WorldWideScience

Sample records for prehistoric archaeological sites

  1. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  2. GPR study of a prehistoric archaeological site near Point Barrow, Alaska

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    Herman, R. B.; Jensen, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) study was performed on the prehistoric Thule cemetery site near Point Barrow, Alaska. The goals of this study were (a) to test this technology in this type of polar environment, and (b) to search for burials and other archaeological features in a location in imminent danger from ocean erosion. The Nuvuk site is currently eroding at an average rate measured at over 6 m/year. Prior archaeological work at the site had recovered over 80 burials with nearly 100 individuals represented, all of which were less than 1 m below surface, and detectable with small test pits. In addition, the first coastal Ipiutak occupation known north of Point Hope had been recently discovered, at a depth of nearly 2m below surface, in the erosion face. The occupation appeared to have been terminated by a large storm which overwashed the site, leaving a strandline immediately superimposed on the living surface. After that, approximately 1.5 m of sterile gravels had been deposited before the surface on which the Thule people were living formed. Both occupations are of considerable scientific interest. The matrix at the site consists of unconsolidated beach gravels, which necessitates opening large surface areas or use of shoring to test even small units to the depths of the Ipiutak deposit (approximately 8m x 8m at the surface to test 1m x 1m at 2m depth). Such excavations promote erosion, and are very costly in terms of time and labor, so a means to detect features buried at depths greater than those exposed by shovel test pits was desirable. GPR seemed a likely candidate, but it had not been used in such conditions before, and thus it was necessary to test it thoroughly prior to relying on GPR to eliminate areas from physical testing. The GPR imaged the subsurface to a depth of 3 meters at a frequency of 500MHz. Meter-deep test pits were placed at 2-meter intervals in the survey area in a grid pattern since the efficacy of the technology had yet to be shown

  3. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

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    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Sun, Guoping; Zheng, Yunfei

    2016-05-26

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may provide further evidence for the reliability of phytolith dating. We present an improved method for extracting phytoliths from soils. We compared the dating of phytoliths and other materials (e.g., charcoal and plant seeds) recovered at the same depth from seven pits at six archaeological sites in China. The estimated ages of the phytoliths and other materials were generally consistent, except for one outlier. We attribute this inconsistency to the post-depositional processes of phytoliths in soil, rather than to the uptake of old carbon from the soil. Our results clearly show the potential for phytolith carbon dating at archaeological sites in the absence of other dating materials.

  5. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

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    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  6. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  7. The prehistoric mines of Gavà: an example of a comprehensive approach to the study and public presentation of an archaeological site

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    Blasco, Mònica

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prehistoric Mines of Gavà used to provide variscite about 6000 years ago. This mineral was used for decorative purposes! For the last ten years, the Gavà Museum has been implementing a comprehensive intervention (research, conservation and information dissemination campaign for the mines. This programme is financed by many different institutions, such as the city hall, the Generalitat de Cataluña (the Catalan Government, the Diputación de Barcelona (the city council and lNEM (employment office. The museum leads and coordinates an interdisciplinary team and has established cooperation agreements with some universities. The Prehistoric Mines can be visited since 1993, and meet the visitors´ safety, mobility and understanding requirements, without affecting their conservation and scientific rigor Visits are guided and their goal is to make people experience emotions. Although they have got a varied target group, they are especially aimed at students. Thus, there is a number of activities planned only for them. The visits to the Prehistoric Mines have been considered an accepted educational resource in Barcelona and its metropolitan area. The main future project of the museum is the Archaeological Park of the Prehistoric Mines. It will be a centre aimed at interpreting the Neolithic period and the origin of the mining industry. Its objectives are to maintain intervention and to attract the cultural tourism in Barcelona.

    Las Minas Prehistóricas de Gavá proporcionaron variscita, un material ornamental, hace 6000 años. Desde hace diez años el Museo de Gavá impulsa una intervención integral (investigación, conservación y difusión, financiada por diversas instituciones (Ayuntamiento, Generalitat de Cataluña, Diputación de Barcelona e INEM, lidera y coordina un equipo interdisciplinar y mantiene convenios de colaboración con diferentes universidades. Las minas están abiertas al público desde 1993 y

  8. Prehistoric Archaeology and Poetic Wisdom%史前考古学与诗性智慧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户晓辉

    2001-01-01

    Archaeological remains of the prehistoric times are the results of poetic wisdom of the prehistoric people. They are spiritual rather than material remains. Thus archaeological studies need not only giving explanations on the materials but also understanding them in a multidiscipline background.

  9. The Historical Development of Italian Prehistoric Archaeology: A Brief Outline

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    Allesandro Guidi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years ago Marcel Desittere, a Belgian prehistorian who works and lives in northern Italy, published the first important monograph about the origins of Italian prehistoric archaeology (Desittere 1985. Beginning with the history of one of the main prehistory museums, Reggio Emilia, created in the second half of the nineteenth century, Desittere tried to reconstruct a socio-political and intellectual biography of the pioneers of the discipline. Over the following years since 1985, many scholars have dedicated monographs, articles, papers in congress proceedings and exhibition catalogues, to the subject of the history of Italian prehistoric archaeology (see, among others: Bernabò and Mutti 1994; Cuomo Di Caprio 1986; Desittere 1988, 1996; Del Lucchese 2008; Guidi 1987, 1988, 1996a, 1996b, 2000, 2008, forthcoming; Peroni 1992; Skeates 2000; Tarantini 1998–2000, 2000, 2000–2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, 2005. All of these works contributed to the profile of a discipline that, in our country, comprises some peculiar characteristics.

  10. New Development in the Study of Pre-Qin Seismological Archaeology and Its Inspiration to Prehistoric Seismological Archaeology in the Longmen Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years , China has a-chieved series of new findings and new understand-ing about seismological archaeology in the prehis-toric and Shang Zhou periods .These findings pro-vide an important theoretical and methodological base, and a reference for the archaeological re-search on prehistoric seismology in the Longmen mountain area -an area , which has many earth-quake faults and a high rate of earthquakes .The archaeological research on prehistoric seismology in the area of the Longmen mountains should avoid the predicament of “liangzhangpi” or “two pieces of leather” ( meaning that although something re-fers to the same thing or same phenomenon , it nonetheless , can be s interpreted by two on more representations ) .Hence , field work and integrated research require multi -disciplinary participation and integration , including archaeology and geolo-gy.The scientific wisdom in settlement -site se-lection made by our prehistoric ancestors in the Longmen mountain areas is worthy of our learning and we can take them as a model today .

  11. A site for all seasons? Prehistoric coastal subsistence in northwest Sicily

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    Marcello Mannino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate about the role of marine resources, including shellfish, in prehistoric human diets, but there have been few studies that combine archaeological and present-day ecological investigations of coastal sites. This dual approach is being applied in a new field- and laboratory-based project that focuses on a group of coastal sites in northwest Sicily.

  12. Reading of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR Images of Prehistoric Flint Mine; Case Study from Krzemionki Opatowskie Archaeological Site In Central Poland

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    Welc Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys conducted in order to map tunnels and vertical shafts at the Neolithic chert mining field Krzemionki used a ground-penetrating radar(GPR to test hypotheses regarding orientation, depth and subsurface complexity of these voids.Using two-dimensional reflection profiles the vertical shafts, now mostly filled with lithic debris, were easily visible. Amplitude mapping visualized debris at shaft margins as well as a collapsed material inside the voids. Some shallower horizontal tunnels were also visible as sub-horizontal planar reflections generated from both ceiling and floors of these void spaces. Extension of these interpretations to un-mapped areas of the ancient mining district and complexity of these prehistoric mining features could be examined to determine excavation intensity and exploitation techniques used during the Neolithic.

  13. Prehistoric disasters at Lajia Site, Qinghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyan; XIA Zhengkai; YE Maolin

    2003-01-01

    Lajia Site, located near the upper reaches of the Yellow River and theborder of Qinghai Province and Gansu Province, is a large-scale site of the Qijia Culture. In 2000 and 2001, archaeologists excavated an unusual scene of prehistoric dramatic and miserable disasters. Lots of geologic-geographic evidences revealed that the Lajia Site was ruined by coinstantaneous disasters, mainly floods from the Yellow River and earthquakes, accompanying mountainous torrents. Study on these disasters and their driven forces could provide us not only the knowledge on the palaeoenvironment of the area, but also offer us a valuable site toassess the influence of the natural disasters on human civilization development.

  14. The relative stability of prehistorical geographic environment in China's tropics on the basis of archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to archaeological data from about sixty samples the relative stability ofphysical and human geographical environment in the tropical zone of China is discussed in thispaper. Because of the superior natural environment, sufficient food resources and a sparsepopulation resulting in the absence of social requirement to transform the productive forces, theadvancement of economy and society was stagnated during prehistorical period in China's tropics.Compared with northern China, the appearance of ground stone tool stagnated about 3,000 years,the beginning of Bronze Age, about 1,000 years, and the agriculture, 2,500-3,000 years. The noceramics age continued till the early Neolithic Age and the appearance of colour or white ceramicswas 2,000 years later than that in northern China. The life form of migration to gather and to huntcontinued till the middle Neolithic Age, and the fixed settlement based on agriculture 1,000-2,000years stagnated. The clan commune just appeared at the end of the Neolithic Age which was 2,000-3,000 years later than that in northern China.

  15. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

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    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  16. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng

    2015-04-01

    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  17. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

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    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  18. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

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    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  19. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

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    Franziska Lauer

    Full Text Available Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰, giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces

  20. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Franziska; Prost, Katharina; Gerlach, Renate; Pätzold, Stefan; Wolf, Mareike; Urmersbach, Sarah; Lehndorff, Eva; Eckmeier, Eileen; Amelung, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii) at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn) of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰), giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure) input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces-containing manure).

  1. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

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    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  2. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

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    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  3. Berber genealogy and the politics of prehistoric archaeology and craniology in French Algeria (1860s-1880s).

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    Effros, Bonnie

    2017-03-01

    Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine. Alleging that these constructions were Gallic, Féraud hypothesized the close affinity of the French, who claimed descent from the ancient Gauls, with the early inhabitants of North Africa. After Féraud's claims met with scepticism among many prehistorians, French scholars argued that these remains were constructed by the ancestors of the Berbers (Kabyles in contemporary parlance), whom they hypothesized had been dominated by a blond race of European origin. Using craniometric statistics of human remains found in the vicinity of the standing stones to propose a genealogy of the Kabyles, French administrators in Algeria thereafter suggested that their mixed origins allowed them to adapt more easily than the Arab population to French colonial governance. This case study at the intersection of prehistoric archaeology, ancient history and craniology exposes how genealogical (and racial) classification made signal contributions to French colonial ideology and policy between the 1860s and 1880s.

