04-01

    In order to identify American ginseng and panax ginseng samples accurately and rapidly, the authors acquired the NIR spectra of the samples' cross-sections. Then the spectra were respectively analyzed according to the samples' physical structure factors and chemical factors. The authors selected appropriate bands and built a physical factor leading model, a chemical factors leading model as well as a comprehensive factor model. The authors found that all the three models' discriminant rates were above 96 percents, which can meet the needs of the rapid detection of raw Chinese medicinal crop materials. While the physical factors model had a simple operation, the discriminant rate was relatively low. The chemical factors model' discriminant rate was higher, but the computation is much more complex. Among the three models, the mixed factor model had the best result with the highest discrimination rate (100 percents) and a smaller number of principal components (4). The effect was the most ideal. It proved that physical factors play an important part in NIR modeling. The cross section method is accurate and convenient which can be used in the quality control in enterprise, realizing the rapid screening of the medicine raw materials.

  10. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part A, Prehistoric earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax, the maximum earthquake magnitude thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. This report is Part A of an Open-File Report that describes the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes, from which one can estimate Mmax for most of the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it were used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. This Part A discusses prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in eastern North America, northwestern Europe, and Australia, whereas a separate Part B deals with historical events.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in the Introduction and Conclusion Sections of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaji, Masoomeh; Vafaeimehr, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Academic writing, particularly writing research articles, is an indispensable part of every major in higher education. Hyland (2004) argued that a valuable means of exploring academic writing, and comparing the rhetorical features and preferences of different discourse communities, is through the metadiscourse analysis of the text. The present…

  12. Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryomov, Stanislav V; Nazhmidenova, Azhar M; Shalaurova, Sophia A; Morozov, Igor V; Tabarev, Andrei V; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I

    2015-10-01

    The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in 'relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene-early Holocene.

  13. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  14. Experimental research on the effectiveness and adaptability of speed reduction markings in downhill sections on urban roads: a driving simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Han; Zhao, Xiaohua; Rong, Jian; Ma, Jianming

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness and adaptability of speed reduction markings (SRMs) in downhill sections on urban roads with distinct roadway grades. Empirical data including vehicle speed and acceleration were collected in a driving simulator. Subjective questionnaires were conducted, and two indexes - the relative speed difference and standard deviation of acceleration - were developed to evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability of SRMs. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of driving simulator related to different road alignments and types of SRMs has been validated through a field test. Results of subjective questionnaires showed that the majority of subjects had no feelings of nervousness, but they were affected by SRMs while driving through downhill sections in all four scenarios (i.e., downhill sections with vertical grades of 3, 2, 1.5 and 1%). In terms of vehicle speed and acceleration, the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the contrast analysis (S-N-K method) indicated that SRMs were significantly effective when roadway grades of downgrade sections were 1.5, 2 and 3%, while transverse speed reduction markings (TSRMs) had significantly worse adaptability (P<0.05). Therefore, this research recommends that TSRMs could be placed in downhill sections with roadway grades of 1.5 or 2%; longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) could be placed in downhill sections with a roadway grade of 3%. Whether SRMs are placed in downhill sections with a roadway grade of 1% would depend on other factors such as financial issues and crash records, which are not considered in this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-Related Research Projects in Fiji and Papua New Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Fiji and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kannan; Gowri, S

    2016-06-10

    Evidence-based medicine and evidence-based public health rely on the best available evidence generated in a specific area for it to be implemented in healthcare practice. This study assesses the range of research studies conducted in Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) islands by reviewing the types of studies now registered with the respective health research registry portals. We assessed all studies registered on the Fiji Health Research Portal (FHRP) and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portal (PNGHRP) since 2014 for the following details: year of registration; study type and participants; field of research; basic statistical analyses; and multicentric or single center study. A total of 99 studies were registered in the FHRP and 6 in PNGHRP during the period under review. Nearly, one fourth of the studies from Fiji and one third from PNG islands are studies evaluating various health policies without involving or collecting data from human subjects. All the registered studies in both the islands were observational (rather than experimental). A total of 58.2% of the registered studies in FHRP and 66.7% in PNGHRP were performed as student projects. A geographic scope of 21.2% of the proposed studies in FHRP and 33.3% in PNGHRP was limited to the respective islands. We conclude from the present analysis that there is a clear need for conducting more high-quality research in both Fiji and PNG in order to meet the health needs of the respective nations. More research focusing on health needs and contributing factors to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases are the need of the hour in both of these south Pacific islands.

  16. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  17. Intensive Care Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey of demographics, responsibilities, job satisfaction and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brigit; Eastwood, Glenn M; Raunow, Heike; Howe, Belinda; Rickard, Claire M

    2011-11-01

    The achievement of successful clinical research projects depends on multiple team members including Research Coordinators (RCs), who are the link between the researcher and the trial participants. The RCs main responsibility is to ensure that all research is conducted according to the appropriate protocols, regulations and guidelines. Description of demographics, the role and associated responsibilities and assessment of items of importance to, and satisfaction with, various job related items. An observational web-based cross-sectional study of RCs working in Intensive Care Units (ICU) across Australia and New Zealand. Fifty-six participants completed the survey. Forty percent had more than 6 years experience in ICU research and one-third held a Masters Degree. Most respondents performed research related tasks including ethics submission, patient screening, education and data collection. Autonomy and work hours were the most satisfying job characteristics reported and aspects relating to autonomy were most important for the RCs. Inadequate remuneration was of great concern to the participants. Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand have many and varied roles with a significant workload. Unfortunately, the RCs do not feel their employers are adequately remunerating the demand on their time and efforts. The results indicate that RCs enjoy high levels of satisfaction with general conditions and facets of their work and its environment and they remain passionate about their role in the ICU setting. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How psychiatry journals support the unbiased translation of clinical research. A cross-sectional study of editorial policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Knüppel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT have been developed as tools to improve quality and reduce bias in reporting research findings. Trial registration has been recommended for countering selective publication. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE encourages the implementation of reporting guidelines and trial registration as uniform requirements (URM. For the last two decades, however, biased reporting and insufficient registration of clinical trials has been identified in several literature reviews and other investigations. No study has so far investigated the extent to which author instructions in psychiatry journals encourage following reporting guidelines and trial registration. METHOD: Psychiatry Journals were identified from the 2011 Journal Citation Report. Information given in the author instructions and during the submission procedure of all journals was assessed on whether major reporting guidelines, trial registration and the ICMJE's URM in general were mentioned and adherence recommended. RESULTS: We included 123 psychiatry journals (English and German language in our analysis. A minority recommend or require 1 following the URM (21%, 2 adherence to reporting guidelines such as CONSORT, PRISMA, STROBE (23%, 7%, 4%, or 3 registration of clinical trials (34%. The subsample of the top-10 psychiatry journals (ranked by impact factor provided much better but still improvable rates. For example, 70% of the top-10 psychiatry journals do not ask for the specific trial registration number. DISCUSSION: Under the assumption that better reported and better registered clinical research that does not lack substantial information will improve the understanding, credibility, and unbiased translation of clinical research findings, several stakeholders including readers (physicians, patients, authors, reviewers, and editors might benefit from improved author instructions in psychiatry journals. A first step of

  19. Research and application of schemes for constructing concrete pillars in large section finishing cut in backfill coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qiang; Zhang Jixiong; Ju Feng; Li Linyue; Zhao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the technology of controlling surrounding rock deformation by constructing concrete pillars in large section finishing cut in backfill coal mining, the characteristics of vertical stress on concrete pillars and main factors influencing pillar stability are analyzed. By building a Winkler elastic foundation mechanical model for the support system constituted of coal pillar, backfill body and concrete pillars, mechanical calculation on stability of concrete pillar is carried out to evaluate the pillar stability and safety. Seven numeral models in three schemes with different pillar sizes, inter-row distances and com-pression ratios at the stopes were analyzed through numerical simulation according to width reduction principle. The practice of finishing cut at III644 workface at Yangzhuang coal mine shows that:when the actual compression ratio is 86.5%, construction size inside the finishing cut is 2000 mm ? 2000 mm and the interval between concrete pillars is 2000 mm ? 2000 mm, the pillars can be stable with the maxi-mum movement of two sides of each pillar being only 83 mm and 54 mm, which achieves the expected effect.

  20. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  1. [The use of bibliographic databases by Spanish-speaking Latin American biomedical researchers: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Reveiz Herault, Ludovic; Cardona, Andrés Felipe

    2005-04-01

    To describe how Spanish-speaking biomedical professionals in Latin America access and utilize bibliographic databases. Based on a MEDLINE search, 2 515 articles published between August 2002 and August 2003 were identified that dealt with and/or had authors from 16 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The search was limited to references to basic science, clinical science, or social medicine. A survey was sent by e-mail to researchers who lived in 15 of the 16 countries (the exception being Nicaragua). The survey asked about the researcher's area of work (basic science, clinical science, or public health), the level of skill in using databases, the frequency and type of access to the databases most utilized, the impact from not having access to the full text of articles when preparing a manuscript, and how the respondent usually obtained the full-text version of articles. A total of 586 e-mail messages with the survey were sent out, and 185 responses were received (32%). The databases most utilized to obtain biomedical information were MEDLINE (34.1%), general search engines (Google, Yahoo!, and AltaVista) (15.9%), on-line journals (9.8%), BIREME-LILACS (6.0%), BioMedNet (5.4%), the databases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (5.2%), and the Cochrane Library (4.9%). Of the respondents, 64% said they had average or advanced abilities in using MEDLINE. However, 71% of the respondents did not use or were not aware of the MEDLINE Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled vocabulary established by the National Library of Medicine of the United States of America for indexing articles. The frequency of accessing the databases was similar in all the countries studied, without significant differences in terms of the type of access (authorized access to commercial databases, unauthorized access to

  2. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Data show that being a younger adult male with mother's parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development.

  3. 交叉口及路段拥挤界定研究%Research of Defining Congested Intersections and Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅芬叶; 王志利

    2012-01-01

    The contradiction between urban traffic supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent. The definition and evaluation of congestion on urban roads and intersections are of significance. On the basis of the concept of congestion on intersection and road, the related researches at home and abroad were revitured,and the road and intersection congestion determination method suitable for our urban traffic operation was proposed. The evaluation method of road and intersection service level was summarized, the typical intersection delay simulation was studied through case, and the congestion's interaction mechanism between roads and intersection was discussed. The research results have theoretical significance and practical significance to our urban traffic operation evaluation and improvement.%当前,我国城市交通供需矛盾日益突出,城市道路及交叉节点的拥堵界定及拥堵评价具有重要意义.通过对交叉口及路段拥堵概念的提出,分析了国内外相关研究的成果,提出适合我国城市交通运行特征的交叉口及路段拥堵界定方法.对交叉口及路段服务水平的评价方法进行了归纳总结,通过实例研究了典型交叉口的延误仿真评价,并对交叉口与路段拥堵的相互作用机理进行了初步分析.研究成果对我国城市交通运行的评价和改善具有理论意义和实践意义.

  4. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. Materials and methods This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Results Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. Conclusion This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development. PMID:28203113

  5. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders.Materials and methods: This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females living in Sicily (Italy aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42. The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns.Results: Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and

  6. What deters nurses from participating in web-based graduate nursing programs?: A cross-sectional survey research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Suzanne H

    2016-01-01

    A graduate degree is required of nursing faculty in America. Because of the nursing faculty shortage, web-based graduate nursing programs are being offered to encourage nurses to return to school. The identification of deterrents to participating in these programs is an important step in increasing enrollment. To identify deterrents to participation in web-based graduate nursing programs. Descriptive survey research. Louisiana Two hundred and eighty-one registered nurse members of the Louisiana Nurses' Association. The 54-item four-point Likert-type interval scale Deterrents to Participation in Web-Based Graduate Nursing Programs Survey Instrument was used. Data were collected over 8weeks using SurveyMonkey.com to administer the web survey tool to all members of the Louisiana State Nurses' Association. A factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution that explained 55.436% of the total variance in deterrents to participation in web-based graduate nursing programs. The factors were labeled "concerns about quality, cost, and time," "concerns about access to resources: technological and personal," and "concerns about electronic mediated communication." Multiple regression analysis revealed an overall model of three predictors of deterrents to participation in web-based graduate nursing programs: no computer literacy, annual household income between 20,000 and 50,000 dollars, and having the current educational status of graduating from a diploma RN program. This model accounted for 21% of the variance in the deterrents to participation scores. Since these three significant predictors of deterrents to participation in web-based graduate nursing programs were identified, web-based nursing graduate program administrators might consider an outreach to RN diploma graduates in an effort to make them aware of available technology support programs to foster participation. Scholarships for lower income nursing students are recommended, and programs to support computer

  7. Using Stochastically Downscaled Climate Models and Multiproxy Lake Sediment Data to Connect Climatic Variations Over the Past 1000 Years and the History of Prehistoric Maize Farming in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. J.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the relationship between climatic variations over the past 1000 years and the history of prehistoric maize farming expansion and decline in the American Southwest, with a focus on Utah. We are examining both the downscaled climate models and high resolution analyses of lake cores and dendrochronological data matched with occupation information. We are testing the specific utility of stochastically downscaled general circulation models (viz. ECHO-G) to reconstruct local conditions for sites with documented prehistoric dryland farming through the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA). We are testing our model-based reconstructions with proxies of temperature and aridity from three subalpine lake sediment cores transecting Utah. We compare the patterns of climate change from the downscaled models and the paleoclimate records to a database of 837 radiocarbon dates over 169 locations of archaeological Native American maize-farmer site occupations in Utah.

  8. Research and simulation on integration of station and section of railway%车站区间一体化的研究与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国; 陈光武; 苗成伟; 吴伟楷

    2011-01-01

    车站区间一体化是铁路,地铁、轻轨的发展方向.本文对铁路车站区间一体化进行研究,在此基础上进行基本功能的仿真.同时还对其拓展功能一现场安全作业防护预报进行仿真,连一步验证车站区间一体化的优越性.仿真结果表明,本方案在行车效率和维护管理方面具有显著的优势.%The integration of station and section was the developing trends of railway, subway and light railway. This paper researched on the integrative of station and section of railway, simulated the basic function and enlarged function of local safety operation defend forecast. This software was validated the scheme' s feasibility of integrative station and section of railway. The scheme was predominant in enhancing the efficiency of travelling and convenience of maintenance management aspect.

  9. Cars of the Future—Powered by Poison? Prehistoric Beverage Choices; Health Benefits of Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-04-01

    This Report from Other Journals: Research Advances surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include a report on a new approach to hydrogen fuel cells; findings about alcoholic beverages from 7000 B.C. that have been subjected to modern analyses; and research that supports claims regarding chamomile's medicinal properties.

  10. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  11. REXIC project: retrospective cross-sectional study of documentation of informed consent for research biobanking in a public research and teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nobile

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Center for Transfusion Medicine, Cell Therapy and Cryobiology, Milan, Northern Italy, is the headquarter of the POLI-MI biobank. It co-ordinates the biobank activities of the Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milan. Such activities require specific safeguarding of donors’ rights and protection of sensitive and genetic data. The Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico has set up a project on informed consent with the aim of developing awareness and understanding of this issue. Within this project, it has been decided to evaluate how consent for biobanking material is expressed. Design and methods. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and completeness of consent to biobanking in the POLI-MI biobank. This was a retrospective study carried out in 2012 on samples of consent declarations collected by biobank units in 2011. Some units used a single, standard consent model available from a previous POLI-MI biobank workgroup. Other units used models which had been previouly formulated. Evaluation was made using a form that indicated the essential elements of consent. Results. A total of 48 consent declarations were collected using the single, standard model and 84 were collected using other models. The consent declarations that used the single, standard model were found to be the most complete and were filled in better than other models. Conclusions. Progressive adoption of a simple, standard consent model is expected to improve the quality of consent acquisition. Regular audit of the compliance of consent practices with ethical and legal requirements is mandatory to improve the quality of research biobanking.

  12. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  13. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Caneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  14. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and elemental analyses were carried out to determine whether the pottery found in the archaeological sites was locally made or trading items. Several clay samples from rivers in Ulu Kelantan such as Perias River, Chai River, Peralon River, Nenggiri River, Betis River and Jenera River were taken to be analysed. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mineralogical and elemental content of the pottery shards showed that the pottery shards did not originate from the Ulu Kelantan area and one of the samples contained clinochlore mineral. Clinochlore forms from the metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations of other iron and magnesium silicate minerals and is usually found in igneus rock and metamorphic rock formation.

  15. Corrosion on prehistoric Cu-Sn-alloys: the influence of artificial environment and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mödlinger, Marianne; Piccardo, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    The paper contributes to the identification of different corrosion products detected on the cross-section specimens sampled from Bronze Age swords and one helmet found between 60-160 years ago. The objects are kept in 1889 built oak showcases at the Natural History Museum Vienna, having suffered unknown restoration treatments. The identified corrosion products not only affect further eventual treatment in conservation science of copper base objects but also contribute to identify the often unknown find context, which is meant to facilitate archaeological interpretation of the Bronze Age weapons. The analyses of the samples were carried out using SEM-EDXS-EBSD and optical microscopy.

  16. Analysis of methods for evaluating environmental costs: a view from environmental accounting research. case: construction of highway, vía al mar Cartagena-Barranquilla section 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio Vergara Arrieta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This document is the first breakthrough in the research project entitled “Measurement and assessment of social and environmental costs of Dual Carriageway Vía al Mar Cartagena- Barranquilla section 1 Barrio Crespo – Entrance Villages Tierra Baja and Puerto Rey” funded by the University of San Buenaventura Cartagena. In it the conclusions of the search and theoretical-critical analysis of the different methods, methodologies or techniques that address the issue of valuation of environmental quality in order to develop the first approaches to valuation exercise environmental costs are collected. The position for the present analysis is adopted from an investigative standpoint of accounting field, based on performing and / or environmental reality heterodox approaches.

