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Sample records for prehistoric bone flutes

  1. DISCOVERY AND RESEARCH ON JIAHU BONE FLUTES IN WUYANG, CHINA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUZHONG, Z.; HARBOTTLE, G.; XINGHUA, X.; CHANGSUI, W.

    2000-11-01

    The site of Jiahu is located in Jiahu village, Wuyang County, Henan province, on the Western edge of the broad plain of Huanhuaihai. On its north the site borders the Sha River, in the upper reaches of the Huai River; its latitude is 33{degree} 36 minutes North, longitude 113{degree} 40 minutes East, and it is 67.5 meters above sea level. Between 1983 and 1987, the Henan Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute carried out six campaigns of excavation here, revealing an area of 2400 square meters. Except for the trial excavation in the spring of 1983, Zhang Juzhong has been in charge of all the excavations. In early May 1986, while excavating tomb 78, Zhang Juzhong and Yang Zhenwei first discovered two funerary bone flutes. They soon found other, similar bone flutes in tombs 73, 94 and 121 respectively. Mr. Zhang's attention was instantly focused on these remarkable finds. In the campaign of autumn 1986, one or two more bone flutes were discovered in each of tombs 233,273, 263 and 270. Finally, in the spring of 1987, again one or two bone flutes were found in each of the tombs 282, 363,341,411,344 and 387. Up to the end of excavation in June 1987, altogether 25 bone flutes had been found, of which 17 were complete or almost complete, 6 broken or fragmentary and 2 were half-finished examples. Among the 17 complete bone flutes, there were 14 having seven holes, one five-hole, one six-hole and one eight-hole bone flute. In particular, the bone flute M282:20 was exquisitely made, and complete. Zhang Juzhong, the discoverer of the bone flutes, researcher Pei Mingxiang, the. ex-director of the division, who came to the digging site to see the progress of the work, and their coworkers were all understandably very excited.

  2. The bones of prehistoric diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis is one of the techniques used to attempt to reconstruct the diet of people in the southwestern Cape as far back as 10 000 years ago. Carbon isotope measurement is also a useful mean of testing the idea that prehistoric people moved seasonally between the coast and the interior. The use of stable isotopes for dietary reconstruction in conjunction with radioactive isotopes for age determinations provides a significant body of data

  3. The Development of the Flute as a Solo Instrument from the Medieval to the Baroque Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Reisenweaver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the oldest instruments known to mankind, the flute is present in some form in nearly every culture and ethnic group in the world. However, in Western music in particular, the flute has taken its place as an important part of musical culture, both as a solo and an ensemble instrument. The flute has also undergone its most significant technological developments in Western musical culture, moving from the bone keyless flutes of the Prehistoric era to the gold and silver instruments known to performers today. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods in particular, however, the flute rose to popularity as a solo instrument and began to evolve into its modern form. New developments in the design and mechanics of the instrument drove this increased interest, which ultimately gave the flute a prominent position in music that has lasted throughout history.

  4. GPR Imaging of Prehistoric Animal Bone-beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Blair Benson

    This research investigates the detection capabilities of Ground-penetrating radar for imaging prehistoric animal bone-beds. The first step of this investigation was to determine the dielectric properties of modern animal bone as a proxy for applying non-invasive ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for detecting prehistoric animal remains. Over 90 thin section samples were cut from four different modern faunal skeleton remains: bison, cow, deer, and elk. One sample of prehistoric mammoth core was also analyzed. Sample dielectric properties (relative permittivity, loss factor, and loss-tangent values) were measured with an impedance analyzer over frequencies ranging from 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The results reveal statistically significant dielectric-property differences among different animal fauna, as well as variation as a function of frequency. The measured sample permittivity values were then compared to modeled sample permittivity values using common dielectric-mixing models. The dielectric mixing models were used to report out new reported values of dry bone mineral of 3-5 in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The second half of this research collected controlled GPR experiments over a sandbox containing buried bison bone elements to evaluate GPR detection capabilities of buried animal bone. The results of the controlled GPR sandbox tests were then compared to numerical models in order to predict the ability of GPR to detect buried animal bone given a variety of different depositional factors, the size and orientation of the bone target and the degree of bone weathering. The radar profiles show that GPR is an effective method for imaging the horizontal and vertical extent of buried animal bone. However, increased bone weathering and increased bone dip were both found to affect GPR reflection signal strength. Finally, the controlled sandbox experiments were also utilized to investigate the impact of survey design for imaging buried animal bone. In particular, the

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in prehistoric Pacific islanders determined by analysis of ancient bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, E; Clegg, J B

    1993-05-22

    A previously characterized Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length mutation has been detected in DNA isolated from prehistoric human bones from Polynesia, including Hawaii, Chatham Islands and Society Islands. In contrast, the Asian mutation was absent in skeletal samples from the Melanesian archipelagos of New Britain and Vanuatu and in the oldest samples from Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in the central Pacific (2700-1600 years BP) although it was present in a more recent prehistoric sample from Tonga. These results, augmented by informative DNA sequence data from the hypervariable region of mtDNA, fail to support current views that the central Pacific was settled directly by voyagers from island Southeast Asia, the putative ancestors of modern Polynesians. An earlier occupation by peoples from the neighbouring Melanesian archipelagos seems more likely.

  8. Construction practices in pre-Hispanic flutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawcliffe, Susan

    2002-11-01

    The ancient cultures of the Americas were separated by thousands of miles and thousand of years. There was a long history of trade over the miles and the years with many shared cultural ideals and artifacts, as evidenced by their musical instruments. Flutes were the most prevalent instruments found throughout the ancient Americas. Some types are unique to the pre-Hispanic world. Although flutes were constructed from a variety of materials, including bone, cane, seed pods, skulls, it is primarily the ceramic ones that survived, and it is ceramic flutes which form the bulk of this writer's work and research. This paper includes musical demonstrations to show how ancient flutemakers could have manipulated timbre during construction. Clay's plasticity enabled the construction of some instruments, and limited the development of others. Pitch jump flutes, certain Veracruzano whistles, and chamberduct flutes and whistles all share the addition of clay flaps or chambers around the aperture, as do hooded pipes. Some instruments exhibit a seemingly cultural predilection for complex tones that are windy, raspy, or animalistic. Simple adjustments of the airduct promote these timbres. Also included will be samples of the original sounds of ancient flutes.

  9. A stochastic approach to the reconstruction of prehistoric human diet in the Pacific region from bone isotope signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Lyon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical constraint on dietary reconstructions using isotope analyses of human bones is that for a given number of isotopes, N, one cannot calculate the proportions of more than N+1 food types. This strict algebraic limitation can be relaxed by adopting a stochastic approach, recommended by Mingawa (1992). This strategy is investigated for prehistoric diet in the South Pacific region, focusing on seven of the main food types available to these people: C3 plants, C4 plants, land herbivores, marine shellfish, coral reef fish, non-reef fish, and marine mammals. Sixty-three underlying assumptions were identified and examined in detail. These consist of the mean values for each food type of protein, energy δ 1 3C, δ 1 5N, 3 4S; the offset values for each isotope from the food to human bone collagen; fractionation effects from flesh to collagen in animals; and acceptable daily intake ranges for protein and energy in human diet. Because of the complexity of the environmental regimes in the Pacific it was also found necessary to tabulate these assumptions into tow groups: one set of assumptions relevant to prehistoric people whose environment is dominated by maritime conditions, such as atolls, and a second set where the land is the dominant influence. . A computer simulation algorithm is developed which is based on Mingawa's method. This was tested using a 'Reverse Experiment' procedure. By taking a diet of known percentage weight composition the isotope composition of human bone was forward calculated from this diet. The algorithm was then employed on this isotope signature to see if the original food composition could be calculated in reverse. The differences between real and calculated food weight percentages for the seven foods were 4.8, 0.1, 4.5, 1.8, 1.5, 1.8 and 1.4% respectively. These were all within aceptable statistical limits. Using the full set of assumptions it was then tested on isotope results for δ 1 3C, δ 1 5N and 3 4S for a prehistoric Pacific

  10. The use of multiple isotope signatures in reconstructing prehistoric human diet from archaeological bone from the Pacific and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, F.; Quinn, C.; Morrison, J.; Lyon, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The isotopes δ 13 C, δ 15 N and δ 34 S were determined in a wide range of modern plants and the flesh of animals of relevance to prehistoric archaeological studies in the tropical Pacific and New Zealand. This was followed by similar analyses of collagen extract from both animal and human bones. Twenty-one human groups throughout the Pacific and New Zealand were examined, five from New Zealand in some detail. A stochastic simulation technique was used to estimate the relative dietary proportions of five basic groups of food: land plants, land animals, marine shellfish, marine fish, marine mammals. The contribution of both food weight and caloric energy from each of these foods is estimated in the diet of the communities examined. Finally, estimates are provided for the proportions of caloric energy deriving from protein, fat and carbohydrate in the diet. (author). 125 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  11. The impact of a modified cutting flute implant design on osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, R; Tovar, N; Marin, C; Teixeira, H S; Anchieta, R B; Silveira, L M; Janal, M N; Shibli, J A; Coelho, P G

    2014-07-01

    Information concerning the effects of the implant cutting flute design on initial stability and its influence on osseointegration in vivo is limited. This study evaluated the early effects of implants with a specific cutting flute design placed in the sheep mandible. Forty-eight dental implants with two different macro-geometries (24 with a specific cutting flute design - Blossom group; 24 with a self-tapping design - DT group) were inserted into the mandibular bodies of six sheep; the maximum insertion torque was recorded. Samples were retrieved and processed for histomorphometric analysis after 3 and 6 weeks. The mean insertion torque was lower for Blossom implants (Pimplant contact (BIC) and P=0.52 for bone area fraction occupied (BAFO); at 6 weeks, P=0.55 for BIC and P=0.45 for BAFO. While no histomorphometric differences were observed, ground sections showed different healing patterns between the implants, with better peri-implant bone organization around those with the specific cutting flute design (Blossom group). Implants with the modified cutting flute design had a significantly reduced insertion torque compared to the DT implants with a traditional cutting thread, and resulted in a different healing pattern. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Exploration of Physiological Responses to the Native American Flute

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Eric B.; Goss, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study explored physiological responses to playing and listening to the Native American flute. Autonomic, electroencephalographic (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics were recorded while participants (N = 15) played flutes and listened to several styles of music. Flute playing was accompanied by an 84% increase in HRV (p < .001). EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity increased while playing flutes (p = .007) and alpha (8-12 Hz) increased while playing lower-pitched flutes (p = .009...

  13. Entropy and the Magic Flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowitz, Harold J.

    1996-10-01

    Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

  14. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Fluted Pumpkin Production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of fluted pumpkin crop in rural household economy cannot be over emphasized. Farmers in the South South Nigeria depend greatly on fluted pumpkin for its many uses. The production however is beset with a myriad of constraints of which climate change is one of the most outstanding. The study assessed ...

  16. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects

  17. Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2 / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2. Kroumata Percussion Ensemble, Tapiola Sinfonietta, Paavo Järvi". BIS CD 739 (64 minutes: DDD). Item marked from CD630 (6/94), CD272, remainder new to UK

  18. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted ... Results revealed that the plant height, stem girth, leaf area, number of leaves, dry matter yield, ..... oxygen and this will lead to slow growth and.

  19. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer spirally fluted tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, J. C.; Libby, P. A.; Yampolsky, J. S.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of this program is to develop both a qualitative and a quantitative understanding of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer mechanisms that underlie the measured performance of the spirally fluted tubes under development at General Atomic. The reason for the interest in the spirally fluted tubes is that results to date have indicated three advantages to this tubing concept: The fabrication technique of rolling flutes on strip and subsequently spiralling and simultaneously welding the strip to form tubing results in low fabrication costs, approximately equal to those of commercially welded tubing. The heat transfer coefficient is increased without a concomitant increase of the friction coefficient on the inside of the tube. In single-phase axial flow of water, the helical flutes continuously induce rotation of the flow both within and without the tube as a result of the effect of curvature. An increase in condensation heat transfer on the outside of the tube is achieved. In a vertical orientation with fluid condensing on the outside of the helically fluted tube, the flutes provide a channel for draining the condensed fluid.

  20. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001. V N Misra. 492 ... humans differ from the other apes in their upright posture, ... characterized by Levallois flakes and blades and by the ... and the coastal region running parallel to them, northeast ..... November 2001. Prehistoric human colonization of India. 497. Figure 1.

  1. A Little Flute Music: Mimicry, Memory, and Narrativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Powys

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A lyrebird chick was raised in captivity in the 1920s in Australia’s New England Tablelands, or so the story goes. The bird mimicked the sounds of the household’s flute player, learning two tunes and an ascending scale. When released back into the wild, his flute-like songs and timbre spread throughout the local lyrebird population. We count ourselves among those who admire the sonic achievements of this bioregion’s “flute lyrebirds.” These Superb Lyrebirds (Menura novaehollandiae do indeed deliver an unusual and extraordinarily complex, flute-like territorial song, although often with a musical competence exceeding what a human flutist could achieve. In this paper, we engage with both the living and the dead across a wide-ranging cast of characters, linking up in the here and now and grasping a hand across the span of many years. Memory and narrativity are pertinent to the at times conflicting stories and reminiscences from archival and contemporary sources. Ultimately, accounts of “flute lyrebirds” speak to how meaning evolves in the tensions, boundaries, and interplay between knowledge and imagination. We conclude that this story exceeds containment, dispersed as it is across several fields of inquiry and a number of individual memories that go in and out of sync.

  2. TONE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES WITH A STUDENT DURING FLUTE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Aytemur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of a five stage study program applied by the researcher to one student who had entered university playing the flute, but who had not resolved lip and tone problems in one educational semester through basic long sound studies and scale studies. The participant in the research was a 19 year old student who had completed first year of the music teaching program and had performed in the year-end concert; however she was criticized by listeners and flute teachers for forced and scratchy tone. The research had the basic aim of solving these problems. As a result the “single subject study model”, chosen for research on individuals requesting private training, was chosen for this research model. The findings of the study were collected as video recordings of scale, study and piece work in initial, training and final stages of a six-week education course run every day. To evaluate the obtained recordings, a “Behavior for Quality Flute Tone Scale” was created. The video recordings were investigated by three flute teaching staff, expert in the area, who provided points in accordance with the scale. The obtained points were analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The results showed that the study program created by the researcher provided rapid tonal development of the student. It is considered that the study is important to present an alternative route for flute students experiencing similar problems.

  3. Performance of broiler chickens served heat-treated fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty five day-old chicks of Anak 2000 were weighed and randomly distributed to five dietary treatments A, B, C, D and E which contained no FPLE (control), fluted pumpkin leaves (FPL) no heat treatment, FPL immersed in hot water (100°C) for 1, 3 and 5 min, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 3 ...

  4. Finite Larmor radius flute mode theory with end loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, I.A.; Berk, H.L.

    1993-08-01

    The theory of flute mode stability is developed for a two-energy- component plasma partially terminated by a conducting limiter. The formalism is developed as a preliminary study of the effect of end-loss in open-ended mirror machines where large Larmor radius effects are important

  5. Growth response of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... An investigation of the growth response of fluted pumpkin to different combinations of irrigation intervals and spent mushroom ... as vine length, number of leaves, leaf area, number of branches, vine fresh weight and total shoot yield across the treatment variants. ... and physical conditions. Organic fertilizers ...

  6. Microproagation of Fluted pumkin by Enhanced Axilary shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to develop protocols for micropropagation of fluted pumkin (Telfairia occidentalis), single node cuttings of two genotypes, Telfairia occidentalis white and Telfairia occidentalis orange (ToW-1 and ToR-1 respectively) were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium but with four different combinations of kinetin and ...

  7. Effects of processing on the nutritional composition of fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluted pumpkin seeds were processed into the raw, boiled, fermented, germinated and roasted seeds, dried at 500C, milled and sieved. The seed flours were analyzed for nutritional composition, energy, amino acids and fatty acids of the oils. Processing affected the levels of nutrients in the seed. The energy values ranged ...

  8. Reinvigorating the indigenous flute in African dance performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In doing this, it attempts to explore the usefulness of flute in encouraging vocational and entrepreneurial skills among the youth, with a view to creating job opportunities. Over the decades, scholars and performing arts practitioners have failed to adequately develop the indigenous musical aerophone instruments such as the ...

  9. Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon, horn, 2 percussionists, 2 violins and cello, Xhosa vocal ensemble and indigenous instruments. J Zaidel-Rudoulph. Abstract. No Abstract Journal for the Musical Arts in Africa Vol. 3 2007: pp. 80-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

  11. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  12. Theoretical investigation of flute modes in a magnetic quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    This research developed theories and conducted numerical investigations of electrostatic flute modes in a plasma confined in a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter I presents the discussion of relevant background. Chapter II contains a brief discussion of the basic flute-mode operator L 0 for intermediate- and low-frequency regimes. Chapter III develops a simple theory for a flute mode with frequency between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in the uniform density and temperature regions of a magnetic quadrupole. The frequency is predicted to be inversely proportional to the wave number. Chapter IV describes the kinetic approach. Chapter V contains the derivation of an eigenvalue equation for electrostatic waves with frequencies below the ion frequency in the private flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VI develops a theory for electrostatic waves with frequency below the ion bounce frequency in the shared flux region of a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VII contains the derivation of a dispersion equation for flute modes with frequencies between the electron and ion bounce frequencies in a plasma confined to a magnetic quadrupole. Chapter VIII presents a summary of the research described

  13. Investigation on hole manufacture in 42CrMo4 steel using 3-flute carbide drills and 6-flute cermet reamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    An investigation on cutting forces and hole quality using carbide 3-flute self-centering drills and 6-flute cermet reamers was performed on 42CrMo4 alloy steel. Different depths of cuts were analyzed with respect to cutting thrust and cutting torque, hole diameter, form and surface integrity. Goo...

  14. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the following methods: a) one or more screws inserted across the break to hold it. b) a steel plate held by screws drilled into the bone. c) a long fluted metal pin with holes in it, is driven down the shaft of the bone ...

  15. Feedback effect on flute dynamics in a mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be’ery, I; Seemann, O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of active feedback on flute instability is experimentally studied in a table-top mirror machine. Changing the plasma conditions from mirror-loss dominated to flute-loss dominated, it is demonstrated that while the feedback has no effect on plasma density in the first case, it increases the plasma density by up to 50% in the second case. Measurements of the dependence of instability amplitude on feedback gain show that large gain stimulates high frequency perturbations. The period of these perturbations corresponds to the inherent delay of immersed electrode feedback. Variation of the spatial phase between the input and output of the phase reveals a large asymmetry between positive and negative phase shifts. A simplified model is introduced to explain how a negative phase shift causes positive feedback between the external feedback and the centrifugally driven rotation. (paper)

  16. Flute instability in the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere, the surfaces of constant pressure may not coincide with surfaces of constant specific volume. This circumstance forces a reexamination of the theory for the flute instability, in which the pressure has been assumed to remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume. The MHD equations for flute waves in a curvilinear magnetic field are used to show that an instability of a new type, with a pressure which does not remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume, can occur in the plasma shell of the magnetosphere. An expression is derived for the growth rate of this instability. Analysis of the equation also shows that perturbations with wavelengths shorter than the ion Larmor radius are stable by virtue of magnetodrift effects. The growth rates of the flute instabilities are calculated for both a dipole magnetic field and an arbitrary magnetic-field configuration. Growth rates calculated for typical values of the characteristics of the earth's plasma shell are reported

  17. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  18. Effects of diameter and helical angle of flute on the flow evenness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of shaft, flute shape, width of slot and wrapping angle. (Turgut et al., 1995, 1996; ... Figure 1. Technical properties of fluted roller used in this study. average length ... The study was conducted for the ground speed of 1.5 m s-1 ...

  19. 78 FR 59269 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Fluted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...). The gametogenic cycle (annual cycle in the development of reproductive cells or gametes) of fluted... Cumberland....... Fentress, Morgan, TN Historical and Current. River. Scott. Rock Creek Cumberland...). Live fluted kidneyshell have not been collected in Rock Creek since 1988 (Layzer and Anderson 1992, p...

  20. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  1. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  4. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W; Pregill, Gregory K; Burley, David V

    2002-03-19

    The Tongoleleka archaeological site on Lifuka Island, Kingdom of Tonga, is a rich accumulation of pottery, marine mollusks, and nonhuman bones that represents first human contact on a small island in Remote Oceania approximately 2,850 years ago. The lower strata contain decorated Lapita-style pottery and bones of an extinct iguana (Brachylophus undescribed sp.) and numerous species of extinct birds. The upper strata instead feature Polynesian Plainware pottery and bones of extant species of vertebrates. A stratigraphic series of 20 accelerator-mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates on individual bones of the iguana, an extinct megapode (Megapodius alimentum), and the non-native chicken (Gallus gallus) suggests that anthropogenic loss of the first two species and introduction of the latter occurred on Lifuka within a time interval too short (a century or less) to be resolved by radiometric dating. The geologically instantaneous prehistoric collapse of Lifuka's vertebrate community contrasts with the much longer periods of faunal depletion on some other islands, thus showing that the elapse time between human arrival and major extinction events was highly variable on oceanic islands as well as on continents.