  4. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  5. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  6. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos, E-mail: cavalcanteufpi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Luz, Maria de Fatima da; Guidon, Niede [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano (Brazil); Domingos Fabris, Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Domingos Ardisson, Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09 Degree-Sign 14 Prime 65.3 Double-Prime S 43 Degree-Sign 55 Prime 62.5 Double-Prime W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusoes National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piaui, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 {+-} 40 to 6,610 {+-} 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 57}Fe transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Moessbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) whereas goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  7. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  8. Present messages from the past: Archaeology didactics at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Central Portugal and the example of the Andakatu Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage education, although still often set aside, has assumed an increasing role in current mindsets, regardless of the different realities in terms of geography and socio-cultural frame. The Andakatu Project based at the Museum of Prehistoric Art of Mação (Portugal is aimed at wide audience and presents a programme, activities and contents arising from multiple archaeological research programmes conducted at the Museum and its partners (namely universities and research centres. Archaeology, being the starting point, is intertwined with various scientific and artistic aspects in order to encourage questioning, learning and citizenship through a communication based on interactive experimentation.

  9. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  10. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  11. Two Brazilian archaeological sites investigated by GPR: Serrano and Morro Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cezar, Glória; Ferrucio da Rocha, Paula Lucia; Buarque, Angela; da Costa, Ariovaldo

    2001-07-01

    The application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) at two archaeological sites, Serrano and Morro Grande, situated in Araruama County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, aids the study of a prehistoric indigenous culture, associated with the "Tupinambá" that inhabited the region during prehistoric times. The archaeological remains of the study area are mainly characterized by pottery artifacts for several uses, including funerary urns, which were buried within layers of sand and clay. Several profiles were acquired using a RAMAC system, with a 200 and 400 MHz frequency antennae. At the Serrano site, the profiles were acquired around some partially exposed pottery shards, due to sand exploitation. The resultant profiles provided a response model to guide the interpretation of new profiles acquired at other sites in the area, which present similar characteristics. The results showed the great importance of the dielectric permittivity contrast which exists between the targets and the host media, in order for possibly significant features to be identified in radar data.

  12. Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M.; Meyer, Joseph S.; Allen, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Feral swine are globally known as one of the most destructive invasive vertebrates, damaging native habitats, native plants and animals, agriculture, infrastructure, spreading diseases. There has been little quantification on their disturbance to archaeological sites across a broad landscape. Over 6 years we inspected 293 significant archaeological sites for swine disturbance across a vast area. We found a 42% prevalence of swine disturbance among all sites, with prevalence not distinguishable among prehistoric sites, historic sites, and sites with both components. The areas of disturbance mapped within three historic homestead sites showed 5–26% of total site surface area rooted. Disturbance was not evident upon re-inspection of one of these sites after 18 months, indicating how evidence of disturbance can be obscured in this environment. Thus, our observed 42% prevalence of disturbance should be considered a minimum for disturbance occurring through time. Artifacts depths were <10 cm of the surface at 85% of the sites and <20 cm of the surface for 90% of the sites. Feral swine rooting commonly exceeds 20 cm in depth, especially in soft sandy substrates typical of Florida, making the great majority of the studied sites highly vulnerable to artifact damage or displacement.

  13. Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; De Smet, Peter A G M; Beck, Olof; Possnert, Göran; Bruhn, Jan G

    2005-10-01

    Two archaeological specimens of peyote buttons, i.e. dried tops of the cactus Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coulter, from the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio, was subjected to radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis. The samples were presumably found in Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande, Texas. Radiocarbon dating shows that the calibrated 14C age of the weighted mean of the two individual dated samples corresponds to the calendric time interval 3780-3660 BC (one sigma significance). Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of alkaloids. Analysis with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) led to the identification of mescaline in both samples. No other peyote alkaloids could be identified. The two peyote samples appear to be the oldest plant drug ever to yield a major bioactive compound upon chemical analysis. The identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that native North Americans recognized the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  14. Application of Magnetic and Geotechnical Methods for Archaeological Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    damage to buried archaeological deposits. This experiment consisted of constructing artificial buried archaeological sites, driving over them with...mimic several different types of archaeological features ( hearths , earth ovens, roasting pits, etc. [Abbott and Frederick 1990; Somers et al, 2003...Thellier” analysis was performed (Tauxe et al. 1995). An artificial anhysteretic remanence was applied using the same set of AF steps as was used in the

  15. Virtual Diving in the Underwater Archaeological Site of Cala Minnola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Barbieri, L.; Muzzupappa, M.; Mangeruga, M.; Pupo, F.; Cozza, M.; Cozza, A.; Ritacco, G.; Peluso, R.; Tusa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

  16. Archaeological sites at Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with their contents enhanced by the use of ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucio da Rocha, Paul L.; da Silva Cezar, Glroia; Buarque, Angela; da Costa, Ariovaldo

    2000-04-01

    This presentation refers to the application of the Ground Penetrating Radar on two archaeological sites: Serrano and Morro Grande, situated at Araruama County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge concerning a prehistoric indigenous culture, associated with the 'Tupinamba' that inhabited the region at prehistoric times. This research is being realized with the partnership of the Anthropology Department of the National Museum and the Geology Department, both departments pertaining to the Rio de Janeiro Federal University. The archaeological remains of the study area are mainly characterized by pottery appliance for several uses, including funeral urns, which were buried within layers of sand and clay. Several profiles were made, using a RAMAC device, with a 200 MHz frequency antenna, surrounding some partially exposed potters, in the sand quarry, at the Serrano site. The resultant radargrams conceived a response model for the archaeological and soil characteristics of the area. These radargrams are being used as correlative models for the interpretation of profiles performed at the Morro Grande site, which presents similar characteristics of the Serrano site. The generated models are intended to guide the future excavations in the archeological sites of Ri de Janeiro.

  17. Age of a prehistoric "Rodedian" cult site constrained by sediment and rock surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The construction age of a pavement in a “Rodedian” prehistoric cult site in Negev desert, Israel, is established by determining the burial age of (i) a cobble used in the pavement, and (ii) the underlying sediment. The quartz OSL age and the K-feldspar corrected IR50 age from the sediment and the...

  18. On the remains of some Carnivora found in a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1961-01-01

    The excavation of a prehistoric site at Vlaardingen, about 10 km W. of Rotterdam, yielded among ceramics and other man-made objects, many remains of zoological origin (GLASBERGEN, 1960). Mr. P. J. VAN DER FEEN and Miss M. R. WALVIUS, who were in charge of the zoological material found at

  19. Photorealistic virtual exploration of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Abate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study concerning the virtual reconstruction and navigation of an archaeological site located in Moregine, near Pompeii as it appeared to archaeologists after the completion of the excavation and including the reconstruction of face and body appearance of a woman that found death there, during the eruption of 79 BC. The main challenges faced in this study concern the visual engine required to delivering possibly unlimited visual quality and the methodology for achieving an ethnically faithful face reconstruction from skull bones. The first objective is tackled by adopting a pre-rendering based visualization engine, through which environment navigation is achieved following pre-built paths and performing available actions through a context sensitive motion tracking based interface. Secondly, the plausible appearance of the woman's face is reconstructed exploiting an approach based on craniometrical analysis together with a pictorial physiognomic database and content-based image retrieval technology, to the aim of providing more faithful results compared to other methods in literature based solely on statistical data.

  20. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  1. 四川崇州市双河史前城址试掘简报%Trial Excavation of the Prehistoric City-site at Shuanghe in Chongzhou City, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成都市文物考古工作队

    2002-01-01

    The Shuanghe site lies at Mangcheng Village of Shangyuan Township in Yuantong Town,Chongzhou City,Sichuan Province.It is a prehistoric cit-site roughly rectangular in plan.The city wall consists of two circles in the shape of the character “回”,of which there remain the northern,eastern and southern sides.Trial excavation at the center of the site revealed ash-pits,house-foundations and pebble vestiges,as well as a number of pottery vessels and some stone tools.The cultural deposits on the site can be preliminarily divided into two successive phases similar in cultural aspect.The site dates approximately from 4500-4000BP and belongs to the Baodun culture.Its discovery enriched our knowledge of the contents of the culture and provided new material for furthering the study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in the Chengdu Plain.

  2. Archaeological Data Recovery at the Mary Ann Cole Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    become very narrow and specific in the varieties of food 41 stuffs exploited ( Asch , Ford, and Asch 1972). Thus, it seems that prehistoric groups, at...of the Late Archaic, as described by Webb in his work on Indian Knoll and other Green River sites (Webb 1946 , 1950a, 1950b). One example of these...Winters (1967). The first or "Early Phase" is typified by grit tempered ceramics such as Sugar Hill Cordmarked and Crab Orchard Fabric Impressed . The

  3. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  4. On the Seismic Hazard of Areas with Archaeological Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Sacca, C.

    2007-12-01

    A methodological approach which allows the actual level of seismic hazard of areas with archaeological sites to be evaluated is proposed. The procedure consists of a seismic, geological and geomorphological characterization of the area in study and a subsequent analysis of the observed damage in the archaeological site, arranged on the basis of specific protocols of seismic diagnostics, for the evaluation of the seismic evidence index. This index gives a numerical modelling of the seismic character of the observed damage within a correlation between collapsed structures in the archaeological site and specific endogenous and exogenous elements of the same area. An evaluation of the coherence of the actual level of seismic hazard of the areas which archaeological sites fall within, was done through a comparison between the strong ground motion which determined the observed damage and that one taken from the seismic hazard maps of the same area. A test of the procedure has been performed in different archaeological sites in Eastern Sicily (Italy).