  17. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  18. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  19. Yours ever... or who was Katherine Brown? Investigations of prehistoric Vinča and British influences during and after World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vujović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the 110th anniversary of the beginning of the excavations at Vinča is nearing, the question arises as to how much we really know about the role and motives of a number of British subjects who in various ways played decisive roles in the research and the international affirmation of this important Late Neolithic site. It is possible, on the basis of archives and personal correspondence of Miloje M. Vasić, to view the investigations of Vinča in the wider context of political and military relations, influencing the general situation in the Kingdom of The Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia. John Lynton Myres was a professor at the universities in Oxford and Liverpool, the founder and editor of the Journal Man and the director of the British Archaeological School in Athens. During the World War I, between 1916 and 1919, he was an officer of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve, first in the Navy Intelligence Service, and then in Military Control Office in Athens. The Browns, Alec and Catherine, also played an important role. Alec Brown, a left-oriented writer, translator and correspondent, arrived to Serbia as a Cambridge graduate, aiming at the post of an English language teacher in high schools. In the period from 1929 to 1931 he took part in the excavations at Vinča, taking this setting as the base for the plot of one of his books. His wife, Elsie Catherine Brown, whose life is very poorly documented, served in the British Embassy in Belgrade between the wars. Vasić dedicated the third volume of Prehistoric Vinča to her, for her devoted work in the British medical mission and the care she took of the Serbian soldiers near Thessalonica, but also for her part played in the establishment of the initial contact with Sir Charles Hyde. The life of Catherine Brown may be seen as one of the many exceptional stories about the noble British ladies, celebrated in Serbia for over a century. However, one should bear in mind that the events and

  20. [Bilateral SLAC (scapholunate advanced collapse) wrist: an unusual entity. Apropos of a 7000-year-old prehistoric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmejean, E; Dutour, O; Touam, C; Oberlin, C

    1997-01-01

    SLAC (Scapho-Lunate Advanced Collapse) wrist is the most common form of osteoarthritis of the wrist. The main aetiology is ligamentous rotary subluxation of the scaphoid. The authors report on a case of bilateral SLAC wrist, identified on a prehistoric skeleton derived from the Hassi-el-Abiod site in the malian Sahara (Dutour, 1989). The paleopathological study consisted of macroscopic examination and radiological examination. Radiocarbon dating situated this human occupation to 7 thousand years ago. The diseases observed included bilateral radiocarpal lesions in an adult male individual. The degree of preservation of the carpal skeleton was 90%. Lesions were bilateral, but predominantly affected the right side. The radial styloid processes presented a lateral osteophytic cuff, giving a tapered "pen-nib" appearance. The scaphoid has a normal shape, but presented posterior and lateral osteophytes. The scaphoid surfaces of the two distal extremities of the radius and the corresponding parts of the scaphoid showed characteristic polishing. X-rays showed a band of condensation corresponding to the ivory region on the articular surfaces. In this case, the bilateral nature and the absence of any obvious macrotraumatic aetiology suggest that the only aetiology was progressive and bilateral ligamentous distension, due to repeated microtrauma analogous to that observed in sports disease (volley-ball) or in occupational diseases (jackhammer). The manufacture of stone tools (carved or polished) can be incriminated in the pathogenesis of these lesions. These lesions are therefore useful markers of repeated microtraumatic activities or "activity markers". The is the first paleopathological description and the oldest known case of bilateral SLAC wrist.

  1. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  2. Investigating the Spatial Extent of a Barely Prehistoric Earthquake on the Bear River Normal Fault, Wyoming and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Cinti, F. R.; Civico, R.; West, M. W.; Stoller, A. R.; DeLong, S.; Pickering, A.

    2016-12-01

    To better constrain the length of a young prehistoric (significantly post-AD 1630) surface-rupturing earthquake recently discovered near the south end of the Bear River normal fault in Utah (Hecker and Schwartz, 2015), we excavated a trench on a strand of the fault 25 km to the north in Wyoming, where previous work had found clear evidence of two older late Holocene events (West, 1993). These two events, which have been identified to the south as well, were interpreted as comprising the entire history of this very young fault. The new trench across the 5-m-high scarp at the northern site exposed a 6-m-wide zone of faulting and two packages of colluvial-wedge deposits, each tabular and 0.5-1 m thick. The colluvial deposits, which bury Pleistocene alluvial deposits that in turn overlie Eocene bedrock, appear correlative with West's two-event stratigraphy. In the latest trench, however, both wedges are faulted, with strands extending to the ground surface, evidence of a third, younger event. The amount of displacement in the most recent event (MRE) in the trench is small (few 10s of cm at most) and distributed and has resulted in only minor colluviation. The event record is complicated by a shallow slope failure in the soil A-horizon on the scarp that we interpret as possibly occurring during the MRE. The slide formed a head scarp at a location underlain by MRE faulting and built a low bench at least 100 m long on the surface below the scarp. We sampled buried in-place soil below the slide for radiocarbon analysis, which should allow age comparison with the earthquake identified farther south. Ultra-high-resolution topography from balloon photography and terrestrial lidar enable detailed morphologic study of surface processes and deformation at the site.

  3. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  4. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  5. Post-marketing research and its outcome for novel anticancer agents approved by both the FDA and EMA between 2005 and 2010: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Baron, Gabriel; Vivot, Alexandre; Atal, Ignacio; Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-09-20

    Post-marketing research in oncology has rarely been described. We aimed to characterize post-marketing trials for a consistent set of anticancer agents over a long period. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of post-marketing trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov through September 2014 for novel anticancer agents approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency between 2005 and 2010. All relevant post-marketing trials were classified according to indication, primary outcome, starting date, sponsors, and planned enrollment. Supplemental indications were retrieved from regulatory documents and publication rate was assessed by two different methods. Ten novel anticancer agents were eligible: five were indicated for hematologic malignancies and the remaining five for solid cancers (three for kidney cancer). We identified 2345 post-marketing trials; 1362 (58.1%) targeted an indication other than the originally approved one. We observed extreme variations among drugs in both number of post-marketing trials [range 8-530] and overall population to be enrolled per trial [1-8381]. Post-marketing trials assessed almost all types of cancers, the three most frequently studied cancers being leukemia, kidney cancer and myeloma. In all, 6.6% of post-marketing trials had a clinical endpoint as a primary outcome, and 35.9% and 54.1% had a safety or surrogate endpoint, respectively, as a primary outcome. Nine drugs obtained approval for supplemental indications. The publication rate at 10 years was 12.3% to 26.1% depending on the analysis method. In conclusion, we found that post-marketing research in oncology is highly heterogeneous and the publication rate of launched trials is low. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Energy technology scenarios for use in water resources assessments under Section 13a of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This document presents two estimates of future growth of emerging energy technology in the years 1985, 1990, and 2000 to be used as a basis for conducting Water Resources Council assessments as required by the Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974. The two scenarios are called the high world oil price (HWOP) and low world oil price (LWOP) cases. A national-level summary of the ASA tabulations is shown in Appendix A; the scenarios are presented at the ASA level of detail in Appendix B. The two scenarios were generally derived from assumptions of the Second National Energy Plant (NEP II), including estimates of high and low world oil price cases, growth rate of GNP, and related economic parameters. The overall national energy growth inherent in these assumptions was expressed as a detailed projection of various energy fuel cycles through use of the Fossil-2 model and regionalized through use of the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS). These scenarios are for the use of regional analysts in examining the availability of water for and the potential impacts of future growth of emerging energy technology in selected river basins of the Nation, as required by Section 13(a).

  7. A methodological proposal to study the prehistorical metallurgy: the case of Gorny in the Kargaly Region (Orenburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological field-work realised at the site of Gorny (occupied from 1700 to 1400 BC has furnished an important collection of materials related to metallurgical activities (ores, slags, by-products and copper objects. These have been analyzed by a variety of instrumental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and metallography. The results show that metallurgy was a primitive one that worked oxidised copper ores by a non-slagging smelting process. Cast objects were finished by cold hammering and, on some occasions, annealing. A replication of the prehistoric technology has been achieved by means of on-site smelting experiments. Thus, economic variables such as the efficiency of copper recovery and charcoal consumption have been evaluated and, using them, theoretical models of copper production and its behavioural impact have been constructed.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos de campo en el sitio de Gorny (habitado durante los siglos XVII-XV AC han proporcionado una importante colección de materiales relacionados con actividades metalúrgicas (minerales, escorias, restos de fundición y objetos metálicos. En su estudio analítico se han empleado diversas técnicas de laboratorio (microscopía electrónica de barrido, espectrometría por fluorescencia de rayos x, metalografía cuyos resultados caracterizan una metalurgia de rasgos primitivos que parte de la fundición directa de minerales oxídicos de cobre. Los objetos de metal, fundidos en molde, eran terminados mediante trabajos de forja y aplicación, en ocasiones, de tratamientos térmicos. Con la ayuda de experimentos de fundición in situ se ha reproducido el proceso prehistórico, permitiendo de ese modo establecer variables económicas tales como el rendimiento en cobre de las fundiciones y el consumo de combustible, a partir de las cuales se elaboran modelos teóricos estimativos de la producción metalúrgica y su impacto en el medio

  8. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean Atlantic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Darren Andrew

    2008-11-01

    In this paper I argue that there is a growing body of evidence supporting an increasingly central position of coastal environments in human evolution and dispersals, rather than as merely peripheral habitats. Eustatic fluctuations during glacial cycles have meant that most prehistoric coastlines are now underwater, and lack of evidence to date of a close relationship between people and the coast can be most plausibly ascribed to the limited studies so far on submerged sites. Coastal environments provide high diversity in food resources, consisting of multiple ecotones in close proximity, which reduces the need to forage widely. One of the richest and most easily exploited coastal resources by human populations living on the coast are molluscs from marine rocky intertidal communities, which recent evidence has highlighted as important as far back as the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the density of these resources is limited by a number of factors, and this varies geographically. One of the main large-scale factors limiting rocky intertidal mollusc densities is tidal amplitude, beyond which smaller-scale local factors such as exposure to wave action and shore aspect, further affect species distributions. The area around the Strait of Gibraltar is used as a case study of an area, which is affected by large variations in tidal amplitudes thus allowing for quantitative comparisons between taxonomically and climatically similar regions. Shorelines along the Mediterranean coast, with reduced tidal amplitudes, exhibit compressed zonations and harbour fewer macro-mollusc individuals, with the reverse being the case along the Atlantic coast, which has significantly larger tides. Data from Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Strait are used to establish harvested species and present-day data are used to model the potential distributions and associated variables such as calorific returns of key food species. An optimal foraging model is used to explore the effects of

  9. Clinical research of section choice in caesarean section for placenta praevia%前置胎盘剖宫产子宫切口选择的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石光; 杨鹏; 等

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of transverse and longitudinal lower segment caesarean section on the outcome of newborn, postpartum haemorrhage and ratio of complications in placenta previa. Methods Placenta previa with lower segment transverse caesarean section( 117 cases) were taken as control group, meanwhile, the lower segment with longitudinal section (142 cases ) as experimental group. Their operational complications, amount of bleeding during and after operation and outcome of the perinatal period were analysed. Results No significant difference in age, parities, gestational weeks, the types of the placenta praevia and the locus of placenta between the two groups were found( P>0.05), while there were significant difference in the amount of bleeding during and after operation, the need of using gauze ribbon to stop bleeding, section splitting and rate of hysterectomy after caesarean section(P<0.01). Conelusion Lower segment longitudinal caesarean section in placenta praevia not only shows less bleeding during operation and lower rate of postpartum haemorrhage, but also avoids using gauzes to stop bleeding and causes lower rate of hysterectomy after caesarean section, so it can be the first choice when determining the style of section in placenta praevia.%目的比较前置胎盘剖宫产子宫下段横切口和子宫下段纵切口对产时并发症、产后出血量及围产期结局的影响。方法以行子宫下段横切口剖宫产者为对照组(117例),以子宫下段纵切口剖宫产术为研究组(142例),分别记录两组研究对象剖宫产术时并发症、产时和产后24小时累计出血量、产后出血发生率及围产期结局。结果年龄、孕产次、孕周及前置胎盘类型和胎盘附着位置等有关因素比较无显著性(P>0.05)。两组间的术时出血量、产后出血发生率、子宫切口撕裂发生率、宫腔填纱条和子宫切除率、围产期结局的比较差异十分显著(P<0.01)。

  10. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  11. Research on the sectional control method of airborne jumbolter%机载锚杆钻机分段式控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳立新; 张佩; 马英

    2015-01-01

    drilling position .The research provides design basis for sectional automatic control of airborne anchor drilling machine .

  12. The management of the faeces passed by under five children: an exploratory, cross-sectional research in an urban community in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Afolabi, Olusegun Temitope; Olaoye, Emmanuel Abiodun; Adebayo, Adeyinka Daniel; Oyetola, Seun Oladele; Abegunde, Oluwaseun Olamide

    2017-02-08

    Safe management of faeces (SMoF) and environmental contamination by faecal pathogens have been extensively researched although the SMoF in under-five children has been perennially neglected perhaps due to the misconception that it is harmless. This research, therefore, studied the situation, to determine the magnitude and dimensions of the problem aimed at making policy level stakeholders aware of child faeces management systems and so, inform evidence-based implementation of child and health-related programmes in Nigeria. The study utilized an exploratory cross-sectional design and a multi-stage sampling technique to identify 300 respondents from 12 randomly selected streets from 4 wards in Ife central local government area. The study collected data with a pretested questionnaire which included direct observations of child defecation practices and existing toilet facilities. Cleaned data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 20 with child faeces management outcomes as the dependent variable. The mean age of respondents' and monthly income (mode) were 30.8 ± 7.5 years and ₦10,000.00 ($28.60). Most respondents were mothers to the under five children (84.7%), had a secondary education (72.0%) and were semi-skilled (57.0%). The caregivers had access to improved water sources (93.7%), improved toilets (64.3%), with 64% and 53.7% having above average scores in knowledge and attitudes, respectively. In the study, 19.7% and 69.0% of caregivers practiced safe disposal of faeces passed by the under five child during the day and at night respectively, though most caregivers (94.3%) omitted steps in the safe management of child faeces chain. The under five diarrhoea prevalence rate was 13.7% and unsanitary passage of child faeces is associated with four folds likelihood of having diarrhoea (p = 0.001). The caregivers whose under five children practiced safe sanitation were rich (p = 0.009) and knowledge was significantly associated with ownership of household

  13. Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Ana Luisa; Albanese, Emiliano; Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Yang, Fang; Gaona, Ciro; Joteeshwaran, AT; Rodriguez, Guillermina; de la Torre, Gabriela Rojas; Williams, Joseph D; Stewart, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background 1) To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2) to estimate the main and interactive effects of age, sex, and educational level by site; and 3) to investigate the effect of site by region and by rural or urban location. Methods Population-based cross-sectional one phase catchment area surveys were conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China and India. The protocol included the administration of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI 'D', generating the COGSCORE measure of global function), and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) verbal fluency (VF), word list memory (WLM, immediate recall) and recall (WLR, delayed recall) tests. Only those free of dementia were included in the analysis. Results Older people, and those with less education performed worse on all four tests. The effect of sex was much smaller and less consistent. There was a considerable effect of site after accounting for compositional differences in age, education and sex. Much of this was accounted for by the effect of region with Chinese participants performing better, and Indian participants worse, than those from Latin America. The effect of region was more prominent for VF and WLM than for COGSCORE and WLR. Conclusion Cognitive assessment is a basic element for dementia diagnosis. Age- and education-specific norms are required for this purpose, while the effect of gender can probably be ignored. The basis of cultural effects is poorly understood, but our findings serve to emphasise that normative data may not be safely generalised from one population to another with quite different characteristics. The minimal effects of region on COGSCORE and WLR are reassuring with respect to the cross-cultural validity of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis, which uses only these elements of the 10/66 battery. PMID

  14. Oxiuríase e migrações pré-históricas Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araújo

    1995-06-01

    hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations.

  15. Researching Stonehenge: Theories Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Parker Pearson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years archaeologists connected with the Institute of Archaeology and UCL have made substantial contributions to the study of Stonehenge, the most enigmatic of all the prehistoric stone circles in Britain. Two of the early researchers were Petrie and Childe. More recently, colleagues in UCL’s Anthropology department – Barbara Bender and Chris Tilley – have also studied and written about the monument in its landscape. Mike Parker Pearson, who joined the Institute in 2012, has been leading a 10-year-long research programme on Stonehenge and, in this paper, he outlines the history and current state of research.

  16. Research and Development of an Advanced Personal Load Carriage Measurement System: Phase 4. Section A: Executive Summary - Measurement Systems for Assessment of Personal Load Carriage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    SECTION F: Development of Calibration Jig for Tekscan ™ System ................................. 11 2.3 Clothe the Soldier Contracts...SECTION F: Development of Calibration Jig for Tekscan ™ System A local calibrator jig capable of applying known levels of load to known locations in

  17. Discovery of Prehistoric Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1995-12-01

    It was Charles Francois Dupui, of France, who two centuries ago in his twelve-volume "Origine de tous les cults" (1795) worked out a proposition that all the different religious customs, stories, and dogmas will be found upon examination to have a cradle as one or another aspect of the natural, mainly, astronomical phenomena. It is absolutely correct but he and his spirited followers failed to develop a basic scientific quantitative argument focused on astronomy - chronological distribution of events. It is the first time that a combination of the up-to-date knowledge in archaic symbology and the professional astronomical data for precession and other regular astronomical events constitutes conditions for an absolutely new approach. An astronomical reconstruction of the evolution of the Zodiacal constellations was made, based on the Indo-european and Sumero-Akkadian religio-cultural data, including artifacts such as cult statuettes, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals and boundary stones. It was argued that the development of 12 houses of the Zodiac in 3 groups of 4 over some six millennia was dictated by the changes made by precession in the positions of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. The first quartet of the Zodiacal constellations (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) was recognized by the first agriculturists from the Fertile Crescent to learn the four most important Sun positions and to predict the ongoing seasons; it was done as far back as 5,600 B.C. (with a formal error of this determination about +/- 150 years). The second one (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) was introduced in 2,700 +/- 250 years B.C. by Egyptians with their own animal symbolism that was the etymological root for the term the Zodiac (a circle of animals). This event was followed with the acquaintance of the new calendar and erection of the great pyramids as an eternal sanctuary for their mental triumph. In the first half of 14 century B.C. the Egyptian pharaoh Ekhnaton (Amenhotep 1V) attempted to inaugurate a new four constellation set to fixate the Sun track. The attempt was in vain but it seems the knowledge to go via Moses and the tribes left Egypt for Canaan. According our precessional dating the final design of the Zodiac with 12 houses appeared at 1,200 +/- 400 years B.C. In opposite to the figure 7 which was from the Paleolithic, the first great opus where figure 12 appeared as a sacred one was the Holy Bible. Many other details of the concept proposed are discussed.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Mental distress among university students in Ethiopia: a cross sectional ... Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March2011. ... different levels of depressive, anxiety, panic or somatic symptoms.It ... including relationships, work and health [3, 4]. ... expectations from parents; teachers were reported attributes of.