  6. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  7. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130 ISSN 0323-1119. [ Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.

  9. CFD investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in isoflux spirally fluted tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Azamatov, Abdulaziz Irgashevich; El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Huang, Huancong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in spirally fluted tubes is investigated numerically using the CFD code Fluent. The tube investigated in this work is characterized by the existence of helical ridging which

  10. La Música Da Vida a Vida: Transverse Flute Music of Otavalo, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Jessie M.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation introduces an Andean transverse flute tradition of northernEcuador that has been routinely overlooked throughout a long history of scholarship published on the Otavalan region and its Kichwa–speaking inhabitants. Ethnographic data was collected through a variety of methods over the course of eight cumulative months of fieldwork in Ecuador, as well as an additional three and a half years during which I co–produced an album with flute masters from the Hatun Kotama ...

  11. Surface flute modes in the bumpy magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.O.; Girka, V.O.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Surface electromagnetic waves are often determined as the most possible cause of undesirable heating of edge plasma that leads, in turn, to strengthening of plasma - wall interaction in stellarators and increased plasma contamination. The propagation of surface flute modes near the interface of plasma column separated by a vacuum layer from the ring cylindrical ideally conductive metallic chamber is studied. The external steady bumpy magnetic field B-vector 0 = B 0z e-vector z + B 0r e-vector r was considered, B 0z =B 00 [1+ε m (r)cos(k m z)], here ε m '≡dε m /dr, k m =2π/L, L is the period of nonuniformity. non-uniformity of B-vector 0 is planned to be dominant in the confining magnetic field of the modular stellarator Helias, ε m ∼ 0.13. In the bumpy magnetic field the electromagnetic disturbance propagates in the form of the wave envelope, in which one alongside with the fundamental harmonic, proportional to exp[i(mθ±-ωt)], infinite set of satellite spatial harmonics, proportional to exp[i(mθ ± jk m z - ωt)], j=1,2,3..., is present. It is shown, that in the first approximation in the respect to ε m , amplitudes of the fundamental harmonics of the E-wave with the field components E r , E θ , B z do not vary, small satellite harmonics of these fields arise, proportional to exp[i(mθ ± k m z - ωt)]. At the same time due to weak coupling of - and - modes, caused by B-vector 0 nonuniformity and nonzero axial wave number of satellite harmonics, small satellite harmonics of H-wave with the field components E z , B r , B θ also arise. The amplitudes of satellite harmonics of E-wave are shown to be symmetric: E r (+) =E r (-) , E θ (+) =E θ (-) , B z (+) =B z (-) , and the amplitudes of H-wave are antisymmetric: B r (+) =-B r (-) , B θ (+) =- B θ (-) , E z (+) =-E z (-) . In the second approximation in the respect to ε m corrections to the amplitudes of the fundamental harmonic of E-wave arise. The correction to the eigen frequency of the wave

  12. Flute instability growth on a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Welch, D. R.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Ditmire, T.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of the flute-type instability for a field-aligned plasma column immersed in a uniform magnetic field is studied. Particle-in-cell simulations are compared with a semi-analytic dispersion analysis of the drift cyclotron instability in cylindrical geometry with a Gaussian density profile in the radial direction. For the parameters considered here, the dispersion analysis gives a local maximum for the peak growth rates as a function of R/r i , where R is the Gaussian characteristic radius and r i is the ion gyroradius. The electrostatic and electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation results give azimuthal and radial mode numbers that are in reasonable agreement with the dispersion analysis. The electrostatic simulations give linear growth rates that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis results, while the electromagnetic simulations yield growth rate trends that are similar to the dispersion analysis but that are not in quantitative agreement. These differences are ascribed to higher initial field fluctuation levels in the electromagnetic field solver. Overall, the simulations allow the examination of both the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability in this physical system up to and beyond the point of wave energy saturation

  13. Development and Performance Evaluation of Fluted Pumpkin Seed Dehulling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Odewole

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A machine for dehulling fluted pumpkin seed (Telfairia occidentalis was developed. The main objective of developing the machine was to provide a better substitute to traditional methods of dehulling the seed which contains edible oil of high medicinal and nutritional values. Traditional methods are full of drudgery, slow, injury prone and would lead to low and poor outputs in terms of quantity and quality of dehulled products. The machine is made of five major parts: the feed hopper (for holding the seeds to be dehulled before getting into the dehulling chamber, dehulling chamber (the part of the machine that impacts forces on seeds thereby causing fractures and opening of seeds coats for the delivery of the oily kernels, discharge unit (exit for oily kernels and seed coats after dehulling, the frame (for structural support and stability of all parts of the machine and electric motor (power source of the machine.The development process involved design of major components (shaft diameter (20 mm, machine velocity (7.59 m/s, power requirement (3hp single phase electric motor and structural support of mild steel angle iron, selection of construction materials and fabrication. ANSYS R14.5 machine design computer software was used to design the shaft and structural support; while other components were designed with conventional design method of using design equations. The machine works on the principle of centrifugal and impact forces. Performance evaluation was carried out after fabrication and 87.26%, 2.83g/s, 8.9% and 3.84%were obtained for dehulling efficiency, throughput capacity, percentage partially dehulled and percentage undehulled respectively.

  14. Generation and saturation of large-scale flows in flute turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation and suppression of large-scale anisotropic modes during the temporal evolution of a magnetic-curvature-driven electrostatic flute instability are numerically investigated. The formation of streamerlike structures is attributed to the linear development of the instability while the subsequent excitation of the zonal modes is the result of the nonlinear coupling between linearly grown flute modes. When the amplitudes of the zonal modes become of the same order as that of the streamer modes, the flute instabilities get suppressed and poloidal (zonal) flows dominate. In the saturated state that follows, the dominant large-scale modes of the potential and the density are self-organized in different ways, depending on the value of the ion temperature

  15. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Idea Bank: The Native American Flute--A Possibility for Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacanek, Hal

    2011-01-01

    The sound of the Native American flute seems to convey care, sadness, loneliness, longing, heartfelt emotion, a sense of the natural world, wisdom, the human spirit, and a sense of culture. It is a sound that competes for attention, dramatically punctuating messages about First Nation peoples on television and in movies. A relatively small group…

  17. Effect of plant spacing on weed suppression and yield of fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on weed suppression yield and economic benefit of fluted pumpkin (Telfeiria occidentalis Hook F). The experiment was carried out at the Department of Crop and Soil Science Demonstration Plot, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

  18. The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin ( telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of manganese on early growth of fluted pumpkin (telfairia occidentalis hook f) in an ultisol. ER Orhue, CNC Nwaoguala. Abstract. The trials were conducted at the experimental site of University of Benin Teaching and Research Farm to determine the influence of Mn on early growth, nutrient content and uptake by ...

  19. Implications of Y-fluting microstructures in zircaloy stress-corrosion fracture and analogous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.M.; Garlick, A.

    1982-01-01

    Transgranular cleavage is an important mode of crack propagation during stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of Zircaloy in iodine vapour; and another characteristic feature is the presence of parallel closely spaced ridges. These are often referred to as Y-flutings because each ridge takes the form of an inverted Y when viewed along the direction of crack growth. The flutings are shown here to be formed by localised ductile parting of the Zircaloy near the tips of cleavage cracks; high mechanical constraints in those regions and the limited number of available slip systems result in the formation of a planar array of parallel tunnels. Upon final separation these appear as a pattern of parallel ridges on each fracture face. Striking similarities in morphology have been noted here between Y-flutings in Zircaloy and those produced during tests on unstable fluid interfaces: the direction of motion of the fluid interface can be determined from the Y-morphology and is in agreement with observations from Zircaloy SCC tests. It is further demonstrated that equations governing thermodynamic and kinetic instability of fluid interfaces can be adapted to relate the fluting spacing in Zircaloy to standard fracture mechanics parameters. (author)

  20. Evidence for Prehistoric Astronomy in the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G.

    In this study an effort is made to find evidence, based on literary and archaeological sources, for the astronomical knowledge of the people in and around the Aegean in prehistoric times. The main conclusions are: 1) The Minoans, as well as the Mycenaeans, had a calendar, not necessarily the same. The existence of a Mycenaean calendar is well known from the Knossos and Pylos tablets containing a number of months. 2) The Minoans had a luni-solar calendar and a time record system. They used as a basic time unit the time of rise of the solar disc, measured probably through a clepsydre, and the well known gaming board (zatrikion) of the Heraclion Museum as a time-keeper. Bigger units were the day, the lunar months, the year and the octaetiris. 3) The necessary observations were probably made from sites such as the peak sanctuaries in Crete.

  1. Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  2. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  3. Nonlinear stability of m=1 flute mode in a nonparaxial open plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskij, I.M.; Stupakov, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma flute stability as to high shifts under strong effects of ion Larmor finite radius conditions is studied. System consisting of long axisymmetric paraxial mirror device with stabilizing cells at its edges is considered. Variation of plasma energy as to its shift as a whole is calculated. It is shown, that depending on stabilizer type the force bringing plasma back in equilibrium state with shift growth may both increase and decrease

  4. The Dance of the Dead Rhino: William Kentridge’s Magic Flute

    OpenAIRE

    Guarracino, Serena

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reading of the staging of The Magic Flute by visual artist William Kentridge, focusing on his introduction of the rhino in the visual landscape of the opera as symbol for the silenced subject of violence. Operatic tradition has always been concerned with the staging of death, in particular with the death of its female protagonists, and recent scholarship has highlighted the complicity of the genre with the ideology of Western patriarchy and colonial violence. In this ligh...

  5. Music Performance Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms and Coping Strategies for Flute Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Sinico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the causes, symptoms and coping strategies used by undergraduate flute students from three universalities in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety (MPA during jury recitals. The data collection and analysis procedures used were similar to a study by Siw Nielsen (1999, i.e., recital participant behavioral observation and verbal reports using semi-structured interviews. Both procedures were recorded in audio and video. As a result, the study highlights sixteen causes, nineteen symptoms, and eighteen strategies used by flute students to cope with MPA. Anxiety among the participants was constantly present to a greater or lesser degree. Its main cause was the repertoire for solo flute; nervousness was the symptom most reported by the participants; and positive self-talk was the most used coping strategy. The research concluded that, since anxiety is an inherent emotion in performing music, musicians must use a broad range of strategies—before and during the performance—to thoroughly deal with the causes and symptoms of anxiety. The article also highlights the importance of music professors in knowing the causes of MPA and its symptoms so that they can plan a strategy consistent with the needs of their students that will help them cope with the negative effects of anxiety.

  6. Lead in prehistoric, historic and contemporary Japanese: stable isotopic study by ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Morita, M.; Yoneda, M.; Yoshinaga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Lead concentration and isotopic composition of prehistoric (middle and latest Jomon era, 2000-4500 BP, n=6), historic (Edo era, 130-400 BP, n=10), and contemporary (died in 1987-88, n=15) Japanese bones, and deciduous teeth from contemporary Japanese children born during 1985-88 (n=17) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead concentration was lowest in Jomon bones and was higher in rural Edo, contemporary, and urban Edo, in that order. Elevated Pb concentration in historic Edo people, as reported previously, was reconfirmed. The average isotopic ratios ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) in excavated (prehistoric and historic) bones, contemporary bones, and deciduous teeth were different from each other. The contemporary bones had the least radiogenic composition (mean 207 Pb/ 206 Pb: 0.879; mean 208 Pb/ 206 Pb: 2.126) while the excavated bones the most (0.848; 2.098), and teeth intermediate (0.866; 2.111). The comparison with the literature data of isotopic compositions of environmental samples showed that the isotopic composition of the excavated bones was within the range of Japanese ores, rocks and soils, indicating the absence of foreign Pb sources in preindustrialized Japan. That of the contemporary bones was closer to the average gasoline Pb, the use of which had been banned in the late 1970s, than to the Pb in airborne particulate matter or refuse incineration ash of 1980s. The average Pb isotopic ratios in the deciduous teeth was close to the isotopic ratios of Pb in airborne particulate matter and refuse incineration ash. These data indicated that the contemporary Japanese population was exposed to foreign Pb which had different isotopic composition from domestic Pb. Exposure to Pb of foreign origin was particularly evidently recorded in people born before the leaded gasoline ban. The history of human Pb contamination in Japan is discussed based on the present results and other previously published data. (Copyright (c) 1998

  7. The sound of oscillating air jets: Physics, modeling and simulation in flute-like instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Cuadra, Patricio

    Flute-like instruments share a common mechanism that consists of blowing across one open end of a resonator to produce an air jet that is directed towards a sharp edge. Analysis of its operation involves various research fields including fluid dynamics, aero-acoustics, and physics. An effort has been made in this study to extend this description from instruments with fixed geometry like recorders and organ pipes to flutes played by the lips. An analysis of the jet's response to a periodic excitation is the focus of this study, as are the parameters under the player's control in forming the jet. The jet is excited with a controlled excitation consisting of two loudspeakers in opposite phase. A Schlieren system is used to visualize the jet, and image detection algorithms are developed to extract quantitative information from the images. In order to study the behavior of jets observed in different flute-like instruments, several geometries of the excitation and jet shapes are studied. The obtained data is used to propose analytical models that correctly fit the observed measurements and can be used for simulations. The control exerted by the performer on the instrument is of crucial importance in the quality of the sound produced for a number of flute-like instruments. The case of the transverse flute is experimentally studied. An ensemble of control parameters are measured and visualized in order to describe some aspects of the subtle control attained by an experienced flautist. Contrasting data from a novice flautist are compared. As a result, typical values for several non-dimensional parameters that characterize the normal operation of the instrument have been measured, and data to feed simulations has been collected. The information obtained through experimentation is combined with research developed over the last decades to put together a time-domain simulation. The model proposed is one-dimensional and driven by a single physical input. All the variables in the

  8. Prehistoric introduction of domestic pigs onto the Okinawa Islands: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi

    2002-08-01

    Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.

  9. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  10. Thermoluminescent determination of prehistoric heat treatment of chert artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Zimmerman, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years archeologists have become interested in the extent to which prehistoric peoples heat-treated chert prior to shaping it into tools. Thermoluminescent determination of the radiation dose accumulated by an artifact since it was formed or last heated provides a simple, reliable test for such heat treatment. This test can be applied to single artifacts without the need for raw source material for comparison. Results on 25 artifacts from four sites indicate that, for many chert sources, color and luster are not useful indicators of heat treatment by prehistoric peoples

  11. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.

    2017-12-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  12. Adaptive Bone Remodeling of the Femoral Bone After Tumor Resection Arthroplasty With an Uncemented Proximally Hydroxyapatite-Coated Stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel R.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    -fluted 125-mm uncemented press-fit titanium alloy stem with hydroxyapatite coating of the proximal part of the stem. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) were done postoperatively and after 3, 6, and 12 mo in the part of the femur bone containing the Global Modular Replacement System stem using...... of 8%-9% during the first postoperative year was seen along the femoral stem, but in the bone containing the hydroxyapatite-coated part of the stem, the decrease in BMD was 14%, thus indicating that stress shielding of this part of the bone may play a role for the adaptive bone remodeling....

  13. The songs of Tlaloc: Interference of ten ceramical duct flutes, Offering 89 of the Aztec Templo Mayor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, M. A. Adje

    2002-11-01

    Among the many preserved sound artefacts deposited in the offerings of the Aztec Templo Mayor are a set of ten tubular duct flutes made from clay, dating Late Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1350-1521 AD. The aerophones are completely painted in blue, and characterized by: (1) a short mouthpiece; (2) a framed aperture; (3) a tube with four fingerholes; and (4) an applicated mask with features of the Aztec rain god Tlaloc, basically three rings and a standardized relief structure of two clouds. While all measurements follow the same pattern, one particular organological distinction was made, as five flutes show an exit hole in the middle ring of the mask and five flutes are stopped. Thus, five instruments sound considerably higher, apart from the minimal pitch deviation of each specimen. Both the tonal capacity of each flute and the acoustics of several flutes played simultaneously were recorded and measured. A series of remarkable interference effects could be produced, which were strongly related to the ritual complex reflected in the offering. Taking in consideration the Aztec concept of music, it could be supposed that they were perceived as a principle of the song, or proper voice of Tlaloc.

  14. Flute Teachers’ One-to-One Instructional Strategies at Individual Teaching Stages in Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kavčič Pucihar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one-to-one studio based instrumental instruction in music schools. Some novelties in the music school woodwind curricula are presented within various contexts. Teacher – student relationship, their interactions, and knowledge transfer are essential in individual instrumental instruction. The learning process is systematically structured within six teaching stages, ranging from new content presentation to learning reviews. We examined music school flute teachers’ beliefs (N=78 about teaching stages in individual studio based instruction. We researched their new content teaching strategies, guided practice and reinforcement, feedback, homework monitoring strategies, formative review and assessment within music studio academic year.

  15. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G; Andreani, C; Pietropaolo, A; Grazzi, F; Scherillo, A; Barzagli, E; Sutton, L F; Bognetti, L; Bini, A; Schooneveld, E

    2013-01-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics. (paper)

  16. Transitions to spatiotemporal chaos and turbulence of flute instabilities in a low-β magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G.

    2006-01-01

    The spatiotemporal transition scenario of flute instabilities from a regular to a turbulent state is experimentally investigated in the low-β plasma column of a thermionic discharge. The same transition scenario, i.e., the Ruelle-Takens route to turbulence, is found for both the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. It is demonstrated that the transition can be more or less smooth, according to the discharge mode. In both cases, a strong radial dependence is observed, which is linked to the velocity shear layer in the case of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

  17. Studies of prehistoric flint tools by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The trace elements preserved on sharp edges of stone tools may provide some information about the worked material, which in turn may serve for the reconstruction of users way of life. Since the amount of the deposited worked material is minute, it can only be detected by sensitive fluorescence techniques, induced by electrons in the electron microscopes, or by light ions from the particle accelerators (PIXE). The trace element deposition was studied by PIXE for a set of experimental tools used for working bone and wood, and for a set of archaeological artefacts dating from the late paleolithic till neolithic period. (author)

  18. The Dance of the Dead Rhino: William Kentridge’s Magic Flute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Guarracino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a reading of the staging of The Magic Flute by visual artist William Kentridge, focusing on his introduction of the rhino in the visual landscape of the opera as symbol for the silenced subject of violence. Operatic tradition has always been concerned with the staging of death, in particular with the death of its female protagonists, and recent scholarship has highlighted the complicity of the genre with the ideology of Western patriarchy and colonial violence. In this light, Kentridge's appropriation stages Mozart's opera as both voice of colonial Europe and place of resistance for the postcolonial artist. Kentridge moves the setting of the opera to colonial Africa, and the Flute becomes haunted with the massacre of the Herero people in South West Africa by the German army led by general von Trotha (1904-1907. The African white rhino, a species under the threat of extinction, works in this work as proxy for the missing corpses of the Herero people; in its being subject to humiliation and ruthless murder, it recalls Judith Butler's recent attempt at a different categorization of human life as both a continuous exposure to violence and what can be mourned after death. With its silence among the powerful sounds of Mozart's opera, the body of the dead, dancing rhino stands at the centre of Kentridge's work, which becomes a ceremony of mourning where the Western canon can be made to "resonate differently" (Trinh T. Minh-ha.

  19. NATIONAL FOLK MUSIC TRADITIONS IN TEODOR ZGUREANU’S CONCERTO FOR NAI (ROMANIAN PAN FLUTE AND ORCHESTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZÎCA TATIANA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first musicological analysis of Teodor Zgureanu’s concerto for nai (Romanian pan flute and orchestra. The analysis places the concerto within the context of the neofolkloric and polystylistic tradition. Its main focus is to identify the concerto’s dramatic structure and its main means of expression in relation to the modern compositional techniques.

  20. Isotopic evidence for prehistoric subsistence change at Parmana, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, N.J. van der; Roosevelt, A.C.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements on human skeletons from Parmana, Venezuela are reported which show that there was a dramatic shift in the prehistoric diet from dependence on C 3 plants, in which carbon dioxide is initially fixed as phosphoglyceric acid, to C 4 plants, which include maize, in which the carbon dioxide is fixed as a C 4 carboxylic acid. (U.K.)