  5. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  6. Archaeological Evaluation of the Paris Road Site (16 or 41), Orleans Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    ceramic vessel morphology, and a lithic analysis by James Morehead (1980). The latter, the first complete analysis of coastal Tchefuncte lithics, includes...34.".".’ ". . ._ ", ,"." " " ." .’.,..’ , . . , , , , , ,’ ’". ,, ,., ," " Morehead, James 1980 Lithic analysis . In Oak Island archaeology: Prehistoric estuarine adaptations in the Mississippi River delta

  7. The seasonal factor at the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses moa hunters` seasonality at the Shag River Mouth site. A two meters section in layer 4 of the SM/C: Dune site was left as a baulk in 1988 to enable the stratigraphic profile ({approx}2m) to be more carefully investigated. Within the baulk, detailed lensing and microstrata could be identified. Claassen (1991) has suggested that one of the most important variables in determining seasonal and prehistoric shell-bearing site formation more accurately is emphasizing finer stratigraphic resolution and more rigorous attention to retrieving midden components. At Shag River Mouth, seven sub-layers, or spits, were excavated within the 2m baulk to refine the precision of subsequent seasonal analyses and enable a detailed assessment of the components of each and their season of deposition. A variety of seasonal methods were utilised including {sup 18}O analysis of blue mussel shell carbonate and growth ring analysis of estuarine bivalves. In addition, sagital otoliths of red cod excavated from the site were sectioned and the annual and seasonal growth rings formed during the fishes` life were analysed for seasonal information. This has enabled a detailed analysis of the seasonality of this discrete area of the Shag River Mouth site. The significance of the results for understanding the prehistoric seasonal round of activities within the site and its wider orbit is presented. Paper no.40; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  8. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood...... task to produce data representative for the actual precorroded objects. However, in an attempt to characterise the corrosivity of the present environment electrochemical soil corrosion probes with carbon steel electrodes have been buried at 1-m depth. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  9. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospect and of a community and museum-based strategy as a key to integrate the value of said sites as educational, cultural, economic, and tourist assets and contributing factors to the region’s sustainable

  10. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Esclapés

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located in the “Sierra del Montgó”, Xàbia (Spain. The product obtained has been exhibited in various museums nationwide.

  11. 青海民和喇家史前遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Prehistoric Lajia Site in Minhe,Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所; 青海省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The excavation of the Lajia site in Minhe, Qinghai, preliminarily revealed a lot of previously-unknown phenomena. The results include the discovery of wide ditches, a small-sized square, and human sacrifices and victims, the ascertainment of the existence of a settlement consisting of cave dwellings, and the revelation of vestiges of the disasters caused by an earthquake and flood happening 4,000 years ago. These aspects combine to bring to light links of prehistoric disasters with a settlement of that time, which constitutes an unprecedented achievement. Providing new material for researching into the origin of ancient civilization, the work marks a great breakthrough in the study of the Qijia culture in the upper Yellow River valley, and calls for furthering multidisciplinary study in archaeology.

  12. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  13. Archaeology and the application of artificial intelligence : case-studies on use-wear analysis of prehistoric flint tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, Monique Henriëtte van den

    1998-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is an integrated part of our daily life and of many fields in research. In archaeology, however, it does not (yet) play an important role. In the past twenty years archaeologists have discussed the potentials of, in particular, expert systems. They have developed some valuabl

  14. 原始文化中的二元逻辑与史前考古艺术形象%Dual Logic in Primitive Culture and Artistic Figures in Prehistoric Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生; 田旭东

    2001-01-01

    Using the theory of dual opposites, the present paper studies archaeological data incombination with early man's thinking and ideas. From the angle of Shaman cosmogony, the thought ofdual opposites and their cultural concepts, its puts forward new interpretations on numerous commonly-seen designs, such as the depiction of a bird pecking a fish, tao-tie mask, hooked-cloud pattern, birddesign, human face design, and the depiction of the Royal lord of the East and the Royal lady of theWest. Furthermore, the author summarizes the three developmental stages of dual logic and the significance of the thought of dual opposites in primitive culture and prehistoric archaeology.

  15. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  16. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  17. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  18. The Development of the Scientific Aesthetic in Archaeological Site Photography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I shall introduce some core ideas from my research on the character of photographic representations published in archaeological journals during the mid-twentieth century. The aim of this study is to show the connection between the employment of certain scientific visual aesthetics in site photography at a time when the discipline of archaeology wanted to be seen as more scientific. Using the rod scale as a key visual metaphor for the identity of the discipline, I will argue that the increasing presence of the rod scale in published site photographs played a key part in the development of a specific scientific visual vocabulary which was driven by the contemporary culture-historical context.

  19. Identification of archaeological sites from space

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Gaur, A.S.

    It is well known that remote sensing is the only non-destructive method of earth's exploration. Archaeologists particular can not preserve a site as well as study it through ground-based methods. The aim of the present paper is to familiarize...

  20. Protective Structures for the Conservation and Presentation of Archaeological Sites

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of the effectiveness of shelters or enclosed buildings as a means of preserving 'in situ' archaeological features is required. This paper identifies some of the key problems related to site preservation and the use of built structures, as well as an assessment of selected examples of both shelters and enclosures. From these examples a range of problems, from practical to aesthetic, are identified. The need to establish guidelines and planning procedures for design an...

  1. Rpas and Tls Tecniques for Archaeological Survey: the Case Study of the Archaeological Site of Eraclea Minoa (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Sciortino, R.; Garraffa, A.

    2017-02-01

    Digital documentation and 3D modelling of archaeological sites are important for understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the sites and of the archaeological finds. The most part of archaeological sites are outdoor location, but a cover to preserve the ruins protects often parts of the sites. The possibility to acquire data with different techniques and merge them by using a single reference system allows creating multi-parties models in which 3D representations of the individual objects can be inserted. The paper presents the results of a recent study carried out by Geomatics Laboratory of University of Palermo for the digital documentation and 3D modelling of Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. This site is located near Agrigento, in the south of Sicily (Italy) and is one of the most famous ancient Greek colonies of Sicily. The paper presents the results of the integration of different data source to survey the Eraclea Minoa archaeological site. The application of two highly versatile recording systems, the TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) and the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System), allowed the Eraclea Minoa site to be documented in high resolution and with high accuracy. The integration of the two techniques has demonstrated the possibility to obtain high quality and accurate 3D models in archaeological survey.

  2. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  3. Technology and architectural heritage. Research experiences in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Germanà

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the architectural heritage is of considerable importance in Italy, we often encounter critical conditions that perpetuate emergencies rather than efficiency. Those working in this field complain of poor resources, procedural hitches and clashing skills. Visitors encounter indecorous or risky conditions, difficulty of use and an unsatisfactory integration with the socio-economic sphere. Methodological instruments of Architectural Technology are essential in order to tackle these critical conditions, which are most prominent in the borderline cases of archaeological sites, because of the clear break with contemporary life and the intrinsic vulnerability of archaeological structures. Although they are related to immaterial technology, these tools produce tangible effects, occasioning reliability in every intervention. The operational aspects are intermingled with the wider issues of quality and effectiveness of process with reference to the public client.

  4. Archaeological study of ostrich eggshell beads collected from SDG site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChunXue; ZHANG Yue; GAO Xing; ZHANG XiaoLing; WANG HuiMin

    2009-01-01

    Ostrich eggshell beads and fragments collected from SDG site reflect primordial art and a kind of symbolic behavior of modern humans.Based on stratigraphic data and OSL dating,these ostrich eggshell beads are probably in Early Holocene (<10 ka BP).Two different prehistoric manufacturing pathways are usually used in the manufacture of ostrich eggshell beads in Upper Paleolithic.According to statistic analysis of the characteristics of ostrich eggshell beads,Pathway 1 is identified from these collections.In pathway 1,blanks are drilled prior to being trimmed to rough discs.They exhibit great potential for the study of the origin of primordial art and the development of ancient cultures and provide important data for studying behavioral options adopted by hominids in SDG area.In addition,they bear important implications for the origin of modern humans in East Asia.

  5. Human impact and Holocene climatic change in the archaeological site 'Piani della Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Teresa; Scarciglia, Fabio; La Russa, Mauro F.; Natali, Elena; Tinè, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A pedoarchaeological study was carried out in the archaeological site "Piani della Corona", located on a wide terrace at 500 m a.s.l. along the southwestern coast of Calabria, in southern Italy. The archaeological excavations exhumed an extensive settlement related to old to medium Bronze Age phases and traces of late Neolithic human colonization. On the basis of archaeological finds the pedostratigraphic succession can be partly dated. It consists of soils with variable features and andic properties, which include yellowish-brown (in places more reddish), deep argillic (Bt) horizons with variable amounts of clay coatings in pores and dark brown infillings of soil material rich in organic matter, in places overlaid by thin, severely truncated, brown to dark brown, organic-mineral (A) horizons. These layers include late Neolithic ceramic artefacts (Diana style facies) and typical incineration burials found in biconical vases, that can be referred to 6500-5000 years BP. The prehistoric layers are widely overlaid and strongly superimposed by a paleosurface of the early to medium Bronze age. This surface is affected by many pole holes left by large rectangular, apsidal wooden huts (not preserved), ploughed furrows, excavated cisterns, ditches and trenches, often filled by organic-rich dark brown material. Also hearths with charcoal remains, burials, vases and other diagnostic ceramic fragments occur. The upper portion of the pedostratigraphic succession consists of thicker brown A horizons, that appear cyclically ploughed during historical times (archaeologically not well dated as a consequence of their reworking for agricultural practices), with abrupt irregular boundaries often entering the underlying horizons. Micromorphological observations confirmed the presence of clay coatings within pores of Bt horizons, showing that they represent relict features (i.e. related to inactive illuvial processes, at present), as often fragmented and with smooth-banded to grainy

  6. Protective Structures for the Conservation and Presentation of Archaeological Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Aslan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A critical review of the effectiveness of shelters or enclosed buildings as a means of preserving 'in situ' archaeological features is required. This paper identifies some of the key problems related to site preservation and the use of built structures, as well as an assessment of selected examples of both shelters and enclosures. From these examples a range of problems, from practical to aesthetic, are identified. The need to establish guidelines and planning procedures for design and implementation for future projects is highlighted and suggestions for future study and design modification are given.

  7. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  9. A Fusion of GPR- and LiDAR-Data for Surveying and Visualisation of Archaeological Structures - a case example of an archaeological site in Strettweg, District of Murtal, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Nicole; Russ, Stefan; Sass, Oliver; Tiefengraber, Georg; Tiefengraber, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Strettweg is a small community located in Upper Styria in the valley of the Mur. It is seen as one of the most outstanding prehistoric archaeological sites in Austria. In 1851 the "Strettweger Opferwagen" (~ 600 BC) was discovered and is considered one of the most important Hallstatt find of Austria. More than 160 years later Airborne LiDAR and modern geophysical methods like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and/or Magnetics have made it possible to find additional burial mounds and map the largest prehistoric settlement in the southeastern Alps (Falkenberg). These modern techniques have provided an auxiliary tool for the archaeological team's project "Hallstattzeitlicher Fürstensitz Falkenberg/Strettweg". GPR allows for a fast and non-invasive surveying of structures and anomalies of the sub surface, by using electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. The active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging, also known as Laser Scanning), measures the runtime of discrete light pulses in order to map objects and structures on the surface of the earth. In the course of this archaeological project GPR (Mala ProEx - 500 MHz antenna) and terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl LMS Z620) were applied by the University of Graz, Department of Geography and Regional Science, ALADYN work group (Univ.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Sass) to collect data of a testing site with 2500 m². The existence of archaeological structures was crucial for choosing this area. The area is surrounded by fine sediments, which originated by fluviatile transportation, making the remnants of these archaeological structures easier to detect. A standard GPR-processing-workflow does not allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation of the results and complicates the detection of archaeological structures. Unlike, LiDAR which does allow for a 3-dimensional visualisation. A fusion of both techniques, by using Python scripts and the software packages REFLEXW - Sandmeier Scientific Software and LASTools

  10. Prehistoric sanctuaries in Daunia

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E; Tunzi, A M; Zupone, M Lo

    2013-01-01

    Daunia is a region in northern Apulia with many interesting archaeological sites, particularly of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Beginning from the fifth millennium BC, the farmers living in the wide plain of Daunia dug hypogea and holes in sites that could be considered prehistoric sanctuaries. The characteristics of the rows of holes indicate a ritual use, and the archaeologists tend to exclude other applications, such as post holes and cultivations. The rows have possibly an astronomical orientation, and in the sanctuary discovered near Ordona, some stars of the Centaurus-Crux group (may be alpha Centauri itself) could have been used as targets. In past centuries, astronomers and scholars have remarked this spectacular region of the sky, and its possible relevance for the ancient civilizations was pointed out for example by G.V. Schiaparelli in 1903. In his work on the astronomy in the Old Testament, he mentioned in particular the observations of the astronomer W.S. Jacob and of other scholars. It would be ...