  19. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  20. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  1. Reaction to the Special Section on Supervision Research: Comment on Ellis et al (1996); Ladany et al (1996); Neufeldt et al (1996); and Worthen and McNeill (1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth; Carroll, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Both the postpositivistic (Ellis, Ladany, Krengel, and Schult, 1996; Ladany, Hill, Corbett, and Nutt, 1996) and interpretive (Neufeldt, Karno, and Nelson, 1996; Worthen and McNeill, 1996) studies in this special section on supervision research are reviewed from the perspective of rigor and relevancy to the critical questions facing educators and…

  2. Reading of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR Images of Prehistoric Flint Mine; Case Study from Krzemionki Opatowskie Archaeological Site In Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welc Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys conducted in order to map tunnels and vertical shafts at the Neolithic chert mining field Krzemionki used a ground-penetrating radar(GPR to test hypotheses regarding orientation, depth and subsurface complexity of these voids.Using two-dimensional reflection profiles the vertical shafts, now mostly filled with lithic debris, were easily visible. Amplitude mapping visualized debris at shaft margins as well as a collapsed material inside the voids. Some shallower horizontal tunnels were also visible as sub-horizontal planar reflections generated from both ceiling and floors of these void spaces. Extension of these interpretations to un-mapped areas of the ancient mining district and complexity of these prehistoric mining features could be examined to determine excavation intensity and exploitation techniques used during the Neolithic.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    : A cross-sectional ... by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to HTLV 1 and HTLV -2. ..... I: Implication of high antiviral antibody titer and high proviral load in carrier mothers. International ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... 3.3-53.0) for terminating labour by cesarean section following arrest disorders [9], low APGAR ... height and taken through the questionaire at the start of the study with additional ..... physiological maturity. J Natl Med Assoc.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... sectional survey was conducted using the snowball sampling method among MSM in Togo. ... Indeed, the per act probability of HIV transmission during anal ... national non-governmental organization (NGO) ”Arc en Ciel„. This.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  8. Should Research Thesis be a Prerequisite for Doctor of Medicine Degree? A Cross-sectional Study at Jordan University of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Gharaibeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: University based research is an integral part of many prestigious medical schools worldwide. The benefits of student-conducted research have long been highlighted in the literature. This article aims to identify the insights of medical students concerning research training, including perceived hurdles in the way of conducting research, and the utility of a research thesis in acquiring a Doctor of Medicine degree.Methods: A total of 808 medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology were selected by random sampling with a confidence level of 95%. A survey was constructed by a group of students through literature review and group discussions. The survey utilized polar and Likert scale questions to collect data from the students. Statistical inferences were then obtained through analysis of means and one sample t-test of the hypothesis.Results: A total of 687 students filled out the survey (85%. Analysis shows that respondents have a strong and positive attitude towards research. The respondents with past research experience constituted 14.3% of those surveyed. Those respondents identified the barriers faced by them during their experience. The students showed high degree of agreement that a research thesis should be a prerequisite for graduation with statistical significance of p-value ≤0.05.Conclusion: Modifying the curriculum to include research methodology is recommended, and developing it to incorporate a thesis as a requirement for graduation may be advised upon further review.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A possible strategy to influence students' understanding and perception ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data- ..... B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures.

  10. A Boom of Bones and Books. The "Popularization Industry" of Atapuerca and Human-Origins-Research in Contemporary Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Atapuerca is an important prehistoric site in northern Spain that yielded the oldest hominid fossils in Europe in 1994. Since 1998 the three co-directors of the research team have in sum (co-)authored more than twenty-five popular science books, a boom without precedent in human-origins research. This paper will put forward three hypotheses. First, that these books were instrumental in achieving public recognition and financial support for the research project. Second, popular books on human ...

  11. Criterion-Related Validity of the TOEFL iBT Listening Section. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-09-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Nissan, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the criterion-related validity of the "Test of English as a Foreign Language"[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT) Listening section by examining its relationship to a criterion measure designed to reflect language-use tasks that university students encounter in everyday academic life: listening to academic lectures. The…

  12. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. General Research Libraries Division: Parliamentary Libraries and National Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Gilbert; And Others

    This set of papers presented to the General Research Libraries Division of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) during its 47th annual conference (1981) includes: "The Effect of the Introduction of Computers on Library and Research Staff," by Gilbert Gude; "Libraries as Information Service Agencies…

  13. 艺术设计中的黄金分割视觉结构分析%Research on Visual Structure of Golden Section in Art Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霞

    2012-01-01

    借助PhiMatrix图像软件,对古希腊时期的建筑及雕塑、文艺复兴时期的绘画艺术、19世纪以后的现代平面设计及产品设计等经典作品进行了黄金分割视觉结构分析,结果表明,这些作品均符合黄金分割比例关系。在长期的艺术实践中,黄金分割比例关系逐渐成为人们的审美标准,因此,具有黄金分割比例的设计构图更符合大众的审美心理。%The visual structure of golden section was analyzed in classic works such as architecture and sculpture of the ancient Greek, Renaissance painting art, the nineteenth century modem graphic design and product design with a professional software "PhiMatrix". It was revealed that these works obeyed the golden section ratio relations. In the longterm practice of art, people have formed an aesthetic standard based on the preference for golden section. Therefore, the designs with gold proportion composition were in line with the people' s aesthetic psychology.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... Key words: Day surgery, health system, medical providers, medical ... Day surgery is a concept where patients are admitted for surgical procedures and discharged the ... The study design was cross sectional with self administered ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-20

    Jan 20, 2014 ... Methods: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings .... Social marketing of reproductive commodities and MNCH care services [3,4]. ... Child Health, Cultural and traditional values variations, acculturations and .... computer/internet facilities as opposed to 70% of the urban.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-05-06

    May 6, 2013 ... Methods: The main objective of this study was to investigate if there was any ... A cross-sectional design was employed, and data collected using Qualitative and quantitative techniques. .... The study was carried out in the city of Nairobi between June 2008 ... Most of the kitchens were very small, measuring.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research ... organizations[1-9]. ... facilitate research career paths, but few career models exist in Africa ..... international and local resources to clinical studies locally. The ability of ... investigators were seen as an important asset for the transfer of.

  19. LAS HERRAMIENTAS PREHISTÓRICAS DE LAS MINAS DE VARISCITA DE PALAZUELO DE LAS CUEVAS (ZAMORA) Y PICO CENTENO (HUELVA). ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO/Prehistoric mining tools of the variscite mines of Palazuelo de las Cuevas (Zamora) and Pico Centeno (Huelva). A comparative analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigo Villalobos García; Carlos P Odriozola Lloret

    2016-01-01

    ... (Aliste disctrict, Zamora) and Pico Centeno (Encinasola, Huelva). Knapped stone mining tools are not absent of the Iberian prehistoric mines, but they appear in low frequency and, probably for that reason, had not attracted scholars' attention...

  20. Research on Multi-section Topology Optimization of Machine Tool Structures%机床多截面拓扑优化方法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万金; 殷国富; 胡腾; 邓聪颖

    2014-01-01

    针对机床拓扑优化效果不理想的问题,提出机床多截面拓扑优化方法。对拓扑优化中的过滤区域和体积约束进行改进;通过悬臂梁算例验证改进后的拓扑优化方法的有效性,并以THM6380的床身为例,将多截面拓扑优化方法运用于机床结构拓扑优化。通过优化结果对比分析,在保持床身动静态特性基本稳定的情况下,床身重量减小了20.1%,相比采用OptiStruct模块进行三维拓扑优化,缩短了优化时间,且优化效果更为明显,为多截面拓扑优化方法在机床大件结构优化中的运用做了有益的尝试。%Aiming at solving the problems in topology optimization of machine tool structures,multi-section topology optimization approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, filtering area and volume constraint of to-pology optimization are modified. Then, cantilever beam, a well-known test example in topology optimiza-tion, is employed to validate the modified method. In the case study section, structure of a machine tool bed is optimized by the virtue of the proposed multi-section topology optimization approach. The bed is lightened by 20. 1%. Compared with the 3D topology optimization results obtained from OptiStruct module in Hyper-works sofware, the proposed optimization approach is less-time-consumed and more accurate. It can be con-cluded that the multi-section topology optimization technique is effective to optimize machine tool structures.

  1. 剖宫产术后切口愈合不良危险因素调查%CESAREAN SECTION RISK FACTORS FOR POOR WOUND HEALING RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪星; 郭文玲; 李宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析剖宫产术后切口愈合不良的危险因素,总结护理措施,以提高剖宫产患者切口愈合的质量.[方法]采用病例对照的研究方法,对某院110例行剖宫产术后伤口愈合不良患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,与同时期剖宫产术后愈合良好组在有关不良危险因素方面进行比较分析,提出合理的护理措施.[结果]110例剖宫产患者伤口轻度愈合不良者72例(65.45%),中度25例(22.73%),重度13例(11.82%);与对照组比较发现,影响切口愈合的危险因素为:BMI高、基础疾病、术前未预防应用抗生素、无菌操作不严格、手术时间长.[结论]多种危险因素影响切口的愈合.提高认识,正确指导孕期保健,做好产前检查、围术期给予药物进行预防、控制病房内细菌的数量,积极采取应对护理措施,以提高切口愈合质量.%[Objective] To analyze the risk factors of poor wound healing during cesarean section, and summary care measures to improve the quality of wound healing in patients with cesarean section. [Methods] A case-control study of 110 hospital routine cesarean section wound healing in patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, and compared the risk factors with the same period a good set of healing after cesarean section to propose effective preventive measures. [Results] Among 110 cases of cesarean section, 72 patients had mild wound healing (65.45%) , 25 cases had moderate wound healing (22,73%), 13 cases had severe wound healing (11.82% ). Compared with the control group, we found that the impact of risk factors for wound healing, inclding higher BMI, underlying disease, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, non-strict aseptic and long time surgery. [Conclusion] Multiple risk factors affect wound healing, awareness, proper guidance to prenatal care, good prenatal care, preoperative administration of drugs for the prevention, control the number of bacteria within ward, take

  2. Announced Changes to the Funding Formula for 2012-13--What Do They Really Mean? BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2011-EF-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A news release by the BC Ministry of Education on December 9, 2011 describes upcoming changes to the funding formula for the 2012-13 Operating Grants and announces increases in CommunityLink funding for 2012-13 and 2013-14. This research report analyzes the potential impact of these changes and compares BC's performance in improving education…

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ..... However, this system has great potential to negatively affect access to ... Dr. Samuel Yaw Opoku: Defining the Concept and Research Design; ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central ... Research .... Central African Republic Ministry of Health and corresponding ethics ..... In CAR, the management of BW remains embryonic. It is.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-03-11

    Mar 11, 2011 ... ... to General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Egypt, 2Department of .... Ethiopia at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany ... [22] than Croatia (50%), Australia (53%), Thailand (41%), Italy (32.6%), ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7, No. 1 AJHPE. Research. A comprehensive approach to curriculum evaluation is deemed ... While evaluators are guided by the experiences of using different methods, ..... provided a follow-up in-depth exploration of the quantitative results.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) .... What is known about this topic ... India Co-ordinated Research Project. Ministry .... African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... Asia indicate a high incidence of Kikuchi lymphadenitis [6]. However ... It is believed that information derived from this study will be of immense value to the attending physician and also form a baseline data for future research.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual ... [5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined ... to evidence-based practice in final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    curricula to address health systems changes and challenges .... Likert scale questions were used, along with open-ended qualitative questions. ... Clear communicator: Able to communicate important aspects of theory, research findings clearly ...

  13. researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels who is fluent in only Afrikaans and English. Differences in race .... The lack of knowledge of a particular vernacular often places a researcher firmly as an ..... discourse of African American women', Black women in the academy. Promises.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, ... This design is useful to explore a topic, using qualitative ... interview a Delphi questionnaire was used to gather additional quantitative.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It ... learnt in a contextualised learning environment, which should support them in their ..... development of continuing professional development strategies. This study ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-03

    Mar 3, 2016 ... radiation therapy [9, 10]. The signs of obstructive ... year's undergraduate medical student: socio-demographic including age (in years), sex. .... awareness and enhance further research in this domain. Conclusion. Patients ...

  17. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. .... Ethical consideration: Permission to conduct research was sought from the County ..... Everybody Business: Strengthening.

  19. 四川崇州市双河史前城址试掘简报%Trial Excavation of the Prehistoric City-site at Shuanghe in Chongzhou City, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成都市文物考古工作队

    2002-01-01

    The Shuanghe site lies at Mangcheng Village of Shangyuan Township in Yuantong Town,Chongzhou City,Sichuan Province.It is a prehistoric cit-site roughly rectangular in plan.The city wall consists of two circles in the shape of the character “回”,of which there remain the northern,eastern and southern sides.Trial excavation at the center of the site revealed ash-pits,house-foundations and pebble vestiges,as well as a number of pottery vessels and some stone tools.The cultural deposits on the site can be preliminarily divided into two successive phases similar in cultural aspect.The site dates approximately from 4500-4000BP and belongs to the Baodun culture.Its discovery enriched our knowledge of the contents of the culture and provided new material for furthering the study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in the Chengdu Plain.

  20. Distinctive Features and Evolution of the Prehistoric Settlement Pattern in the Liyang Plain%澧阳平原史前聚落形态的特点与演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴安平

    2004-01-01

    A large number of Neolithic settlements have been discovered in the Liyang Plain of northwestern Hunan. Based upon investigation on the distribution and size of settlements and study into their entire pattern, house forms, burial ranks and organization modes, the evolution of the prehistoric settlement pattern in this region can be divided into three stages represented by ditch-surrounded settlements, walled ones and settlement groups. This developmental course reflects the influence of natural environments, agricultural production, the origination and growth of private ownership and the development and organization structure of human society upon the evolution of the settlement pattern. It also demonstrates the stages and distinctive features of the advance of prehistoric local settlements towards civilized society.

  1. PROCEDIMIENTOS PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE LA MOVILIDAD PREHISTÓRICA ENTRE LOS CONSTRUCTORES DE CERRITOS MEDIANTE EL USO DE TECNOLOGÍAS GEOESPACIALES / Procedures for prehistoric mobility analysis among mound builders through geospatial technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gianotti García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados preliminares del proyecto Paisajes del Movimiento (ANII FCE 2-2011-1-5679 orientado al estudio de la movilidad y el movimiento humano prehistórico entre los constructores de cerritos de las tierras bajas del Noreste de Uruguay. Se busca investigar las lógicas, procesos y prácticas relacionadas con el movimiento humano y la movilidad a partir de la evidencia arqueológica,  profundizando en el rol específico que tuvieron estas actividades en la construcción social del paisaje monumental. La estrategia de investigación se inscribe en la Arqueología del Paisaje y sigue los lineamientos generales de la sociología del movimiento. En este marco se pretende investigar la interrelación entre prácticas humanas específicas como son el movimiento y la movilidad, su estructura espacial y aspectos geográficos utilizando tecnología SIG. Las rutinas analíticas aplicadas permiten establecer y modelizar las pautas generales del movimiento en el contexto ecológico de las tierras bajas y discutir su continuidad, rupturas y pervivencia en un período de larga duración.   Palabras clave: paisaje, movimiento humano, cerritos de indios, tierras bajas, SIG     Abstract In this paper we present preliminary results of the project Landscapes in Movement (Paisajes en Movimiento ANII FCE 2-2011-1-5679. This project approaches prehistoric human movement and mobility among mound builders in the lowlands of the Northeast of Uruguay. Based on the archaeological evidence, we carry out research on the logics, processes, and practices related to human movement and mobility, focusing into the specific role that the activities of social construction of monumental landscape played. The research strategy is framed within Landscape Archaeology and follows the general guidelines of sociology of movement. Within this framework we intend to investigate the interrelation between specific human practices (like movement and mobility, their spatial

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Environmental Impact Research Program. Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) Section 4.1.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    telemetry methods to mark and study grouse were adapted for grouse research by Marshall and Kupa (1963). Habitat Variables Composition and structural...N. Am. Wildl. and Nat. Resour. Conf. 42:449-458. , R. L. Eng, and J. J. Kupa . 1962. Three methods for individually marking ruffed grouse. J. Wildl...movements, and food habits of Richardson’s grouse and ruffed grouse in southern Idaho. Wilson Bull. 58:42-52. , and J. J. Kupa . 1963. Development of radio

  4. Methods for the examination of cattle, sheep and goat dung in prehistoric wetland settlements with examples of the sites Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen (around cal 2900 BC) at Lake Federsee, south-west Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Marlu; Maier, Ursula; Herbig, Christoph; Ismail-Meyer, Kristin; Le Bailly,Matthieu; Wick, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remai...

  5. Comparative investigations on the lead content of human bones from prehistoric and historical times from Bavaria and Peru. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Bleigehalt praehistorischer und historischer menschlicher Knochen aus Bayern und Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabender von Lossberg, I.

    1982-05-25

    The lead content of human bones of 129 individuals from different prehistoric and historical populations of Bavaria and Peru was determined by means of flameless absorption spectroscopy. By the same method the lead content of human tissue was determined in 12 Peruvian mummy heads, and that of the hair in two individuals. The results were compared with each other and with those of other investigations on prehistoric, historical and modern populations and were interpreted. The comparative investigation confirmed the assumption that intensive exposure to lead in a population leads to higher lead concentration in the bones. The lead concentration in the bones of the late mediaeval series of Niedermuenster 4 was comparable to the one in the bones of modern populations and amounted to about 10 times the average one in prehistoric Peruvians. The lead accumulation was not found to be sex-dependent. The chronic lead intoxication of the late Middle Ages described by the history of medicine was confirmed by the relatively high lead contents in bones of Niedermuenster 4. In the framework of an epidemiological survey the problem of chronic lead intoxication was traced back to pre and early history.

  6. Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, intent to stay and burnout in nursing field in mainland China-based on a cross-sectional questionnaire research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Hongwei; Hu, Yu; Yang, Jipeng; Liu, Jingying

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship among perceived structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, burnout and intent to stay by nurses in mainland China.With the shortage of nurses in many countries, including China, intent to stay is a dominant factor to influence the quality of care. Also, burnout is identified to negatively affect the quality of care. Empowered clinical nurse practical environment is related to intent to stay and burnout. In the current literature, there is a lack of data based on empowering environment discussing the relationship between burnout and intent to stay. The study used an anonymous questionnaire, filled voluntarily by 219 nurses from different sections in a city in mainland China, 2012.Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Based on the SEM model, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment had significant positive effects on intent to stay of nurses and negative effects on burnout. Burnout had a significant negative effect on intent to stay. The final modified models yielded χ(2)  = 58.580, P > 0.05, χ(2) /df = 1.046, root mean square error of approximation = 0.015, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.996, comparative fit index = 0.998,which indicated good fit indices. Creating a positive empowering workplace can encourage nurses to stay long and prevent burnout. Therefore, higher level of empowering environment is required.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-25

    Feb 25, 2013 ... Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had ... (www.afenet.net). Research ... primary basic 1 to 6 and aged 5 to 15 years were included in the study. The United ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collaboration, but also in less tangible ways affecting quality of research.[5] ... Methods. A 40-hour workshop in biostatistical reasoning was conducted ... test median score was 68% (IQR 62 - 76%), with p<0.0001 for the overall comparison of pre- v. post-scores. ... limitations of a traditional lecture-based mode of instruction.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-13

    Mar 13, 2014 ... &Corresponding author: Dr. Oliver Ezechi, Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, ... with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. ... Whether or not HCV directly impacts HIV disease ..... natural history, fibrosis, and impact of antiretroviral treatment:.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understood in the profession, evolved from therapeutic activity (within a medi- cal model ... facilitate students' ability to examine institutional systems that hinder ..... don't have connections with each other … we went to the schools and were told ... for change or conduct action research projects that deal with occupational.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-11

    Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by teaching them skills on how to acquire and appraise knowledge for a particular ... [3] Similarities have been noted in the roles of lecturers that facilitate learning rather than ..... Student feedback related to facilitators of and barriers to learning. Facilitators of ... 'Sometimes time (clinical, research, social, sport) was limited.'.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ... are taken nearer to the community through clinical outreach ... Sample size and Sampling procedure ... researchers shared and debated the way each of them understood .... this may involve selling off assets to get the money for transport.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... ... Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of premature CHD in a first ... was reviewed and approved by the Hospital's Research and Ethics .... apoptosis of peripheral adipocytes, decreased pre-adipocyte.