  1. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  2. Earth building materials in pre-historic domestic architectures on the south of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Patrícia; Faria, Paulina

    2008-01-01

    HERITAGE 2008 - World Heritage and Sustainable Development. Barcelos: Green Lines Institute for Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, p. 571-579 Pre-historic architectures reveal a profound knowledge of building materials and their selection and application. Depending on each geographical context or functional needs, pre-historic man developed and applied different building techniques. Archaeological vestiges from several pre-historic settlements of southwest Iberia has shown that s...

  3. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  4. Active feedback stabilization of the flute instability in a mirror machine using field-aligned coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Be'ery, I.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Fruchtman, A.

    2012-01-01

    A plasma confined in linear mirror machines is unstable even at low β, mainly because of the flute instability. One possible way to stabilize the plasma is to use active feedback to correct the plasma shape in real time. The theoretically investigated apparatus consists of feedback coils aligned with the magnetic field, immersed in a cold plasma around the hot core. When the current through the feedback coils changes, the plasma moves to conserve the magnetic flux via compressional Alfvén waves. An analytical model is used to find a robust feedback algorithm with zero residual currents. It is shown that due to the plasma's rotation, maximal stability is obtained with a large phase angle between the perturbations' modes and the feedback integral-like term. Finally, a two-dimensional MHD simulation implementing the above algorithm in fact shows stabilization of the plasma with zero residual currents. (paper)

  5. Freud's prehistoric matrix--owing 'nature' a death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2007-12-01

    This paper is informed by contemporary literature in two fields--neonatal research, on the one hand, and the burgeoning interdisciplinary interest in Moses and monotheism, on the other. The author postulates that a cluster of traumatic events during the first two years of Freud's life compelled him to repeat what could not be remembered. Embedded in charged implicit schema, these affects remained unprocessed in Freud, who alone of all psychoanalysts did not have an analysis, manifesting in an uncanny dread/allure of the 'prehistoric' as a dark and dangerous era relating to the archaic feminine/maternal matrix and fratricidal murderousness. Furthermore, she cites evidence to suggest that for Freud this unconsciously excluded subtext of the preoedipal era became associated with ancient Egyptian and Minoan-Mycenaean cultures, a passionate fascination actualized in his collection of antiquities yet incongruously absent in his theoretical work, with three exceptions--Egyptian allusions in Leonardo's unconscious attachment to his archaic mother; the 'Minoan-Mycenaean' analogy on discovering the pre-oedipal mother shortly after the death of Freud's own mother; and Egypt as cradle of humanity in his uncharacteristically rambling, troubled text of Moses and monotheism. The author sees Freud's conceptual avoidance yet compulsive reworking of the prehistoric matrix as a symptomatic attempt to expose early unformulated representations that 'return to exert a powerful effect'.

  6. Enhanced identification of trace element fingerprint of prehistoric pigments by PIXE mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, M.; Pichon, L.; Beck, L.

    2018-02-01

    The elemental composition of Fe rich rocks used as pigment during prehistoric periods can provide valuable information about the type of material used and their geological origin. However, these materials present several analytical constraints since their patrimonial value involve using non-invasive techniques maintaining a high sensitivity of the detection and the quantification of trace elements. Micro-beam techniques also require to take into account the heterogeneity of these geomaterials from the macroscopic to microscopic scales. Several previous studies have demonstrated that PIXE analysis satisfies these analytical conditions. However, application of micro-PIXE analysis is still complex when thin and discontinuous layer of pigment is deposed on the surface of other materials such as rocks or bones. In such case, PIXE imaging could improve the ability to take into account the high heterogeneity of such archaeological objects. In study, we used PIXE imaging system developed at the NewAGLAE facility in order to visualize distribution of elements associated with iron-rich pigment phase. The results obtained show that PIXE maps can improve the identification of the main trace elements specific to the iron mineral phase. By grouping pixels of iron-rich areas and performing quantitative treatment, it was possible to reveal additional trace elements associated to pigment. This study highlights the contribution of PIXE imaging to the identification of elements associated with mineral phases of interest and to use them as proxies to discriminate different geological materials used in archaeological context.

  7. Flute type micropores activated carbon from cotton stalk for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xun; Ma, Hongru; Li, Zhe; Yan, Shaocun; Ma, Lei; Yu, Feng; Wang, Gang; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing; Wong, Chingping

    2017-08-01

    Flute type micropores activated carbon (FTMAC) has been successfully obtained from cotton stalk via KOH-chemical activation method. The synthesized carbon material exhibits an ordered pore structure with high specific surface area of 1964.46 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 1.03 m3 g-1. The assembled FTMAC-based electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 254 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. It still can maintain 221 F g-1at a current density of 10 A g-1, demonstrating a good rate capacity (87% retention), as well as long cyclic stability of 96% capacitance retention after 10000 charging and discharging cycles at current density of 1 A g-1. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 18.14 W h kg-1 and a power density of 450.37 W kg-1 which is operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V.

  8. Experimental investigation of a coherent flute instability using a heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A coherent, low-frequency instability found in a cylindrical, hollow cathode arc plasma has been investigated by using a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The energy density of the plasma was high enough to render it inaccessible to Langmuir probes, but the HIBP was able to provide measurements throughout the plasma cross section. The data clearly show that azimuthal symmetry does not exist. Radial profiles of steady-state density and space potential and of simultaneous n, phi amplitude and phase were obtained to allow detailed comparison between theory and experiment. Predictions from a cylindrically symmetric, small-perturbation theoretical model provide reasonably conclusive identification of the instability as a Kelvin--Helmholtz flute driven by and localized in a region of fluid shear. The most serious discrepancy was with regard to the oscillation frequency, which was consistently predicted to be three to four times lower than that observed experimentally. The reason for the discrepancy is not understood, but it is probably related to inadequacies in the theory caused by assumptions of azimuthal symmetry and of small linear perturbations

  9. Phosphorylation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors: From the Barcode Hypothesis to the Flute Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Zhixin; Lin, Amy; Liu, Chuan; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2017-09-01

    Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often phosphorylated at the C terminus and on intracellular loops in response to various extracellular stimuli. Phosphorylation of GPCRs by GPCR kinases and certain other kinases can promote the recruitment of arrestin molecules. The arrestins critically regulate GPCR functions not only by mediating receptor desensitization and internalization, but also by redirecting signaling to G protein-independent pathways via interactions with numerous downstream effector molecules. Accumulating evidence over the past decade has given rise to the phospho-barcode hypothesis, which states that ligand-specific phosphorylation patterns of a receptor direct its distinct functional outcomes. Our recent work using unnatural amino acid incorporation and fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 19 F-NMR) spectroscopy led to the flute model, which provides preliminary insight into the receptor phospho-coding mechanism, by which receptor phosphorylation patterns are recognized by an array of phosphate-binding pockets on arrestin and are translated into distinct conformations. These selective conformations are recognized by various effector molecules downstream of arrestin. The phospho-barcoding mechanism enables arrestin to recognize a wide range of phosphorylation patterns of GPCRs, contributing to their diverse functions. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  10. Optimization for energy consumption in drying section of fluting paper machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodbanan Shaaban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear programming optimization method was used to optimize total steam and air consumption in the dryer section of multi-cylinder fluting paper machine. Equality constraints of the optimization model were obtained from specified process blocks considering mass and energy balance relationships in drying and heat recovery sections. Inequality constraints correspond to process parameters such as production capacity, operating conditions, and other limitations. Using the simulation, the process parameters can be optimized to improve the energy efficiency and heat recovery performance. For a corrugating machine, optimized parameters show the total steam use can be reduced by about 11% due to improvement of the heat recovery performance and optimization of the operating conditions such as inlet web dryness, evaporation rate, and exhaust air humidity, accordingly total steam consumption can be decreased from about 1.71 to 1.53 tonnes steam per tonne paper production. The humidity of the exhaust air should be kept as high as possible to optimize the energy performance and avoid condensation in the pocket dryers and hood exhaust air. So the simulation shows the supply air should be increased by about 10% to achieve optimal humidity level which was determined about 0.152 kgH2O/(kg dry air.

  11. Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

  12. CFD investigation of flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in isoflux spirally fluted tubes

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in spirally fluted tubes is investigated numerically using the CFD code Fluent. The tube investigated in this work is characterized by the existence of helical ridging which is usually obtained by embossing a smooth tube. A tube of diameter of 15 mm, 1.5 mm groove depth and a single helix with pitch of 64 mm is chosen for simulation. This geometry has been chosen for simulation because it has been investigated experimentally for pure fluids and would, therefore, provide a verification framework with our CFD model. The result of our CFD investigation compares very well with the experimental work conducted on this tube geometry. Interesting patterns are highlighted and investigated including the existence of flow swirl as a result of the existence of the spirally enhanced ridges. This swirl flow enhances heat transfer characteristics of this system as reported in the literatures. This study also shows that further enhancement is achieved if small amount of nanoparticles are introduced to the fluid. These nanoparticles (metallic-based nanoparticles) when introduced to the fluid enhances its heat transfer characteristics.

  13. Champagne flutes and brandy snifters: modelling protostellar outflow-cloud chemical interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, R. P.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Redman, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star-forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interfaces between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled `brandy snifter' shaped outflows over narrower `champagne flute' shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO+. We present results from a chemodynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained naturally by the geometry-dependent ion injection rate causing rapid dissociation of CO in the younger systems.

  14. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide: An updated geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This study presents the detailed reconstruction of the entire structure of the prehistoric Vajont rockslide (about 270-300 million m3 of rocks and debris) for the first time, describing the complex geometry and the characteristic superimposition of distinct rigid blocks on a very thick shear zone. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide was characterized by an enormous 'en masse' motion of a rigid overlying rock mass (100-130 m thick) that moved downslope, sliding onto a very thick shear zone (40-50 m thick, on average) made up of a chaotic assemblage of blocks, limestone angular gravel, and high plasticity clays (montmorillonitic clays). Coarse loose sediments, still exposed on the 9 October 1963 detachment surface, are always associated with large blocks made of strongly fractured rock masses (Fonzaso Formation: middle-upper Jurassic) preserving the stratification. The blocks of stratified and folded limestone sequences appear to be 'sheared off' from the underlying bedrock and can be considered as displaced rock masses planed off by the motion of the overlying rigid rock mass ('rock mass shavings'). The prehistoric Vajont rockslide was characterized by a multistage failure with a marked retrogressive evolution. The first rupture (Pian del Toc block) rapidly destabilized the upper slope, mobilizing a second rock mass block (Pian della Pozza block) that, in turn, determined the multiple rupture of the revealed shear zone material (Massalezza lobe). Even if the exact timing of the different phases is not known, the entire multistaged failure process was very rapid. At the end of the multistage retrogressive failure, the slope morphology of the northern toe of Mt. Toc was drastically changed and the large failed rock mass settled into the preexisting Vajont Valley assuming the unusual chair-like geometry. The Vajont rockslide represents a very significant example on how a complex geological situation, if not adequately analyzed and reconstructed, can lead to dangerous

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry and the prehistoric occupation of the coast of rio de janeiro - brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damasio Macario, K.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Facure, A.D.; Elmore, M.; Coimbra, M.; Padron, I.; Najjar, R.; Kneip, L.; Lima, T.A.; Buarque, A.; Barbosa, M.; Seda, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique is a very attractive method for mass spectrometry, since it allows determination of concentrations with sensitivity down to 1 atom of isotope in 1015 atoms, using few milligrams samples. A Tandem accelerator is used as a magnetic and electrostatic analyzer. The determination of these extremely low concentrations of rare isotopes, accelerated to the MeV range, is measured by the direct counting of the atoms by nuclear detection techniques. The AMS technique has been implemented recently in Brazil, at the Pelletron 8UD Tandem accelerator (Sao Paulo), following many improvements on the ion source, VGM control, machine parameters control and detection system. In this contribution we report an important application on AMS on archaeological studies, performed at the Prime Lab (USA), on the dating of ceramics, bones, charcoals, nuts and shells samples of the of the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The main objective of this work is to improve the present knowledge on the occupation of Brazil by the Indians in the prehistoric period, studying archaeological sites located in Rio de Janeiro. Studies show that the Brazilian coast was first occupied in the beginning of the Holocene, with the settlements of the collectors of mollusk, builders of shell mounds, called S ambaquis . The word is of Tupi etymology, tamba meaning shellfish and ki to pile up. The Tupi were a horticultural/potter group who used to live on the Brazilian coast at the time of the European arrivals; they coined the term that describes the main characteristic of the sites - the accumulation of great quantities of mollusk shells. One of objectives of this research is to understand those societies functioning structure, spatial ordering, interaction in the environment and their transformation processes, from the study of their remains. It is intended to analyze the region occupation process dynamics and search for possible links between the pre-pottery population socio

  16. Prehistoric Rock Structures of the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R Pace

    2007-04-01

    Over the past 13,500 years, human populations have lived in and productively utilized the natural resources offered by the cold desert environment of the northeastern Snake River Plain in eastern Idaho. Within an overall framework of hunting and gathering, groups relied on an intimate familiarity with the natural world and developed a variety of technologies to extract the resources that they needed to survive. Useful items were abundant and found everywhere on the landscape. Even the basaltic terrain and the rocks, themselves, were put to productive use. This paper presents a preliminary classification scheme for rock structures built on the Idaho National Laboratory landscape by prehistoric aboriginal populations, including discussions of the overall architecture of the structures, associated artifact assemblages, and topographic placement. Adopting an ecological perspective, the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible functions of these unique resources for the desert populations that once called the INL home.

  17. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  18. The evolution of social behavior in the prehistoric American southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerman, George J; Swedlund, Alan C; Dean, Jeffrey S; Epstein, Joshua M

    2003-01-01

    Long House Valley, located in the Black Mesa area of northeastern Arizona (USA), was inhabited by the Kayenta Anasazi from circa 1800 B.C. to circa A.D. 1300. These people were prehistoric precursors of the modern Pueblo cultures of the Colorado Plateau. A rich paleoenvironmental record, based on alluvial geomorphology, palynology, and dendroclimatology, permits the accurate quantitative reconstruction of annual fluctuations in potential agricultural production (kg maize/hectare). The archaeological record of Anasazi farming groups from A.D. 200 to 1300 provides information on a millennium of sociocultural stasis, variability, change, and adaptation. We report on a multi-agent computational model of this society that closely reproduces the main features of its actual history, including population ebb and flow, changing spatial settlement patterns, and eventual rapid decline. The agents in the model are monoagriculturalists, who decide both where to situate their fields and where to locate their settlements.

  19. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  20. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  1. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R.; Wake, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at mat...

  2. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  3. Petrographic analysis of prehistoric ceramics from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. S.; Yi-Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous stone artifacts, ceramics, bone tools, metal objects, and etc., had been unearthed from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan, during the excavations of 2008-2010 and 2012. Of particular importance is more than ten thousands of potsherds were discovered. A stratigraphic sequence spanning the late Early Neolithic (ca. 5000 BP) through to the prehistoric of Taiwan (300 BP) was excavated. This study focuses on potteries from the Late Neolithic (ca. 3500-2800 BP), owing to some ceramics exhibiting distinct stylistic motifs and morphological attributes were recognized to be not produced locally. Have these wares been brought to the area by exchange trade and/or by immigrants? Or had they been made by local potters through the imitation of exotic styles? It is still unclear and is one of the most important archaeological issues in eastern Taiwan. To clarify this subject, understanding the raw material compositions and sources, manufacturing techniques, and etc. are considered to be the best ways. Thus, 21 potsherds from excavations and 6 river sand samples near the site were studied by petrographic analysis. The results of petrographic study show that temper components in the potsherds are quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, sedimentary rock fragments (sandstone), igneous rock fragments (andesite), and metamorphic rock fragments (metasandstone, slate, schist), and the contents and proportions are different in these samples. Petrography shows that the ceramic have multiple origins. A ternary plot of rock fragments shows three compositional groups. This result discriminates two types of ceramics from the others and confirms those ceramics producing non-locally. However, one type of potsherds have local origins through they were recognized to be exotic ones.

  4. Dietary variation and stress among prehistoric Jomon foragers from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Daniel H

    2007-08-01

    Current archaeological evidence indicates that greater dietary reliance on marine resources is recorded among the eastern Jomon, while plant dependence prevailed in western/inland Japan. The hypothesis that the dietary choices of the western/inland Jomon will be associated with greater systemic stress is tested by comparing carious tooth and enamel hypoplasia frequencies between the eastern and western/inland Jomon. Demographic collapse coincides with climate change during the Middle to Late Jomon period, suggesting dwindling resource availability. It is hypothesized that this change was associated with greater systemic stress and/or dietary change among the Middle to Late Jomon. This hypothesis is tested by comparing enamel hypoplasia and carious tooth frequencies between Middle to Late and Late to Final Jomon foragers. Enamel hypoplasia was significantly more prevalent among the western/inland Jomon. Such findings are consistent with archaeological studies that argue for greater plant consumption and stresses associated with seasonal resource depletion among the western/inland Jomon. Approximately equivalent enamel hypoplasia frequencies between Middle to Late and Late to Final Jomon foragers argues against a demographic collapse in association with diminished nutritional returns. Significant differences in carious tooth frequencies are, however, observed between Middle to Late and Late to Final Jomon foragers. These results suggest a subsistence shift during the Middle to Late Jomon period, perhaps in response to a changed climate. The overall patterns of stress documented by this study indicate wide-spread environmentally directed biological variation among the prehistoric Jomon. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ageing of low-firing prehistoric ceramics in hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zemenová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Remains of a prehistoric ceramic object, a moon-shaped idol from the Bronze Age found in archaeological site Zdiby near Prague in the Czech Republic, were studied especially in terms of the firing temperature. Archaeological ceramics was usually fired at temperatures below 1000 °C. It contained unstable non-crystalline products, residua after calcination of clay components of a ceramic material. These products as metakaolinite can undergo a reverse rehydration to a structure close to kaolinite. The aim of this work was to prove whether the identified kaolinite in archaeological ceramics is a product of rehydration. The model compound containing high amount of kaolinite was prepared in order to follow its changes during calcination and hydrothermal treatment. Archaeological ceramics and the model compound were treated by hydrothermal ageing and studied by XRF, XRD and IR analyses. It was proved that the presence of kaolinite in the border-parts of the archaeological object was not a product of rehydration, but that it originated from the raw materials.

  6. Bear phalanx traumatically introduced into a living human: Prehistoric evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D; Ojeda, Hillary M; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Ibarra, Caitlin L; Horton, Caroline F

    2013-03-01

    Traumatically induced skeletal injuries are common and can be ascribed to a normal range of events occurring in an individual's lifetime. A subset of these trauma-induced injuries provides enhanced insight into cultural history. Such cases might include those referable to medico-surgical and religious/ritualistic practices. We describe prehistoric evidence and cultural implications of the traumatic insertion of an Ursus manual phalanx into the elbow of a living human. The injury healed and the phalanx remained in situ until death. The individual derives from the Ellis Landing shellmound and dates to a subphase of the Middle Period (≈500BC-300AD) in the California cultural sequence. The remains are of a 30-40 year-old female. Comparative data on arm morphology and pathological conditions present were collected (n=159). Three Ursus subspecies (n=15) were examined to identify the taxon represented by the phalanx. The described individual was probably wearing bear paw ornaments at the time she was crushed by a heavy object. During this event, a bear claw was driven into her cubital fossa, the basal phalangeal tubercle being impressed into the humerus. The wound healed completely. The presence of Ursus body parts indicates an elevated societal role for this female; most likely she was a shaman or healer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Liger-Belair

    Full Text Available In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC, all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  8. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

  9. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    lithic material to Mesolithic and Early Neolithic periods. The upper layer is ca 50 cm thick, consists of fine grey silt with few pebbles and includes numerous bones and lithic implements. In this layer two circular dense concentrations of charcoal, possibly fireplaces were discovered. Conclusions 1. The results of magnetic survey obtained in prehistoric cave sites in Israel and Georgia show the high efficiency of the magnetic method for revealing and detailed characterization of caves. 2. The presence of organic materials, e.g. bones, charcoals and ceramics in caves enhances magnetic contrast between non-magnetic bedrock and the cave's fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method. 3. Revealing enhanced magnetization of soil within studied caves allowed us to develop an approach to reliable interpretation of magnetic data in studied areas References Bar-Oz, G., Belfer-Cohen, A, Meshvelliani, T., Jakeli, N., Matskevich, Z. and Bar-Yosef, O. 2009. Bear in mind: bear hunting in the Mesolithic of the Southern Caucasus, the case of Kotias Klde rockshelter, western Georgia. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 37 (1): 15-24. Dalan, R. A. and Banerjee, S. K. 1998. Solving archaeological problems using techniques of soil magnetism. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No.1, pp.1-36. Fassbinder, J.W. E. , Stanijek, H. and Vali, H. 1990. Occurence of magnetic bacteria in soil. Nature 343, 161-163. Itkis, S. 2003. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements of Soil: A Diagnostic Tool for Location of Human Activity Areas (Ch. 14) In: Khalaily, H. and Marder, O. (editors). The Neolithic Site of Abu Ghosh: The 1995 Excavations. IAA Reports, No.19. Jerusalem. p. 129-131. Itkis, S. 2011..Magnetic survey at Ramat Bet Shemesh. In: Dagan Y. (editor). The Ramat Bet Shemesh Regional Project: Landscapes of Settlement from the Paleolithic to the Ottoman Period, IAA Reports, No. 47, Israel Antiquites Authority, Jerusalem 2011, pp. 95-104. Itkis S.E and Eppelbaum L

  10. Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there

  11. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  12. Evidence of size-selective evolution in the fighting conch from prehistoric subsistence harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Aaron; Shaffer, Marian Lynne; Doughty, Douglas R; Wake, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Felix A

    2014-05-07

    Intensive size-selective harvesting can drive evolution of sexual maturity at smaller body size. Conversely, prehistoric, low-intensity subsistence harvesting is not considered an effective agent of size-selective evolution. Uniting archaeological, palaeontological and contemporary material, we show that size at sexual maturity in the edible conch Strombus pugilis declined significantly from pre-human (approx. 7 ka) to prehistoric times (approx. 1 ka) and again to the present day. Size at maturity also fell from early- to late-prehistoric periods, synchronous with an increase in harvesting intensity as other resources became depleted. A consequence of declining size at maturity is that early prehistoric harvesters would have received two-thirds more meat per conch than contemporary harvesters. After exploring the potential effects of selection biases, demographic shifts, environmental change and habitat alteration, these observations collectively implicate prehistoric subsistence harvesting as an agent of size-selective evolution with long-term detrimental consequences. We observe that contemporary populations that are protected from harvesting are slightly larger at maturity, suggesting that halting or even reversing thousands of years of size-selective evolution may be possible.