  11. One Good Site Deserves Another: Electronic Publishing in Field Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gray

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic publication offers field archaeologists the opportunity to publish the results of their fieldwork in a rapid and cost-effective manner. There is the potential for even greater benefits if such publications can be made usefully searchable. In this paper, we look at the current state of electronic publication in archaeology and consider the shortcomings of existing search tools on the web. We then propose an XML-based approach to creating 'structured site descriptions'. These would form an integral part of web-published site reports or summaries, and contain information similar to that found in the abstract or summary of a conventional printed report. The difference (and consequently the benefit lies in the way this information is structured, enabling users to conduct moderately complex searches more effectively than is currently possible.

  12. Archaeological Inventory and Testing of Prehistoric Habitation Sites, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    10 S 7 44 11 10 9 71 12 9 8 57 13 8 6 38 45-OK-244 1 5 4 16 2 6 4 19 LC -- 4 05 4 1 3 5 4 16 4 -OK-245 17633 .\\ 45-OK-246 1 12 8 75 -. 2 11 6 52 45-OK...48.0 16.0 V max 260.0 78.0 6.0 170.0 121.0 196.0 1900 106.0 133.0 0.0 68.0 20.0 n 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2mea 2.0 41.0 41.0 63.0 43.0 148.0 146.0

  13. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric phytoliths: a preliminary study of archaeological sites in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xinxin Zuo; Houyuan Lu; Jianping Zhang; Can Wang; Guoping Sun; Yunfei Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Phytoliths can occlude some organic carbon during their deposition in plants. This carbon fraction is recognised as an ideal dating material because of its high resistance to decomposition and post-deposition contamination at the time of phytolith formation. However, the reliability of phytolith radiocarbon dating has recently been questioned. The development of a new extraction protocol for phytoliths, with paired dating between phytoliths and other materials from the same sediment, may prov...

  14. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, Villa Rica, Georgia Archaeology Sites Map, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It...

  15. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  16. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  17. Shallow geophysical investigations at the Akhmim archaeological site, Suhag, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahfooz A.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hassan, Azza M.; Sato, Motoyuki; Wonik, Thomas; El-Kenawy, Abeer A.

    2008-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic terrain conductivity, and electric tomography have proven to be effective tools if they are combined together to investigate archeological sites. We have conducted a geophysical survey at the Akhmim archaeological site, the main objective of our survey is to locate additional buried structures for further excavation. Geophysical data were acquired in the area using the GEM-300 multi-frequency terrain conductivity profiler, the SIR 2000 ground penetrating radar, and the Syscal R2 resistivity meter systems. The results of the integrated interpretation show a number of buried features and a strong linear zone about 1 m wide that coincides with the suspected trend of a buried wall. There appears to be two parallel ridges of strong reflections on either side, indicating two parallel walls extended East-West and a room is identified at the bottom left corner of the site. Moreover, the interpretation results of some selected GPR and dipoledipole resistivity profiles adjacent to the open-air museum suggest the existence of a second statue of Ramses II to the right of the previously discovered statue which could still be buried in the sand.

  18. New finds from the prehistoric sites in the surrounding of Leskovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Milorad Č.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New finds, mainly pottery, provide a more complete picture of cultural development in the Leskovac region, during the prehistoric period (localities Kale in Grdelica, Jeremište in Lipovica, Pusto Semče in Semče Sastanci in Bobište, Hisar-plateau in Leskovac, Gornji Guberevac and Grkinje. The pottery from the Aeneolithic period at the site Sastanci in Bobište, indicate that the Leskovac valley developed in the same way during the Copper Age as the nearby Niš valley. This site, for the time being, is the most southerly in the Morava valley where the Kostolac pottery can be found. It is characteristic that at every newly discovered Metal Age site in this region, pottery of the Vatin type, numerous and varied pottery of the Brnjica culture group, pottery of the phase Lanište II - Basarabi, as well as Greek type pottery and that of the Early Iron Age, is found. Among the pottery which is published in this study (Grdelica and Semče, the most typical autochthon pottery of Iron Age III from the Morava valley, east Serbia and the Serbian Danube valley, downstream from Novi Sad, is also included. New locations of the Brnjica cultural group in the Leskovac valley point to the population density in one of the regions of this community and its territorial organization. On the bases of number disposition and topography of the localities it is possible to presume not only the size of population, but its territorial organization as well. Namely, it is obvious that the people of the Brnjica cultural group based their defense on elevated settlements, like those on the plateaus of Hisar in Leskovac, Skobaljić Grad in Vučje, Kale in Grdelica, Pusto Semče in Semče and other similar sites, while the settlements like those in Bobište Lipovac, Gornji Grabovac and others in the valley, had an obvious agricultural character. Numerous sites in Gornja Jablanica, near one of the biggest mines of gold and other metals in the Lece area, where slag has been found

  19. Red and yellow ochres from the archaeological site Pedra do Cantagalo I, in Piripiri, Piauí, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos, E-mail: cavalcanteufpi@yahoo.com.br; Sousa Bezerra da Silva, Heralda Kelis [Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Center of Natural Sciences (Brazil); Fabris, José Domingos [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry – ICEx (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Center for the Development of the Nuclear Technology (CDTN) (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The archaeological site Pedra do Cantagalo I is a sandstone shelter displaying rupestrian inscriptions. It is located in the rural area of the municipality of Piripiri, in the northern region of the Piauí state, Brazil. The site was found as being originally decorated with more than 1,900 prehistoric rupestrian paintings, along with engravings, lithics, ceramic fragments and mineral pigments forming reddish and yellowish ochres. Materials of these ochres, collected from recent excavations in this archaeological site, were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF); backscattering and transmission {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 25 K and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), in an effort to assess the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of these sources of pigments that composed the ancient paint materials of the site. The iron contents (expressed as Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3}) for the reddish ochres were found to range from ∼60 to ∼68 mass%; for the yellowish ochres the corresponding content was ∼34 mass%, as determined by EDXRF. From the Mössbauer spectra for these red ochre samples, hematite (αFe {sub 2}O{sub 3}) or a mixture of hematite and goethite (αFeOOH) were identified. Actually, the spectra at room temperature for the yellow ochres are rather complex, as it is usual for most soil clay materials. At least part of the intense central doublet was assumed to be from superparamagnetic iron oxides in very small particles. The Mössbauer patterns at 25 K allowed confirming this assumption, as the superparamagnetic relaxation effects were virtually suppressed; the spectral contributions due to goethite could be thus more easily separated.

  20. RESULTS CONCERNING PEDOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM SLAVA RUSĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Pirnau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the elements, chemical processes and soil morphology, related to archaeo-zoological analysis of fauna material taken from the archaeological site of Slava Rusă, provides important information for understanding the evolution of the settlement, taking into account the close relationship between natural deposits, which include soil, and cultural features of the site. Thus, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil are important in this context, because environmental factors that led to the formation of distinct soil, leaving traces in the morphology, are the same factors that influenced the morphology and the evolution of inhabited areas. This approach is useful if the environmental conditions that have affected the settlement have not been changed significantly over time, and, at the Slava Rusă, data regarding soil conditions suggest bioclimatic stability for a very long time. The soils are poorly evolved, texture is not differentiated, and calcium carbonates are present in the soil to depths of 3-4 m. All these features confirm that the current climate of the region remained unchanged, from the Neolithic to the present, climate underwent only insignificant oscillations.

  1. Archaeo-astronomical characteristics of the Kokino archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenev, Gjore

    In the North-East part of Macedonia, near to the peak Tatikjev Kamen, an archaeological site with vast quantity of artifacts, dated in the Bronze Age, was discovered in 2001. For the first time in Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), comprehensive archaeo-astronomical analysis of this site, providing extraordinary important results, was performed in 2002. The site contains a lot of materials typical for a megalithic observatory, 3800 years old. Three stone markers, pointing out the places of the sunrise on the days of the summer and winter solstice, as well as the vernal and autumn equinoxes, were found there. Four stone markers, indicating the places of the full Moon rise above the horizon, are recognized too. They are used in the days when the Moon has maximum or minimum declination - two of them in the summer and two of them - in the winter. There are also two other stone markers used for measuring the length of the lunar month in winter - when it has 29 days, and in summer - when it has 30 days. These markers give clear evidences that the ancient Balkan inhabitants used the observatory not only to monitor the movement of the Moon, but also to develop the lunar calendar with 19-year cycle. The archaeo-astronomical analysis presents also an evidence for the existence of one very characteristic stone marker, used for pointing out the sunrise position in a very important ritual day. This is the day when special ceremonies related to the end of the harvest, as well as to the ritual unification of the community leader with the God Sun, were performed. (Colour versions of the illustrations are presented as Appendix on the site of the journal.)

  2. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  3. Site Jabuti, in Bragança, State of Pará, in the archaeological scenario of the Amazonian coastal landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Imazio da Silveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty years after completing the archaeological investigations in the Salgado region, northeastern Pará, researchers have returned to the site to study prehistoric human occupations in the northern coastal regions of Brazil near the Amazon estuary. This article presents the first results of archaeological research at the site Jabuti, located in the Caeté-Taperuçu Marine Extractive Reserve in the municipality of Bragança. This is an open-air residential site with anthropogenic dark earths ('terra preta de índio' and ceramic remains. The archeological remains consist mostly of fragments of pottery, as well as some flaked stone tools and dye residues. The sole C14 date obtained indicates that the site was occupied at least 2,900 years BP. According to this timing, the occupation occurred in the second stage of the model established by Pedro Walfir Martins Souza Filho and collaborators, in a paper published in 2009, for the geological evolution of the Bragança zone along the Salgado coast. Thus the site was situated on the largest soil-bearing island near the mainland. The ceramic material of this site belongs to the Mina tradition. Initially two hypotheses are proposed: 1 the Mina pottery indicates contact between shell midden groups and other ceramic-making groups, or 2 shell midden groups have begun a shift in their subsistence pattern towards cultivation.