  16. P形截面冷弯型钢成型工艺研究%Research on the Forming Technology of the P-shaped Cold Forming Sectional Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春民

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it introduced a kind of deformation process determination procedure and trial production of P-shaped section special pipe, which is used in column and frame of construction machinery cab, and compared different deformation process design and trial production results. In order to resolve the dimension differences between the theory design and actual manufacture products, it used finite element simulation analysis to find out the primary cause of inadequate deformation. And through correcting the allocation of materials in arc length around the corner, the effective design method and essential points of operation were obtained. The trial production results showed that the angle, arc, various sizes of products dimension are within the demanding tolerance range.%介绍了一种用于工程机械驾驶室的立柱兼门框的P形截面异型管的变形工艺确定过程及试制,对不同变形工艺设计和试制结果进行了比对。为了解决P形截面异型管变形工艺理论设计与实际试制产品存在的尺寸差异问题,借助有限元仿真分析,查找出变形不到位的根本原因,并对变形工艺中转角处的弧长分料方法进行了修正,总结出P形管变形的有效设计方法和操作要领。工艺修正后的试制结果表明,产品各尺寸转角、圆弧、尺寸都在要求公差范围内。

  17. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  18. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  19. Characterization of mycobacterium isolates from pulmomary tuberculosis suspected cases visiting Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa Ethiopia:a cross sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biniam Mathewos; Nigatu Kebede; Tesfu Kassa; Adane Mihret; Muluwork Getahun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To characterize mycobacterium isolates from pulmomary tuberculosis suspected cases visitingNationalTuberculosisReferenceLaboratory atEthiopianHealth andNutritionResearch Institute, for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis fromJanuary4 toFebruary22,2010 with total samples of263.Methods:Sputum specimens were collected and processed; the deposits were cultured.For culturingLowensteinJensen medium(LJ) andMycobacteriaGrowthIndicatorTube (BACTECMGIT960) were used.CapiliaNeo was used for detectingNTM isolates from isolates of BACTECMGIT960.InArmauerHansenResearchInstitute,AddisAbabaEthiopia,Deletion typing PCR method for species identification(from confirmedMycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates byCapiliaNeo) was done.Results:Out of263 enrolled in the study,124 and117 of them were positive for mycobacterium growth byBACTECMGIT960 andLJ culture method, respectively.FromBACTECMGIT960 positive media of124 isolates,117 were randomly taken to performCapiliaTBNeo test.From these7(6%) of them were found to beNTM and110(94%) were MTBC.From these110MTBC isolates,81 of them were randomly taken and run by the deletion typingRD9PCR method of molecular technique.Out of these78(96.3%) were found to be species ofMycobacterium tuberculosis and3(3.7%) were found to be not in theMTBC.Regarding the types of methods of culture media,MycobacteriaGrowthIndicatorTube(BACTECMGIT960) method was found to have excellent agreement(with kappa value of0.78) with the routine method of LJ.Conclusions:Pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases visiting theNationalTuberculosis ReferenceLaboratory atEHNRI that were confirmed to be pulmonary tuberculosis are caused by the species ofMycobacterium tuberculosis, hence treatment regimen including pyrazinamide can be applied to the patients as the first choice in the study area inAddisAbaba,Ethiopia.There is indication of the presence ofNTM in patients visiting the tuberculosis reference laboratory and this is important becauseNTM is known to

  20. Molecular cytogenetics in metaphase and interphase cells for cancer and genetic research, diagnosis and prognosis. Application in tissue sections and cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmann, Maria

    2002-06-30

    As the pioneer among molecular cytogenetics techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows identification of specific sequences in a structurally preserved cell, in metaphase or interphase. This technique, based on the complementary double-stranded nature of DNA, hybridizes labeled specific DNA (probe). The probe, bound to the target, will be developed into a fluorescent signal. The fact that the signal can be detected clearly, even when fixed in interphase, improves the accuracy of the results, since in some cases it is extremely difficult to obtain mitotic samples. FISH is still used mostly in research, but there are diagnostic applications. New nomenclature is being developed in order to define many of the aberrations that were not distinguished before FISH. Prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies and malignancies are promptly detected with FISH, which is very useful in critical cases. In some tumors, where chromosomal abnormalities are too complicated to classify manually, the technique of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), a competitive FISH, allows examiners to determine complete or partial gain or loss of chromosomes. CGH results allow the classification of many tumor cell lines and along with other complementary techniques, like microdissection-FISH, PRINS, etc., increase the possibility of choosing an appropriate treatment for cancer patients.

  1. 京杭运河苏北段溢油扩散数值模拟研究%Oil spill diffusion numerical simulation research in Subei canal section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐庆辉; 东培华; 曲红玲; 熊伟

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill diffusion numerical simulation module was established based on Mike21/3SA module. The oil film trajectory and diffusion range were predicted in the oil spill accident. The research results show that:the oil spill trajectory is mainly influenced by current field and wind field. The oil film drift process is mainly influenced by flow velocity, and the oil film movement speed is increased with the increase of flow velocity. Against the wind, oil film drift downstream distance increases obviously. Once the oil spill occurs, water flow condition and meteoro⁃logical conditions should be monitored, and emergency rescue measures should be adopted in time.%基于Mike21/3SA模块建立京杭运河苏北段溢油扩散数学模型,预测溢油突发事故油膜漂移轨迹和扩散范围。研究结果表明:水动力场、风场对内河溢油扩散有着重要的影响;流速对油膜的漂移过程起主导作用,油膜移动速度随着水流流速的增大而增大;不利风向作用下,油膜下游漂移影响范围明显增大;一旦发生漏油事故,应及时监测溢油河段水流状况与气象条件,及时采取应急救援措施。

  2. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK.

  3. 基于分段迭代法的 PMU 的优化配置研究%Research on optimal PMU allocation based on section iterative method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 赵少华; 王红君; 岳有军

    2016-01-01

    对电力系统中有限个数目PMU的优化配置进行研究。采用分段迭代法对PMU的优化配置进行研究。该法假设最初每个节点均安装有PMU。第一阶段和第二阶段的迭代算法用来去除那些不太重要的节点的PMU配置,并保留节点位置重要的PMU的配置。第三阶段的迭代算法则对前两阶段的PMU数目进行进一步的最小化,并且充分考虑电力系统全网的可观性,使得该法达到PMU的最优配置。通过在IEEE 14和IEEE 30节点上进行仿真验证,并与现有的优先算法在计算时间上进行对比,证明该法在计算时间上的优越性,及该法的有效性。%This paper conduct the research on the optimal allocation of a limited number of PMU in power system de-vice.A three-stage method will be adopted to study theoptimal allocation of PMU.The method assumes that each bus is installed with PMU initially.The first stage and the second stage of iterative algorithmis are used to remove those less important buses of the PMU configuration, and keep the important position of the buses PMU configuration.The third stage of iterative algorithm makes a further minimize of the first stage and the second stage, and considering the observability of power system, to ensure the optimal configuration of PMU.According to the simulation verification on IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus system, and compare with the existing priority algorithm in computation time, the re-sults show that the proposed method has superiority in computation time, and the validity of this method.

  4. Dietary Research to Reduce Children's Oral Health Disparities: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Analysis of Socioeconomic Status, Food Insecurity, and Fast-Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Dinh, Mai A; da Fonseca, Marcio A; Scott, JoAnna M; Carle, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease and it disproportionately affects low-income children. The dietary risk factors associated with socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity and fast-food consumption, are poorly understood. To better understand how upstream social factors are related to dietary behaviors by testing the hypothesis that food insecurity mediates the SES-fast-food consumption relationship. A 36-item survey was administered to caregivers of children younger than age 18 years (n=212). The predictor variable was SES, measured by whether the child was insured by Medicaid (no/yes). Food insecurity, the potential dietary mediator, was measured using the six-item US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey (food secure/food insecure without hunger/food insecure with hunger). The outcome variable was whether the household reported eating at a fast-food restaurant ≥2 times a week (no/yes). We used logistic structural equation and mediation models to test our hypothesis. About 63% of children were classified as low SES. Thirty percent of caregivers reported food insecurity (with or without hunger) and 18.6% of households consumed fast food ≥2 times per week. Lower SES was significantly associated with food insecurity (odds ratio [OR] 3.03, 95% CI 1.51 to 6.04; P=0.002), but SES was not related to fast-food consumption (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.86 to 4.36; P=0.11). Food insecurity was not associated with fast-food consumption (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.62; P=0.12). The mediation analyses suggest food insecurity does not mediate the relationship between SES and fast-food consumption. However, there are important potential differences in fast-food consumption by SES and food insecurity status. Future dietary research focusing on tooth decay prevention in vulnerable children may need to account for the differential effects of SES on food insecurity and dietary behaviors like fast-food consumption. Studies are needed to further

  5. An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of socioeconomic status, food insecurity, and fast food consumption: implications for dietary research to reduce children’s oral health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Dinh, Mai A.; da Fonseca, Marcio A.; Scott, JoAnna M.; Carle, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease and disproportionately affects low-income children. The dietary risk factors associated with socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity and fast food consumption, are poorly understood. Objective To better understand how upstream social factors are related to dietary behaviors by testing the hypothesis that food insecurity mediates the SES-fast food consumption relationship. Design A 36-item survey was administered to caregivers of children <18 years (n=212). The predictor variable was SES, measured by whether the child was insured by Medicaid (no/yes). Food insecurity, the potential dietary mediator, was measured using the six-item U.S. Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey (food secure/food insecure without hunger/food insecure with hunger). The outcome variable was whether the household reported eating at a fast food restaurant ≥2 times a week (no/yes). We used logistic structural equation and mediation models to test our hypothesis. Results About 63% of children were low SES. Thirty-percent of caregivers reported food insecurity (with or without hunger) and 18.6% of households consumed fast food ≥2 times per week. Lower SES was significantly associated with food insecurity (OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.51, 6.04; P=0.002), but SES was not related to fast food consumption (OR=1.94; 95% CI=0.86, 4.36; P=0.11). Food insecurity was not associated with fast food consumption (OR=1.76; 95% CI=0.86, 3.62; P=0.12). The mediation analyses suggest food insecurity does not mediate the relationship between SES and fast food consumption. However, there are important potential differences in fast food consumption by SES and food insecurity status. Conclusions Future dietary research focusing on tooth decay prevention in vulnerable children may need to account for the differential effects of SES on food insecurity and dietary behaviors like fast food consumption. Studies are needed to further

  6. [Variations in tooth formation in individuals from a prehistorical group in Santana do Riacho, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S M

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses variations in dentogenesis and their consequences when estimating age in archaeological samples. One example described here, taken from a sample of a Lagoa Santa primeval population found in the Santana do Riacho rock shelter in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, suggests a need for more research concerning patterns of dental growth and maturation in South American indigenous populations.

  7. Archaeology and the application of artificial intelligence : case-studies on use-wear analysis of prehistoric flint tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, Monique Henriëtte van den

    1998-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is an integrated part of our daily life and of many fields in research. In archaeology, however, it does not (yet) play an important role. In the past twenty years archaeologists have discussed the potentials of, in particular, expert systems. They have developed some valuabl

  8. Studying Prehistoric Dryland Agricultural Systems in Central Arizona through Aerial LiDAR, Pedology, Hydrology, and Paleobotany

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle L. Wienhold; Richard Ciolek-Torello; Martin Gojda; Axel G Posluschny; Robert Wegener

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) conducted phased data recovery at two large dryland agricultural fields and associated Hohokam habitation sites along U.S. Highway 60 in central Arizona. The agricultural fields consisted of cross channel and contour rock alignments and rock piles covering many acres within and outside of a newly proposed highway right-of-way along Queen Creek. Nearby were small, seasonal habitation sites occupied between AD 400 and 1350. Aerial 3-Dimensional Laser Range ...

  9. Trainee resident participation in health research in a resource-constrained setting in south-eastern Nigeria: perspectives, issues and challenges. A cross-sectional survey of three residency training centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze Boniface

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The participation of trainers and trainees in health research is critical to advance medical science. Overcoming barriers and enhancing incentives are essential to sustain a research culture and extend the frontiers of medical education. In this study, we investigated the roles of individual and system factors influencing trainee resident participation in health research in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. Methods This cross-sectional survey of trainee residents was conducted across three residency training centres in Enugu, Nigeria, between February and March, 2010. The number and speciality distribution of trainee residents were determined from personnel records at each centre. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record demographic characteristics, research training/experience, and attitudes toward and perceived barriers to health research. Data were analysed to yield frequencies, percentages and proportions. Values of p  Results The response rate was 93.2%. The respondents (n = 136 comprised 109 males and 27 females. Their mean ± standard deviation age was 35.8 ± 5.6 years (range: 25–53 years. Participation in research was significantly associated with previous research training [odds ratio (OR: 2.90; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.35–6.25, p = 0.003, β = 22.57], previous research participation (OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 0.94–5.29, p = 0.047, β = 22.53 and research publication (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.00–7.06, p = 0.03, β = 22.57. Attitude towards research was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness of research in patient care (OR: 7.10; 95% CI: 3.33–15.13, p = 0.001, job promotion (OR: 8.97; 95% CI: 4.12–19.53, p = 0.001 and better understanding of disease (OR: 21.37; 95% CI: 8.71–54.44, p = 0.001. Time constraints (OR: 0.06; 95% CI = 0.025–0.14, p = 0.001, funding (OR: 0.028; 95% CI: 0.008–0.10, p = 0.001 and mentorship (OR: 0.086; 95% CI

  10. 基于BSC技术的二级学院教研室绩效管理体系初探%On Performance Management System of Teaching and Research Sections in Secondary Schools Based on BSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江燕

    2015-01-01

    平衡记分卡是一种公认的有效战略管理工具。本文主要在对二级学院绩效管理的现状分析的基础上,提出了教研室层面下实施平衡记分卡的可行性,探讨了如何利用平衡记分卡提高教研室绩效管理水平,为改进与规范高校二级学院教研室绩效管理提供了理论依据和实施方法。%The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a recognized effective strategic management tool .Based on the analysis of the current situation of performance management in secondary schools ,the feasibility of the implementa-tion of the balanced scorecard is put forward and how to improve performance management level of teaching and re-search section by using the balanced scorecard is discussed to provide a theoretical basis and implementation method for improving and standardizing the performance management of teaching and research sections in secondary schools .

  11. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  13. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  14. 计及负载率的农村10kV配电网最优分段研究%Research on optimal sectioning of 10 kV rural power network considering load rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊星星; 许跃进; 刘学会; 范宇航

    2015-01-01

    在过去对配电线路分段的研究中,大多没有考虑线路的转供能力,认为只要通过分段开关将故障段分离,非故障段的全部负荷可经联络线恢复供电.而在实际运行中,配电网发生故障需要通过联络线转移负荷时,由于线路自身负载率的限制,联络线的转供率通常达不到 100%,将出现停电损失.探讨不同负载率下手拉手自环网线路的最优分段情况,提出并建立了线路计及负载率最优分段的可靠性、经济性评估数学模型,利用模型计算分析了不同负载率下线路的最优分段位置及其变化规律.并基于最优分段位置,通过分段数-年总费用曲线法分析得到该接线模式下最优分段数与供电半径、产电比和负载率的关系,为电网建设中最优分段的选择提供有实用价值的参考和借鉴.%In most research on optimal sectioning of the 10 kV rural distribution network, the load transfer rate of lines is usually not considered. They just think that as long as the faulty section is separated by the section switch, the electricity of non-faulty section can be restored through the tie lines. While in practice, when distribution network breaks down, the failure load is transferred by tie line. Due to its own load rate, the non-faulty line cannot afford the whole failure load, the outage cost appears. This paper probes the optimal sectioning of hand in hand self-looped connecting mode under different load rates. This paper propounds and builds a reliability and economy evaluation mathematical model considering load rate. Using the model, it calculates and analyzes the changing law of the optimal location of sectional switches with load rate increasing. Then based on the optimal location result, by plotting the section numbers-total cost profile, the paper gets the relationships among the optimal section numbers, power supply radius, electricity production ratio and load rate, providing a meaningful reference to

  15. 试论高校科研领导能力评价体系的建构%Discussion on the Construction of the Appraisal System for Leadership Skills of Scientific Research Section in Higher Education Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞

    2014-01-01

    目前,国内外还没有对高校科研领导能力评价问题进行专门研究,当前高校科研领导能力存在六项不足,因此,建构高校科研领导能力评价体系具有现实意义和理论意义。应该从当前高校科研领导能力五个评价主体的优势与不足出发,确立建构评价体系的五大原则和九方面的评价指标。%Currently ,not enough research has been done for the leadership skills of scientific research sec-tion in higher education sector at home and abroad .As the leadership in higher education sector existing as many as six shortages ,it is necessary to construct the appraisal system for leadership skills of scien-tific research .From the viewpoint of the advantage and disadvantage in the five appraisal subjects ,this paper suggests the five principles and nine standards as the index of appraisal system construction .

  16. 青海东部史前人口数量分析——以民和、乐都为例%Population estimation to the prehistoric culture of Eastern Qinghai province——A case of Minhe and Ledu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小浩; 侯光良; 王小梅; 王鹏程

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric population estimation has a significant meaning for understanding the development of human society.Prehistoric cultural sites are rather rich in eastern Qinghai,and with an intact sequence.According to archaeological data and GIS tools,we built the tombs and ruins' dimension models to calculate the population distribution in core areas and dense areas of prehistoric culture in east Qinghai,and proposed different method results mainly supported by social and environmental considerations in comprehensive population estimate model to study the changes of regional prehistoric population.The results showed that the population hed reached more than 7,600 people at the very beginning of the Neolithic.The population reached its maximum of 36,000 at the late Neolithic.The sharp drop of the population came just after 4000 aBP.When it steped into Bronze Age,the population showed a slight recovery,and reached about 12,000;Environmental change should be one of the important driving forces to evolution of the population in this area.%史前人口的估算对于了解人类社会发展具有重要意义。青海东部史前文化遗迹丰富、序列完整。文中根据考古资料和GIS工具,构建墓葬和遗址面积两种模式来计算青海东部史前人类分布的密集区和核心区人口数量,提出以不同方法计算结果为主,辅之以社会与环境因素的考量综合人口估算模式,来研究区域史前人口变化。结果表明:研究区人口在新石器伊始就具一定规模,达到7600余人;新石器晚期人口达到最大值,当时人口约为36000人,4000aBP以后人口数量锐减,进入青铜时代,人口规模略有恢复,达到12000人左右;环境变化应该是本区人口演变的重要驱动力之一。

  17. 原始文化中的二元逻辑与史前考古艺术形象%Dual Logic in Primitive Culture and Artistic Figures in Prehistoric Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生; 田旭东

    2001-01-01

    Using the theory of dual opposites, the present paper studies archaeological data incombination with early man's thinking and ideas. From the angle of Shaman cosmogony, the thought ofdual opposites and their cultural concepts, its puts forward new interpretations on numerous commonly-seen designs, such as the depiction of a bird pecking a fish, tao-tie mask, hooked-cloud pattern, birddesign, human face design, and the depiction of the Royal lord of the East and the Royal lady of theWest. Furthermore, the author summarizes the three developmental stages of dual logic and the significance of the thought of dual opposites in primitive culture and prehistoric archaeology.