  13. Trace aluminium determination and sampling problems of archeological bone employing destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.; Recker, R.R.; Leffler, J.A.; Teitelbaum, S.

    1978-01-01

    A destructive neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for determining trace aluminium content in bone. The method is based on a carefully planned sample preparation, irradiation at a neutron flux for 3.1x10 11 nxcm -2 xs -1 for 5 minutes, and chemical separation based on ion exchange. It was found that bone samples soaked in aluminium containing soil gave highly elevated aluminium values as a result of the aluminium adsorption into the bone matrix. The maximum aluminium content values for prehistoric bones are larger than those of modern bones and comparable to aluminium levels present in bone from renal patients. (T.G.)

  14. Cloth cultures in prehistoric Europe: the Bronze Age evidence from Hallstatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Harris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloth Cultures in Prehistoric Europe is a Postdoctoral Fellowship project awarded to Susanna Harris by the British Academy. Its aim is to bring together and examine evidence for textiles and animal skins in prehistoric Europe from the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Several case studies are being examined as part of this project, including the Bronze Age Hallstatt salt mines. Here researchers working on the materials from Hallstatt look at some of the similarities and differences between the techniques applied to textiles and animal skins in their production and use in the mines.

  15. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  16. Characterization of ancient teeth and bones from animal and pre-historic human by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn; Asvavinijkulchai, Chanchai; Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Pramankij, Somsak; Subhavan, Vadhana

    2004-01-01

    The search for the evidence of the oldest homonid in Thailand was carried out in the upper northern part of the country consisting of Lampang, Chiang Mai, Phayao, Phrae, Nan, Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son and Lampang was set up as a center. Three nuclear analytical techniques, i.e. X-ray fluorescence using X-ray tube and isotopic sources, neutron activation analysis and low-background gamma spectroscopy were employed to investigate the samples. The results of elemental composition in fossilised teeth can be used to classify the type of human and animal as it is related to the dietary behaviour. The relationship between elements in fossils and soil or rock can be used to identify the location where the fossils came from. The level of natural radioactivity in soil samples from different locations will be helpful in defining the surveyed region. All of the knowledge will support the development of nuclear analytical technique in archeological study. Besides, the research team found four pieces of fossils which assembled the right frontal region of a calvaria. It appears to be the first indication of a Homo Erectus partial cranial vault ever discovered in Thailand. This discovery is very important in human evolution study

  17. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  18. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  19. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment...

  20. Reconstruction of prehistoric plant production and cooking practices by a new isotopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastorf, C A [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Anthropology; DeNiro, M J [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences

    1985-06-06

    A new method is presented based on isotopic analysis of burnt organic matter, allowing the characterization of previously unidentifiable plant remains extracted from archaeological contexts. The method is used to reconstruct prehistoric production, preparation and consumption of plant foods, as well as the use of ceramic vessels, in the Upper Mantaro Valley region of the central Peruvian Andes.

  1. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. ... eruptions occurred from its centre, producing a. 250m high ... non-eruptive lateral landslide of the original cone or by vertical ...

  2. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G.P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-01-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave “La grotte du Renne” in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000–34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe–K or Mn–K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  3. The hydrology of prehistoric farming systems in a central Arizona ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerman, G. J.; Hanson, J. A.; Brew, D.; Tomoff, K.; Weed, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The prehistoric land use and water management in the semi-arid Southwest was examined. Remote sensing data, geology, hydrology and biology are discussed along with an evaluation of remote sensing contributions, recommendations for applications, and proposed future remote sensing studies.

  4. Characterization of chlorinated solvent contamination in limestone using innovative FLUTe® technologies in combination with other methods in a line of evidence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Janniche, Gry Sander; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones in limestone aquifers/bedrock is essential to develop accurate site-specific conceptual models and perform risk assessment. Here innovative field methods were combined to improve determination of source zone architecture......, hydrogeology and contaminant distribution. The FACT™ is a new technology and it was applied and tested at a contaminated site with a limestone aquifer, together with a number of existing methods including wire-line coring with core subsampling, FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and multilevel water sampling...... groundwater sampling (under two flow conditions) and FACT™ sampling and analysis combined with FLUTe® transmissivity profiling and modeling were used to provide a line of evidence for the presence of DNAPL, dissolved and sorbed phase contamination in the limestone fractures and matrix. The combined methods...

  5. Reduce chest pain using modified silicone fluted drain tube for chest drainage after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Bin; Miao, Jinbai; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of a modified silicone fluted drain tube after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resection. The prospective randomized study included 50 patients who underwent VATS lung resection between March 2015 and June 2015. Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: experimental group (using the silicone fluted drain tubes for chest drainage) and control group (using standard drain tubes for chest drainage). The volume and characteristics of drainage, postoperative (PO) pain scores and hospital stay were recorded. All patients received standard care during hospital admission. In accordance with the exit criteria, three patients were excluded from study. The remaining 47 patients included in the final analysis were divided into two groups: experiment group (N=24) and control group (N=23). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex, height, weight, clinical diagnosis and type of surgical procedure. There was a trend toward less PO pain in experimental group on postoperative day (POD) 1, with a statistically significant difference. Patients in experimental group had a reduced occurrence of fever [temperature (T) >37.4 °C] compared to the control group. The silicone fluted drain tube is feasible and safe and may relieve patient PO pain and reduce occurrence of fever without the added risk of PO complications.

  6. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  7. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  8. Effect of Processing on Physiochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentails) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alademeyin, J. O.; Arawande, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil extracted from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). The extracted oil was degummed, neutralised and bleached. The oil yield was 42.26±0.20%. The specific gravity (at 25 degree C) of the oil was 0.923±0.003 and the refractive index (at 25 degree C) was 1.475±0.002. Processing of the crude oil resulted in progressive decrease in turbidity, colour, free fatty acid, acid value, peroxide value and saponification value. However, there was increase in smoke point (243.00±0.03 to 253.00±0.03 degree C), flash point (285.00±1.20 to 304.0 1.10 degree C) and fire point (345.001.10 to 358.0 1.55 degree C) as well as iodine value (113.00 to 121.50 g/100 g) and fatty acid composition during the processing of the oil. The fatty acids detected in the oil samples were myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, arachidic, behenic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The predominant fatty acid was oleic acid (47.40-47.90%) followed by linoleic acid (26.36-30.44%) while the least fatty acid was linolenic acid (0.01-0.05%). (author)

  9. Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Saul

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb Cavara & Grande. As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste.

  10. Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Hayley; Madella, Marco; Fischer, Anders; Glykou, Aikaterini; Hartz, Sönke; Craig, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present evidence of phytoliths preserved in carbonised food deposits on prehistoric pottery from the western Baltic dating from 6,100 cal BP to 5750 cal BP. Based on comparisons to over 120 European and Asian species, our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine. Our evidence suggests a much greater antiquity to the spicing of foods than is evident from the macrofossil record, and challenges the view that plants were exploited by hunter-gatherers and early agriculturalists solely for energy requirements, rather than taste. PMID:23990910

  11. Activation and track analysis of the bone remains found in the territory of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Saidullaev, B.J.; Akhmadshaev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : As a rule bones of animals and persons, are plentiful enough in archeology monuments and are frequently also the most numerous materials. Therefore the research of components and microelements in bones can give the valuable information about age and lifestyle of prehistoric relicts on Earth. To ancient bone remains bear and archantrope concernfrom ancient settlement of Selungur located in the territory of Southern Fergana and was found out by Institute of Archaeology in Uzbekistan in 1980. Whereas in the scientific literature there is very poor information about element composition variation in bones during ground bedding

  12. Progressive results from the PIXE program for sourcing prehistoric Papuan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Duerden, P.

    1982-01-01

    A study with the aim of identifying pottery from Motupore Island, Papua New Guinea, in other local and distant sites is described. PIXE, the analytical technique used, is outlined. Elements selected for sourcing studies were: major elements - Si, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe; trace elements - Sr, Rb. From the results so far obtained, it is apparent that the approach is providing the legitimate allocation of prehistoric sherds to source materials on the basis of their chemical composition

  13. 13C evidence for dietary habits of prehistoric man in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 C fractionation pattern which is affected by the type of metabolism used by plants to fix CO 2 and differs in marine and terrestrial plants, has been used to investigate the dietary habits of prehistoric man in northwestern Europe. The results show that whereas Danish Mesolithic man lived on a diet dominated by sea food, in the Neolithic the human diet consisted predominantly of terrestrial food. (U.K.)

  14. Impact of prehistoric cooking practices on paleoenvironmental proxies in shell midden constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Staudigel, Philip; Murray, Sean T.; Westphal, Hildegard; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental proxy records such as oxygen isotopes of calcareous skeletal structures like fish otoliths or mollusk shells provide highest-resolution information about environmental conditions experienced by the organism. Accumulations of such skeletal structures by ancient coastal populations in so called "shell midden" deposits provide us with sub-seasonally resolved paleoclimate records covering time spans up to several millennia. Given their high temporal resolution, these deposits are increasingly used for paleoclimate reconstructions and complement our understanding of ancient climate changes. However, gathered as comestibles, most of these skeletal remains were subject to prehistoric cooking methods prior to deposition. The associated alteration of the chemical proxy signatures as well as the subsequent error for paleoenvironmental reconstructions remained almost entirely neglected so far. Here, we present clumped isotope, conventional oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as element:Ca ratios measured in modern bivalve shells after exposing them to different prehistoric cooking methods. Our data show that most cooking methods considerably alter commonly used paleoclimate proxy systems which can lead to substantial misinterpretations of ancient climate conditions. Since the magnitude of chemical alteration is not distinguishable from natural temperature variability in most coastal settings, the alteration of shell midden constituents by prehistoric cooking remains likely unnoticed in most cases. Thus, depending on the cooking method, pre-depositional heating might have introduced considerable errors into previous paleoclimate studies. However, our data also show that clumped isotope thermometry represents a suitable diagnostic tool to detect such pre-depositional cooking events and also allows differentiating between the most commonly applied prehistoric cooking methods.

  15. Radiocarbon dates from Wairau Bar and their implications for the prehistoric colonisation of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, T.F.G.; Anderson, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A set of thirteen moa eggshell samples from burial features at the Wairau Bar site were used for dating. The samples were obtained from the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch where they have been displayed as part of a permanent exhibition.Three marine shell samples were also analysed. Radiocarbon dating of the samples was carried out using conventional and AMS techniques. The results will be presented and the archaeological implications for the prehistoric colonization of New Zealand will be discussed

  16. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and isotopic analysis of carbonized residues from subarctic Canadian prehistoric pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherriff, B.L.; Tisdale, M.A.; Sayer, B.G.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Knyf, M.

    1995-01-01

    Late prehistoric pottery is found in abundance at archaeological sites around Southern Indian Lake. Black residues, found on the two dominant vessel forms, flat plates and round pots, are presumed to be the remains of prehistoric meals. 13 C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CPMAS NMR) and 13 C and 15 N isotopic ratios and C/N ratios are used to reconstruct prehistoric diet and to shed light on possible uses for the plates. Samples of foods were cooked in clay pots, on a wood fire, to simulate the conditions of burning that could have produced the residue. Decomposition of carbohydrates, protein, and fat during cooking is studied with 13 C CPMAS NMR, and the effect of cooking on isotopic and C/N ratios documented. Predominantly fish and fat were cooked in the pots, whereas the residues from plates contain a greater proportion of fat and could have been used as frying pans or possibly as fat-burning lamps placed on the ashes of a wood fire. (Author)

  18. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  19. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  20. First insights into the identification of bone and antler tools used in the indirect percussion and pressure techniques during the early postglacial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Eva; Sørensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    With the interest for the technological options that were taken by the prehistoric groups to subsist, there is a field of research left empty in terms of archaeological records dated to the 8th and 7th millennia cal BC. It concerns the tool kit made from bone and antler used in Europe by stone...

  1. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida T Miró-Herrans

    Full Text Available Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102 and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing

  2. Determination and evaluation of effective criteria to location selection the optimal for establishing fluting paper mills from agricultural residues of Mazandaran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah barimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Location selection for factory competitiveness in the market place plays an important role and should be chosen so that will leads achievement of the strategic advantages compared with other competitors. The objective of this study was determination of the effective criteria for decision making to select the most suitable location for establishing a fluting paper mills from agricultural residues. For this purpose, effective criteria were divided into five major groups: Material and Product, Facilities and limitations of regional (infrastructure, Technical and Human, Economical, Rules & Regulations as well as 33 sub-criteria, after preliminary investigation, preparatory observation, and an interview with some of the paper producers and relevant experts. A hierarchy was designed based on five major groups of criteria and then the priority rates of obtained criteria and sub-criteria were determined by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP after compiling expert's opinions via questionnaire. Results have shown that among 33 determined effective criteria in location selection of fluting paper mills from agricultural residues , the sub-criteria of Supply residual amount, Ensure the supply of residual, Cost purchasing of raw material, Cost of transporting raw material have the highest priorities, respectively

  3. Dating by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Sergio T.; Khoury, Helen J.; Borges, Fabio M.; Sullasi, Henry L.; Avila, Gabriela M.; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Guzzo, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the age of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil. The dating was performed by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) by the method of multiple aliquot regenerative doses. Samples were collected from five different parts of the campfire in order to determine the accumulated dose, and samples of two parts of the campfire for determine the annual dose rate. After a statistical analysis of these values, we calculated an average age of 3640 +- 710 years. This age allowed to define a time frame for archaeological studies in this region. (author)

  4. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  5. New method development in prehistoric stone tool research: evaluating use duration and data analysis protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Adrian A; Macdonald, Danielle A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Lithic microwear is a research field of prehistoric stone tool (lithic) analysis that has been developed with the aim to identify how stone tools were used. It has been shown that laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitative tool in the study of prehistoric stone tool function. In this paper, two important lines of inquiry are investigated: (1) whether the texture of worn surfaces is constant under varying durations of tool use, and (2) the development of rapid objective data analysis protocols. This study reports on the attempt to further develop these areas of study and results in a better understanding of the complexities underlying the development of flexible analytical algorithms for surface analysis. The results show that when sampling is optimised, surface texture may be linked to contact material type, independent of use duration. Further research is needed to validate this finding and test an expanded range of contact materials. The use of automated analytical protocols has shown promise but is only reliable if sampling location and scale are defined. Results suggest that the sampling protocol reports on the degree of worn surface invasiveness, complicating the ability to investigate duration related textural characterisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The seasonal factor at the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, T.F.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses moa hunters' seasonality at the Shag River Mouth site. A two meters section in layer 4 of the SM/C: Dune site was left as a baulk in 1988 to enable the stratigraphic profile (∼2m) to be more carefully investigated. Within the baulk, detailed lensing and microstrata could be identified. Claassen (1991) has suggested that one of the most important variables in determining seasonal and prehistoric shell-bearing site formation more accurately is emphasizing finer stratigraphic resolution and more rigorous attention to retrieving midden components. At Shag River Mouth, seven sub-layers, or spits, were excavated within the 2m baulk to refine the precision of subsequent seasonal analyses and enable a detailed assessment of the components of each and their season of deposition. A variety of seasonal methods were utilised including 18 O analysis of blue mussel shell carbonate and growth ring analysis of estuarine bivalves. In addition, sagital otoliths of red cod excavated from the site were sectioned and the annual and seasonal growth rings formed during the fishes' life were analysed for seasonal information. This has enabled a detailed analysis of the seasonality of this discrete area of the Shag River Mouth site. The significance of the results for understanding the prehistoric seasonal round of activities within the site and its wider orbit is presented

  7. Heathland and the palynology of prehistoric barrows. Reflections on the interrelation between soil formation and pollen infiltration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman-van Waateringe, W; Spek, Mattheus

    2016-01-01

    In the sandy areas of the Netherlands, heather (Calluna vulgaris) played an important role in the construction of prehistoric barrows, although, as will be shown in this paper, not in all periods as was recently asserted by Doorenbosch (2013). Since the mineralogical composition and the texture of

  8. Documenting Prehistoric Habitation in Your Community: A Guide for Local Historians. New York State Museum Circular No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Philip, Jr.

    Community historians often limit their efforts to periods of written records; this, despite the fact that many communities have witnessed some form of prehistoric human occupation. Prehistory is the study of human events before the advent of written accounts. The community historian interested in prehistory, which has as its main focus material…

  9. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  10. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  11. The public life of the European North of Russia in the prehistoric era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreskul A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article gives the characteristics of the social life of the North of European Russia in the prehistoric era, examines its features in different periods of the stone age, defines the time (milestones and ways of penetration of the first people on the European North, clarifies the nature and causes of this process, techniques of adaptation of primitive communities, stresses the importance in this process of natural and geographical factors. At each stage of the development of the northern populations is characterized by changes in the economy, the stone industry, religion and art. The author demonstrates the continuity of the social order: from the community to the tribal community and tribe, focuses on the problem of the coexistence of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthals and the causes of the Neanderthals death, as well as military clashes between the tribes belonging to different archaeological cultures.

  12. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  13. [The evolutionist fallacy of early visitors. Analogies between 'primitive peoples' and prehistoric man in medical historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Accounts of 'prehistoric medicine' and 'ethnomedicine' have sometimes led to conclusions by analogy in medical historiography that are seen as highly problematic in modern cultural anthropology. However, this review of medical historical writings of the last three centuries shows that evolutionist identifications of early with foreign medicine were not a permanent trait of medical historiography. This approach flourished mainly in the climate of certain movements or periods that were characterised by fanatical belief in progress and by social utopias: the French Revolution, Darwinism and the period of industrial expansion in Germany, and National Socialism. Medical historiography shared this problematic approach with contemporary (social and cultural) anthropology, and - despite this methodological misuse - both acknowledged the legitimacy or even requirement of studying also similarities in the development of different periods and cultures.

  14. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  15. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  16. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Geoffrey R.; Reepmeyer, Christian; Melekiola, Nivaleti; Woodhead, Jon; Dickinson, William R.; Martinsson-Wallin, Helene

    2014-07-01

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A.D. To establish the extent of Tonga's maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A.D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania.