  4. Characterisation of Organic Matter Preserved in Earths Using Micromorphological and Chemical Analysis. Initial Results from Two Prehistoric French Sites : Les Bossats and Régismont-le-Haut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, Mathieu; Alexis, Marie; Quenea, Katell; Sellami, Farid; Bodu, Pierre; Naton, Henri-Georges; Vassiliu, Ligia; Dumarçay, Gaëlle; Bon, François; Mensan, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Paleolithic (ca. 40 - 10 Ka BP) of Western Europe coincides with the emergence of what are often termed "fully modern" human cultures in a glacial environment (Late Pleistocene, Weichselian glaciation). During this period the increasing structuration of living-spaces, as well as favorable preservational contexts, allows for the investigation of the spatial organization of habitats. Within this field of research hearths have traditionally played a key interpretational role through the use of ethnographic analogy. While such analyses do provide reasonable hypotheses little is known about the precise use and function of hearths during remote prehistory and thus such analogies should be treated prudently.. Using two open-air sites currently being excavated in France, Régismont-le-Haut (Aurignacian) and Les Bossats (Gravettian), we applied a multi-scale and multi-step analysis to a sample of prehistoric hearths. The main objectives of this study were to underline mechanisms involved in the conservation (taphonomic processes) and the operation (anthropogenic technical processes) of these structures. Ultimately, the aim is both a chronological and evidence based palethnological interpretation of these remains through the integration of our results with ongoing research at sites. As hearths are a ubiquitous archaeological feature spanning a multiplicity of contexts and variables, we concentrated here only on those affected by organic matter conservation in the hopes of revealing activities previously invisible to standard archaeological investigation. Field observations of these hearths show the preservation of structured organic matter (eg. charcoal, burned bones) and in some cases a darkening of the associated sediments.. Micromorphological and experimental investigations led to the attribution of this to an impregnation by amorphous organic matter in a semi-liquid state as it percolates through sediments. Microcontextual observations confirm the in

  5. The Archaeological Application of Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data in Qin Yongcheng Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Wan, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing archaeology bases on the use of remote sensing images and interpretation of the principles. The historic relics and sites are resulted from human activities and have constantly caused influences on the soil component, moisture content, temperature, vegetation growth and so on. Based on this thought, this paper proposed a new remote sensing model and approach that integrates optical and thermal infrared remote sensing data for archaeology. Taking the Qin Yongcheng site as the example, this method conducts a comprehensive analysis of key factors affecting archaeological application, that is, LST estimated with Landsat TM data, soil brightness, humidity and greenness obtained from GF-1 data, and then interprets the potential site targets. By conducting the field verification, it is shown that the interpreted potential sites are well consisted with the field investigations and have a high interpretation precision. It can provide a guide for further archaeological research.

  6. BUDGET UAV SYSTEMS FOR THE PROSPECTION OF SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SCALE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowski, W.; Hanus, K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer) grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significant...

  7. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  8. 3-D Modelling of Magnetic Data from an Archaeological Site in Northwestern Tlaxcala State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Cifuentes, G.; Tejero, A.; Camara, E.

    2009-05-01

    In Archaeology, geophysical methods had been applied usually in a qualitative form, limited only to the use of filters that enhance the data display. The main objective in this work is the implementation of a modeling technique that allows us to reconstruct the geometry of buried bodies and the determination of their depths. This is done by means of the estimation of the magnetic moments of archaeological objects using a three- dimensional mesh of individual magnetic dipoles using the least squares method and the singular value decomposition of a weighted matrix to solve the linear problem. The distribution and shape of the underlying archaeological remains can be inferred. This methodology was applied to an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A high-resolution magnetic prospection was carried out in three selected areas (terraces). The most important total field anomalies found on each area were inverted, obtaining results that were corroborated by archaeological excavations. This investigation demonstrates the potential of quantitative geophysical methods for the characterization of archaeological structures, in extension and in depth.

  9. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Peretto

    Full Text Available Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II. The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42 was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium. In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  10. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  11. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of archaeological ceramics from Osvaldo and Lago Grande sites in central Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazenfratz, Roberto; Tudela, Diego R.G.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: robertohm@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mittani, Juan C.R.; Tatumi, Sonia H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating are two important techniques for dating archaeological and geological material, especially suitable for archaeological ceramics, where samples for {sup 14}C dating are not available. In this work, five pottery shards from Osvaldo and Lago Grande archaeological sites were dated by OSL. For measurements, it was used the SAR protocol. The annual dose rates were estimated by the contents of U, Th and K, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the pottery shards and clay samples near both sites. Lago Grande and Osvaldo represent a microcosm of the region, and their proximity and high density of archaeological record turn them interesting to study possible relations of cultural and/or commercial exchange. Calculations showed that the water content is an important variable that cannot be neglected in OSL dating of pottery shards from central Amazon, due to the high humidity in regional soils. The results between 867 ± 101 and 1154 ± 62 years AD agreed with the average time span for the archaeological sites occupation found in the literature. (author)

  13. Al-Zubarah Archaeological Park as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz; Thuesen, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 the Qatar Museums Authorities initiated a long-term archaeological and heritage project in order to study the archaeology and history of the northern Qatar peninsula with a particular focus on the ruins of al-Zubarah, one of the most important pearl-fishing towns in the region. The project...... includes large-scale excavation and heritage work that will develop the site of al-Zubarah into a heritage park, which is at present on the UNESCO World Heritage provisional list. The poster paper presents the strategies for the heritage master plan, including procedures for site management, preservation...

  14. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  15. Soil Stratigraphy from Three Pleistocene Archaeological Sites of the Middle Ter River Valley, Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantani NEOGI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation summarizes the stratigraphic description of three Pleistocene archaeological sites inthe middle Ter river valley. A long history of archaeological research in this region suggests thepossibility of developing contextual studies. This work is basically an investigation of two soilformation processes from the deep soil horizons of the Mediterranean region: clay illuviation andcarbonatation. This approach has been developed by soil micromorphology, a technique well suitedfor this type of record, supplemented by fundamental field descriptions and basic cartography of the geomorphological terraces of the middle Ter river valley. The soil stratigraphy of archaeological sites and Pleistocene landscapes opens the opportunity to investigate a complex subject of study. The soils and paleosols are a source of information for palaeoecology and human occupations. It has been attempted here only to lay the groundwork for the interpretation of genetic factors pointing to the classification of soils.

  16. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  17. Ageing of low-firing prehistoric ceramics in hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zemenová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Remains of a prehistoric ceramic object, a moon-shaped idol from the Bronze Age found in archaeological site Zdiby near Prague in the Czech Republic, were studied especially in terms of the firing temperature. Archaeological ceramics was usually fired at temperatures below 1000 °C. It contained unstable non-crystalline products, residua after calcination of clay components of a ceramic material. These products as metakaolinite can undergo a reverse rehydration to a structure close to kaolinite. The aim of this work was to prove whether the identified kaolinite in archaeological ceramics is a product of rehydration. The model compound containing high amount of kaolinite was prepared in order to follow its changes during calcination and hydrothermal treatment. Archaeological ceramics and the model compound were treated by hydrothermal ageing and studied by XRF, XRD and IR analyses. It was proved that the presence of kaolinite in the border-parts of the archaeological object was not a product of rehydration, but that it originated from the raw materials.

  18. Ecological Mapping for the Preventive Conservation of Prehistoric Mural Paintings in Rock Habitats: the Site of Filiano (Basilicata, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Caneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodeterioration phenomena are of great relevance in rock settlements, due to favourable environmental conditions, such as the infiltration of rainwaters, condensation phenomena and abundance of salts and organic nutrients. Rinaldi’s rock shelter in Filiano, which is located in a natural forest of mixed oaks is of great value due to the important traces of prehistoric paintings. It is an emblematic case of the delicate balance, achieved throughout the centuries, between the environment and artwork. During the plurimillenarian history of the site, a portion of the ceiling that covered the shelter collapsed, leaving signs that are still visible today, together with traces of blackening left by the fires of ancient settlements. Several of the biodeteriogens typical of rocky habitats have already been detected and include algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, vascular plants and fungi, which form macroscopic communities.Each community has an ecological preference and the mapping of their distribution is a suitable tool for understanding variations in the environmental factors that most affect them. Relating ecological data to the taxonomical characterization of the species and to the spatial distribution of each community, a site map of the humidity and of the nutrients was obtained. Among the various communities, microcolonial fungi (MCF, which appear as little black spots, here, represent the most critical risk factor, due to their low water needs. An evaluation of the biological risk for the possible future attack of such a biological community was made, suggesting indirect mitigation measures, through modification of the microclimatic and local ventilation conditions.

  19. The Late Pleistocene Southern Fuego-Patagonian Archaeological Sites: New Findings, New Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Fuego-Patagonian Late Pleistocene archaeological sites are scarce; we have only a handful of them for understanding a periodof time that extends for about 1000 years. These deposits coincide with a period of substantial environmental changes that contributed to the extinction of megafauna in the region, as in the rest of the Americas. All sites registered are located in caves and rock shelters. Attempts to find new sites in other contexts of the region have not yet yielded the expected re...

  20. AIRBORNE LASER BATHYMETRY FOR DOCUMENTATION OF SUBMERGED ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN SHALLOW WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Doneus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of underwater topography is essential to the understanding of the organisation and distribution of archaeological sites along and in water bodies. Special attention has to be paid to intertidal and inshore zones where, due to sea-level rise, coastlines have changed and many former coastal sites are now submerged in shallow water. Mapping the detailed inshore topography is therefore important to reconstruct former coastlines, identify sunken archaeological structures and locate potential former harbour sites. However, until recently archaeology has lacked suitable methods to provide the required topographical data of shallow underwater bodies. Our research shows that airborne topo-bathymetric laser scanner systems are able to measure surfaces above and below the water table over large areas in high detail using very short and narrow green laser pulses, even revealing sunken archaeological structures in shallow water. Using an airborne laser scanner operating at a wavelength in the green visible spectrum (532 nm two case study areas in different environmental settings (Kolone, Croatia, with clear sea water; Lake Keutschach, Austria, with turbid water were scanned. In both cases, a digital model of the underwater topography with a planimetric resolution of a few decimeters was measured. While in the clear waters of Kolone penetration depth was up to 11 meters, turbid Lake Keutschach allowed only to document the upper 1.6 meters of its underwater topography. Our results demonstrate the potential of this technique to map submerged archaeological structures over large areas in high detail providing the possibility for systematic, large scale archaeological investigation of this environment.