  18. Where are we going? Movement and Mobility in Mesolithic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kador

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will discuss some of the most dominant approaches to early prehistoric, and in particular mesolithic movement and mobility. After outlining the significance of mobility studies to mesolithic research I shall briefly review the most commonly employed models of mobility, including some of their greatest problems and shortcomings. As a way forward I will then offer an alternative approach, based on an integrated study of lithic artefacts within a landscape perspective. To test and illustrate this approach I will present three brief case studies from different parts of Ireland.

  19. [Research on the Content Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Filtered Water and Suspended Particles from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of the Yellow River in Wet Season Using HR-ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-ling; Liu, Jing-jun; Deng, Feng-yu; Zuo, Hang; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li-yang; Liu, Ying

    2015-10-01

    The content characteristics, pollution evaluation and source identification of 6 heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Zn) in filtered water and 9 heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, V, Co, Zn and Mn) in suspended particles from 10 sampling sites such as Zhaojunfuqiao (S1) and Baotoufuqiao (S2), etc. from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River in 2012 Wet Season were studied to understand the condition of the heavy metal pollution in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of the Yellow River by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Multivariate geochemical approaches and statistical analysis were also exploited for assessing the level of heavy metals in filtered water and suspended particles from studied area. The results showed that in filtering water, only the concentrations of Cr exceeded the standard value of Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) and were the highest (74.8-94.7 μg x L(-1)) among all elements in 10 sampling sites; Single factor pollution index (I(i)) results suggested that the water quality in all sampling sites were contaminated by both Cr and total nitrogen (TN), with the exception of TN in Baotoufuqiao (S2); Integrated Nemerow pollution index (I) indicated that the I values in all sampling sites were between 1-2 (light pollution), which implied that the water quality in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections, especially downstream sections (S1-S6) of the Yellow River wasn't an ideal source for drinking and using in aquaculture any more. In suspended particles, concentrations of heavy metals were relatively higher than their soil background values in 10 sampling sites, except Ni in S10 (34.7 μg x L(-1)). Index of geo-accumulation (I(geo)) indicated that the I(geo) values of Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, V, Co, Zn and Mn in all sampling sites were less than 1 (unpolluted or unpolluted-moderately polluted), respectively, while I(geo)Cd were the highest in 10

  20. Does Research Training During Residency Promote Scholarship and Influence Career Choice? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a 10-Year Cohort of the UCSF-PRIME Internal Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlwes, Jeffrey; O'Brien, Bridget; Stanley, Marion; Grant, Ross; Shunk, Rebecca; Connor, Denise; Cornett, Patricia; Hollander, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine, and the Carnegie Foundation report on medical education recommend creating individualized learning pathways during medical training so that learners can experience broader professional roles beyond patient care. Little data exist to support the success of these specialized pathways in graduate medical education. We present the 10-year experience of the Primary Care Medicine Education (PRIME) track, a clinical-outcomes research pathway for internal medicine residents at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). We hypothesized that participation in an individualized learning track, PRIME, would lead to a greater likelihood of publishing research from residency and accessing adequate career mentorship and would be influential on subsequent alumni careers. We performed a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residency alumni from UCSF who graduated in 2001 through 2010. We compared responses of PRIME and non-PRIME categorical alumni. We used Pearson's chi-square and Student's t test to compare PRIME and non-PRIME alumni on categorical and continuous variables. Sixty-six percent (211/319) of alumni responded to the survey. A higher percentage of PRIME alumni published residency research projects compared to non-PRIME alumni (64% vs. 40%; p = .002). The number of PRIME alumni identifying research as their primary career role was not significantly different from non-PRIME internal medicine residency graduates (35% of PRIME vs. 29% non-PRIME). Process measures that could explain these findings include adequate access to mentors (M 4.4 for PRIME vs. 3.6 for non-PRIME alumni, p < .001, on a 5-point Likert scale) and agreeing that mentoring relationships affected career choice (M 4.2 for PRIME vs. 3.7 for categorical alumni, p = .001). Finally, 63% of PRIME alumni agreed that their research experience

  1. Professional fulfillment and parenting work-life balance in female physicians in Basic Sciences and medical research: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of all 80 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji

    2017-09-15

    In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION

  2. The clinical academic workforce of the future: a cross-sectional study of factors influencing career decision-making among clinical PhD students at two research-intensive UK universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana; Ranieri, Veronica; Lambert, Trevor; Pugh, Chris; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J; Rees, Geraint; Best, Denise

    2017-08-28

    To examine clinical doctoral students' demographic and training characteristics, career intentions, career preparedness and what influences them as they plan their future careers. Online cross-sectional census surveys at two research-intensive medical schools in England in 2015-2016. All medically qualified PhD students (N=523) enrolled at the University of Oxford and University College London were invited to participate. We report on data from 320 participants (54% male and 44% female), who were representative by gender of the invited population. Career intentions. Respondents were mainly in specialty training, including close to training completion (25%, n=80), and 18% (n=57) had completed training. Half (50%, n=159) intended to pursue a clinical academic career (CAC) and 62% (n=198) were at least moderately likely to seek a clinical lectureship (CL). However, 51% (n=163) had little or no knowledge about CL posts. Those wanting a CAC tended to have the most predoctoral medical research experience (χ(2) (2, N=305)=22.19, p=0.0005). Key reasons cited for not pursuing a CAC were the small number of senior academic appointments available, the difficulty of obtaining research grants and work-life balance. Findings suggest that urging predoctoral clinicians to gain varied research experience while ensuring availability of opportunities, and introducing more flexible recruitment criteria for CL appointments, would foster CACs. As CL posts are often only open to those still in training, the many postdoctoral clinicians who have completed training, or nearly done so, do not currently gain the opportunity the post offers to develop as independent researchers. Better opportunities should be accompanied by enhanced career support for clinical doctoral students (eg, to increase knowledge of CLs). Finally, ways to increase the number of senior clinical academic appointments should be explored since their lack seems to significantly influence career decisions. © Article

  3. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research Infant health research Prematurity research centers For providers Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy ...

  4. C-section - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100191.htm C-section - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cesarean Section A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  5. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  6. Birth after cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velemínský, Miloš; Velemínský, Miloš; Piskorzová, Martina; Bašková, Martina; Tóthová, Valérie; Stránský, Pravoslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women, iterative cesarean sections were indicated. To evaluate knowledge of educational material designed for women being prepared for the iterative delivery, we used information compiled on experience from 2002 to 2003; the same approach was used to evaluate the nursing process on interventions and diagnoses of cesarean sections. Results From 2004 to 2008, 11 279 deliveries were performed in the Perinatological Center in České Budějovice; this was significant (Pcesarean section. The number of iterative cesarean sections in women who had already experienced the cesarean section (828) and delivered by cesarean section again is 620. Other data were not significant. Only 2 to 3 pregnancies next to the first cesarean section were statistically significant in 2004 and 2005. Conclusions If a trial of labor after cesarean does not proceed to vaginal birth, the woman will need support and encouragement to express feelings about another cesarean birth. PMID:21278695

  7. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Conversion Research at UNH: From Fundamental Studies of Hydrofoil Sections, to Moderate Reynolds Number Turbine Tests in a Tow Tank, to Open Water Deployments at Tidal Energy Test Sites (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.; Nedyalkov, I.; Rowell, M.; Dufresne, N.; Lyon, V.

    2013-12-01

    We report on research related to MHK turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy (CORE) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). The research projects span varies scales, levels of complexity and environments - from fundamental studies of hydrofoil sections in a high speed water tunnel, to moderate Reynolds number turbine tests with inflow and wake studies in a large cross-section tow tank, to deployments of highly instrumented process models at tidal energy test sites in New England. A concerted effort over the past few years has brought significant new research infrastructure for marine hydrokinetic energy conversion online at UNH-CORE. It includes: a high-speed cavitation tunnel with independent control of velocity and pressure; a highly accurate tow mechanism, turbine test bed and wake traversing system for the 3.7m x 2.4m cross-section UNH tow tank; a 10.7m x 3.0m tidal energy test platform which can accommodate turbines up to 1.5m in diameter, for deployments at the UNH-CORE Tidal Energy Test Site in Great Bay Estuary, NH, a sheltered 'nursery site' suitable for intermediate scale tidal energy conversion device testing with peak currents typically above 2 m/s during each tidal cycle. Further, a large boundary layer wind tunnel, the new UNH Flow Physics Facility (W6.0m x H2.7m xL72m) is being used for detailed turbine wake studies, producing data and insight also applicable to MHK turbines in low Froude number deployments. Bi-directional hydrofoils, which perform equally well in either flow direction and could avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, are being investigated theoretically, numerically and experimentally. For selected candidate shapes lift, drag, wake, and cavitation inception/desinence are measured. When combined with a cavitation inception model for MHK turbines, this information can be used to prescribe turbine design/operational parameters. Experiments were performed with a 1m diameter and 1m

  8. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    , Jabalpur, Rewa, Sidhi, Bastar, Raipur, Bilaspur, Raisen, Sehore, Guna, Gwalior etc. by Archaeological Survey of India and many universities. An attempt has been made in this paper to give a clear picture of Stone Age succession in Madhya Pradesh from Lower...

  9. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  10. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  11. Technologies for Prehistoric & Historic Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Archaeological remains and historic structures and landscapes are important tangible reminders of the United States' rich and diverse cultural heritage. In recent years the stresses on these unique, nonrenewable cultural resources have increased dramatically. This report presents the primary findings of an assessment requested by the House of…

  12. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  13. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  14. 水平井3段集成分段注水技术研究%Research on Three-section Integration Staged Injection Technology for Horizontal Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲如冰

    2013-01-01

    随着胜利油田水平井开采力度的进一步加大,油井含水体积分数逐年上升,层系有效开采率过低,部分层段亏空严重,已经大大降低了水平井注水在油田开发过程中所发挥的作用.为此,开展了水平井3段集成分段注水技术研究.水平井3段集成分段注水管柱主要由1级3段配水封隔器、插封注水封隔器、弹性扶正器、液压扶正器、水平井单流阀及安全接头等组成,测试仪器1次起下即可完成全井测试,投捞工具1次起下即可完成3层调配,出水通道采用防刺结构设计.现场应用结果表明,水平井分段注水技术缓解了水平井笼统注水层间矛盾,使油藏得到了合理注水开发利用,提高了注水开发效率.%With greater production efforts in horizontal wells of Shengli Oilfield,the water volume fraction in oil wells increases year by year,effective recovery rate is too low,and there occurs exhaustion in some intervals.These problems have remarkably decreased the role of water injection of horizontal well in the development of the oilfield.Therefore,research on three-section integration staged injection technology was conducted.The injection string mainly consists of three-section and one-level water regulation packer,inserting injection packer,elastic centralizer,hydraulic centralizer,horizontal check valve and safety joint.Only one trip of the tester can complete the testing of the whole well.Only one trip of the running and pulling tool can complete three-layer allocation.The water exit adopts the design of anti-puncture structure.The field application shows that the horizontal staged injection technology improves the interlayer contradiction in general injection in horizontal wells,helps oil reservoir achieve proper injection development and reduces invalid water injection.

  15. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  16. Debate: Nationalism or Sectionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Forrest; Genovese, Eugene D.

    1987-01-01

    McDonald contends that in the 1820s economic and technological changes were creating sectional differences in the United States while the political arena declined in influence. Genovese argues, however, that from the earliest days of the republic different ways of life in the north and south led to a sectional division changing the political…

  17. 冷弯薄壁型钢C型构件压弯屈曲机理与滞回模型研究%Research on hysteretic model and buckling mechanism of cold-formed C-section steel column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 彭雄

    2015-01-01

    对冷弯薄壁型钢C型构件进行竖向常轴力作用与水平循环荷载同时作用下的加载试验,以探索冷弯薄壁型钢C型构件滞回性能特点以及轴压比、截面宽厚比等参数对试件破坏行为的影响。基于截面应力分布规律和薄板屈曲理论,提出格构机理模型,试验和数值模拟结果验证了该模型的合理性;采用数值模拟方法,分析薄壁构件压弯屈曲机理,获得薄壁C型构件滞回曲线特征,总结影响其滞回性能的关键影响参数。研究表明:大轴压比对试件滞回性能有极大的削弱作用;过早出现的局部屈曲是薄壁C型构件破坏的关键原因;提出的滞回模型能够体现局部屈曲对构件滞回性能的影响。%Several specimens are loaded with axial force and horizontal cyclic force,in order to obtain the hysteretic performance and the influence of axial compression ratio and aspect ratio on the buckling performance. By applying the mechanism model and comparing data of FEM and the test,the buckling mechanism of thin-walled specimens are researched and the hysteresis curves and key factors are obtained as well. The research reveals that big axial compression ratio brings a serious decrease on hysteretic performance and local buckling plays a great negative role during the loading process. Lastly,based on the conclusion of hysteretic characteristics of cold-formed C-section steel columns,the mechanism model is used for the theoretical derivation and numerical fitting on the hysteresis model including the skeleton curve and stiffness degradation law. This hysteresis model reflects the influence of local buckling on hysteretic behavior,which at the same reveals the hysteresis characteristics of thin-walled specimens under hysteretic load.

  18. 城市道路特大断面双层隧道设计关键技术研究%Research on key technologies for extra-large section double-decked tunnel design on urban road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 万利; 李振江

    2016-01-01

    双层隧道为解决城市地面交通堵塞问题提供了新思路,但相关的设计、施工方面的探讨较少。以济南市顺河高架南延工程可行性研究为工程依托,在充分调研国内外双层隧道研究现状的基础上,采用Midas/GTS有限元软件建立模型,对双层隧道的结构设计参数进行校核;同时,对双层隧道空间的实现、通风方式进行研究,并提出通过设置港湾式加宽段解决紧急情况下的人员逃生问题。研究结果表明:设计方案理论上是合理可行的,可为解决类似条件下交通拥堵问题提供借鉴。%As a new structure,the double-decked tunnel provides a new method to solve the traffic jam in the cit-y,but there is little investigation on its design and construction.The article was based on the feasibility research of the South Extension Project of the ShunHe Viaduct Bridge.The current research status of the double-decked tunnel at home and abroad was fully surveyed,and the finite element analysis software Midas/GTS was used to evaluate the tunnel support parameters for their rationality of the design.Meanwhile,this article also put forward how to car-ry out the idea of the double-decked tunnel in room and ventilation mode,as well as a design plan was provided to solve some emergency of personnel escape in the fire by setting up widened section bay.The results show the de-sign,which provides reference to other similar engineering projects in the future,is reasonable and feasible.

  19. Applied technology section. Monthly report, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1994-01-28

    This monthly report contains abstracts of the progress made in various projects from the applied technology section at the Savannah River Plant. Research areas include engineering modeling and simulation, applied physics, experimental thermal hydraulics, and packaging and transportation.

  20. How Do Raters from India Perform in Scoring the TOEFL iBT[TM] Speaking Section and What Kind of Training Helps? TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the scoring of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT[TM]) Speaking section by bilingual or multilingual speakers of English and 1 or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the Speaking section for…

  1. Researching Practice and Practicing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPardo, Anne

    2011-01-01

    When works of teacher scholars were recognized with major National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) research awards, and the sections and conferences instituted research initiatives of their own, many were filled with the soaring hope that a new synergy was in the making. The "Research in the Teaching of English" (RTE) Alan C. Purves Award,…

  2. Researching Practice and Practicing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPardo, Anne

    2011-01-01

    When works of teacher scholars were recognized with major National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) research awards, and the sections and conferences instituted research initiatives of their own, many were filled with the soaring hope that a new synergy was in the making. The "Research in the Teaching of English" (RTE) Alan C. Purves Award,…

  3. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  4. Learn About Section 508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find out about EPA's commitment to making its websites and other electronic and information technology (EIT) products accessible, learn what Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act covers and why, and how to make your EIT 508 compliant.

  5. What is Section 508?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the Rehabilitation Act required federal agencies to develop, procure, maintain, and use information and communications technology (ICT) that is accessible to people with disabilities, whether or not they work for the government.

  6. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  7. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  8. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ...

  9. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March of Dimes research grants have contributed to major medical breakthroughs and ...

  10. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... makers Policies & positions State advocacy Federal advocacy Victories & achievements Research & data Tools & Resources Frequently asked questions Peristats ... makers Policies & positions State advocacy Federal advocacy Victories & achievements Research & data Tools & resources Frequently asked questions Peristats ...

  11. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  12. Comparison of substance use, subjective well-being and interpersonal relationships among young people in foster care and private households: a cross sectional analysis of the School Health Research Network survey in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon E; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; Murphy, Simon; Young, Honor; Moore, Graham F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of living in foster care (FC) with substance use and subjective well-being in a sample of secondary school students (11–16 years) in Wales in 2015/16, and to examine whether these associations are attenuated by the perceived quality of interpersonal relationships. Design Cross-sectional, population-based health behaviour and lifestyle questionnaire. Setting and participants Wales, UK; young people who took part in the 2015/16 School Health Research Network (SHRN) questionnaire (n=32 479). Primary outcome Health behaviours among young people in FC were compared with those from private households. Results The prevalence of all adverse outcomes was higher among young people in FC. Those in FC were significantly more likely to report mephedrone use (OR=9.24, 95% CI 5.60 to 15.34), multiple substance misuse behaviours (OR=3.72, 95% CI 2.30 to 6.00), poorer relationships with peers (RR=1.88, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.88) and teachers (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.56), having experienced bullying (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.35), dating violence (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.43) and poor well-being (RR=1.72, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.46). The association between FC and substance use remained significant, though was attenuated after accounting for relationship variables. The association between FC and subjective well-being became non-significant after adjustment for relationship variables. Conclusions Young people living in FC experience significantly worse outcomes than young people not in care, likely due to a range of care and precare factors, which impact adversely on subsequent social relationships. The analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that the associations of FC with substance use and life satisfaction are partially explained by poorer quality social relationships. Large scale, longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between being in care and health, educational and social outcomes. Mental health interventions

  13. AND STEP-SHAPED DOWNSTREAM SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikov Mihail Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    The article also presents the results of the hydraulic research of the pilot model of the proposed structure. The research has proven that the suppression of any excessive kinetic energy of the discharged water flows falling onto the step-shaped and curving section or the step-shaped section the shape of which is similar to the one made of geosynthetic shells is more efficient that the suppression provided by the smooth section by 50 % to 60 %, and the above suppression is almost equal to the one provided by the well-known step-shaped section. This conclusion can serve as the proof of the high rate of energy suppression demonstrated by the earth-filled dam designed at Samara University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The dam in question has geosynthetic shells that connect the downstream section to the body of the dam.