  17. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  18. Evidence for Prehistoric Origins of Egyptian Mummification in Late Neolithic Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P.; Buckley, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period. PMID:25118605

  19. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    The significance of soil erosion due to pre-historic land use and possible feedback mechanisms had been hardly recognized in the Southeastern USA. Here, the agricultural practices only began in the second half of the Holocene. Sedentary hunters and gatherers started to domesticate squash and sunflowers. Associated with the expansion of maize cultivation in the Mississippian period between AD 800 and 1100, significant forest clearings took place on the river floodplains. During this time, central settlements with up to 30,000 residences existed and the surrounding ridge and furrow fields extended to up to 30 ha. It is still open to question why these groups already declined in the 14/15th centuries already before the arrival of the Europeans. However, around AD 1540 the conquistador de Soto still reports extended fields with intensive cultivation of maize in the uplands of Northern Mississippi. Despite of this intensive land use by Native Americans, current research gives no indication that these activities had any significant impact on river channel form. Also, no clear evidence exists for distinct channel change occurring in response to any sort of middle Holocene Hypsithermal, Medieval warm period, or the Little Ice Age. We will present results of a project which aims to explore erosion forms, colluvial sediments and buried soils in selected 0-order and 1st-order watersheds in the southeastern USA in order to gain, solidify, and evaluate general data on soil erosion during the Native American land use period and its respective long-term effects on the environment. This will be achieved by 1) recording the stratigraphy of colluvial and alluvial sediments and buried soils, 2) mapping the extent of erosional and colluvial forms, 3) analyzing chemical and physical soil and sediment properties, 4) establishing chronological control using various dating techniques including radiocarbon and OSL dating, and 5) quantifying soil erosion using hillslope sediments. The

  20. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  1. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  2. Sangkulirang Mangkalihat: The Earliest Prehistoric Rock-Art in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam Gozali Sumantri, Dirga; Soeria Atmadja, Dicky A. S.; Setiawan, Pindi

    2018-05-01

    Borneo island, a part of Sundaland - a great mainland in South East Asia thousands of years ago - is the largest island in Indonesian Archipelago. In the middle-eastern of East Borneo, lies a peninsula karst region named Sangkulirang Mangkalihat. The region's biodiversity contains many species of flora and fauna which are part of karst ecosystem. Surprisingly, thousands prehistoric rock art paintings and engraving were found here, spread over 48 inland caves in seven different karst mountain areas. The rock arts are painted on the ceiling, wall, and hollow of the cave depends on the meaning. They illustrate forms such as spiritual images (zoomorphic and antropomorphic) for sacred spiritual meaning, and social phenomenon images (tools and weapons) for description of daily life. From all those rock-arts, hand paintings are the most common elements appeared. Compared to other paintings, these are the only negative images using different techniques. Radiocarbon dating indicated that the rock-arts at Tewet Cave in Sangkulirang Mangkalihat is 40,000 BP. It is much earlier compared to Lascaux Cave (35,400 BP) and Chauvet Cave (32,000) in France which were previously known as the earliest one in the world. Rock arts and some archeological findings also indicate the migration of Austronesian People. During the migration, Borneo's climate and land cover were changing from time to time. Continental climate occurred when all Sundaland was still dry (40,000-21,000 BP), followed by tropical savanna climate and archipelagic climate (12,000-7.000 BP), and then Tropical Rainforest consecutively (1,000 BP). Correlatively, geological interpretations from such areas indicate land cover changes. These changes effected Austronesian ways of living, e.g. from hunting to fishing, and were depicted clearly on their paintings. Today, - as observed from time series satellite images - industrial activities such as karst exploitation for cement production and land clearing for palm

  3. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  5. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prehistoric land use and Neolithisation in Europe in the context of regional climate events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, C.; Wirtz, K. W.; Gronenborn, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a simple, adaptation-driven, spatially explicit model of pre-Bronze age socio-technological change, called the Global Land Use and Technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES). The socio-technological realm is described by three characteristic traits: available technology, subsistence style ratio, and economic diversity. Human population and culture develop in the context of global paleoclimate and regional paleoclimate events. Global paleoclimate is derived from CLIMBER-2 Earth System Model anomalies superimposed on the IIASA temperature and precipitation database. Regional a forcing is provided by abrupt climate deteriorations from a compilation of 138 long-term high-resolution climate proxy time series from mostly terrestrial and near-shore archives. The GLUES simulator provides for a novel way to explore the interplay between climate, climate change, and cultural evolution both on the Holocene timescale as well as for short-term extreme event periods. We sucessfully simulate the migration of people and the diffusion of Neolithic technology from the Near East into Europe in the period 12000-4000 a BP. We find good agreement with recent archeological compilations of Western Eurasian Neolithic sites. No causal relationship between climate events and cultural evolution could be identified, but the speed of cultural development is found to be modulated by the frequency of climate events. From the demographic evolution and regional ressource consumption, we estimate regional land use change and prehistoric greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. The Evolution of the Age at Menarche from Prehistorical to Modern Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    Menarche denotes the onset of the female reproductive capacity. The age that menarche occurs is mostly attributed to the interaction of genetics and various environmental factors. Herein, the author describes the evolution of the age at menarche from prehistoric to the present times. Data from skeletal remains suggest that in the Paleolithic woman menarche occurred at an age between 7 and 13 years, early sexual maturation being a trade-off for reduced life expectancy. In the classical, as well as in the medieval years, the age at menarche was generally reported to be at approximately 14 years, with a range from 12 to 15 years. A significant retardation of the age at menarche occurred in the beginning of the modern times, soon after the industrial revolution, due to the deterioration of the living conditions, with most studies reporting menarche to occur at 15-16 years. In the 20th century, especially in the second half of it, in the industrialized countries, the age at menarche decreased significantly, as a result of the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions, occurring at 12-13 years. In the present times, in the developed countries, this trend seems to slow down or level off. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M.; Quiros, F.B. de; Valdes, V.C.; Uzquiano, P.

    1992-01-01

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 ± 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 ± 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 ± 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author)

  9. The relative stability of prehistorical geographic environment in China's tropics on the basis of archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to archaeological data from about sixty samples the relative stability ofphysical and human geographical environment in the tropical zone of China is discussed in thispaper. Because of the superior natural environment, sufficient food resources and a sparsepopulation resulting in the absence of social requirement to transform the productive forces, theadvancement of economy and society was stagnated during prehistorical period in China's tropics.Compared with northern China, the appearance of ground stone tool stagnated about 3,000 years,the beginning of Bronze Age, about 1,000 years, and the agriculture, 2,500-3,000 years. The noceramics age continued till the early Neolithic Age and the appearance of colour or white ceramicswas 2,000 years later than that in northern China. The life form of migration to gather and to huntcontinued till the middle Neolithic Age, and the fixed settlement based on agriculture 1,000-2,000years stagnated. The clan commune just appeared at the end of the Neolithic Age which was 2,000-3,000 years later than that in northern China.

  10. Contrasting patterns of prehistoric human diet and subsistence in northernmost Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Mirva; Bläuer, Auli; Olsen, Bjørnar; Evershed, Richard P; Asplund, Henrik

    2018-01-18

    Current archaeological evidence indicates the transition from hunting-fishing-gathering to agriculture in Northern Europe was a gradual process. This transition was especially complex in the prehistoric North Fennoscandian landscape where the high latitude posed a challenge to both domestic animal breeding and cereal cultivation. The conditions varied, the coastal dwellers had access to rich marine resources and enjoyed a milder climate due to the Gulf Stream, while those living in the inland Boreal forest zone faced longer and colder winters and less diversity in animal and plant resources. Thus, the coastal area provided more favourable conditions for early agriculture compared to those found inland. Interestingly, a cultural differentiation between these areas is archaeologically visible from the late 2 nd millennium BC onwards. This is most clearly seen in regionally distinct pottery styles, offering unique opportunities to probe diet and subsistence through the organic residues preserved in ceramic vessels. Herein, we integrate the lipid biomarker, compound-specific stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C), and zooarchaeological evidence to reveal culturally distinct human diets and subsistence patterns. In northern Norway, some of the coastal people adopted dairying as part of their subsistence strategy, while the inhabitants of the interior, in common with northern Finland, continued their hunter-gatherer-fisher lifestyles.

  11. A diffusion based study of population dynamics: Prehistoric migrations into South Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank N Vahia

    Full Text Available A diffusion equation has been used to study migration of early humans into the South Asian subcontinent. The diffusion equation is tempered by a set of parameters that account for geographical features like proximity to water resources, altitude, and flatness of land. The ensuing diffusion of populations is followed in time-dependent computer simulations carried out over a period of 10,000 YBP. The geographical parameters are determined from readily-available satellite data. The results of our computer simulations are compared to recent genetic data so as to better correlate the migratory patterns of various populations; they suggest that the initial populations started to coalesce around 4,000 YBP before the commencement of a period of relative geographical isolation of each population group. The period during which coalescence of populations occurred appears consistent with the established timeline associated with the Harappan civilization and also, with genetic admixing that recent genetic mapping data reveal. Our results may contribute to providing a timeline for the movement of prehistoric people. Most significantly, our results appear to suggest that the Ancestral Austro-Asiatic population entered the subcontinent through an easterly direction, potentially resolving a hitherto-contentious issue.

  12. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  13. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  14. An analytical study of prehistoric lead and silver objects from the Aegean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Wagner, G.A.; Assimenos, K.; Doumas, C.; Begemann, F.; Todt, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of an archaeometallurgical study on the metal sources of archaic silver coinage it was discovered that lead-silver mines on the Cycladic island of Siphnos, which were known to Herodotus (III, 57) and exploited in archaic times, were already worked in the Early Bronze Age (EBA). In addition, new excavations in Thorikos have shown that the well-known lead-silver deposit of Laurion on Attika was also exploited as early as the EBA. In order to assess the role which these two mining districts and other possible ore sources played in the Bronze Age for the supply of lead and silver, we analyzed prehistoric lead and silver objects from the Aegean region. The methods employed were the same as have been used to characterize the ore deposits. In addition we wanted to study to what extent cupellation was practised in these early periods. Bulk composition and trace element concentrations were determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry. Isotope abundance analyses were performed on a VARIAN MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Experimental details are given. Results are presented and discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  16. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  17. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  18. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus by A. Bernard Knapp involves us in a highly creative reading. This is due mainly to the fact that the author engages in a holistic synthesis of Cyprus in the Bronze Age, not by emphasizing the events and descriptions of the material remains, but by concentrating upon the difficult question of the identity of the islanders of this period and the processes by which it was formed. The author's teaching of Mediterranean prehistory at the University of Glasgow fully accounts for his need to produce a comprehensive theoretical work of this kind: the basic questions asked by students give rise to theoretical concerns for any teacher aiming to 'distil' the essential synthesis that forms the starting point for any further detailed archaeological description. This essential answer seems to have troubled Knapp for some time, judging by the long list of his writings seeking to synthesize aspects of Cypriot economy, cult and society; the present book is thus the highly interesting outcome of the mature thinking of an experienced fieldworker as much as a theoretical archaeologist and teacher. What, then, is the essential question that Knapp seeks to answer through this book? His question focuses on the identity of the islanders of Cyprus during the 'most formative periods, from the village based culture to the international, town-centred, even state-level polity' (p. 1), the way in which this identity was formed, and how it is reflected in both any recorded event and the material culture of the island in this specific period. Moreover, he also explores more fully what the distinctive features of island identity in general are, how they are constituted and how they influence the material culture of any island population. In seeking the answers, the author avoids a number of the usual approaches to Cypriot archaeology and turns, instead, to new interpretive directions. The approaches he avoids are the citing of events of Cypriot prehistory, the

  19. Variable effects of cinder-cone eruptions on prehistoric agrarian human populations in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Michael H.; Elson, Mark D.; Anderson, Kirk C.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Samples, Terry L.

    2008-10-01

    Two ˜ 900 BP cinder-cone eruptions in the American Southwest affected prehistoric human populations in different ways, mostly because of differences in the eruption styles and area affected. Primary pre-eruption cultural factors that may have led to successful adaptation to the eruptions include decision-making at the family or household level, low investment in site structures, dispersion of agricultural sites in varied environments, and settlement spread over a large area so that those who were less affected could shelter and feed evacuees. Sunset Crater, near Flagstaff, Arizona, produced about 8 km 2 lava flow fields and a ˜ 2300-km 2 tephra blanket in an area that had been settled by prehistoric groups for at least 1000 years. Local subsistence relied on agriculture, primarily maize, and > 30 cm tephra cover rendered 265 km 2 of prime land unfarmable. This area was apparently abandoned for at least several generations. A > 500-km 2 area was probably marked by collapsed roofs and other structural damage from the fallout. If the eruption occurred during the agricultural season, the fallout would also have significantly damaged crops. The eruption did have some benefits to local groups because lower elevation land, which had previously been too dry to farm, became agriculturally productive due to 3-8 cm of tephra 'mulch' and some temporary soil nutrient improvements. This previously uninhabited land became the site of significant year-round settlement and farming, eventually containing some of the largest pueblo structures ever built in the region. New agricultural techniques were developed to manage the fallout mulch. The eruption also affected ceramic production and trading patterns, and volcano-related ritual behavior - the production of maize-impressed lava-spatter agglutinate - was initiated. Little Springs Volcano, about 200 km northwest of Sunset Crater, is a small spatter rampart around a series of vents that produced about 5 km 2 of lava flow fields

  20. Prehistoric Human-environment Interactions and Their Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, H.; Henderson, A. C. G.; van Hardenbroek, M.; Cavers, G.; Crone, A.; Davies, K. L.; Fonville, T. R.; Head, K.; Langdon, P. G.; Matton, R.; McCormick, F.; Murray, E.; Whitehouse, N. J.; Brown, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the first widespread human-environment interactions in Scotland and Ireland occurred 3000 years ago when communities first inhabited wetlands, building artificial islands in lakes called crannogs. The reason behind the development and intermittent occupation of crannogs is unclear. We don't know if they were a response to changes in environment or if they were driven by societal influences. Furthermore, the impact of the construction, settlement and human activities on lake ecosystems is unknown, but is a key example of early anthropogenic signatures on the environment. Our research characterises the prehistoric human-environment interactions associated with crannogs by analysing geochemical and biological signals preserved within the crannog and wetland sediments. Records of anthropogenic activities and environmental change have been produced using lipid biomarkers of faecal matter, sedimentary DNA, and the remains of beetles, aquatic invertebrates (chironomids), siliceous algae (diatoms) and pollen. Results of these analyses reveal settlement occupations occurred in phases from the Iron Age to the Medieval Period. The main effects of occupation on the wetland ecosystems are nutrient-driven increases in productivity and shifts in aquatic species from clear water taxa to those associated with more eutrophic conditions. Crannog abandonment reduces nutrient inputs and therefore levels of aquatic productivity, as evidenced by decreases in the abundance of siliceous algae. Despite returns to pre-settlement nutrient and productivity levels, the lake ecosystems do not recover to their previous ecological state: dominant aquatic invertebrate and siliceous algae taxa shift in response to elevated levels of macrophytes within the lakes. Whilst these phase changes in lake ecosystems highlight their adaptive capacity to environmental change, the temporary human interactions associated with crannogs had persisting environmental impacts that shaped the long

  1. Magnitude and Surface Rupture Length of Prehistoric Upper Crustal Earthquakes in the Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Styron, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Paleoseismic studies documented prehistoric earthquakes after the last glaciation ended 15 ka on 13 upper-crustal fault zones in the Cascadia fore arc. These fault zones are a consequence of north-directed fore arc block migration manifesting as a series of bedrock uplifts and intervening structural basins in the southern Salish Sea lowland between Vancouver, B.C. to the north and Olympia, WA to the south, and bounded on the east and west by the Cascade Mountains and Olympic Mountains, respectively. Our dataset uses published information and includes 27 earthquakes tabulated from observations of postglacial deformation at 63 sites. Stratigraphic offsets along faults consist of two types of measurements: 1) vertical separation of strata along faults observed in fault scarp excavations, and 2) estimates from coastal uplift and subsidence. We used probabilistic methods to estimate past rupture magnitudes and surface rupture length (SRL), applying empirical observations from modern earthquakes and point measurements from paleoseismic sites (Biasi and Weldon, 2006). Estimates of paleoearthquake magnitude ranged between M 6.5 and M 7.5. SRL estimates varied between 20 and 90 km. Paleoearthquakes on the Seattle fault zone and Saddle Mountain West fault about 1100 years ago were outliers in our analysis. Large offsets observed for these two earthquakes implies a M 7.8 and 200 km SRL, given the average observed ratio of slip/SRL in modern earthquakes. The actual mapped traces of these faults are less than 200km, implying these earthquakes had an unusually high static stress drop or, in the case of the Seattle fault, splay faults may have accentuated uplift in the hanging wall. Refined calculations incorporating fault area may change these magnitude and SRL estimates. Biasi, G.P., and Weldon, R.J., 2006, Estimating Surface Rupture Length and Magnitude of Paleoearthquakes from Point Measurements of Rupture Displacement: B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 96, 1612-1623.

  2. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  3. On the Relationship between Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Rivers and Prehistoric Settlements Distribution in the Songshan Mountain Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of Holocene geomorphic evolution of rivers around Songshan Mountain in relation to human frequentation in Prehistoric periods. The investigations were performed by means of an integration of GIS data processing; field surveys and particle size analysis. In 8000–3000 aBP; in the Songshan Mountain Region, large-scale river sedimentation occurred. This increased the elevation of river beds that were higher than today. After 3000 aBP; the upper reaches of the rivers experienced a down cut; while the lower reaches experienced continuing sedimentation. The data on the elevation of prehistoric settlements above the river levels were obtained from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. These data were corrected according to the evolutionary features of fluvial landforms in order to obtain synchronous elevations above river levels of prehistoric settlements. The relationship between sediment distribution and the Holocene geomorphic evolution was investigated through the statistical analysis of the elevation above the river levels. Outputs from our analyses enabled us to differentiate three evolutionary stages. During the first one, related to Peiligang culture (9000–7500 aBP, populations mainly settled on both hilly relief and high plateaus depending on their agriculture production modes. During the second stage, from Yangshao (7500–5000 aBP to the Longshan period (5000–4000 aBP, settlements were mainly distributed on mountainous areas and hilly lands to avoid flooding and to develop agriculture. Finally, during the Xiashang culture (4000–3000 aBP, a large number of settlements migrated to the plain area to facilitate trade of goods and cultural exchanges.

  4. Erratics and Re-cycled Stone: scholarly irrelevancies or fundamental utilities to lithic studies in prehistoric Britain and beyond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stephen Briggs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many theories explaining later prehistoric 'trade' and 'exchange systems' in stone artefacts. Evidence matching the petrographic information of transported implements with the country rock (local bedrock where 'factories' produced flaked stone axes is felt to be compelling. Consequently, across Europe it is widely believed that the only way 'factory' rock could have reached the places where artefacts have been found was by human carriage. The discovery of implement working floors, or 'factories' in montane areas (c. 1900-1970 on primary exposures of stone, lithologically almost identical to polished axes found considerable distances from them, has led to a belief in the industrial, economic or social processing and carriage of finished products. There are caveats to this proof of evidence, however. Natural processes constantly redistribute incalculable numbers of durable erratic pebble- to boulder-sized clasts, so why could these not have been used for making prehistoric artefacts? There is abundant evidence in the archaeological record that artefacts were crafted from such material. And although there is now an archive of petrographic thin-sections available to help to identify the origins of the artefacts, no comparable data are available on re-cycled stone. Implement provenancing is therefore unlikely to be of lasting scientific value until investigative programmes have accumulated far more accurate petrographic data on pebbles and erratics from superficial deposits. Comparisons between some British-Irish implement distribution patterns with those of glacial erratics suggests the available evidence already better fits an interpretation of deterministic and opportunistic stone procurement rather than one involving long-distance travel by prehistoric peoples. Extensive, long-term sampling and provenancing programmes are now needed to address this requirement.