  1. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  2. Methods for the examination of cattle, sheep and goat dung in prehistoric wetland settlements with examples of the sites Alleshausen-Täschenwiesen and Alleshausen-Grundwiesen (around cal 2900 BC) at Lake Federsee, south-west Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Marlu; Maier, Ursula; Herbig, Christoph; Ismail-Meyer, Kristin; Le Bailly,Matthieu; Wick, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    There has been evidence of dung in lakeside and moorland settlements since the beginning of wetland archaeology in the 19th century. While evidence has been found for the easily discernible faecal pellets of sheep and goats, recognition of cattle dung has proven to be considerably more difficult. In this study, we give an overview of evidence for dung remains in prehistoric wetland settlements in Germany, Switzerland and eastern France. Various methods for the analysis of uncharred dung remai...

  3. Analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys in archaeological sites employing different integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Kucukdemirci, Melda; Zamuner, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive ground surface geophysical prospecting methods are frequently used for the investigation of archaeological sites, where a detailed physical and geometrical reconstructions of hidden volumes is required prior to any excavation work. All methods measure the variations of single physical parameters, therefore if these are used singularly, they could not permit a complete location and characterization of anomalous bodies. The probability of a successful result rapidly increases if a multhimethodological approach is adopted, according to the logic of objective complementarity of information and of global convergence toward a high quality multiparametric imaging of the buried structures. The representation of the static configuration of the bodies in the subsoil and of the space-time evolution of the interaction processes between targets and hosting materials have to be actually considered fundamental elements of primary knowledge in archaeological prospecting. The main effort in geophysical prospecting for archaeology is therefore the integration of different, absolutely non-invasive techniques, especially if managed in view of a ultra-high resolution three-dimensional (3D) tomographic representation mode. Following the above outlined approach, we have integrated geophysical methods which measure the variations of potential field (gradiometric methods) with active methods which measure the variations of physical properties due to the body's geometry and volume (GPR and ERT). In this work, the results obtained during the surveys of three archaeological sites, employing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Fluxgate Differential Magnetic (FDM) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies, are presented and discussed. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity

  4. A foetal tile from an archaeological site: anthropological investigation of human remains recovered in a medieval cemetery in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Marta; Rossetti, Chiara; Tosi, Adelaide; Badino, Paola

    2017-04-24

    The recovery of foetal remains is very sporadic in archaeology, especially due the scarce degree of bone mineralisation. This paper presents the singular archaeological discovery of a foetal tile preserving the bone remains, object of our anthropological examination. The foetal tile was discovered during an archaeological excavation in a medieval site (Northern Italy). The tile was analysed by CT scan and later, human remains were anthropologically examined. The archaeological investigation revealed a special ritual destined to foetuses while forensic anthropological analysis allowed estimating the gestational age near to 21-24 weeks.

  5. Soil micromorphology and it's contribution to the interpretation of archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sageidet, Barbara Maria

    2000-01-01

    The soils and the sediments of archaeological sites provide a context for the artefacts. They are a resource for essential information about stratigraphy, site formation processes and possible natural or artificial disturbances. The microscopic study of thin sections from soils makes it possible to describe and measure components, features and fabrics in undisturbed soils, which cannot be seen by the naked eye. The method provides an important insight into many problems of, for ex...

  6. Prehistoric Human Adaptation to Tibetan Plateau Environment indicated by 151 site in the Qinghai Lake Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui; Wang, Qianqian; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    Current study indicates that Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) is one of the first widely occupied places by prehistory people on the Tibetan Plateau, which makes NETP very important to understand the human history on the plateau and human adaptation to high elevation environment. Hence, 151 site, a paleo- to Epi-Paleolithic site in the Qinghai Lake basin on NETP, is chosen to excavate. Thousands pieces of animal bones, hundreds pieces of stone artifacts and several possible hearths were unearthed and obtained during two excavation seasons. Carefully redating of the site shows that it was first occupied shortly around 15 ka BP, then reoccupied from 9000-6000 a BP more intensely. Preliminary study of the site suggest that the first appearance of human in Qinghai Lake basin is closely related to the amelioration of the Last Deglaciation and the prevalence of microlithic technology in North China, which may enlighten the study of early human migration on to whole plateau; however, the latter more intense human occupation in 151 site is not only closely related to the warm and stable early-mid Holocene climate but also provoked by early millet agriculture in neighbor low-elevation Loess plateau.

  7. Buried in sands: environmental analysis at the archaeological site of Xiaohe cemetery, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation.

  8. Tonal response on the stairway of the main pyramid at La Ciudadela, Teotihuacan archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Sergio; Coss, Cecilia; Aquino, Gabriela; Negrete, Jose; Lizana, Pablo

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new research on the very interesting audible effects produced by the stairways of many archaeological sites in Mexico. This investigation was made at the main stairway of the pyramid at La Ciudadela, Teotihuacan archaeological site. The effect previously studied was a chirped echo reflected from the stairway at normal incidence, which resembles the singing of the Quetzal. Now it is presented with the impulsive sound source and the listeners located at different angles, where apart from the characteristic chirped sound, several musical notes could be obtained and identified, covering a range of at least one half an octave. This evaluation was made at the site, where the effect is clearly audible, and it is supported with simple mathematics.

  9. Micromorphological Features of Paleo-Stagnic-Anthrosols at Archaeological Site of Sanxingdui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The archaeological site of the Sanxingdui may date back as far as 5,000 years ago. The typical profiles of Palaeo-Stagnic-Anthrosols near the ancient site were selected, which aimed to identify diagnostic horizons employing methodology of soil taxonomic classification and to reveal the micromorphological properties of the paleosols. Under long-term anthropogenic mellowing, the discernible differentiation between anthrostagnic epipedon and its subhorizons as well as hydragric horizon and its subhorizons occurred in Paleo-Stagnic-Anthrosols at the archaeological site of the Sanxingdui. The micromorphological properties diversified among each specific diagnostic subhorizon, e.g., the developed microstructure in cultivated subhorizon within anthrostagnic epipedon, closely arranged particles and considerable micropores beneficial to both of water conservation and filtration in plow subhorizon within anthrostagnic epipedon, and automorphic optical-orientation clays and calcareous corrosion in hydragric horizons. The findings above of micromorphological features related with diagnostic horizons are significant for soil taxonomic classification.

  10. USING REMOTELY SENSED DATA FOR DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN NORTHEASTERN MESOPOTAMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Matoušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two archaeological sites documented during the MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia project. This project investigates the Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, a historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene that is located in northern Iraq. The investigated sites are the two deserted cities of Makhmúr al-Quadíma and Al-Hadítha. It is assumed that these two sites used to form large cities with high business and cultural importance in the medieval period. The archaeological locations are endangered by various threats.The Al-Hadítha site seems to be under the control of the „Islamic state“ at the moment and Makhmúr al-Quadíma is located just next to the town of new Makhmúr that expands rapidly and without complex urban plans. Documentation of the archaeological sites has been done by using remotely sensed methods together with in-situ measurements (where available. FORMOSAT-2 data that has been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite imagery and when combined with other sources (recent and historical data it provides a powerful documentation tool. In-situ RPAS measurements and a DTM creation furnish a new source of highly valuable information. Influence of the political and security situation in Al-Hadítha will be analysed.

  11. Using Remotely Sensed Data for Documentation of Archaeological Sites in Northeastern Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, E.; Starková, L.; Pavelka, K.; Nováček, K.; Šedina, J.; Faltýnová, M.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces two archaeological sites documented during the MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia) project. This project investigates the Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, a historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene) that is located in northern Iraq. The investigated sites are the two deserted cities of Makhmúr al-Quadíma and Al-Hadítha. It is assumed that these two sites used to form large cities with high business and cultural importance in the medieval period. The archaeological locations are endangered by various threats.The Al-Hadítha site seems to be under the control of the „Islamic state" at the moment and Makhmúr al-Quadíma is located just next to the town of new Makhmúr that expands rapidly and without complex urban plans. Documentation of the archaeological sites has been done by using remotely sensed methods together with in-situ measurements (where available). FORMOSAT-2 data that has been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite imagery and when combined with other sources (recent and historical data) it provides a powerful documentation tool. In-situ RPAS measurements and a DTM creation furnish a new source of highly valuable information. Influence of the political and security situation in Al-Hadítha will be analysed.

  12. Fiscal year 1992 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    During FY 1992, the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted a field survey of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit (600 Area) and tested three sites near the 100 Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. These efforts were conducted in compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and are part of a cultural resources review of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization studies.The results of the FY 1992 survey and test excavation efforts are discussed in this report. 518 ha in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and conducted test excavations at three prehistoric sites near the 100-F and 100-K reactors to determine their eligibility for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

  13. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coastal, and island communities did not just gaze across the sea, but physically engaged with it, through the daily practices of seafaring and fishing. This article argues that the sea was not merely a neutral backdrop for human action, but was an active medium through which prehistoric communities lived, experienced and ordered their world. It will be argued that a consideration of the social construction of prehistoric seascapes is central to an understanding of the archaeological record of island and coastal communities in British Prehistory. The article draws upon recent studies within landscape archaeology, maritime archaeology and maritime anthropology in order to construct a framework for exploring prehistoric seascapes. The archaeological evidence for the prehistoric use of the sea will be summarised for Western Britain and Ireland and key themes for further study identified. These themes will be examined through a detailed case study exploring the prehistoric archaeology of the Isles of Scilly. The case study will consider how we might begin to study the seascape and journeys made within it and how such journeys might be linked to the prehistoric archaeology of island and coastal landscapes. The social and symbolic meanings of the archaeological record will be investigated through an examination of their distribution, configuration and relationship to marine and terrestrial topography. It will be shown that the construction of the archaeological record

  14. Strontium isotope analysis of archaeological fauna at the Erlitou site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ChunYan; YANG Jie; YUAN Jing; LI ZhiPeng; XU Hong; ZHAO HaiTao; CHEN GuoLiang

    2012-01-01

    The Erlitou site is located at Yanshi City,Henan Province.This site is a large settlement site of Erlitou culture,and it is dated to 3800-3500 a BP.Five kinds of domestic animals,i.e.,dogs,pigs,sheep,goats,and cattle were found from the site.In this paper,two problems have emerged in studies involving the estimation of local isotope levels and the distinction of migrants from locals.Tooth enamel samples fron 17 domestic animals individuals were analyzed for strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr),by the thermal ionization mass spectrometry,including 10 pigs,5 sheep and 2 cattle.The results show that the mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 10 pigs enamel samples were 0.712078,Based on the local strontium isotopes ratio range determined by the mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios ±2σrof 10 pig enamel samples (0.712256-.711900),we found that five sheep and one cattle from the Erlitou site fell well outside the local strontium isotopes ratio range and were considered to be non-local.