  14. 郯庐断裂带(五河段)演化特征与矿化关系研究%Research on evolution and mineralization characteristics of Wuhe section of Tan-Lu fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈皓龙; 刘国生

    2014-01-01

    The study area is located in the southeast margin of North China Plate and close to the west side of the Tan‐Lu fault belt .It has the same tectonic background with Jiaodong gold belt ,and their metallogenic ge‐ological conditions and structure are very similar .Based on the previous researches on Jiaodong gold belt and its ore‐controlling rules as well as the metallogenic theory and the systematic geological survey ,and taking the fault structure of Zhuding‐Shimenshan fault as the focus of research ,the evolution of the Tan‐Lu fault belt is studied with the help of the disclosure of many existing quarries .It is pointed out that the Wuhe section of Tan‐Lu fault belt has gone through three major development stages :the first movement period corresponded to the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ,characterized by left‐lateral strike‐slip ductile shear zone;the second movement period corresponded to the Early Cretaceous to Paleogene ,with brittle extensional normal faults ;and the third movement period corresponded to Neogene to now ,with squeeze thrusting faults .It is found that the control of NNE‐trending faults in this area during the extension period on the magmatic rocks ,miner‐alization and output and distribution of quartz veins containing ore is significant ,especially the strongly frac‐tured parts and multiple quartz veins filling parts of the faults are a good sign of prospecting ,w hich should be paid attention to in the future prospecting .%研究区位于华北板块东南缘,郯庐断裂带西侧近旁侧。本区与胶东金矿矿集区具有相同的大地构造背景,其成矿地质条件及结构非常类似。文章在总结前人对胶东矿集区断裂及其控矿规律的研究基础上,以成矿谱系理论为指导、以断裂构造研究为主线,借助现有多处采石场的揭露,在系统的野外地质调查基础上,对郯庐断裂带(朱顶‐石门山断裂)的演化进行研

  15. ULTRATHIN FROZEN SECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, W.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.

    1967-01-01

    A relatively simple method for obtaining ultrathin, frozen sections for electron microscopy has been developed. Tissues, cultured cells, and bacteria may be employed. They are fixed in 1.25–4% glutaraldehyde for 1–4 hr, are washed overnight in buffer at 3°C, and are embedded in 20% thiolated gelatin or pure gelatin. Before sectioning they are partially dehydrated in 50% glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen on a modified tissue holder, and subsequently maintained at -70°C with dry ice. Finally, they are sectioned very rapidly with glass knives on a slightly modified Porter-Blum MT-1 microtome in a commercial deep-freeze maintained at -35°C and are floated in the trough of the knife on a 40% solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The sections are picked up in plastic loops and transferred to distilled water at room temperature for thawing and removal of the DMSO, placed on grids coated with Formvar and carbon, air-dried, and stained with phosphotungstic acid, sodium silicotungstate, or a triple stain of osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate, and lead. Large flat sections are obtained in which ultrastructural preservation is good. They are particularly useful for cytochemical studies. PMID:4167504

  16. PRES 2012 special section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang;

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing the m...... the main points. The main areas of this issue can be summarised as: Process Integration for Energy Saving, Integrating Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Optimisation issues.......This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing...

  17. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions State advocacy Federal advocacy Victories & achievements Research & ...

  18. Research on Traffic Safety of Long and Steep Downgrade Sections in Mountainous Highways%山区高速公路长大下坡交通安全保障研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况小根; 金加华; 廖碧海; 周睿

    2016-01-01

    The impact degree of road slope on traffic accidents is analyzed in this paper in order to know the impact of long and steep downgrade sections on traffic safety and decrease traffic accidents in these sections .The classification of long and steep downgrade sections with road slope and road length as control indexes is put forward based on the situation of traffic ac-cidents in our country .The statistic analysis for the long and steep downgrade sections of De -shang mountainous highway in construction is conducted and the traffic safety facilities for these sections are given .%为了解长大下坡对交通安全的影响,控制长大下坡路段交通安全事故发生,本文分析了道路下坡坡度对交通安全事故的影响程度;基于我国交通安全事故形势,建议了以道路坡度和路线长度为控制指标的长大下坡分级标准;分析统计了建设中的德上山区高速长大下坡数量,建议了德上高速长大下坡交通安全设施设置。

  19. The Golden Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work…

  20. Operationsteknikker ved section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Krebs, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure, and in Denmark 21% of deliveries is by CS. There is an increasing amount of scientific evidence to support the different surgical techniques used at CS. This article reviews the literature regarding CS techniques. There is still a lack of evi...

  1. Sectional dentures revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karir, Naveen; Hindocha, Vishali; Walmsley, A Damien

    2012-04-01

    Sectional dentures are constructed in separate parts which join together intra-orally to create a single prosthesis. They are used to exploit undercuts around teeth, hard and soft tissues which require more than one path of insertion, and are usually of split pin or locking bolts design. By using two case studies, we aim to illustrate the provision of sectional dentures and to which situations their uses are best suited. A 30-year-old male was referred to the Department of Prosthetics at the Birmingham Dental Hospital for a replacement upper partial cobalt chrome denture of a Kennedy Class IV bounded saddle. The patient had a history of failed upper cobalt chrome removable partial dentures owing to loss of retention and poor stability over the previous 12 months. A 40-year-old female patient was referred by her GDP for restoration of a bounded saddle in the lower right quadrant with a history of intolerance to previous dentures. These two cases demonstrate the successful use of sectional dentures in the aesthetic zone. Although more technically demanding, they lie well within the scope of general practice and offer patients alternative solutions from dental implants and bridgework. These cases highlight the importance of the use of alternative prosthetic techniques which can be simple and achievable for all practitioners. Sectional dentures are a treatment modality for the edentulous space where the presence of one or more undercuts prevents restoration by more conventional techniques. This paper highlights some of the situations in which sectional dentures can be employed and emphasizes their use in general practice.

  2. 对研究生心理健康的横向与纵向研究%A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Research on the Psychological Health State of Postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童辉杰; 童定; 陆艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To make a cross-sectional research on the psychological health state of post-graduates with adults group and undergraduates group and track the psychological health changes during one year.Methods:Assessing the psychological health state of postgraduate by the Psychological Health Rating Scale for College Students ( PHS) ,then comparing the results with adults and undergraduates and the data one year ago.Results:The postgraduates had higher scores than adults group on 9 indicators ( Z=1.97--15.62,P<0.05-0.01),while the adults had higher scores than the postgraduates on 9 indi-cators(Z=-3.88--4.2,P<0.01).There were no differences only on 2 indicators between these two groups.On the other hand ,the differences between the postgraduates and the undergraduates groups were relatively small.There were no significant differences on 10 indicators and the undergraduates had higher scores than the postgraduate group on 8 indicators(Z=-2.09-4.97,P<0.01).Compared with that one year ago,on the sole 5 indicators which had significant differences (t=2.265-3.781,P<0.05~0.01), the postgraduates were shown to have lower significance.Conclusion:Both the psychological health state of postgraduates and adults show different characteristics;And the psychological health state of postgradu-ates is better than that of undergraduates group ,and gets better and better.%目的:横向比较研究生心理健康状况与成人及大学生之间的差异,纵向追踪研究生1年时间的心理健康变化. 方法:采用心理健康评定量表( PHS)对硕士研究生的心理健康状况进行评定,并将其结果与成人、大学生以及他们一年前的心理健康状况进行比较. 结果:研究生的9项指标比成人组高(Z=1.97~15.62,P<0.05~0. 01),然而成人9项指标比研究生高(Z=-3.88~4.2,P<0.01). 只有2项没有差异. 研究生组与大学生组的差异相对要小,10项指标没有显著差异,然而,有8项指标大学生更高(Z=-2.09~4.97,P<0.01). 与一

  3. Research on tire mold's non-linear character processing with the algorithm of cylindrical cross-section%圆柱截面法轮胎模具非线性文字加工研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 刘旭波; 涂海宁; 王运宵

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of tire mold character, select the cylindrical section method as the processing path planning algorithms. The application of cylindrical section algorithm is analyzed in detail. The verification results show that the cylindrical cross-section method for the tire mold's non-linear character processing have some advantages such as the simpler calculation, more concise processing program, higher precision. The cylindrical cross-section method has good adaptability to the processing of the parts like tire mold.%根据轮胎模具文字特点,选择圆柱截面法作为轮胎模具非线性文字加工的路径规划算法,详细分析了圆柱截面法的算法过程.验证结果表明,圆柱截面法加工轮胎表面文字具有计算更简单、工件加工程序更简洁及精度更高等优点.对轮胎模具这种类型的工件加工来说,圆柱截面法具有很好的工程适应性.

  4. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. Education and Research Division: Editors of Library Journals and Serial Publications Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, E. Bejide; And Others

    Four papers and two reports from three sections concerned with library science periodicals and serials publications in libraries include discussions of the role of library and information science journals and their coverage by indexing services as well as a description of an online system for serials, a report from the working group on newspapers,…

  5. 赣江万安段突发水污染事故模拟预警研究%Research of Simulation and Early-warning of Sudden Water Pollution Accidents in Wanan Section of Ganjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白辉; 陈岩; 戴文燕; 赵琰鑫; 王东

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Wanan section is taken as an example. On the basis of hydrodynamic module and advection-diffusion module based on MIKE11 model, a one-dimensional warning model of sudden water pollution accidents caused by heavy metals in the section of Ganjiang River from Wanan reservoir dam to Jinggangshan reservoir dam is established, and migration and diffusion process of the pollutants from sudden water pollution accidents is simulated. Arrival time and concentration of Pb pollutant at different downstream sections of the river is quantitatively simulated. The results show that the warning model can simulate and forecast the pollutant migration process under the conditions of sudden pollutant leakage accidents. The whole river section is affected by pollutants during the simulation time and Pb pollutant is thoroughly removed from the section after 132h14min. The emergency response time for section control at the river section exit is 73h5min and the time for no water supply is 35h23min.%以赣江万安段为例,基于MIKE11模型的水动力模块、对流扩散模块建立了万安水库坝址至井冈山水库坝址河段突发重金属水污染事故一维预警模型,模拟了突发水污染事故中污染物迁移扩散过程,定量模拟了河流下游不同断面处铅污染物到达的时间和浓度值。结果表明,所建立的预警模型能够模拟和预测突发污染物泄漏事故条件下污染物迁移过程。在模拟时间内整个河段都会受到污染物的影响,铅污染物在经历132h14min后全部移除该河段。河段出口处控制断面应急响应时间为73h5min,其不可取水的时长为35h23min。

  6. 博物馆化的想象--锡拉史前博物馆的展览语境的构建%The imagination of the museum--The case of the constructing exhibition context in the museum of prehistoric Thira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖沙泥

    2014-01-01

    this paper tries to take the prehistoric Museum of Thira on the island of Santorini for example, analyzing the progress of constructing historical context in exhibition.%本文以圣托里尼岛上的锡拉史前博物馆为例,试图分析在博物馆展览中历史性展览语境的构建。

  7. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions State advocacy Federal advocacy Victories & ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ...

  8. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... share your own story in our community. Featured articles Advocacy and Government Affairs issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers ...

  9. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  10. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving ... return false; // break loop } } ); // check if data array is empty if(data.items.length donate sign-up ...

  11. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions ...

  12. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ...

  13. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  14. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... Get Involved Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners Advocate Get informed Take action Participate & Support ...

  15. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] share your story | march for babies | nacersano donate sign up sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals ...

  16. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make United States a Leader in ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ...

  17. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently ...

  18. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy ... of Dimes research grants have contributed to major medical breakthroughs and advancements. Learn more . Featured articles March ...

  19. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ...

  20. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... org Product Catalog Get Involved Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners Advocate Get informed Take ...

  1. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... threaten our babies. We help moms have full-term pregnancies and healthy babies. If something goes wrong, ... contact donate © 2017 March of Dimes Foundation Privacy, terms and notices Get to know us Prematurity Research ...

  2. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Government Affairs issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers ... Get Involved Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners Advocate Get informed Take action Participate & Support ...

  3. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy ...

  4. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search Our ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  5. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ...

  6. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... Get Involved Volunteer Volunteer leaders Team Youth National service partners Advocate Get informed Take action Participate & Support ...

  7. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  8. The technological analysis of earthen architectural remains: the variability of building techniques and the characterization of burned or cemented daub in polished section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Peinetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthen architectural fragments (burned or cemented are often collected during the excavation in Italian prehistoric and protohistoric sites. The technological characterization of these remains is relevant to recognize the existence of local or regional building traditions and to understand the exploitation of raw materials and, more in general, the ancient production strategies. In addition to the current macroscopic analysis (morphology of fragments and classification of pastes and before the realization of archaeometric analysis, it’s possible to complete the analytical protocol of daub with some observations in polished section. To realize a polished section, the daub sample is cut and the resulting section is polished with sandpaper. The realization of this kind of section allows a better description of the arrangement of the constituents, to identify the processes of transformation and deformation of raw materials during the building activity. The aim of these mesoscopic analysis is to characterize the behavioral chain referred to the processing of raw materials and their installation, linking the observed characteristics to specific actions. It’s possible to obtain some functional data about the original function of the earthen structures or the dynamics of entrance in the archaeological record a well. This paper presents some case-studies and some preliminary keys to understand the features observed in polished section. The use of this analytical technique gives some encouraging results, especially in comparing the number of relevant data to the low cost of production of a polished section.

  9. 凸度仪系统中确定钢板边缘算法的研究%Research on Computation for Cross Section's Edge Positions in X-ray Instantaneous Profile Gauge for Steel Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢桂来; 苗积臣

    2011-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the thickness distribution of the cross-section in the steel strip for the profile gauge using two X-ray sources and two arrays of gas-filled ion chambers, it's important to compute accurately the positions of the cross-section's edges first. Based on the practice profile gauge, the computation modeling of X-ray attenuation at the edges of the cross-section was achieved by using the principle of X-ray attenuation in materials. With the detectors' output and the modeling, the computation of the edges of the cross-section was completed. The result reveals that the computed edge is right the midpoint of the edge and the algorithm for edge computation is accuracy.%为了在双X射线源、双电离室阵列探测器构成的热轧钢板凸度仪系统中重建钢板横截面的厚度分布,必须对钢板横截面的两个边缘进行准确计算.本研究基于实际构建的凸度仪系统,应用X射线在物质中衰减的规律,对X射线在钢板边缘处的衰减进行准确建模,并利用对应于钢板边缘的探测器的输出信号,完成了钢板横截面边缘的准确计算.研究结果表明,利用该算法得到的钢板边缘正是钢板边缘的中点位置,边缘计算的算法准确.

  10. 隔板截面形状对旋转冲压压缩转子性能的影响%Numerical Research of Stake Wall Section Shapes on Ram-Rotor Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兢军; 杨凌; 严红明; 韩吉昂

    2011-01-01

    The three dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the SpalartAllmaras turbulent model are adopted to simulate numerically the flow field of the designed three dimensional flow-path of the ram-rotor with three kinds of stake wall section shapes at the design point.It has been found that there are mainly three curved shock waves in the three dimensional flow-path.Stake wall section shape has great influence on the shock waves and flow fields of the ram-rotor.The ram-rotor with stake wall section shape which is “positive trapezoid” has higher adiabatic efficiency and smaller velocity angle than that with stake wall section shape which is “reversed trapezoid”.%本文采用三维雷诺平均N-S方程和Spalart-Allmaras湍流模型,在设计工况下对3种具有不同隔板截面形状的旋转冲压压缩转子进行了数值研究.计算结果表明:旋转冲压压缩转子进气流道内主要存在三道曲线激波对气流进行压缩;隔板截面形状对激波及气流流动影响较大,隔板截面形状为"正梯形"时,旋转冲压压缩转子具有较高的效率和较小的出口气流角.

  11. The millstone industry a summary of research on quarries and producers in the United States, Europe and elsewhere

    CERN Document Server

    Hockensmith, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Since prehistoric times, the process of cutting rock to make millstones has been one of the most important industries in the world. The first part of this book compiles information on the millstone industry in the United States, which dates between the mid-1600s and the mid-1900s. Primarily based on archival research and brief accounts published in geological and historical volumes, it focuses on conglomerate, granite, flint, quartzite, gneiss, and sandstone quarries in different regions and states. The second part focuses on the millstone quarrying industry in Europe and other areas.

  12. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  13. 椎体截面的数理学原理分析与脊柱病变的探讨%The principles of mathematical analysis for vertebral sections and the research of spinal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小勇; 杨惠林; 罗宗平

    2016-01-01

    目的:测量脊柱椎体终板截面的横径与矢径,利用数理学原理分析脊柱椎体—椎间盘受力传递规律,分析人体脊柱椎体—椎间盘的受力规律与临床病理联系。方法测量10具完整脊柱标本C2~S1各椎体上下截面的横径(L)、矢径(H),运用几何学相似原理:椎体/椎间盘上下截面面积变化可近似用数学方程表达,S1/S2=(a*b)/(A*B),S=π/4*L*H,分析椎体上下截面的结构规律;根据椎间盘的结构,利用物理学静水液压原理:F1/F2=S1/S2,分析椎间盘压力变化规律;根据数理学原理推测脊柱椎体—椎间盘的结构与力学规律。结果脊柱椎体截面的结构从C2下截面到L4下截面面积呈“S”形曲线递增,L4下截面面积最大,L4下截面到S1上截面递减;椎体—椎间盘间截面横径矢径决定其椎体截面面积、压力系数K,K=L*H。结论脊柱椎体—椎间盘自身结构决定了脊柱特有的力学传递与分布规律;建立数理学方程来认识脊柱的结构与力学传递规律能更直观的理解与观察脊柱力学特性与临床脊柱病变规律。%Objective To analyze stress transmission rule of spinal vertebral body-intervertebral disc with mathematical and physical principles; to analyze the correlation between stress transmission rule of spinal vertebral body-intervertebral disc and clinical pathology. Methods The transverse diameter (L) and sagittal diameter (H) of the upper and lower sections on each vertebral body of C2~S1 in 10 intact spinal specimens were measured. Similarity principle of geometry was used: the area changes of upper and lower sections of vertebral body/intervertebral disc could be expressed in mathematical equations S1/S2=(a*b)/(A*B) and S=π/4*L*H to analyze the structure law of upper and lower sections of vertebral bodies;According to the structure of the intervertebral disc, principle of hydrostatic pressure F1/F2=S1/S2 was used to analyze

  14. Entre dos mundos: los grabados al aire libre de Pena Bicuda de Loureiro (Teo, Galicia, España = Between two worlds: prehistoric open-air petroglyphs from Pena Bicuda de Loureiro (Teo, Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fábregas Valcarce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abordamos el estudio de un interesante petroglifo prehistórico registrado recientemente, que muestra las habituales combinaciones circulares pero también motivos menos usuales como espirales o un posible ídolo. Por otra parte, no es frecuente que una estación rupestre, situada lejos de la costa, posea un número relativamente alto de representaciones zoomorfas (en su mayoría ciervos, algunas de ellas aparentemente en estrecha asociación con el motivo idoliforme. Hemos hecho uso de la cartografía LIDAR y aplicamos análisis SIG para determinar los patrones espaciales básicos de ubicación de los petroglifos y su eventual relación con otros monumentos cercanos, específicamente túmulos.We deal with an interesting prehistoric petroglyph recently recorded, displaying the common circular combinations and also less usual motifs such as spirals or a possible idol. Otherwise, it is by no means frequent that a decorated stone, located away from the coastline, should show a relatively high number of zoomorphic representations (mostly deer, a number of them apparently in close association with the idol-like motif. We have made use of LIDAR cartography and applied GIS techniques to ascertain the basic spatial patterns of location of the petroglyph and its eventual relationship with other monuments found nearby, namely funerary mounds.