  5. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  6. Cannon de Hermeto Pascoal: aspectos musicais e religiosos em uma obra-prima para flauta Cannon by Hermeto Pascoal: musical and religious aspects in a flute masterpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Borém

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de caso sobre Cannon de Hermeto Pascoal, obra para flauta, humming na flauta e sons pré-gravados, planejada como uma sessão espírita musical e gravada pelo compositor no disco Slaves Mass (PASCOAL, 1977. A partir do desenho artístico de uma pauta espiralada na capa interna do mesmo LP (PASCOAL e PEREIRA, 1977 e de uma transcrição baseada na faixa gravada, a partitura da obra foi detalhadamente reconstituída e editada (PASCOAL e BORÉM, 2010; incluída neste volume de Per Musi às p.80-82. A combinação das análises formal, escalar e proporcional da partitura e seu cruzamento com a análise espectral da gravação revelam grande unidade e uma íntima relação entre os conteúdos musicais e extra-musicais da obra, na qual elementos opostos dialogam: a improvisação e as camadas de superposição de sons pré-gravados, a sonoridade acústica e os sons manipulados, a performance individual e a coletiva, a estabilidade e a instabilidade modal, as linguagens popular (embolada, jazz modal, free jazz e erudita (música concreta, atonalismo, cadenza, recitativo, os mundos terreno e espiritual. Apresenta também, em primeira mão, a abordagem analítica do "continuum separação-fusão paradoxal" da obra, a partir de ferramenta etnomusicológica criada e realizada por COSTA-LIMA NETO (2009. Inclui uma contextualização do papel da religião na música do "mago" multi-instrumentista, arranjador e compositor da música popular brasileira.Case study on Cannon by Brazilian composer, arranger and multi-instrumentalist Hermeto Pascoal, a work for flute, flute humming and pre-recorded sounds, designed as a musical spiritism session and included in the LP Slaves Mass (PASCOAL, 1977. Departing from an artistic drawing of a music staff spiral included in the internal covers of the same LP (PASCOAL e PEREIRA, 1977 and a transcription based on the listening of the track in the same disc, the score of the work was reconstituted and edited in detail

  7. Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hisashi; Tamura, Kohei; Arimatsu, Yui; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Naoko; Matsugi, Takehiko

    2016-03-01

    Whether man is predisposed to lethal violence, ranging from homicide to warfare, and how that may have impacted human evolution, are among the most controversial topics of debate on human evolution. Although recent studies on the evolution of warfare have been based on various archaeological and ethnographic data, they have reported mixed results: it is unclear whether or not warfare among prehistoric hunter-gatherers was common enough to be a component of human nature and a selective pressure for the evolution of human behaviour. This paper reports the mortality attributable to violence, and the spatio-temporal pattern of violence thus shown among ancient hunter-gatherers using skeletal evidence in prehistoric Japan (the Jomon period: 13 000 cal BC-800 cal BC). Our results suggest that the mortality due to violence was low and spatio-temporally highly restricted in the Jomon period, which implies that violence including warfare in prehistoric Japan was not common. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  9. Stable carbon isotopic assessment of prehistoric diets in the south-western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, J C

    1984-01-01

    This thesis consists of a stable carbon isotopic assessment of the diets of the Holocene human inhabitants of the south-western Cape, South-Africa. Samples of the foods these people ate were collected from each of the four major physiographic zones in the area, and their /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios measured. A total of more than 200 such analyses enabled the estimation of the average delta /sup 13/C values of prehistoric human diets in each zone. This information is used to interpret delta /sup 13/C measurements on a series of archaeological human skeletons. The results are consistent with a model of prehistoric subsistence behaviour in which people living at the coast made intensive use of marine food resources throughout the Holocene, consuming such a large proportion of these foods that they must have spent much, if not all of their time at the coast. Inland skeletons reflect an almost entirely terrestrial diet. These results contradict hypotheses about seasonal population movements between the coast and the interior generated from excavated archaeological material. Considerable changes in many of our current views of the Late Stone Age of the south-western Cape will have to be made in order to accommodate these data.

  10. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  11. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  12. On fossil and prehistoric remains of Tapirus from Java, Sumatra and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1947-01-01

    The tapir is an extremely rare element in the fossil Mammalian fauna of Java. In the enormous collection of fossil teeth and bones brought together in this island by Eug. Dubois in the years 1890 to 1900, the tapir is represented only by six teeth, originating from three localities in the Kendeng

  13. Bones as biofuel: a review of whale bone composition with implications for deep-sea biology and palaeoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Nicholas D; Little, Crispin T S; Glover, Adrian G

    2011-01-07

    Whales are unique among vertebrates because of the enormous oil reserves held in their soft tissue and bone. These 'biofuel' stores have been used by humans from prehistoric times to more recent industrial-scale whaling. Deep-sea biologists have now discovered that the oily bones of dead whales on the seabed are also used by specialist and generalist scavenging communities, including many unique organisms recently described as new to science. In the context of both cetacean and deep-sea invertebrate biology, we review scientific knowledge on the oil content of bone from several of the great whale species: Balaenoptera musculus, Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eschrichtius robustus, Physeter macrocephalus and the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. We show that data collected by scientists over 50 years ago during the heyday of industrial whaling explain several interesting phenomena with regard to the decay of whale remains. Variations in the lipid content of bones from different parts of a whale correspond closely with recently observed differences in the taphonomy of deep-sea whale carcasses and observed biases in the frequency of whale bones at archaeological sites.

  14. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  15. Biodeterioration agents: Bacterial and fungal diversity dwelling in or on the pre-historic rock-paints of Kabra-pahad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jayant; Sharma, Kavita; Harris, K K; Rajput, Yogita

    2013-09-01

    In the last few decades, losses of our cultural heritage due to biodeteriorationare beinghighly recognized. From museum objects to rock monuments, the microbial biodeterioration agents are found to be the most destructive. Possibilities for proper preservative measure(s) are always more when it is only a monument, statue, museum article, or pre-historic art in any small subterranean cave. Nevertheless, preservation/protection of the footprints occupying a big area, lying scattered in a very negligible manner requires safeguard against several deterioration factors; right from various physical, chemical and biological agents which are indeed interrelated to each other. In the present study, some microbial communities possibly responsible for deteriorating the rocks of Kabra-pahad, where the most famous pre-historic rock paints of India prevail have been identified. The diversity of fungi and bacteria present in the stone crust of the infected areas has been studied by employing standard laboratory methods. The cultivated cultures confirmed total fifteen fungal species, among which Aspergillus group were the most dominant. Among bacteria, total 80 numbers of colonies were observed that dominated by two major groups; Micrococcus.spp and Staphylococcus spp. The pre-historic footprint in the form of rock paints in Kabra-pahad of district Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India is lying in a very deteriorated manner. In the present study, we have tried to identify few major deteriorating factors that are responsible for such degradation of our existing pre-historic footprints.

  16. Mollusc succession of a prehistoric settlement area during the Holocene: A case study of the České středohoří Mountains (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Horáčková, J.; Jansová, A.; Ložek, Vojen

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2013), s. 1811-1823 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : České středohoří Mountains * Holocene * mollusc succession * prehistoric settlement * radiocarbon AMS dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2013

  17. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  18. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  19. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  20. New finds from the prehistoric sites in the surrounding of Leskovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Milorad Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New finds, mainly pottery, provide a more complete picture of cultural development in the Leskovac region, during the prehistoric period (localities Kale in Grdelica, Jeremište in Lipovica, Pusto Semče in Semče Sastanci in Bobište, Hisar-plateau in Leskovac, Gornji Guberevac and Grkinje. The pottery from the Aeneolithic period at the site Sastanci in Bobište, indicate that the Leskovac valley developed in the same way during the Copper Age as the nearby Niš valley. This site, for the time being, is the most southerly in the Morava valley where the Kostolac pottery can be found. It is characteristic that at every newly discovered Metal Age site in this region, pottery of the Vatin type, numerous and varied pottery of the Brnjica culture group, pottery of the phase Lanište II - Basarabi, as well as Greek type pottery and that of the Early Iron Age, is found. Among the pottery which is published in this study (Grdelica and Semče, the most typical autochthon pottery of Iron Age III from the Morava valley, east Serbia and the Serbian Danube valley, downstream from Novi Sad, is also included. New locations of the Brnjica cultural group in the Leskovac valley point to the population density in one of the regions of this community and its territorial organization. On the bases of number disposition and topography of the localities it is possible to presume not only the size of population, but its territorial organization as well. Namely, it is obvious that the people of the Brnjica cultural group based their defense on elevated settlements, like those on the plateaus of Hisar in Leskovac, Skobaljić Grad in Vučje, Kale in Grdelica, Pusto Semče in Semče and other similar sites, while the settlements like those in Bobište Lipovac, Gornji Grabovac and others in the valley, had an obvious agricultural character. Numerous sites in Gornja Jablanica, near one of the biggest mines of gold and other metals in the Lece area, where slag has been found

  1. Carbon-13 evidence for the diet of prehistoric humans in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, H.

    1982-01-01

    Bones and tissue from 42 humans fom Denmark and Greenland, ranging in time from 5500 B.C. to A.D. 1750, have been analysed for C-13. The analyses have shown a very marked difference in food habits between Mesolithic time in Denmark, when marine food was dominant and Neolithic time and younger periods, where a predominance of terrestrial food is indicated. (author)

  2. Hide-Scrapers from Arukhlo I Settlement in Georgia (on correspondence of the shape and function of prehistoric implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esakia Ketevan M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses one of the primary categories of the implement complex discovered at Arukhlo I Neolithic settlement (Georgia, Kvemo Kartli Region. The stone implements discovered at the site are characterized by their great variety. Comprehensive functional research conducted by the authors demonstrated that the typological and morphological characteristics of the various categories of stone implements do not always correspond to their functions. Thus, the shapes and functions of the hide-scrapers were fully identical for 18 of 39 implements only, whereas the other tools were used for different purposes and did not feature traces of utilization. A microanalysis of their working parts allowed to determine the types of processed raw material, means of processing, and in certain cases the type of obtained articles as well. The authors made a conclusion on the importance of the comprehensive research of production inventory for the reconstruction of the characteristic features of prehistoric economy.

  3. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  4. Trepanation Procedures/Outcomes: Comparison of Prehistoric Peru with Other Ancient, Medieval, and American Civil War Cranial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, David S; Verano, John W; Titelbaum, Anne R

    2018-06-01

    More prehistoric trepanned crania have been found in Peru than any other location worldwide. We examine trepanation practices and outcomes in Peru over nearly 2000 years from 400 BC to provide a perspective on the procedure with comparison with procedures/outcomes of other ancient, medieval, and American Civil War cranial surgery. Data on trepanation demographics, techniques, and survival rates were collected through the scientific analysis of more than 800 trepanned crania discovered in Peru, through field studies and the courtesy of museums and private collections in the United States and Peru, over nearly 3 decades. Data on procedures and outcomes of cranial surgery ancient, medieval, and during 19th-century through the American Civil war were obtained via a literature review. Successful trepanations from prehistoric times through the American Civil War likely involved shallow surgeries that did not pierce the dura mater. Although there are regional and temporal variations in ancient Peru, overall long-term survival rates for the study series were about 40% in the earliest period (400-200 BC), with improvement to a high of 91% in samples from AD 1000-1400, to an average of 75%-83% during the Inca Period (AD 1400s-1500). In comparison, the average cranial surgery mortality rate during the American Civil war was 46%-56%, and short- and long-term survival rates are unknown. The contrast in outcomes highlights the astonishing success of ancient cranial surgery in Peru in the treatment of living patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis of prehistoric cave art of Rouffignac St-Cernin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahlil, Sophia; Lebon, Matthieu; Beck, Lucile; Rousseliere, Helene; Vignaud, Colette; Reiche, Ina; Menu, Michel; Paillet, Patrick; Plassard, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The first in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric drawings found in the cave of Rouffignac-Saint-Cernin (Dordogne, France) was carried out. Rouffignac cave art, assigned to the upper Magdalenian Paleolithic period (13500-12000 bp), is constituted of more than 250 drawings and engraving including 158 mammoths. There are about a hundred drawings, all made of black pigments. Until now, destructive chemical analyses performed on one sample, as well as recent micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) in situ analyses have shown that the drawings contain manganese oxides. Because no carbon has yet been found, no direct dating of the drawings could be performed. This new study of the Rouffignac cave using non-destructive in situ micro-analyses aims at confirming or not the absence of carbon-based drawings and at understanding the apparent homogeneity of the parietal representations by the identification of the crystalline phases constituting the black pigments. The adaptability of portable equipment as well as the feasibility of in situ micro-Raman analyses in a cave environment was tested. The results obtained are compared with in situ XRF, and X-ray diffraction microanalysis is performed at the same time in the cave. We demonstrate that a portable Raman instrument is very useful to analyze non-destructively drawings in the following difficult conditions: high humidity, various wall geometries, and small amounts of material studied. These results show that the black manganese oxides romanechite and pyrolusite were used as pigments by prehistorical artists. Carbon and carotenoids have been found locally. Differences between the various figures are highlighted and hypotheses about the drawings production are proposed. (authors)

  6. Ancient water bottle use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among California Indians: a prehistoric health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Smith, Kevin; Wallin, Cecilia; Ahmed, Trifa M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-06-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies. We replicated prehistoric bitumen-coated water bottles with traditional materials and techniques of California Indians, based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence. In order to estimate PAH exposure related to water bottle manufacture and use, we conducted controlled experiments to measure PAH contamination 1) in air during the manufacturing process and 2) in water and olive oil stored in a completed bottle for varying periods of time. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for concentrations of the 16 PAHs identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants. Eight PAHs were detected in concentrations of 1-10 μg/m 3 in air during bottle production and 50-900 ng/L in water after 2 months of storage, ranging from two-ring (naphthalene and methylnaphthalene) to four-ring (fluoranthene) molecules. All 16 PAHs analyzed were detected in olive oil after 2 days (2 to 35 μg/kg), 2 weeks (3 to 66 μg/kg), and 2 months (5 to 140 μg/kg) of storage. For ancient California Indians, water stored in bitumen-coated water bottles was not a significant source of PAH exposure, but production of such bottles could have resulted in harmful airborne PAH exposure.

  7. 3D Recording methodology applied to the Grotta Scritta Prehistoric Rock-Shelter in Olmeta-Di-Capocorso (Corsica, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, P.; Burens, A.; Guillemin, S.; Alby, E.; Allegrini Simonetti, F.; Marchetti, M.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The Grotta Scritta I prehistoric site is located on the west side of Cap Corse, in the territory of the municipality of Olmeta-di- Capocorso (Haute-Corse, France). This rock shelter is located on a western spur of the mountains La Serra, at 412 m height above sea level. In the regional context of a broad set of megalithic burial sites (regions Nebbiu and Agriates) and a rich insular prehistoric rock art with several engraved patterns (mainly geometric), the Grotta Scritta is the only site with painted depictions of Corsica. Around twenty parietal depictions are arranged in the upper part of the rock-shelter and takes advantage of the microtopography of the wall. Today, the Grotta Scritta is a vulnerable site, made fragile by the action of time and man. The 3D scanning of the rockshelter and paintings of the Grotta Scritta was carried out by surveyors and archaeologists from INSA Strasbourg and from UMR 5602 GEODE (Toulouse), by combining accurate terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques. These techniques are based on a full 3D documentation without contact of the rock-shelter paintings. The paper presents the data acquisition methodology followed by an overview of data processing solutions based on both imaging and laser scanning. Several deliverables as point clouds, meshed models, textured models and orthoimages are proposed for the documentation. Beyond their usefulness in terms of valorization, communication and virtual restitution, the proposed models also provide support tools for the analysis and perception of the complexity of the volumes of the shelter (namely for the folded forms of the dome housing the paintings) as well as for the accuracy of the painted depictions recorded on the orthophotos processed from the 3D model.

  8. Volcanic ash in ancient Maya ceramics of the limestone lowlands: implications for prehistoric volcanic activity in the Guatemala highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Anabel; Rose, William I.

    1995-07-01

    In the spirit of collaborative research, Glicken and Ford embarked on the problem of identifying the source of volcanic ash used as temper in prehistoric Maya ceramics. Verification of the presence of glass shards and associated volcanic mineralogy in thin sections of Maya ceramics was straightforward and pointed to the Guatemala Highland volcanic chain. Considering seasonal wind rose patterns, target volcanoes include those from the area west of and including Guatemala City. Joint field research conducted in 1983 by Glicken and Ford in the limestone lowlands of Belize and neighboring Guatemala, 300 km north of the volcanic zone and 150 km from the nearest identified ash deposits, was unsuccessful in discovering local volcanic ash deposits. The abundance of the ash in common Maya ceramic vessels coupled with the difficulties of long-distance procurement without draft animals lead Glicken to suggest that ashfall into the lowlands would most parsimoniously explain prehistoric procurement; it literally dropped into their hands. A major archaeological problem with this explanation is that the use of volcanic ash occurring over several centuries of the Late Classic Period (ca. 600-900 AD). To accept the ashfall hypothesis for ancient Maya volcanic ash procurement, one would have to demonstrate a long span of consistent volcanic activity in the Guatemala Highlands for the last half of the first millennium AD. Should this be documented through careful petrographic, microprobe and tephrachronological studies, a number of related archaeological phenomena would be explained. In addition, the proposed model of volcanic activity has implications for understanding volcanism and potential volcanic hazards in Central America over a significantly longer time span than the historic period. These avenues are explored and a call for further collaborative research of this interdisciplinary problem is extended in this paper.

  9. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  10. Using bones to shape stones: MIS 9 bone retouchers at both edges of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blasco

    Full Text Available A significant challenge in Prehistory is to understand the mechanisms involved in the behavioural evolution of human groups. The degree of technological and cultural development of prehistoric groups is assessed mainly through stone tools. However, other elements can provide valuable information as well. This paper presents two bone retouchers dated to the Middle Pleistocene MIS 9 used for the shaping of lithic artefacts. Originating from Bolomor Cave (Spain and Qesem Cave (Israel, these two bone retouchers are among the earliest of the Old World. Although the emergence of such tools might be found in the latest phases of the Acheulean, their widespread use seems to coincide with independently emergent post-Acheulean cultural complexes at both ends of the Mediterranean Sea: the post-Acheulean/pre-Mousterian of Western Europe and the Acheulo Yabrudian Cultural Complex of the Levant. Both entities seem to reflect convergent processes that may be viewed in a wider cultural context as reflecting new technology-related behavioural patterns as well as new perceptions in stone tool manufacturing.

  11. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  12. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  13. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  14. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  15. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  16. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  17. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  18. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  19. Preliminary Laser Cleaning Studies of a Consolidated Prehistoric Basketry Coming from the Pile Building of Fiave-Carera in the North-East of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, R.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.; Toniutti, L.; Bazzanella, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the archaeological field, some specific advantages are recognized to laser cleaning, like, for example, the absence of mechanical contacts with the sample. The cleaning procedures generally involve a multilayer structure (dust, dirty, organic deposits, and, in some cases, consolidant substances). In this work, prehistoric wood samples (found and consolidated in 1970s) have been laser irradiated (KrF excimer laser) in order to restore their original surface aspect. A certain amount of burned matter was also present. Samples came from a fragment of a prehistoric basketry found in the lake dwelling site of Fiave-Carera, Trento, Italy (1500-1400 BC). It was observed that the laser cleaning effects are strictly dependent on the irradiation parameters (power density and number of pulses). Efficient material removal was possible by using appropriate energy density. Moreover, for lower laser energy density, special structures appeared on the surface of the consolidating substance that we attributed to heating-induced stresses on the consolidant surface.