  15. Archaeological sites on the Indian Ocean Rim - A growing database

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A

    This section is designed to act as a plafform for reporting explored and excavated sites of all periods located along the Indian Ocean rim. The Indian Ocean is broadly defined It Includes the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, the East Afncan coast from Somalia...

  16. Mapping archaeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from Potaissa to Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN FODOREAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping archeological sites using digital cartography. Roman settlements from potaissa to Napoca. We aim to analyze and correct several archaeological and historical data regarding some settlements included in an official document, issued by the Ministry of Culture from Romania, entitled the List of Historical Monuments (Lista Monumentelor Istorice / LMI. We focused our attention on the Roman road from Potaissa to Napoca, the main imperial road of Dacia. We described the route of the Roman road and corrected the old information in the list of historical monuments regarding the discoveries within the territory of the village of Aiton. Methodologically, we used data from the old literature, the modern Austro-Hungarian maps from the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, information from regional gazetteers and different journals. We aimed to offer new insights regarding the accurate location of these settlements and to debate upon the spatial relations of these settlements and their position within the landscape of Dacia. At the beginning of the study, we presented the present situation concerning the databases in Romania covering archaeological sites. The second part of our study discusses how the archaeological sites are recorded in the list of historical monuments. Then we offered several case studies This type of methodological approach will be applied in the future for other areas, in order to reconstruct the former landscape of the province of Dacia, as accurately as possible, using digital tools and modern maps. Our contribution also improved the quality of the data sets used for the topographical descriptions of archaeological sites in Romania.

  17. A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven R; Deméré, Thomas A; Fisher, Daniel C; Fullagar, Richard; Paces, James B; Jefferson, George T; Beeton, Jared M; Cerutti, Richard A; Rountrey, Adam N; Vescera, Lawrence; Holen, Kathleen A

    2017-04-26

    The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum). The CM site contains spiral-fractured bone and molar fragments, indicating that breakage occured while fresh. Several of these fragments also preserve evidence of percussion. The occurrence and distribution of bone, molar and stone refits suggest that breakage occurred at the site of burial. Five large cobbles (hammerstones and anvils) in the CM bone bed display use-wear and impact marks, and are hydraulically anomalous relative to the low-energy context of the enclosing sandy silt stratum. (230)Th/U radiometric analysis of multiple bone specimens using diffusion-adsorption-decay dating models indicates a burial date of 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of an unidentified species of Homo at the CM site during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e; early late Pleistocene), indicating that humans with manual dexterity and the experiential knowledge to use hammerstones and anvils processed mastodon limb bones for marrow extraction and/or raw material for tool production. Systematic proboscidean bone reduction, evident at the CM site, fits within a broader pattern of Palaeolithic bone percussion technology in Africa, Eurasia and North America. The CM site is, to our knowledge, the oldest in situ, well

  18. Archaeological Investigations in the Clinton Lake Project Area, Northeastern Kansas, National Register Evaluation of 27 Prehistoric Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    he offered valuable advice during the labor - atory analysis phase of the project. Most of the figures in this report are the result of the... clima - tic fluctuations and attendant changes in the composition of prairie-forest communities and their associated faunas are emphasized. It is...It has been demonstrated that globally synchronous clima - tic shifts have occurred throughout the Holocene (Bryson et al. 1970) and that these may

  19. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the

  20. Urban sites and the stratigraphic revolution in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cecil Harris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lead article in this forum, ‘The challenges and opportunities for mega-infrastructure projects and archaeology’, by J. J. Carver, brought a couple of London incidents to mind, the two separated by slightly more than a generation, but each pertaining to the challenges of ‘urban’, or rather any ‘mega-stratified’ sites, for the dense stratification in many contexts is but the result of minor and mega infrastructure projects of the Past.

  1. [Study on Archaeological Lime Powders from Taosi and Yinxu Sites by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-feng; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Guo-liang; He, Yu-ling; Gao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Bing-jian

    2015-03-01

    Archaeological lime powders samples from Taosi and Yinxu sites, natural limestone and experimentally prepared lime mortar were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to identify the raw material of lime powders from Taosi and Yinxu sites. Results show that ν2/ν4 ratio of calcite resulted from carbonation reaction of man-made lime is around 6.31, which is higher than that of calcite in natural limestone and reflects the difference in the disorder of calcite crystal structure among the natural limestone and prepared lime mortar. With additional grinding, the values of v2 and ν4 in natural limestone and prepared lime mortar decrease. Meanwhile, the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 for calcite in experimentally prepared lime mortar have a steeper slope when compared to calcite in natural limestone. These imply that ν2/ν4 ratio and the slope of the trend lines of ν2 versus ν4 can be used to determine the archaeological man-made lime. Based on the experiment results, it is possible that the archaeological lime powder from Taosi and Yinxu sites was prepared using man-made lime and the ancient Chinese have mastered the calcining technology of man-made lime in the late Neolithic period about 4 300 years ago.

  2. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  3. A Model for Predicting Late Prehistoric Architectural Sites at the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site in Southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Archaic. This suggests that vegetal materials, possibly including maize, and other cultigens probably constituted larger portions of the human diet ...placement of rock art has been demonstrated in Upper Paleolithic sites of Europe, as well as in North America (Waller 1993). Open-air sites near canyons

  4. XRD applied to the determination of pigments and composition of lithic materials and ceramics from archaeological pre-hispanic sites of the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beovide, Laura [Department of Archeology, National Museum of Anthropology, Montevideo, (Uruguay); Pardo, Helena; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombru, Alvaro [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral, Montevideo (Uruguay); Piston, Mariela, E-mail: mpiston@fq.edu.u [Analytical Chemistry, Estrella Campos Department, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The earliest records of human occupation on the lower basin of Santa Lucia River are dated ca. 4800 {sup 14}C years BP, in the area of one of the major tributaries of the Rio de la Plata on the Uruguayan coast. These societies were basically hunters and gatherers until ca. 3000 {sup 14}C years BP when they incorporated the horticulture. In this multidisciplinary work, two cases of application of XRD analysis of archaeological materials are presented to provide new perspectives in solving various problems related to the technological organization of these societies. In the first case, ceramics and pigments from an archaeological context prior to the hispanic-indian contact were analyzed. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns were obtained using a RIGAKU, Ultima IV with CBO monochromator, CuK{sub {alpha}} radiation was at 40 kV and 20 mA tube power at 0.02 deg/seg, operating in the range from 2{theta}=5.00 to 60.00 deg. According the comparison between the experimental recorded X-ray diffraction pattern to those stored in a X-ray powder diffraction database reveals that the piece of pottery is mainly constitute of quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) while the mineral sample is probably composed mainly of quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and goethite (FeO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O). The results allow a first approximation to know the inorganic pigments that were part of the decoration of the pottery and pigments used in the archaeological context. In the second case an amphibolite instrument from ca. 2700 {sup 14}C years BP related to a shell midden was analyzed and compared with amphibolites located 15 km of the archaeological site to assess if they were the raw materials for these instruments. Compositional XRD mineralogical analysis shows that the both samples seem to have similar mineral composition, which is mainly quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and a mixed sodium magnesium and calcium silicate (NaCa{sub 2}(Mg{sub 4}Ti)Si{sub 6}Al{sub 2}O{sub 23}(OH){sub 2}). This

  5. A new approach for studying prehistoric herd management in arid areas: intra-tooth isotopic analyses of archaeological caprine from IranUne nouvelle approche pour l'étude de la gestion préhistorique des troupeaux en zones arides: analyses isotopiques intra-dentaires de caprinés archéologiques d'Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Mashkour, Marjan; Billiou, Daniel; Pellé, Eric; Mariotti, André

    2001-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic variations in archaeological tooth enamel from Iran have been used to investigate prehistoric herd management. Oxygen isotopic variations in domestic caprines are more important than in wild equids, indicating a seasonal consumption of 18O-depleted drinking water. Since the plants consumed at the same time were partly C 4, it is presumed that the access to this 18O-depleted water was controlled by humans, and that the water came from wells or underground canalisations. This methodology is expected to provide valuable information on herd management in the past in arid areas.

  6. "Tools" for the Development of the Inspection Activity in Archaeological Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bortolotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the acquisitions of contemporary conservation philosophy is precisely this: you don’t restore the image but the matter of the work; restoration is first and foremost the conservation of the work’s authenticity. The task of conservation is not returning to an impossible past but rather enabling the work to be handed down to the future. From this standpoint, in today’s conservation language we speak of conservation: guaranteeing through our efforts that the work entrusted to us will still be available for the future, for ourselves and the generations to come, eliminating or slowing down the causes of deterioration that endanger it so that it can be enjoyed and used. The project, "Milan Archaeology for Expo 2015. Towards a valorization of the archaeological heritage of the city", intends - respect to these theoretical and methodological - to develop processes of knowledge and planned conservation of urban archaeological areas with coordinated maintenance actions, promotion and communication of the different sites present in Milan historic centre. All this sites will be connected in a network system built for a larger project that it will increase the accessibility and enhancement.

  7. Luminescence dating of aeolian sands from archaeological sites in Northern Britain: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, A. A.; Sanderson, D. C. W.; Hansom, J. D.; Housley, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    Luminescence dating of aeolian sands from archaeological sites has potential to contribute to regional chronologies for sediment deposition and to provide a greater understanding of climatic influences on early communities. The Northern and Western Isles of Scotland provide important opportunities for sampling archaeologically intercalated sands for these purposes, and to provide constrained samples for method validation. A wide range of modern beaches have been sampled in the Western and Orkney Isles of Scotland to examine regional variations in luminescence sensitivity, residuals and ease of bleaching. These modern sands have negligible residuals for infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL), small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals and significant thermoluminescence residuals. The relationship between these signals and laboratory bleaching results may indicate the initial depositional environment, and hence lead to a means of identifying well-bleached dating samples. Both sensitivities and residuals show regional differences, reflecting local geology. Preliminary ages obtained from aeolian sands associated with archaeological sites at Amble (Northumbria) and Tofts Ness (Sanday, Orkney) using regenerative blue OSL techniques on extracted quartz are broadly consistent with external age controls from the first and third millennium BC.

  8. The impact of groundwater and agricultural expansion on the archaeological sites at Luxor, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Fogg, Graham E.