  15. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... positions State advocacy Federal advocacy Victories & achievements Research & data Tools & Resources Frequently asked questions Peristats Nursing programs ... been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html(data); $("title").append(_vidTitle + " | March of Dimes"); $("#main.container > ...

  16. Research on Construction Technology for No. 0 Section of Four-track Long Span Rigid Frame Bridge%四线大跨度刚构桥0号段施工技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞俊

    2015-01-01

    刚构桥梁中0号段作为悬臂梁施工的起点,在悬臂施工、运营中是应力最集中、应力变化最复杂的梁节段,其施工质量控制全桥质量,也影响梁体后期使用运营。文章结合目前国内四线铁路单T最大跨度刚构桥,系统研究了大跨度刚构桥“长、高、大”0号段模板、托架设计与施工、混凝土浇筑工艺、线形与应力监测分析,解决“长大”0号段施工中难题,取得的施工技术成果值得同类工程借鉴。%No. 0 section of rigid frame bridge, as the starting point of cantilever beam construction, is of the most con-centrated stress and the most complex stress variation in the cantilever construction and operation, its construction quality controls the full bridge quality, it also affects the post operation of beam body. Combined with the current four-track sin-gle T rigid frame railway bridge with maximum span in China, formwork, design and construction of bracket, concrete pouring process, linear and stress monitoring analysis of long, high, large No. 0 section of long-span rigid frame bridge are systematically studied, the problems during construction of long and large No. 0 section are resolved,the achieve-ments of construction technology can provide reference for similar engineering.

  17. Research of factors influencing front segmentation angular distribution of virtual dressing characteristic cross-sections%影响虚拟着装特征截面前分割线角度分布的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继红; 戴孝林; 张文斌

    2012-01-01

    The manikin and the one in the coat with same style, different materials and ease allowance are respectively scanned by using 3D scanner, and the point cloud data of virtual dressing characteristic cross -sections are obtained. The definite arc length is used to determine the angle and the calculation of mathematical modeling is made by adopting cubic spline interpolation algorithm. The real positions of characteristic cross -sectional segmentation with different ease allowances and different mechanical properties in virtual dressing are studied from the 3D angle, the distribution law of segmentation on the characteristic cross-sections is analyzed and the internal relations between the distribution of segmentation, and the ease allowances of garments and mechanical properties of the fabric arc revealed, which provides a reliable basis for the actual condition of 3D virtual garments and the virtual conversion technology.%采用三维人体扫描仪分别对标准人台和穿着同一款式不同面料、不同放松量外套的标准人台进行扫描,得到虚拟着装特征截面的点云数据,通过定弧长确定角度并采用三次样条插值法进行数学建模,从三维角度研究特征截面不同松量和不同力学性能分割线的角度分布,揭示分割线分布与服装松量以及面料力学性能之间的内在联系,为三维虚拟服装的真实状况以及虚拟缝合提供可靠依据.

  18. 剖面沉降测试仪提高测试精度方法研究%Research on the Ways to Improve the Test Accuracy of the Sectional Settlement Inclinometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天鸽; 孙铁成; 马国海; 王福文

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the uneven-settlement-caused deformation between the transverse and the longitudinal sections of the roadbed is an important part of the content of the monitoring of the subgrade.With the application of the inclinometer to the measurement of the vertical settlement in the cross section of the subgrade taken into account,the principle of the servo acceleration-type inclinometer is briefly introduced in the paper.The results of the measurement of some practical projects show:①the factors that affect the accuracy of the sectional-settlement inclinometer include environmental factors,the instrument itself,and the human factor;②the key factor of the tests performed with the sectional-settlement inclinometer lies in the fact that the position of the measuring points should be the same in both the positive and negative tests;③with the distance to be measured becoming longer and the error in the initial elevation gradually increasing,the effects on the accuracy of the values of the measured settlement will be greater.%路基的横、纵断面不均匀沉降变形是路基监测的一项重要内容,针对测试仪在路基横断面竖向沉降测试中的应用,简要介绍了伺服加速度式测斜仪的原理,工程实例测试表明:影响剖面沉降测试仪测试精度的因素主要包括环境因素、仪器本身和人为的因素;剖面沉降测试的关键因素是正反向测试的测点位置相同;随着测试距离的增大,所产生的初始高程误差增加,对沉降测值影响越大。

  19. Equity in the delivery of community healthcare to older people: findings from 10/66 Dementia Research Group cross-sectional surveys in Latin America, China, India and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AT, Jotheeswaran; Borges Guilherme; Williams Joseph D; Uwakwe Richard; Sosa Ana L; Salas Aquiles; Llibre Rodriguez Juan J; Jimenez-Velazquez Ivonne Z; Jacob KS; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Acosta Daisy; Liu Zhaorui; Albanese Emiliano; Klibanski Milagros G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To describe patterns of recent health service utilisation, and consequent out-of-pocket expenses among older people in countries with low and middle incomes, and to assess the equity with which services are accessed and delivered. Methods 17,944 people aged 65 years and over were assessed in one-phase population-based cross-sectional surveys in geographically-defined catchment areas in nine countries - urban and rural sites in China, India, Mexico and Peru, urban sites in ...

  20. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  1. Pheochromocytoma after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naghshineh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy.

  2. 重度子痫前期剖宫产术的麻醉与镇痛的研究进展%Research progress of anesthesia and analgesia of cesarean section in severe preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:重度子痫前期是妊娠高血压综合征严重的阶段,严重时可导致孕产妇死亡,其重要的治疗方法是剖宫产。本文就重度子痫前期患者剖宫产术麻醉与镇痛的新进展进行综述,包括椎管内麻醉、全身麻醉、术后镇痛等,为麻醉与镇痛管理提供新的临床依据。%Severe preeclampsia is a severe stage of pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome,which can lead to maternal mortality.Its important treatment method is cesarean section.In this article,the author summarizd the new progress of anesthesia and analgesia of cesarean section in severe preeclampsia,including intravertebral anesthesia,general anesthesia,postoperative analgesia and so on,which provided a new clinical basis for the management of anesthesia and analgesia.

  3. Experimental Research on Aerator of Chute Section of Sand Flush Bottom Outlet for Longkaikou Hydropower Station%龙开口水电站冲沙底孔泄槽段掺气设施试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼; 王均星; 陈规划

    2011-01-01

    The conventional aerating facilities can not ensure the aeration effect. Taking chute section of sand flush bottom outlet of Longkaikou Hydropower Station for an example, this paper proposes two optimized programs based on the original design scheme. The reasonable aerating facilities are determined with hydraulic model test. Results show that the program can produce a good cavitation reduction effect, which adopts the combination of sudden bottom drop for aeration and flip bucket in outlet of pressured spillway tunnel and the aerator of combination of aeration slot and flip bucket in the middle of chute section.%以龙开口水电站冲沙底孔泄槽段为例.针对常规掺气设施不能确保掺气效果问题,基于原设计方案提出了2个优化方案,并通过水工模型进行了试验和比较分析,确定了较合理的掺气设施.结果表明,有压出口底部采用突跌掺气并加设挑坎,泄槽段采用坎槽结合式的掺气形式,掺气减蚀效果较好.

  4. 14 CFR Section 8 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 8 Section 8 Aeronautics and... Section 8 General (a) The profit and loss accounts are designed to reflect, through natural groupings, the... activities, are set forth in section 7, Chart of Profit and Loss Accounts. (d) The prescribed system of...

  5. 14 CFR Section 4 - General

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Section 4 Section 4 Aeronautics and... Section 4 General (a) The balance sheet accounts are designed to show the financial condition of the air... prescribed in this system of accounts for each air carrier group are set forth in Section 3, Chart of Balance...

  6. Research on the Design Method of HOV Lane Based on the Basic Section of Urban Arterial Road in China%我国城市快速路基本路段HOV车道设置方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓社军; 陈峻; 李春燕; 毕昕

    2013-01-01

      为了研究高占有率(HOV)车道在我国城市道路中的设置方案,本文以城市快速路基本路段为研究对象,并选择了南京市的两条典型路段进行道路条件与交通条件的调查与分析。选取路段平均速度、延误时间以及运送能力为指标,分别设计了7种车道数分配方案,并运用 VISSIM 仿真软件进行现状和仿真对比分析,研究设置HOV车道的方法。结果表明,在双向六车道的城市快速路基本路段中单独设置一条3+型HOV专用道或者一条3+型HOV专用道和一条公交专用道的组合时,能够最大化提高整个路段的运营效率;双向八车道条件下,当公交和货车比例都相对较低,而小汽车和中客车所占比例相对较高时,设置HOV车道时的利用率可能相对较低,而建立公交专用道则比较合理。%To find how to design the high occupance vechicle lanes (HOV) in the city of China, the traffic and road conditions of the two typical road basic sections of a urban arterial of Nanjing were surveyed. Seven combinations of different function lanes have been designed based on the indexes of section average velocity, time delay and transport capacity VISSIM software was used to simulate the seven projects. The result proved that it would be more efficiency when one 3+HOV lane or one 3+HOV lane combined with one bus-only lane is designed under the condition of bidirectional six traffic lanes in the basic section of urban arterial road.It would be more efficiency to set the bus-only lane than the HOV lane when the rate of the bus and van is lower compare with the car and carpool.

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  10. 大连地铁区间隧道过河段施工技术研究%Research on construction technique at river-crossing section of Dalian Metro Interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国

    2012-01-01

    Taking the tunnel at section of crossing Lingshui River of Xuehai Interval of Dalian Metro as the engineering background,the paper analyzes the main risk factors in the tunnel construction of the interval,provides the respective supporting reinforcement and the treatment measures,so as to provide the reference to the similar projects.%以大连地铁学海区间过凌水河段隧道为工程背景,分析了该段隧道施工中存在的主要风险因素,给出了相应的支护加强和施工处理措施,以期为类似工程提供借鉴。

  11. Randomized questionnaire based cross-sectional research study on awareness of sexually transmitted diseases amongst the general population between those who completed their high school education and those who have not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. V. Narasimhalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a very important health challenge for adolescents. Educational level, especially sex education in school, prevents the adolescents falling prey to these diseases.Objective: To compare the awareness of STDs among general population with below and above high school qualification. Materials and Methods: A simple randomized, cross-sectional, questionnaire based study on the awareness of STDs on out-patients and in-patients of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital of 6 months duration was conducted. About 150 subjects participated in the study. Results: About 77.8% of those who completed schooling had good awareness of STDs. Statistical analysis had shown the formal education to high school level is statistically significantP= 0.0068 (P < 0.05 in people falling prey to the STDs. Conclusion: The initiation of formal education about sex education at the school level can improve the present status and lead to better prevention of STDs.

  12. 生物滴滤池滤料分层分段去污特性试验研究%RESEARCH ON DECONTAMINATION CHARACTERISTIC BY LAYERS AND SECTIONS OF BIOTRICKLING FILTER MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂荣; 冯冰冰; 许文峰; 方虎; 董启荣; 王鹤立

    2013-01-01

    The homemade four groups of reaction column which were divided into 3 layers of biofilter, were filled volcanic rock, ceramic pall ring, multi-faceted hollow plastic ball and polypropylene filter.The each layer filter material of the reaction column was studied, and decontamination characteristics of every layer in the treatment of the campus life sewage was carried out. The results showed that the volcanic rocks had the strongest performance in reducing each pollutant index of sewage, which followed by ceramic pall ring and polyhedral hollow plastic ball, polypropylene package filter material had the worst performance in reducing each pollutant index of sewage; For single filter material, the COD, ammonia nitrogen and TP removal were mainly concentrated in the former sixty cm section, for TN removal was mainly concentrated in the twenty cm section.%制4组各分为3层生物滤池反应柱,分别填装火山岩、陶瓷鲍尔环、多面空心塑料球和聚丙烯整装滤料,研究了每组反应柱中各层滤料以及每层中各段滤料在处理校园生活污水时各自的去污特性.结果表明,火山岩滤料在降低污水中各污染物指标的性能最强,其次是陶瓷鲍尔环和多面空心塑料球,聚丙烯整装滤料对所有污染物指标的去除效果都最差;就单层滤料而言,其对水中COD、氨氮和TP的去除主要集中在前60 cm段,对TN的去除主要集中在后20 cm段.

  13. 水中桩基础压注混凝土加大截面施工技术研究%Pile foundation in water pouring concrete to increase the construction technology research section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会超

    2014-01-01

    桩基加大截面是一种较为理想的桩基础加固措施,水深较浅(5m以内)的可采用双层钢护筒的方法施工,但水深较深的桩基加固需要采用其他方法保证施工的安全同时减少工程成本。本文以江门市白藤大桥维修加固工程桩基加固(该桥位水深在8m到17.5m之间)为依托对水下桩基础加大截面的施工工艺进行分析研究,以期取得良好的效果,为类似工程的加固提供技术支持和工艺方面的参考。%increasing section reinforcement pile foundation is an ideal pile foundation, shallow water depth (within 5m) can the construction method ofthe protective tube of double steel pile, but deeper reinforcement requiredby other methods to ensure construction safety and reduce the cost of the project. This paper takes Jiangmen City rattan bridge repair reinforcementreinforcement (bit depth of the bridge in the 8m to 17.5m) for the analysis of underwater pile foundation construction technology section of relying on the increase, and achieved good results in order, to provide technical support and technical aspects of the reference for reinforcement of similar engineering.

  14. 剖宫产术中胎盘附着面注射缩宫素的疗效研究%The Clinical Research of the Oxytocin Intramuscular Injection at the Placenta Attachment Surface During Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈圣莲; 王敏; 石恒; 黄桂珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the oxytocin intramuscular injection at the placenta attachment surface during cesarean section. Method:Randomly controlled clinical trial was adopted which contained 110 cases performed cesarean section.All the cases were injected oxytocin 10 U by intravenous route after the delivery of the baby.The observation group (55 cases) were performed oxytocin 10 U intramuscular injection at the placenta attachment surface,while the control group (55 cases) were injected oxytocin 10 U at the uterine wall but not at the placenta attachment site.The other procedures were the same as the observation group.The time from the baby delivery to the close of the uterine incision(T1),the blood loss during this period(V1),the time from the end up of oxytocin injection at the uterine wall to the placenta delivery(T2),and the postoperative blood loss within 24 hours(V2) were recorded.The data of the test was analyzed with the software SPSS 18.0.Result:The observation group VS the control group:the difference of T1 was no significant difference statistically(P>0.05), the difference of T2 was also no significant difference statistically(P>0.05),the difference of blood loss was statistically significant(P0.05);在V1、V2上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),观察组优于对照组。结论:剖宫产术中在静脉应用缩宫素的基础上,于胎盘子宫附着面注射缩宫素可减少术中出血及术后出血量。

  15. 77 FR 43646 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities and Section 5312 National Research Program Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative... available by FTA for the VTCLI II grant opportunity, with $26.6 million in Section 5309 Bus and Bus...

  16. Wind environ ment research on the bridge section induced by high speed train under the bridge%桥下高速行驶列车对桥梁主梁位置风环境的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国朝; 张建仁; 蔡春声; 韩艳

    2015-01-01

    The pressure and velocity fields will change greatly when the high-speed train is running through the bridge,and the intense ambient aerodynamic effects will be produced in areas around,thereby affecting the anti-wind safety of around buildings and structures.Due to the fact that there exist insurmountable technical prob-lems in using wind tunnel test,in this proposed project,the Fluent in CFD software was firstly used as the simu-lation platform with 'dynamic mesh'technology.Secondly,the UDF trains route procedures were programmed to monitor the speed and the pressure distribution through monitoring the bridge sections.Thirdly,the process when the high-speed trains cross through the bridge in different speeds was simulated under the situations of no cross-wind wind,small crosswind and the bridge design crosswind.Finally,the impact loads generated under three kinds of wind to the main section of the bridge were calculated in different crosswind speed.This paper studied the aerodynamic effects in various conditions of wind on the train to the bridge main sections,which provides a valuable reference and recommendation for bridge designers in the bridge design institution.%高速列车行驶时对周围的压力场和速度场产生强烈的变化,激烈的空气动力效应对周围环境产生一定作用,从而影响周围建筑和结构的抗风安全性。由于采用风洞试验测试手段研究此类问题在技术上尚存在难以克服的困难,因此,以计算流体力学Fluent软件为仿真平台,采用“动网格”技术,编写UDF列车行驶路线程序,对无侧风、微小侧风以及桥梁设计侧风速作用下高速列车以不同列车速度通过桥底的数值模拟,并对行车路线方向的桥梁主梁断面进行布点监测,给出高速列车通过桥底区域时的速度和压力空间分布规律,计算各侧风速、不同列车速度情况下列车风对桥梁主梁局部位置的冲击载荷,从而研究各

  17. Applied Research of Cesarean Section in Pre-expansion before the Treatment of Anaesthesia Under Epidural Anesthesia%麻醉前预扩容在硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶芸; 陈小希

    2014-01-01

    目的:临床观察硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产麻醉前液体扩容的临床效果.方法:选择硬膜外麻醉下择期单胎剖宫产的足月产妇共90例,随机分为3组(n=30),A组为麻醉前静脉输注6%羟乙基淀粉130/0.4氯化钠注射液组;B组为麻醉前静脉输注乳酸钠林格液组,C组为不用麻醉前预扩容组,每组各30例.3组均无术前用药.观察3组产妇麻醉后收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、心率(HR)的变化,及新生儿 Apgar评分,发生恶心呕吐及麻黄素的使用等情况.结果:A、B两组麻醉后低血压的发生率、麻黄素的使用均低于C组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且 A组血流动力学较 B 组更稳定.新生儿 Apgar 评分3组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:在硬膜外麻醉下剖宫产麻醉前使用液体扩容能降低术中低血压的发生率,减少麻黄素的使用,对新生儿无不良影响,且胶体液的这种效果优于晶体液.%Objective:To observe,under epidural anesthesia,the clinical effect of liquid volume expan-sion before the treatment of anaesthesia during cesarean section.Methods:60 pregnancies of the normal full-term birth from singleton caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups,which were named A,B and C group respectively (n=30 cases/per group).Group A were those for intravenous infusion of 6% hydroxyethyl starch and 130/0.4 sodium chloride injection before anesthesia,B were those for intravenous infusion of Sodium Lactate Ringer's inj ection before anesthesia,and C were those for no pre-expansion before anesthesia,three groups were no preoperative medication.We provided a brief observation of changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP),heart rate (HR), and neonatal Apgar score,the usage of nausea and vomiting and ephedrine among three groups of post-anes-thesia maternal.Results:Group A and B were lower than that of group C on the comparison in incidence

  18. 钢筋活性粉末混凝土简支梁正截面受力性能试验研究%Experimental research on mechanical performance of normal section of reinforced reactive powder concrete beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文忠; 李莉; 卢姗姗

    2011-01-01

    The compressive and tensile stress-strain relationships were determined through the compressive test and tensile test of reactive powder concrete prisms.The ultimate strain at the compressive edge, the strain distribution on sections of the test beams, and the cracking moment, ultimate moment, deformation and distribution of cracks were studied through six test beams.According to The test results, the ultimate strain at the compressive edge of specimen was 5500 × 10 -6 and the crack strain at bending section was 750 × 10 -6.The test results indicate that the favorable influence of longitudinal reinforcement on calculation formula of plastic coefficient should be considered.The formula for the calculation of bending capacity of reinforced reactive powder concrete beam considering the contribution of the tensile stress of reactive powder concrete was proposed.The calculation method of stiffness and crack width were given based on the test results.These results provide theoretical basis for design of reinforced reactive powder concrete beam.%通过轴压和轴拉试验,得到了活性粉末混凝土受压和受拉应力-应变全曲线方程.通过6根钢筋活性粉末混凝土梁受弯性能试验,得到了此类梁在各级荷载作用下纯弯区段受压边缘压应变及应变沿梁高的分布,获得了试验梁的开裂弯矩和极限弯矩,考察了试验梁的变形及裂缝分布与开展.试验结果表明:钢筋活性粉末混凝土试验梁受压边缘极限压应变为5500×10-6,纯弯区段开裂应变为750×10-6,截面抵抗矩塑性影响系数计算应考虑纵向受拉钢筋的有利影响.建立了考虑截面受拉区拉应力贡献的正截面承载力计算公式和反映钢筋活性粉末混凝土梁自身受力特点的刚度及裂缝宽度计算方法,可供钢筋活性粉末混凝土梁设计时参考.