  20. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  1. First use of portable system coupling X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence for in-situ analysis of prehistoric rock art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L; Rousselière, H; Castaing, J; Duran, A; Lebon, M; Moignard, B; Plassard, F

    2014-11-01

    Study of prehistoric art is playing a major role in the knowledge of human evolution. Many scientific methods are involved in this investigation including chemical analysis of pigments present on artefacts or applied to cave walls. In the past decades, the characterization of coloured materials was carried on by taking small samples. This procedure had two main disadvantages: slight but existing damage of the paintings and limitation of the number of samples. Thanks to the advanced development of portable systems, in-situ analysis of pigment in cave can be now undertaken without fear for this fragile Cultural Heritage. For the first time, a portable system combining XRD and XRF was used in an underground and archaeological environment for prehistoric rock art studies. In-situ non-destructive analysis of black prehistoric drawings and determination of their composition and crystalline structure were successfully carried out. Original results on pigments used 13,000 years ago in the cave of Rouffignac (France) were obtained showing the use of two main manganese oxides: pyrolusite and romanechite. The capabilities of the portable XRD-XRF system have been demonstrated for the characterization of pigments as well as for the analysis of rock in a cave environment. This first in-situ experiment combining X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence open up new horizons and can fundamentally change our approach of rock art studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protection of prehistoric and historic properties at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, D.L.; Marler, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    When exploring the basic nature or building blocks of the universe, the matter that physicists examine is usually subatomic, such as protons or quarks. For individuals involved in cultural resource management and preservation, that matter is somewhat more tangible and can consist of a dinosaur or mammoth bone, a fossil fish or gastropod, or it can consist of the easily recognized projectile point or arrowhead. The study of cultural resources also includes the examination of historic structures, which happen to be the most predominant cultural resource in the 54 mile SSC footprint. While curiosity about the nature of matter unites archaeologists and physicists alike, what really brings us together is law. Particularly Newton's Law which states: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. To paraphrase Newton's Law in cultural resource terms, federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy (DOE), need to consider what effects their actions, and actions they may assist, permit, license, or fund may have on cultural resources. This is mandated by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and is implemented by the Section 106 process. Again, in more general terms, Section 106 of NHPA states that before any ground disturbing activities take place on a federally licensed or assisted project, certain steps or processes must occur. The authors examine these steps and their resultant SSC actions later, after first considering how preservation laws developed and evolved in the United States

  3. Evidence of prehistoric Lapita diet at Watom Island, Papua New Guinea, using stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B F [Archaeozoology Laboratory, Museum of New Zealand, Wellington (New Zealand); Quinn, C J [178 Queen Street North, Dunedin (New Zealand); Lyon, G L [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Haystead, A [Auckland Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Myers, D B [Wellcome Medical Research Institute, Otago Medical School, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1998-07-01

    Samples of human bone from six individuals from the Lapita burial ground at Reber-Rakival on Watom Island in New Britain were analysed for {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, and {delta}{sup 34}/S. The mean values obtained were -18.1, 11.6 and 9.9 respectively. From existing knowledge of isotope values, calorific content and protein yields for the main Pacific food types, computer simulation was used to randomly generate a large number of possible food compositions, in order to find the type of diet which could have produced the isotope pattern at Watom. The simulation produced solutions which are within acceptable limits of the Watom isotope signature. The mean food composition per day was then estimated. This analysis shows that approximately 64% of the diet at Watom came from land-based foods and 36% from the sea. Plant foods contributed 53% per weight. It is notable that C4 plants were present in the diet. There are two possible sources of this - sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, and/or a herbivore which browsed on the C4 grasslands of Papua New Guinea, such as Saccharum spontaneum (pit-pit) and Imperata cylindrica (kunai). Fish and land herbivores are the main sources of protein in the Watom diet, while plant foods contributed by far the most food energy. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Evidence of prehistoric Lapita diet at Watom Island, Papua New Guinea, using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Lyon, G.L.; Haystead, A.; Myers, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of human bone from six individuals from the Lapita burial ground at Reber-Rakival on Watom Island in New Britain were analysed for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 34 /S. The mean values obtained were -18.1, 11.6 and 9.9 respectively. From existing knowledge of isotope values, calorific content and protein yields for the main Pacific food types, computer simulation was used to randomly generate a large number of possible food compositions, in order to find the type of diet which could have produced the isotope pattern at Watom. The simulation produced solutions which are within acceptable limits of the Watom isotope signature. The mean food composition per day was then estimated. This analysis shows that approximately 64% of the diet at Watom came from land-based foods and 36% from the sea. Plant foods contributed 53% per weight. It is notable that C4 plants were present in the diet. There are two possible sources of this - sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, and/or a herbivore which browsed on the C4 grasslands of Papua New Guinea, such as Saccharum spontaneum (pit-pit) and Imperata cylindrica (kunai). Fish and land herbivores are the main sources of protein in the Watom diet, while plant foods contributed by far the most food energy. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  6. Analysis of Thousands of Prehistoric Mediterranean Obsidian Artifacts Using a Nondestructive Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykot, Robert

    A portable, hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been used for a decade to elementally analyze prehistoric obsidian artifacts in the Mediterranean. Nearly 400 geological obsidian samples and 7500 obsidian artifacts have been analyzed. The pXRF can distinguish all individual sources, as well as assign artifacts specifically to most subsources. For the island sources of Lipari, Pantelleria, Sardinia, and Melos, it is important to address the usage of obsidian from specific subsources due to human selection based on physical properties of the raw material and their production practices, which may have changed over time from the Early Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The analysis of 50 or more artifacts from 60 different archaeological sites allows for statistical comparison between sites, and their contexts, geographic areas (e.g. coastal/inland, highland/lowland) and distance from geological sources. The frequency of transport between island sources and mainland sites is suggestive of maritime capabilities also for the transport of domesticated animals, ceramics, and other materials. This presentation will specifically address potential limitations of the portable XRF, including non-destructive surface analysis of potentially heterogeneous materials, and limited trace element detection compared to other analytical methods, versus its highly beneficial ``package'' of analyzing great numbers of artifacts non-destructively and rapidly without needing to export them from museums and facilities in many countries.

  7. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Caneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  8. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  9. Distribution modelling of pre-Columbian California grasslands with soil phytoliths: New insights for prehistoric grassland ecology and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Stephen E; Evett, Rand R

    2018-01-01

    Historical reconstructions of plant community distributions are useful for biogeographic studies and restoration planning, but the quality of insights gained depends on the depth and reliability of historical information available. For the Central Valley of California, one of the most altered terrestrial ecosystems on the planet, this task is particularly difficult given poor historical documentation and sparse relict assemblages of pre-invasion plant species. Coastal and interior prairies were long assumed to have been dominated by perennial bunchgrasses, but this hypothesis has recently been challenged. We evaluated this hypothesis by creating species distribution models (SDMs) using a novel approach based on the abundance of soil phytoliths (microscopic particles of biogenic silica used as a proxy for long-term grass presence) extracted from soil samples at locations statewide. Modeled historical grass abundance was consistently high along the coast and to a lesser extent in higher elevation foothills surrounding the Central Valley. SDMs found strong associations with mean temperature, temperature variability, and precipitation variability, with higher predicted abundance in regions with cooler, equable temperatures and moderated rainfall, mirroring the pattern for modern perennial grass distribution across the state. The results of this study strongly suggest that the pre-Columbian Central Valley of California was not dominated by grasses. Using soil phytolith data as input for SDMs is a promising new method for predicting the extent of prehistoric grass distributions where alternative historical datasets are lacking.

  10. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  11. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  12. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  13. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  14. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  15. Four millennia of Iberian biomolecular prehistory illustrate the impact of prehistoric migrations at the far end of Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiosera, Cristina; Günther, Torsten; Vera-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Ureña, Irene; Iriarte, Eneko; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Simões, Luciana G; Martínez-Sánchez, Rafael M; Svensson, Emma M; Malmström, Helena; Rodríguez, Laura; Bermúdez de Castro, José-María; Carbonell, Eudald; Alday, Alfonso; Hernández Vera, José Antonio; Götherström, Anders; Carretero, José-Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Smith, Colin I; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2018-03-27

    Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants. Partly due to climatic conditions that are unfavorable for DNA preservation, regional studies on the Mediterranean remain challenging. Here, we present genome-wide sequence data from 13 individuals combined with stable isotope analysis from the north and south of Iberia covering a four-millennial temporal transect (7,500-3,500 BP). Early Iberian farmers and Early Central European farmers exhibit significant genetic differences, suggesting two independent fronts of the Neolithic expansion. The first Neolithic migrants that arrived in Iberia had low levels of genetic diversity, potentially reflecting a small number of individuals; this diversity gradually increased over time from mixing with local hunter-gatherers and potential population expansion. The impact of post-Neolithic migrations on Iberia was much smaller than for the rest of the continent, showing little external influence from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. Paleodietary reconstruction shows that these populations have a remarkable degree of dietary homogeneity across space and time, suggesting a strong reliance on terrestrial food resources despite changing culture and genetic make-up. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  17. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiping; Wong, Minghung; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the 14 C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age

  18. 14C age determination for human bones during the Yayoi period - the calibration ambiguity around 2400 BP and the marine reservoir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Koike, H.

    2004-01-01

    14 C ages for Japanese prehistoric samples from the Latest Jomon period to the early Yayoi period have a calibration ambiguity for dates around 2400 BP. It is also necessary to correct for the marine reservoir effect on 14 C ages of human bone samples from people who consumed marine food as a protein source. The Ohtomo site in western Japan, is a cemetery site used from the end of the Latest Jomon period to the Kofun period, provide a useful archaeological chronology. Human bones found in dolmen burials, jar burials and cist burials. In this study, we determined the 14 C ages of human bone samples and calculated the marine reservoir effect, using diet analysis based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Diet analysis showed that these people obtained from 40% to 60% of their protein from marine sources. Their 14 C ages with calibration and marine reservoir correction were serially matched with the archaeological chronology

  19. Tusk or Bone? An Example of Ivory Substitute in the Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sims

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone carvings (and other ivory substitutes are common in the modern-day lucrative international ivory trade.  Souvenirs for unknowing travelers and market shoppers can be made of non-biological material (plastic "ivory" beads or skillfully crafted natural objects made to resemble something other than their true origin.  Many of these items are received at the U. S. National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory (NFWFL for species identification as part of law enforcement investigations.  Morphologists at the Lab often receive uniquely carved ivory items that have been imported with little or no documentation.  In recent years, analysts examined several purported ivory tusks suspected to be walrus, a protected marine mammal.  After examination, the Lab determined their origin as carved leg bones of cattle using principles and methods of zooarchaeology and ancient DNA analysis.  The naturally long and straight ungulate metapodials had been cut, carved, filled, stained, and polished to closely resemble unmodified ivory tusks.  Morphological species identification of these bones proved to be a challenge since diagnostic characters of the bones had been altered and country of origin was unknown. Genetic analysis showed that the bones originated from cattle.  While bone is commonly used as a substitute for ivory, this style of artifact was not previously documented in the wildlife trade prior to our analysis.  Archaeological ethnobiologists commonly encounter bone tools and other forms of material culture from prehistoric and historic contexts; in this case bone tools come from a modern context, thus the application of methods common in zooarchaeology are situated in wildlife forensics.  In addition, results reported here pertain to cross-cultural ivory trade and conservation science.

  20. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  1. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  2. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  3. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  4. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  5. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  6. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  7. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  8. Oxiuríase e migrações pré-históricas Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araújo

    1995-06-01

    hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations.

  9. Radiocarbon reservoir between charred seeds and fish bone in Neolithic sites, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.

    2017-12-01

    Many efforts have been done to understand the reservoir effect of Qinghai Lake, yet no agreement has been reached. Five archaeological sites, located around the junction between the estuary of Rivers and Qinghai Lake, are the earliest Neolithic Age sites in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which is critical for understanding patterns of prehistoric human inhabitation in the high plateau extreme environments. This study compares radiocarbon dates of fish bones and terrestrial plant remains uncovered from the same archaeological strata to see whether there was reservoir effect reference to reliable data. Results demonstrate that there were reservoir effects ranging from 300 to 600 years back to 3600 years ago, nevertheless, no reservoir was observed of the modern fish. Besides, stable isotopic analysis illustrated that modern fish consumed similar food to those of millennias ago.

  10. Discovery of Prehistoric Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1995-12-01

    It was Charles Francois Dupui, of France, who two centuries ago in his twelve-volume "Origine de tous les cults" (1795) worked out a proposition that all the different religious customs, stories, and dogmas will be found upon examination to have a cradle as one or another aspect of the natural, mainly, astronomical phenomena. It is absolutely correct but he and his spirited followers failed to develop a basic scientific quantitative argument focused on astronomy - chronological distribution of events. It is the first time that a combination of the up-to-date knowledge in archaic symbology and the professional astronomical data for precession and other regular astronomical events constitutes conditions for an absolutely new approach. An astronomical reconstruction of the evolution of the Zodiacal constellations was made, based on the Indo-european and Sumero-Akkadian religio-cultural data, including artifacts such as cult statuettes, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals and boundary stones. It was argued that the development of 12 houses of the Zodiac in 3 groups of 4 over some six millennia was dictated by the changes made by precession in the positions of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. The first quartet of the Zodiacal constellations (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) was recognized by the first agriculturists from the Fertile Crescent to learn the four most important Sun positions and to predict the ongoing seasons; it was done as far back as 5,600 B.C. (with a formal error of this determination about +/- 150 years). The second one (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) was introduced in 2,700 +/- 250 years B.C. by Egyptians with their own animal symbolism that was the etymological root for the term the Zodiac (a circle of animals). This event was followed with the acquaintance of the new calendar and erection of the great pyramids as an eternal sanctuary for their mental triumph. In the first half of 14 century B.C. the Egyptian pharaoh Ekhnaton (Amenhotep 1V) attempted to inaugurate a new four constellation set to fixate the Sun track. The attempt was in vain but it seems the knowledge to go via Moses and the tribes left Egypt for Canaan. According our precessional dating the final design of the Zodiac with 12 houses appeared at 1,200 +/- 400 years B.C. In opposite to the figure 7 which was from the Paleolithic, the first great opus where figure 12 appeared as a sacred one was the Holy Bible. Many other details of the concept proposed are discussed.

  11. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  12. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  13. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  14. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  15. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  16. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  17. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  18. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  19. Light exposure enhances urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, and up-regulates the protein abundance of a light-dependent urea active transporter, DUR3-like, in its ctenidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christabel Y L; Hiong, Kum C; Boo, Mel V; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-19

    Giant clams live in nutrient-poor reef waters of the Indo-Pacific and rely on symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp., also known as zooxanthellae) for nutrients. As the symbionts are nitrogen deficient, the host clam has to absorb exogenous nitrogen and supply it to them. This study aimed to demonstrate light-enhanced urea absorption in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa , and to clone and characterize the urea active transporter DUR3-like from its ctenidium (gill). The results indicate that T. squamosa absorbs exogenous urea, and the rate of urea uptake in the light was significantly higher than that in darkness. The DUR3-like coding sequence obtained from its ctenidium comprised 2346 bp, encoding a protein of 782 amino acids and 87.0 kDa. DUR3-like was expressed strongly in the ctenidium, outer mantle and kidney. Twelve hours of exposure to light had no significant effect on the transcript level of ctenidial DUR3-like However, between 3 and 12 h of light exposure, DUR3-like protein abundance increased progressively in the ctenidium, and became significantly greater than that in the control at 12 h. DUR3-like had an apical localization in the epithelia of the ctenidial filaments and tertiary water channels. Taken together, these results indicate that DUR3-like might participate in light-enhanced urea absorption in the ctenidium of T. squamosa When made available to the symbiotic zooxanthellae that are known to possess urease, the absorbed urea can be metabolized to NH 3 and CO 2 to support amino acid synthesis and photosynthesis, respectively, during insolation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Gracile bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  1. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  2. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...

  4. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  5. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  7. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  8. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A probable prehistoric case of meningococcal disease from San Francisco Bay: Next generation sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis from dental calculus and osteological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkens, Jelmer W; Nichols, Ruth V; Murray, Gemma G R; Perez, Katherine; Murga, Engel; Kaijankoski, Phil; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S; Engbring, Laurel; Shapiro, Beth

    2018-05-25

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of ancient dental calculus samples from a prehistoric site in San Francisco Bay, CA-SCL-919, reveals a wide range of potentially pathogenic bacteria. One older adult woman, in particular, had high levels of Neisseria meningitidis and low levels of Haemophilus influenzae, species that were not observed in the calculus from three other individuals. Combined with the presence of incipient endocranial lesions and pronounced meningeal grooves, we interpret this as an ancient case of meningococcal disease. This disease afflicts millions around the globe today, but little is known about its (pre)history. With additional sampling, we suggest NGS of calculus offers an exciting new window into the evolutionary history of these bacterial species and their interactions with humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The prehistoric mines of Gavà: an example of a comprehensive approach to the study and public presentation of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco, Mònica

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prehistoric Mines of Gavà used to provide variscite about 6000 years ago. This mineral was used for decorative purposes! For the last ten years, the Gavà Museum has been implementing a comprehensive intervention (research, conservation and information dissemination campaign for the mines. This programme is financed by many different institutions, such as the city hall, the Generalitat de Cataluña (the Catalan Government, the Diputación de Barcelona (the city council and lNEM (employment office. The museum leads and coordinates an interdisciplinary team and has established cooperation agreements with some universities. The Prehistoric Mines can be visited since 1993, and meet the visitors´ safety, mobility and understanding requirements, without affecting their conservation and scientific rigor Visits are guided and their goal is to make people experience emotions. Although they have got a varied target group, they are especially aimed at students. Thus, there is a number of activities planned only for them. The visits to the Prehistoric Mines have been considered an accepted educational resource in Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The main future project of the museum is the Archaeological Park of the Prehistoric Mines. It will be a centre aimed at interpreting the Neolithic period and the origin of the mining industry. Its objectives are to maintain intervention and to attract the cultural tourism in Barcelona.

    Las Minas Prehistóricas de Gavá proporcionaron variscita, un material ornamental, hace 6000 años. Desde hace diez años el Museo de Gavá impulsa una intervención integral (investigación, conservación y difusión, financiada por diversas instituciones (Ayuntamiento, Generalitat de Cataluña, Diputación de Barcelona e INEM, lidera y coordina un equipo interdisciplinar y mantiene convenios de colaboración con diferentes universidades. Las minas están abiertas al público desde 1993 y

  11. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  12. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  13. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  14. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  15. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  16. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  17. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  18. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  19. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  20. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  1. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  3. Isotopic evidence of human mobility and diet in a prehistoric/protohistoric Fijian coastal environment (c. 750-150 BP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantis, Christina; Buckley, Hallie R; Kinaston, Rebecca L; Nunn, Patrick D; Jaouen, Klervia; Richards, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Bourewa, on the southwest coast of Viti Levu in Fiji, is a multi-period site that contained burials dated to the later Vuda Phase (750-150 BP), a period of climatic fluctuations that potentially impacted the availability of food resources. We aim to investigate diet and movement at this site during a time of possible ecological pressure and political change. We analyzed δ(13) C, δ(15) N, and (87) Sr/(86) Sr of these Vuda Phase individuals (n = 25) interred at the site. By analyzing dentin and bone, both childhood diet and the diet within the past few years of adults' lives were examined. The paleodietary results suggested that adult diets consisted largely of low trophic level marine organisms. Dentin and bone isotopic values differed significantly: childhood diet involved consumption of more higher trophic level terrestrial foods. Most individuals displayed (87) Sr/(86) Sr ratios expected of people living along a marine coastline. However, a few individuals displayed (87) Sr/(86) Sr ratios and paleodietary values (δ(13) Cdentin , δ(15) Ndentin ) suggestive of living further inland or consuming a more terrestrial-based childhood diet. The results are compared with past studies of sites from Fiji and nearby archipelagoes, placing our interpretations into a wider regional context. The Bourewa community appears to have consumed more low trophic level marine foods than any nearby site, possibly because terrestrial foods were more difficult to acquire. Interpreting the childhood diet is challenging due to the paucity of ethnohistoric literature on Fijian childhood; small meals outside of communal mealtimes or feeding children terrestrial animal protein as a means of cultural buffering are potential explanations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  6. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  7. Bone Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  8. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  9. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  10. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...

  11. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs

  13. Treated unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course

  14. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  15. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  16. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  17. Investigating the archaeointensity determination success of prehistoric ceramics through a multidisciplinary approach: new and re-evaluated data from Greek collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondopoulou, D.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Aidona, E.; Rathossi, Ch.; Carvallo, C.; Tema, E.; Efthimiadis, K. G.; Polymeris, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Balkan area provides an almost continuous record of the geomagnetic field variations during the last eight millennia but important data dispersion and chronological gaps are still observed. In order to improve this pattern, we oriented our research towards the study of Greek prehistoric ceramics and pottery collections. We present here new archaeointensity and mineralogical results from pottery and ceramics collected in two Bronze Age sites in Northern Greece, corresponding to the middle third and middle second millennium BC. Thermal demagnetization experiments, thermomagnetic curves, thermal demagnetization measurements of three axes composite isothermal magnetization and first-order reversal curves (FORC) diagrams were performed in order to define the main magnetic carriers and select the most promising samples for archaeointensity determination. The results suggest that the majority of the studied materials are dominated by a mixture of superparamagnetic and stable single domain grains, with very little magnetic interactions. In almost all samples the main magnetic carrier observed is a low coercivity mineral, most probably magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite. Classical Thellier experiments, including both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate corrections were performed on the selected samples. Two new archaeointensities were obtained and compared with previous data available for Greece and neighbouring countries and with global geomagnetic field models results. In order to investigate the causes of the high rate of failure observed in our archaeointensity experiments, we re-examined the results obtained from the study of four collections already published by better characterizing the magnetic and mineralogical properties of the studied fragments. Specific hysteresis curves performed at different layers of ceramic fragments reveal an important degree of inhomogeneity. Mineralogical analysis of selected samples from the totality of six Greek

  18. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  19. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  20. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  1. processing of fluted pumpkin seeds, telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    anti-nutritional factors in the seeds as well as growth and animal metabolism. Fresh seeds of ..... Adeyemi of the Department of Anatomy; Mrs. E.A. Adebiyi and O. Olatoye of the. Department .... China Agricultural University: Beijing, China. 2003 ...

  2. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  3. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  5. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  6. Obsidian Studies in the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean: After 50 Years, What Have We Learned and What Still Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykot Robert H.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obsidian sourcing studies have been conducted in the central Mediterranean for more than 50 years. Detailed studies have been done on the geological sources on four Italian islands, and many analytical methods have been used to successfully distinguish between them. The ability to conduct analyses using those minimally (LA-ICP-MS or totally (XRF, pXRF non-destructive to artifacts has led to >10,000 analyses just in the last decade. Along with the ability to assign artifacts to specific geological subsources, and an increased number of studies of techno-typology, this has allowed interpretations to be made about source access and territorial control, craft specialization and the chaîne opératoire, as well as the modes, frequency, and directions of movement and how that varied spacially and temporally. Obsidian especially from Lipari and from Monte Arci in Sardinia traveled hundreds of kilometers on a regular basis starting in the Early Neolithic. By the Late Neolithic, in some areas there was selection of specific obsidian sources and subsources, and differences in production methods and tool typology. Obsidian distribution and usage in the central Mediterranean continued over four-and-one-half millennia, in many areas well into the Bronze Age. There is much more still to do integrating these different studies, especially use-wear studies, along with those of lithic and other materials that also played a role in prehistoric transport and trade systems.

  7. Precipitation change and its effects on prehistorical human activities in the Gonghe Basin, Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during middle and late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoqing; Hou, Guangliang; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    Northeastern Qinghai-tibet Plateau is considered as the ideal region for study of the climate change during the Holocene. Based on the meteorological data, the surface & fossil pollen data, this paper reconstructed the precipitation series of the region since middle Holocene with the GIS and MAT techniques, and discussed its relationship with prehistorical human activities. The results indicate that there are four major climatic phases: (I) Middle Holocene Humid Phase (6300-5000 aBP), with the primitive millet-farming first imported into the region; (II) Late Middle Holocene Sub-humid Phase (5000-3900 aBP), with the millet-farming spread rapidly within the region; (III) Late Holocene Fluctuation Phase (3900-2900 aBP), with the mean annual precipitation dropped down to lower than 240 mm, and a production mode-shift to a combination of cropping and husbandry; (IV) Late Holocene Stationary Phase (2900-0 aBP), with a precipitation alike the modern time, and a steady farming-pastoral economic pattern.

  8. Dating by the method of thermoluminescence of a prehistoric campfire found in the archaeological site of Baixa do Umbuzeiro, RN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Renata L.; Santana, Sergio T.; Khoury, Helen J.; Sullasi, Henry L.; Borges, Fabio M.; Avila, Gabriela M.; Pessis, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this work it was carried out the dating of a prehistoric campfire found in the archaeological site of Baixa do Umbuzeiro - RN, by the method of thermoluminescence (TL). To perform the dating, were collected five sediment samples from different parts of the campfire. The accumulated dose in these samples was obtained by the method of regenerative doses in which the natural TL intensity is compared with the TL intensity of doses supplied in artificial laboratory through a Co-60 source. The determination of the annual dose rate was performed by the determination of the levels of U, Th and K in the samples by gamma spectrometry with germanium hyper pure detector (GeHP). The five values found for accumulated dose were evaluated by the statistical test ANOVA, having been discarded one of these. The accumulated dose average is 12.5 ± 1.5 Gy and the annual dose rate is 3.31 ± 0.60 mGy/year. These values provided an age of about 3776 ± 821 years for the campfire of Baixa do Umbuzeiro. (author)

  9. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  12. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  13. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  14. Radionuclide bone image in growing and stable bone island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  1. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  2. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response.......9 Versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in post men opausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance......, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption...

  3. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...... from that of femur and rib within the single skeleton (P bone and the 1st molar. The intraskeletal variation may reflect differences...

  4. Bone and glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the most frequent cause of osteoporosis in young people. Bone loss and fracture risk increase rapidly after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and are proportional to dose and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurement, as it is also related to impaired bone quality and increased risk of falls. Prevention should be considered in all patients beginning corticosteroid therapy, especially as the underlying inflammation in itself impairs bone quality. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide have shown efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Several national and international guidelines are available to improve management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains inadequate. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the progression of the underlying inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  6. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  7. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  8. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  9. Treated unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A

    2013-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  11. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.D.; Nesbit, M.E.; Griffiths, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  13. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)

  14. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  17. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  18. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  19. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...

  20. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  1. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taconis, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  2. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  3. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  5. Fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Young Sook

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series

  6. Prebiotics and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.

  7. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  8. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  9. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  10. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  11. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  12. Solitary (unicameral) bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struhl, S.; Edelson, C.; Pritzker, H.; Seimon, L.P.; Dorfman, H.D.; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    1989-01-01

    The fallen fragment sign is a prominent radiologic feature in a minority of cases of unicameral bone cyst (20% in this series). This sign is always associated with pathologic fracture. Intramedullary fracture fragments may be single or multiple and may or may not be entirely dislodged from overlying periosteum. The finding appears limited to unicameral bone cysts in patients with open physes. When present, the fallen fragment is a pathognomonic finding as it defines the interior of the cyst as nonsolid. (orig./GDG)

  13. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  14. Significance of bone scintollography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wioland, M.; Milhaud, G.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity enables visualisation of the principal organs in the forms of scintiscans, introduces a new order of sensitivity in quantitative hormonal analysis, thanks to radio-immunology and remains unrivalled in compartmental analyses of the various metabolism. The diagnosis of local skeletal conditions is reviewed and the indications for this quantitative examination are described for the diagnosis of numerous bone metabolic diseases. Finally, mono- and bi- photonic absorptiometry, the latest developments in isotopic techniques, are introduced. They are likely to provide numerical data on the state of mineralisation of bone tissue. The use of these nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and surveillance of osteoporosis is detailed [fr

  15. Hydrated disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishwani, A.H.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    A case of primary hydatid disease of the right femur is reported that presented with pathological fracture and was diagnosed at the time of exploration for biopsy. The patient was treated by removal of all cysts, irrigation with colloidal solution, bone grafting and immobilization of the fracture followed by four cycles of oral Albendazole. Eosinophilia and serological tests reverted to normal but the patient died due to acute myocardial infarction six months later. This uncommon condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures, bone pain or osteolytic lesions, especially in patients of rural and farmer background.(author)

  16. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  17. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  2. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  3. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  5. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  6. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  7. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  9. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  11. Electron Microscopy of Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young

  12. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr

  13. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  14. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  15. Wounded to the bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherie, Alexandra; Jørkov, M L S; Smith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300–1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones. Each was photographed...

  16. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  17. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  18. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  19. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  20. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  1. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  2. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  3. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  4. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  5. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.

  6. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  9. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    OI Issues: Understanding Bone Structure Introduction: Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame ...

  10. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-01-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with 99m TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout. (orig.) [de

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  12. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  13. Alterations to the subchondral bone architecture during osteoarthritis : bone adaptation versus endochondral bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this

  14. Bone metastases from gastric cancer. Clinical evaluation on bone scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-07-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N/sub 0/ or N/sub 1/ regional lymph node metastases, highly differentiated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone metastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer.

  15. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  16. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  17. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Straehl

    Full Text Available Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua, with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  18. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of 3 H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 3 H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of 45 Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, 45 Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of 45 Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products

  19. Metastases to bone in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, P.T.; Azouz, E.M.; Hoeffel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a relatively common intracranial neoplasm in childhood. Its extraneural spread was, until recently, thought to be a rare occurrence. Metastases are most commonly to bone. Five patients with medulloblastoma metastatic to bone are presented, and findings are compared to those of previous reports. Two of the five cases showed patchy extensive osteosclerosis of the pelvis and/or proximal femora. One case had concurrent lymph node involvement. In patients with past or present medulloblastoma and bone pain, metastases to bone should be excluded. Medulloblastoma metastatic to bone is a rare cause of extensive osteosclerosis. (orig.)

  20. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  2. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  3. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  4. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  5. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Sciences, Otsu (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.).

  6. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  7. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  8. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  9. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  10. Occipital bone lacunae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, P.; Sciascia, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with lacunar alterations of the squamous occipital bone were studied in various radiographic projections; in many cases studies were also performed. In 7 cases lacunae in the cerebral fossa were observed, with an average diameter of 3 cm. These defects were due to a thinning of the inner table of the theca. In 9 cases smaller lacunae were demonstrated bilaterally, which were more radiolucent, isolated or confluent, located in the area corresponding to the internal occipital protuberance at the ridges of cruciform eminence. The latter were representative of diploic venous lakes, as the best demonstrated in lateral projection. This kind of lacunae are considered as anatomic variants, because no bone destruction is demonstrable, as confirmed by technetium scintigraphy

  11. Risk estimates for bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone sarcoma data for 226 228 Ra and 224 Ra are analyzed within the dosage ranges where the observed risk is zero. The uncertainty in the risk may be effectively illustrated by using pairs of functions based on a statistically-based measure of confidence. For radiation protection, the appropriate measure of risk is cumulative incidence in the presence of competing risks, as this takes into account the reduction of radiation effects brought about by natural mortality

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  13. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Madhya Pradesh is very rich in archaeological wealth, with availability of remains starting from Early Stone Age to Historical period. Several Stone Age sites have been brought to light specially in districts of Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur, Mandla...

  14. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  15. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2. Earliest human colonization of south Asia. The early human colonization of south Asia is represented largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The oldest known tools ..... component among finished tools is conspicuous in the hinterland riverine ...... sativum), green gram (Vigna radiata), gram/chicken pea.

  16. HIV and bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dockrell, David; Bowman, Christine; McCloskey, Eugene

    2010-11-01

    Advances in management have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This decrease in mortality, initially the result of improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections but later mediated by the use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to the need to consider long-term complications of the disease itself, or its treatment. Bone disease is increasingly recognised as a concern. The prevalence of reduced BMD and possibly also fracture incidence are increased in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative controls. There are many potential explanations for this - an increased prevalence of established osteoporosis risk factors in the HIV-positive population, a likely direct effect of HIV infection itself and a possible contributory role of ARV therapy. At present, the assessment of bone disease and fracture risk remains patchy, with little or no guidance on identifying those at increased risk of reduced BMD or fragility fracture. Preventative and therapeutic strategies with bone specific treatments need to be developed. Limited data suggest bisphosphonates may be beneficial in conjunction with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients but larger studies of longer duration are needed. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these and other treatments needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Long bone reconstruction using multilevel lengthening of bone defect fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzunov, Dmitry Y

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.

  18. Denosumab for bone diseases: translating bone biology into targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourdi, Elena; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hamann, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2011-12-01

    Signalling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) through RANK is a critical pathway to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and, hence, a master regulator of bone resorption. Increased RANKL activity has been demonstrated in diseases characterised by excessive bone loss such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteolytic bone metastases. The development and approval of denosumab, a fully MAB against RANKL, has heralded a new era in the treatment of bone diseases by providing a potent, targeted and reversible inhibitor of bone resorption. This article summarises the molecular and cellular biology of the RANKL/RANK system and critically reviews preclinical and clinical studies that have established denosumab as a promising novel therapy for metabolic and malignant bone diseases. We will discuss the potential indications for denosumab along with a critical review of safety and analyse its potential within the concert of established therapies.

  19. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  20. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  1. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E.; Silva, Barbara C.; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  2. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  3. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  5. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  6. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  7. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  8. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  9. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  10. Rachel Crellin, Chris Fowler and Richard Tipping, eds. Prehistory without Borders: The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Tyne-Forth Region ( : Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2016, 244 pp., 124 b/w figs, 19 tables, hbk, ISBN 978-1-78-570199-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Borders, in the sense of modern geopolitical boundaries, have no bearing on prehistoric realities, yet they do affect archaeology as a discipline―particularly when one is committed to thinking, working, and writing on regions that transcend administrative limits, whether regional or national. While

  11. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  12. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverson, G.; Warren, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  13. Stress fractures and bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method

  14. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  15. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  16. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  17. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  18. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  19. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  20. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  1. The Dragon Bone Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.

  2. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki

    1986-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  3. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  5. Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Weiguo; Jin, Xingliang; Tan, Yi; Xiao, Linda; Padula, Matthew P.; Bishop, David P.; Reedy, Brian; Ong, Madeleine; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Qu, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. PMID:28930133

  6. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using ... ing of a HA powder in a chitosan solution and coating of. HA particle .... system and the cell parameters were calculated using the.

  7. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  8. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  9. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  10. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  11. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  12. Identification of plant cells in black pigments of prehistoric Spanish Levantine rock art by means of a multi-analytical approach. A new method for social identity materialization using chaîne opératoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montalvo, Esther; Roldán, Clodoaldo; Badal, Ernestina; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Villaverde, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    We present a new multi-analytical approach to the characterization of black pigments in Spanish Levantine rock art. This new protocol seeks to identify the raw materials that were used, as well as reconstruct the different technical gestures and decision-making processes involved in the obtaining of these black pigments. For the first of these goals, the pictorial matter of the black figurative motifs documented at the Les Dogues rock art shelter (Ares del Maestre, Castellón, Spain) was characterized through the combination of physicochemical and archeobotanical analyses. During the first stage of our research protocol, in situ and non-destructive analyses were carried out by means of portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF); during the second stage, samples were analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Two major conclusions have been drawn from these analyses: first, charred plant matter has been identified as a main component of these prehistoric black pigments; and second, angiosperm and conifer charcoal was a primary raw material for pigment production, identified by means of the archaeobotanical study of plant cells. For the second goal, black charcoal pigments were replicated in the laboratory by using different raw materials and binders and by reproducing two main chaînes opératoires. The comparative study of the structure and preservation of plant tissues of both prehistoric and experimental pigments by means of SEM-EDX underlines both a complex preparation process and the use of likely pigment recipes, mixing raw material with fatty or oily binders. Finally, the formal and stylistic analysis of the motifs portrayed at Les Dogues allowed us to explore the relationship between identified stylistic phases and black charcoal pigment use, raising new archaeological questions concerning the acquisition of know-how and the

  13. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kiminori; Kure, Yoshio; Suzuki, Akira; Sekino, Haruo; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Akihiko

    1990-01-01

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  14. Radioisotope bone scanning in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenburrow, D.P.; Bowring, C.S.; Vennart, W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of radionuclide activity in the living equine skeleton, using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals and a hand-held radiation detector, is reported. Pathological changes in bone can be detected and subsequent development monitored. The availability and use of this diagnostic technique in equine practice is discussed

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  16. Multicentric epitheloid haemangioendothelioma of bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fracture of the right tibia as a complication of EHE. Diagnosis was suspected on radiographs and confirmed on histology. Whole-body bone scintigraphy and CT scan of the chest were performed, which confirmed multiple bone lesions and metastases to the lungs. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (1) 2007: pp.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears ...

  18. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  19. Complications of occipital bone pneumatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Mary; Roche, Jim; Biggs, Michael; Forer, Martin; Fagan, Paul; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C 1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  20. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  1. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  2. Management Strategy for Unicameral Bone Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Chuo; Yin-Chih Fu; Song-Hsiung Chien; Gau-Tyan Lin; Gwo-Jaw Wang

    2003-01-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of t...

  3. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  4. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2......Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  5. Antiepileptic drugs and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labban Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and fractures. With the current estimates of 50 million people worldwide with epilepsy together with the rapid increase in utilization of these medications for other indications, bone disease associated with the use of anti-epileptic medications is emerging as a serious health threat for millions of people. Nevertheless, it usually goes unrecognized and untreated. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone disease associated with anti-epileptic use, including effect of anti-epileptic agents on bone turnover and fracture risk, highlighting various strategies for prevention of bone loss and associated fractures a rapidly increasing vulnerable population.

  6. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G E [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  7. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Shang Yanning; Yu Weimin; Li Yongfa; Wang Yongchun; Wang Wu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  8. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.V.; Chantseva, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  9. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  10. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  11. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  12. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  13. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  14. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  15. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  16. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  18. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  20. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Na1 8F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1 8F , and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9 9mT c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  1. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Chowhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry.

  2. Evaluation of bone diseases using dynamic bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Tamura, Kenji; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Kajita, Akiyoshi

    1983-12-01

    Dynamic bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was performed on 96 patients with various bone diseases. The dynamic scintigrams obtained were then used to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant (49 cases) and benign (8 cases) diseases. Short-term local deposition of the tracer in all cases of malignant bone diseases was observed in vascular (10-40 sec. after injection), and blood pool (1-3 min. after injection) phases. In the cases of malignant bone tumors where osteosclerotic lesions were present, tracer accumulation appeared in the blood pool phase. If osteolytic lesions were present, accumulation appeared in the vascular phase, and when the lesion was larger than 2 cm, accumulation was frequently found in the arterial phase. Scintigraphic differentiation of early primary and metastatic bone tumors from other lesions was facilitated by performing the dynamic scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. Dynamic bone scintigraphy also allowed early diagnosis of avascular necrosis (14 cases) prior to the appearance of minimally abnormal X-ray findings, especially in cases of corticosteroid-induced necrosis.

  3. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  4. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  5. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  6. Precise isotope ratio and multielement determination in prehistoric and historic human skeletal remains by HR-ICPMS - a novel application to shed light onto anthropological and archaeological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.

    2000-12-01

    The primary aim of the presented work was the analytical setup for fast (including high sample throughput for statistical evaluation), precise and accurate measurement of strontium isotope ratios using HR-ICPMS (high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and their application to ancient human skeletal remains from different localities for the reconstruction of migration processes. Soils and plants are in isotopic equilibrium with local source rock and show therefore the same isotopic ratios for strontium (87Sr/86Sr). Dietary strontium incorporation varies for different body materials (teeth, muscle, bone, etc.) and repository periods depend on the different strontium turnover rates. Accordingly, strontium isotope analysis can provide important data for studying human or animal migration and mobility. An important issue will be addressed: the problem of strontium isotope ratio measurement reliability and the problem of post-mortem alterations. Thus a basic part of this interdisciplinary project is dealing with the systematic evaluation of diagenetic changes of the microstructure in human bone samples - including sample uptake and preparation. Different invasive histological techniques will be applied for further clarification. Newly developed chemical methods give us the opportunity to obtain details on ancient population mobility also in skeletal series of extreme fragmentary character, which usually restricts the macro-morphological approach. Since it is evident that strontium in teeth is only incorporated during childhood whereas strontium uptake in bones is constant, an intra-individual comparison of bone and teeth samples will answer the question whether teeth are indeed 'archives of the childhood'. The introduction of an analytical system allowing online matrix separation by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) and subsequent measurement of strontium isotope ratios by means of HR-ICPMS is presented, optimized and established as method

  7. Precise Isotope ratio and multielement determination in prehistoric and historic human skeletal remains by HR-ICPMS - a novel application to shed light onto anthropological and archaeological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.

    2000-12-01

    The primary aim of the presented work was the analytical setup for fast (including high sample throughput for statistical evaluation), precise and accurate measurement of strontium isotope ratios using HR-ICPMS (high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and their application to ancient human skeletal remains from different localities for the reconstruction of migration processes. Soils and plants are in isotopic equilibrium with local source rock and show therefore the same isotopic ratios for strontium (87Sr/86Sr). Dietary strontium incorporation varies for different body materials (teeth, muscle, bone, etc.) and repository periods depend on the different strontium turnover rates. Accordingly, strontium isotope analysis can provide important data for studying human or animal migration and mobility. An important issue will be addressed: the problem of strontium isotope ratio measurement reliability and the problem of post-mortem alterations. Thus a basic part of this interdisciplinary project is dealing with the systematic evaluation of diagenetic changes of the microstructure in human bone samples - including sample uptake and preparation. Different invasive histological techniques will be applied for further clarification. Newly developed chemical methods give us the opportunity to obtain details on ancient population mobility also in skeletal series of extreme fragmentary character, which usually restricts the macro-morphological approach. Since it is evident that strontium in teeth is only incorporated during childhood whereas strontium uptake in bones is constant, an intra-individual comparison of bone and teeth samples will answer the question whether teeth are indeed 'archives of the childhood'. The introduction of an analytical system allowing online matrix separation by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) and subsequent measurement of strontium isotope ratios by means of HR-ICPMS is presented, optimized and established as method

  8. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and

  9. Insulin resistance and bone: a biological partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.

  10. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  11. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  12. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  13. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (繁體中文) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  16. Systemic therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripekova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complications of bone metastases can seriously influence quality of life of the patients including of their independence in activities of daily living. Bisfosfonates are reducing skeletal morbidity in solid tumors and in multiple myeloma by 30 - 50% (1). They are not only used in active antineoplastic therapy in the prevention of skeletal complications by bone metastases but they are also significantly useful in prevention of the decrease of osseous mass by hormonal manipulation. Preclinical and in part clinical data suppose that there is some role of bisfosfonates in prevention of formation of metastases by early cancer. Denosumab is fully humanized antibody against RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand) which is very important in pathogenesis of bone resorption induced by osteoclasts. In this work we discuss about pathological mechanisms of bone resorption in multiple myeloma and solid tumors, we resume data from randomized clinical trials and we focus on the application of anti resorption therapy in clinical practice. (author)

  17. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Gahl, G.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    25 patients with chronic renal disease are investigated. In 16 cases with conservative treatment the bone scintigram showed pathological uptake according to the creatinine level, mainly in the joints of iliosacrum, hip, knee and ankles. In three patients increased uptake in the skull was found. The bone uptake found by scintigraphy was highly pronounced in the patients treated by dialysis. The most frequently involved regions were the joints of iliocacrum and hip, facial cranium, skull, pelvis and metatarsus. The count-rate ratio of cranium to chest was significantly increased in 6 patients. The investigations 6 months later showed in 4 cases a further increase compared with the first values. Count-rates of the skull were found to be comparable to the highly increased uptake in Paget's disease. Bone scintigraphy is a suitable method to estimate semiquantitatively the bone turnover in renal disease. (orig.) [de

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do ...