  19. Research on construction optimization of asymmetric double-arch section in Jiaozhou Bay Subsea Tunnel%胶州湾海底隧道不对称双连拱断面施工优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张成平; 王梦恕

    2012-01-01

    以青岛胶州湾海底隧道中的不对称双连拱隧道为工程背景,选取主隧道与匝道交叉口段的典型断面建立数值计算模型,针对不同的施工开挖顺序和掘进进尺制订了4种施工方案,并采用有限差分软件FLAC3D进行动态施工的三维数值模拟,计算分析并比较各方案的地表沉降、拱顶沉降和支护结构位移以及围岩应力和支护结构应力的分布情况,明确不对称双连拱隧道施工中结构变形及应力的最不利位置.分析结果表明,先施工中导洞再施工匝道断面右导洞并采用小进尺的施工方案更有利于控制围岩的稳定性,并据此提出了合理的施工方案建议.%Aiming at the asymmetric double-arch tunnel engineering that lies at Jiaozhou Bay in Qingdao, the section located in the intersection between main tunnel and ramb tunnel is chosen as a typical cross section and a three-dimensional model for numerical analysis. Four construction schemes are constituted according to different construction sequences and different digging lengths. Then these schemes are simulated with FLAC3D program. By analyzing ground surface settlement, vault settlement values, displacement of supporting structure, principle stress in surrounding rock, as well as principle stress in supporting structure, the most disadvantage position of structural deformation and stress during construction is determined. It concludes that the surrounding rock deformation could be better controlled by using of the construction sequence that first middle drift and then right hole of ramb tunnel, and the reasonable construction scheme is suggested.

  20. 滁河六合城区段水生植物种植探析%Research on the Cultivation of Aquatic Plants in Luhe Section of Chuhe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 吴存泓; 李乃伟; 陆小清

    2012-01-01

    According to the natural conditions of hydrology,climate and surroundings, several aquatic plants were selected to be planted with the new methods,and then the new forms, new experience and new methods of planting these aquatic plants in the channel of Chuhe River were searched. The method of planting aquatic plants in Luhe section of Chuhe River was discussed in details, on the basis of the design concept,screening plant, construction requirements, configuration and cultivation of plants.%在滁河南京六合区段,结合其水文、气候、环境等自然条件,精选出多个适合生长的水生植物,并尝试用新的种植方法,探索滁河河道人工大面积种植水生花卉的新形式、新经验、新方法.从设计思路、筛选植物、施工要求、植物配置、种植方法等方面探索了六合滁河段种植水生植物的方法.

  1. 赤大白铁路巴彦段增建二线线路方案研究%Research on the Second Line Construction Project of Chifeng-Daban-Baiyinhua Railway Bayan Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志鹏

    2014-01-01

    赤大白铁路巴彦段既有线为 R =600 m 的回头曲线,在该线扩能工程的研究过程中,本段的增建二线方案影响到线路主要技术标准的选择。从线路方案研究的总体思路出发,综合线位对移民新村的影响和工程投资、水害治理、线路纵坡的选择等多种因素,对 R =600 m、R =700 m、R =800 m 的方案进行了综合比选。%Bayan section lines of Chifeng-Daban-Baiyinhua railway is a back curve of R =600 m.In the study on the capaci-ty expansion,it is found that the selection of second line scheme has great impact on the main technical standards of the rail-way.In this paper,from the general idea of the route,a comprehensive comparison and selection of R =600 m,R =700 m, R =800 m solutions is made from perspectives of the comprehensive effects of various factors on immigrants and project in-vestment,water treatment,the choice of longitudinal slope.

  2. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  3. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing --Comparative Judging of Body Sections' Cold Sensitivity Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; WU Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design. By a new psychological & physical researching method, the subjective psychological perception of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulus are studied, and with Thurstone comparative judgement the main human body sections' cold sensitivity sequences are obtained. Furthermore the physiological causes for skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing are suggested.

  4. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research Infant health research Prematurity research centers For providers Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy ...

  5. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  6. Activities: Sectioning a Regular Tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsky, Evan M., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Worksheets are provided for use by students in grades 8 and above when sectioning a tetrahedron. Lesson objectives include the discovery of generalizations regarding the cross-sections of a tetrahedron. (MK)

  7. Clinical Research OF Nursing without Intervention on the umbilical cord cesarean section of newborn babies%剖宫产新生儿脐带残端零干预护理的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠琼; 英伍; 曹慧; 孙伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect and feasibity of umbilical cord stump treatment in neonatal by cesarean section,Methods 600 normal neonates born by cesarean section without umbilical hernia were randomly divided into two groups.The first-time cutting for all the groups was made at the valve core with the near end 1 mm and far end 1 cm from the navel chakra.Two groups of newborns after the shower were disinfected the umbilical cord the end with 75% alcohol,and the shower once a day.The observation group after shower does no longer nursing intervention.The control group disinfecting umbilical plexus and surrounding skin after the shower routine with 75% alcohol covering the sterile umbilical stick.Then we observed the umbilical blood oozing,secretion and the time of the wound surface dried and healed.Results There are no umbilical inflammation in two groups; The number of umbilical plexus ooze blood in the observation group is less than those in control group.The difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05);The residual time and the healing time of the umbilical cord in the observation group were shorter than in control group.The difference were statistically significant (P< 0.05).Conclusion Nursing without Intervention,with lower possibility of umbilical blood oozing,less umbilical secretion,shorter time for the healing of wound surface,few nursing quantity is a good nursing methods of umbilical cord residual end.%目的 探讨剖宫产新生儿脐带残端零干预护理的临床效果及可行性.方法 随机筛选无脐疝的剖宫产正常新生儿600例,采用气门芯距脐轮1 mm处结扎,远端1 cm处剪断脐带,脐带断面用5%的碘酊消毒.随机分为两组,每组300例,两组新生儿于次日淋浴后,用75%酒精消毒脐带残端,以后每日淋浴1次.观察组淋浴后脐带残端不再进行任何干预护理,对照组淋浴后常规用75%酒精消毒脐部及周围皮肤,并覆盖无菌脐贴.待其自然干燥

  8. Research on Identification of American Ginseng and Panax Ginseng by Near Infrared Spectra of Samples' Cross Section%基于主根横断面近红外光谱的西洋参和人参鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵灵; 黄亚伟; 戚淑叶; Jacqueline J SHAN; Lei LING; 韩东海

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify American ginseng and panax ginseng samples accurately and rapidly, the authors acquired the NIR spectra of the samples' cross-sections. Then the spectra were respectively analyzed according to the samples' physical structure factors and chemical factors. The authors selected appropriate bands and built a physical factor leading model, a chemical factors leading model as well as a comprehensive factor model. The authors found that all the three models' discriminant rates were above 96 percents, which can meet the needs of the rapid detection of raw Chinese medicinal crop materials. While the physical factors model had a simple operation, the discriminant rate was relatively low. The chemical factors model' discriminant rate was higher, but the computation is much more complex. Among the three models, the mixed factor model had the best result with the highest discrimination rate (100 percents) and a smaller number of principal components (4). The effect was the most ideal. It proved that physical factors play an important part in NIR modeling. The cross section method is accurate and convenient which can be used in the quality control in enterprise, realizing the rapid screening of the medicine raw materials.%为了快速准确进行西洋参和人参的品种鉴别,从主根横断面入手,采集其横断面的近红外光谱,分别从物理结构因素和化学因素方面对光谱进行了分析,选定特定波段进行物理因素主导建模、化学因素主导建模、理化因素综合建模,并对三种建模结果进行比较分析,发现三种模型判别率都在96%以上,都能很好的满足批量原材料快速检测的需求.物理因素模型运算简单,但判别率相对低.化学因素判别率较高,但运算量大.理化因素综合模型判别率最高为100%,无需预处理,运算量小,效果最理想,该结果说明近红外定性判别中物理结构因素有时也发挥重要作用.横断

  9. A cross-sectional survey of the mental health needs of refugees and asylum seekers attending a refugee health clinic: a study protocol for using research to inform local service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Doherty, Anne R; Block, Andrew A; Cheng, I-Hao; Wahidi, Sayed; Meadows, Graham N

    2014-12-24

    Refugees and asylum seekers have high rates of risk factors for mental disorders. In recent years, Australia has experienced a rapid increase in asylum seeker arrivals, creating new challenges for services in areas with high settlement numbers. This paper describes the design, including analytic framework, of a project set in a refugee health service in the state of Victoria, Australia, as part of their response to meeting the mental health needs of their burgeoning local population of refugees and asylum seekers. In order to assist service planning, the primary aim of this study is to determine: 1) an overall estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders; 2) the specific prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder 3) the perceived need and unmet need for mental health treatment. The secondary aim of the study is to establish matched risk ratios based on an Australian-born matched comparison group from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. A cross-sectional survey is used to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in refugees and asylum seekers attending a local refugee health service. Measures include the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10, the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-8, the General-practice User's Perceived-need Inventory together with service utilisation questions from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Data collected from refugees and asylum seekers (n = 130) is matched to existing data from Australian-born residents drawn from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (n = 520) to produce estimates of the risk ratio. The paper describes a prototype for what is possible within regular services seeking to plan for and deliver high quality mental health care to refugees and asylum seekers. A novel project output will be the development and dissemination of an epidemiological methodology to reliably compare mental health status in a relatively small target sample with a matched

  10. Research on Protection Process when Section Track Circuit in Bad Shunting Status%区间轨道电路分路不良情况下的防护处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚炯; 李骥群

    2012-01-01

    Section track circuit may be possible in bad shunting situation in CTCS -2 system. In that case, the low-frequency code order and the signal aspect might update incorrectly if the train control center fails to deal with the situation quickly enough. By introducing concept of "inspection on three points" from interlocking, the paper designs an effective algorithm so that the train control center can detect the bad shunting track circuit and take steps of protection by changing blocking zone code and signal indication, thus to prevent accidents and secure traffic safety when a train run into bad shunting.%在CTCS-2级列控系统中,区间轨道电路有可能发生分路不良的情况。若列控中心不能及时做出判断并作出处理,可能会使闭塞分区低频码序和信号机显示错误升级,危及行车安全。文章引入联锁中的“三点检查”概念,设计出一种有效的防护算法,实现列车在区间走行过程中轨道电路发生分路不良情况下,列控中心通过改变闭塞分区码序和信号机显示,可判断出分路不良发生的位置并作出相应防护措施,避免了事故的发生,充分保障了行车安全。

  11. Prehistoric floods on the Tennessee River—Assessing the use of stratigraphic records of past floods for improved flood-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2017-06-14

    Stratigraphic analysis, coupled with geochronologic techniques, indicates that a rich history of large Tennessee River floods is preserved in the Tennessee River Gorge area. Deposits of flood sediment from the 1867 peak discharge of record (460,000 cubic feet per second at Chattanooga, Tennessee) are preserved at many locations throughout the study area at sites with flood-sediment accumulation. Small exposures at two boulder overhangs reveal evidence of three to four other floods similar in size, or larger, than the 1867 flood in the last 3,000 years—one possibly as much or more than 50 percent larger. Records of floods also are preserved in stratigraphic sections at the mouth of the gorge at Williams Island and near Eaves Ferry, about 70 river miles upstream of the gorge. These stratigraphic records may extend as far back as about 9,000 years ago, giving a long history of Tennessee River floods. Although more evidence is needed to confirm these findings, a more in-depth comprehensive paleoflood study is feasible for the Tennessee River.

  12. Re-exploration on the Origin of the Prehistoric Witch Religion of the Chinese Feng Shui%中国风水的史前巫教源头再探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义成

    2015-01-01

    As early as in the 20th century, the foreign archaeology and other disciplines revealed and proved that there existed the“bottom layer of the Arminius witch”.The theory of“bottom layer of the Arminius witch” retold by Mr.Zhang Guangzhi and it was mainly constructed by Mr.Frost, in which Frost expounded that the Arminius which possessed eight ideological characteristics. Mr.Zhang himself once said that witch was very important to the prehistoric China and the eight ideological characteristics of the Arminius which were quite suitable for the study of the ancient China.The above-mentioned ideas reflected that the study of prehis-toric witch had something to do with the study of origin of the Chinese Feng Shui.The article 2 of the eight ideological characteristics of the Arminius which said that there existed the gods of four directions and the gods of four quadrants;the cosmos was divided into four quadrants which were Sep.arated by central axis between south and north, and east and west;meanwhile every direction often combined with specific color;the article 4 said witches were helped by the animal gods.By careful comparison, we found that the a-bove-mentioned ideas accorded completely with the theory of the Chinese Feng Shui, in which there existed front southern god ( scarlet bird) , behind northern god ( tortoise) , left eastern god ( green dragon) , right western god ( white tiger);there was a bas-ic chart of the central axis of south and north.Article 5 said all phenomenon in the cosmos were endowed vigor by vitality or soul, which accorded with vigor philosophy proposed by the Chinese Feng Shui.All these evidences proved that the witch religion was the origin of the prehistoric culture of the Chinese Feng Shui.%国外考古学和其他学科早在20世纪就揭示并多学科证明了史前存在“亚美巫教底层”。张光直先生转述的“亚美巫教底层”理论主要建构者佛斯特先生关于其意识形态八

  13. Batman’da Yeni Bir Keşif: Deraser (Arık Mağara Resimleri A New Discovery In Batman Province: Prehistoric Cave Paintings Of Deraser (Arik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy SOYDAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Euphrates and Tigris rivers which are born from high and snowy mountains of Eastern and Anatolia and give life to a rid regions had a vital importance for early agricultural communities. Mesopotamian civilizations advanced between these two rivers in later centuries and lots of settlements had been established near Euphrates and Tigris. One of the historical settlements is Deraser (Arık village which is in the district of today’s Batman city called Gercüş. A lot of historical remains exist there. Deraser which is about 20 kilometers away from Gercüş and constituted on a place near Tigris. There mains of various buildings, rock-cut tomb sand prehistoric pictures drawn on the walls of caves exist in Deraser (Arık village situated at the bank of Tigris river. The prehistoric painting drawn on the rocks exist in many places of Anatolia, but the paintings drawn by the technical of fresco with red and black paints rarely exist. Therefore, in Deraser, the exploration of red and black colored pictures made by soil or root paint called Berha Nivisandi (The Written Cave is a significant event. There are depictions of animals, wild animal struggles and both men and women festival scenes at cave paintings here. These cave paintings are thematically similar to prehistorical cave paintings found in many parts of the world and they have a unique style in terms of drawing technique. In our study, we will deal with the paintings compiled from the caves in the region of Deraser (The High Church which are not noticed by there searchers working there and we will mention to there search results related to these pictures. Doğu Anadolu'nun yüksek ve karlı dağlarından doğup kurakbölgelere can veren Fırat ve Dicle nehirleri tarih boyunca Mezopotamyave çevresinde yaşayan topluluklar için yaşamsal önem taşıyordu.Mezopotamya uygarlıkları Fırat ve Dicle’ye komşu olan topraklardagelişmiş, bu iki nehrin kıyısında çok sayıda yerleşim yeri

  14. Scheduling a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  15. 14 CFR Section 5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Section 5 Section 5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section...

  16. 46 CFR Section 1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS FEDERAL PORT CONTROLLERS Section 1 Purpose. This part prescribes the standard form of the service agreement to be entered into by the...

  17. 46 CFR Section 1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS RESTRICTIONS UPON THE TRANSFER OR CHANGE IN USE OR IN TERMS GOVERNING UTILIZATION OF PORT FACILITIES Section 1 Definitions. As used in this...

  18. 14 CFR Section 02 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Section 02 Section 02 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 02 ...

  19. Having a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Having a c-section Having a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... at least 39 weeks of pregnancy. What is a c-section? Most babies are born through vaginal ...

  20. Influencing Factors Research of Rectangular Cross-Sectional Rail Launcher Inductance Gradient%矩形截面轨道发射器电感梯度影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成伟; 李小将; 武昊然

    2013-01-01

    The inductance gradient is one of the important indexes affecting rail launcher performance. For rail launcher inductance gradient many influence factors, carries on the reasonable design can make the railgun performance to achieve optimal results. A rectangular cross-sectional rail launcher model was built based on the Biot-Savart law in this paper. Furthermore, the analytical expression of inductance gradient can be obtained by this model. The single parameter sensitivity analysis method was employed to analyze several factors of the inductance gradient. The result shows that:compared with common methods, this paper performs well in both the height and the space between rails;the reason why it is different in the factor of thickness is shown. The armature position which regarded as one of the factors is introduced in the analytical expression of inductance gradient, and some details are done to explain how does it affects. This can provide reference for future design.%电感梯度是影响轨道发射器性能的重要指标之一,针对轨道发射器电感梯度影响因素众多的问题,对其进行合理的设计能够使轨道炮性能达到优化的效果,从毕奥-萨法尔定律出发,建立了矩形截面轨道发射器模型并求得电感梯度解析表达式;运用单参数灵敏度方法对模型中几种影响因素进行仿真分析并与常见电感梯度计算方法进行对比。结果表明:与常规计算电感梯度方法相比,该模型结果较为理想,验证了准确性;与常规方法的不同点在于引入电枢位置作为电感梯度影响因素之一并说明其影响方式。该研究可为轨道发射器设计提供一定参考。