    2014-07-01

    Pharaonic monuments represent the most valuable source of ancient Egypt, covering the period of approximately 3000-300 B.C. Karnak and Luxor temples represent the monuments of the east bank of Thebes, the old capital of Egypt. These monuments are currently threatened due to rising groundwater levels as a result of agricultural expansion after construction of the High Dam in the 1970s. Deterioration of archaeological sites at Luxor includes disintegration and exfoliation of stones, dissolution of building materials, loss of moral paintings, crystallization of salts in walls and columns, stone bleeding, destruction of wall paintings and texts, decreasing the durability of monumental stones, and discoloring. The hydrogeologic and climatic conditions combined with irrigation practices facilitated the weathering processes to take part in deterioration of archaeological sites at Luxor area. Many varieties of salt species are found in groundwater at the study area which react with country rocks including the archaeological foundations. These salts are not in equilibrium but in a dissolution and/or dissolution-precipitation phases which are responsible for the different types of deterioration features of Luxor and karnak temples including dissolution of the salts or minerals of the building stones and/or precipitation and crystallization of new salts.

  9. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  10. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  11. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John D; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-03-30

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type--potsherds--that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types.

  12. GPR and Magnetic Modeling on an Archaeological Site in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Camara, M. E.; Cifuentes, G.; Lopez, P.

    2007-05-01

    A geophysical study was carried out in an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, which means `bunch of rocks'. The area is located within the central portion of the Sierra de Ocotitla, towards the northeast of La Malinche volcano, in the municipality of Altzayanca, State of Tlaxcala. This site is conformed of several artificial terraces with evidence of human occupation, probably from the Teotihuacan or Tenanyecac phase. At first the presence of several hills, which are the remains of small pyramids can be seen. Also, some exposed walls and floors can be appreciated. The geophysical work included magnetic (vertical field) and GPR observations in five terraces. The magnetic data depicted a series of dipolar anomalies probably related to walls, and stairways. A report from a previous archaeological excavation carried out almost 30 years ago on an upper terrace, mentioned the discovery of an ancient burial. The tomb was a room (3x2x2 m3) to a depth of 1 m, where corpse remains were found, along other archaeological artifacts. Magnetic and GPR profiles were observed in this area to define geophysical signatures of the mentioned ancient structure, to later compare with anomalies obtained in other terraces. Two interesting anomalies were observed in two lower terraces that compared well with the signatures obtained. The magnetic anomalies were modeled employing a 3D inverse approach, assuming that the Earth is conformed of a series of magnetic dipoles. The final result produced a magnetic block of 5x3x3 m3 to a depth of 1.5 m, approximately. The GPR anomalies helped to constrain the initial geometry of the archaeological structure.

  13. Theoretical interpretation of a case study: Acoustic resonance in an archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jorge; Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the stairways of some Mexican archaeological sites, like Chichen-Itza or Teotihuacan, present an interesting sound reflection and resonance phenomenon which causes a special audible effect. In this paper, mathematical modeling of this situation is presented, and the practical phenomenon is discussed from a theoretical standpoint. More than an end in itself, the idea is, once this validated model is obtained, to use the results for the analysis of a more extensive architectural environment in order to establish whether this kind of phenomenon would have been purposely introduced in the design of the site. This will be presented in future publications.

  14. Cannibalism versus funerary defleshing and disarticulation after a period of decay: comparisons of bone modifications from four prehistoric sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Wallduck, Rosalind; Dimitrijević, Vesna; Živaljević, Ivana; Stringer, Chris B

    2016-12-01

    Humanly induced modifications on human and non-human bones from four archaeological sites of known funerary rituals (one interpreted as cannibalism and three interpreted as funerary defleshing and disarticulation after a period of decay) were analyzed to ascertain whether macromorphological and micromorphological characteristics of cut marks can be used to distinguish cannibalistic from secondary burial practices. Four collections were analyzed: the Magdalenian assemblage from Gough's Cave (UK) and the Mesolithic-Neolithic bone samples from Lepenski Vir, Padina and Vlasac (Serbia). A total of 647 cut marks (345 on human and 302 on non-human remains) were imaged and measured using an optical surface measurement system, the Alicona InfiniteFocus, housed at the Natural History Museum (London, UK). The frequency of cut marks at Gough's Cave exceeds 65%, while it is below 1% in the Serbian sites, and no human tooth marks and only one case of percussion damage have been observed on the three Serbian collections. The distribution of cut marks on human bones is comparable in the four assemblages. Cannibalized human remains, however, present a uniform cut mark distribution, which can be associated with disarticulation of persistent and labile articulations, and the scalping and filleting of muscles. For secondary burials where modification occurred after a period of decay, disarticulation marks are less common and the disarticulation of labile joints is rare. The micromorphometric analyses of cut marks on human and non-human remains suggest that cut marks produced when cleaning partially decayed bodies are significantly different from cut marks produced during butchery of fresh bodies. A distinction between cannibalism and secondary treatment of human bodies can be made based on frequency, distribution and micromorphometric characteristics of cut marks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Non-Destructive Survey of Archaeological Sites Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Geophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloprutský, Z.; Cejpová, M.; Němcová, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the non-destructive documentation of the "Radkov" (Svitavy district, Czech Republic) archaeological site. ALS, GPR and land survey mapping will be used for the analysis. The fortified hilltop settlement "Radkov" is an immovable historical monument with preserved relics of anthropogenic origin in relief. Terrain reconnaissance can identify several accentuated objects on site. ALS enables identification of poorly recognizable archaeological objects and their contexture in the field. Geophysical survey enables defunct objects identification. These objects are hidden below the current ground surface and their layout is crucial. Land survey mapping provides technical support for ALS and GPR survey. It enables data georeferencing in geodetic reference systems. GIS can then be used for data analysis. M. Cejpová and J. Němcová have studied this site over a long period of time. In 2012 Radkov was surveyed using ALS in the project "The Research of Ancient Road in Southwest Moravia and East Bohemia". Since 2015 the authors have been examining this site. This paper summarises the existing results of the work of these authors. The digital elevation model in the form of a grid (GDEM) with a resolution 1 m of 2012 was the basis for this work. In 2015 the survey net, terrain reconnaissance and GPR survey of two archaeological objects were done at the site. GDEM was compared with these datasets. All datasets were processed individually and its results were compared in ArcGIS. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the CTU in Prague, grant No. SGS16/063/OHK1/1T/11.

  16. BUDGET UAV SYSTEMS FOR THE PROSPECTION OF SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SCALE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ostrowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make

  17. Budget Uav Systems for the Prospection of - and Medium-Scale Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, W.; Hanus, K.

    2016-06-01

    One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer) grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make prospection highly

  18. A case study of ancient mortars and concretes from Umm al-Jimal, Jordan with implications for archaeological site conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Edith Ann

    The excavation at Umm al-Jimal, a Late Roman-Byzantine site in northeast Jordan, yielded large amounts of fragmented mortar and concrete. These materials are relevant both to the archaeological context and to the continued care and management of the site. An analysis of the mortars and concretes can reveal the geologic origin of the raw materials, how they were processed, and how technology changed over time. This information, when viewed within the context of the inhabitational history of the site, contributes to an understanding of the site's historic development. It may also shed light on various social, economic and technological aspects of the people who manufactured these materials. The management of archaeological sites is usually designed as an afterthought to archaeological research. Unfortunately one result is that valuable information can be lost or remain uncollected. There is often a great deal of useful information present in the archaeological record which could be helpful to archaeological site conservators, engineers and planners. Specifically, a complete understanding of the site's original architectural materials provides a basis for decisions regarding the preservation and management of existing site features. Stabilization of existing standing structures cannot be accomplished without an understanding of the original materials used in their construction. In order to maximize the information available to archaeological site managers, a comprehensive site management plan must be an integral component of the archaeological research design and implementation. This requires integrating an investigation of construction materials into the original archaeological research model. The origin, manufacture, use and subsequent deterioration of these materials, as well as their archaeological context are important to the conservation plan. Ancient mortars and concretes from Umm al-Jimal proved to be complex mixtures containing both raw geologic, biological

  19. Review and Consideration of Tibetan Archaeology in the 20th Century%20世纪西藏考古的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甲央; 霍巍

    2001-01-01

    Tibetan archaeology has always drawn close attention from academic circles both athome and abroad. In the first half of the 20th century, archaeological work in this region was principallydone by Western scholars. They obtained some achievements, such as those in the surveys of Tubo royaltombs, though there appeared shortcomings. Since the 1950s, Chinese scholars have independently car-tied out a series of archaeological surveys and diggings on the Qamdo karub site and in the NaogxianLieshan cemetery. The 1990s was an remarkable decade, when Tibetan archaeology was going ahead byleaps and bounds. The general investigation of ancient monuments across Tibet laid the foundations offuture Tibetan archaeology. The excavation of the prehistoric site at Qugoog village, Lhasa, the explo-ration of the ancient Guge city in Ngari and other archaeological projects carried out in recent years ex-erted significant influence in Chinese and foreign academic circles.

  20. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  1. Archaeological horizons and fluvial processes at the Lower Paleolithic open-air site of Revadim (Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ofer; Malinsky-Buller, Ariel; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Ackermann, Oren; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Goldsmith, Yonaton; Inbar, Moshe; Rabinovich, Rivka; Hovers, Erella

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present new data pertaining to the paleo-landscape characteristics at the Acheulian site of Revadim, on the southern coastal plain of Israel. Sedimentological, isotopic, granulometric and micromorphological studies showed that the archaeological remains accumulated in an active fluvial environment where channel action, overbank flooding and episodic inundation occurred. Measurements of total organic matter and its carbon isotopic composition indicate that the hominin activity at the site started at a period of relatively drier conditions, which coincided with erosion of the preceding soil sequence. This process led to the formation of a gently-undulating topography, as reconstructed by a GIS model. Later deposition documents relatively wetter conditions, as indicated by carbon isotopic composition. Formation processes identified at the site include fluvial processes, inundation episodes that resulted in anaerobic conditions and formation of oxide nodules, as well as small-scale bioturbation and later infiltration of carbonate-rich solutions that resulted in the formation of calcite nodules and crusts. The combination of micro-habitats created favorable conditions that repeatedly drew hominins to the area, as seen by a series of super-imposed archaeological horizons. This study shows that site-specific paleo-landscape reconstructions should play an important role in understanding regional variation among hominin occupations and in extrapolating long-term behavioral patterns during the Middle Pleistocene.

  2. The 2009-2010 Study of Archaeological Sites on Dubovaya Griva Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhevsky Andrei A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The materials of the 2009-2010 archaeological survey and excavations on the island of Dubovaya Griva located within the bounds of the Nizhnekamsk water reservoir are presented in the article. As a result of the study, a previously unknown multi-layered site, Dubovaya Griva VI, was discovered. The artifacts of different archaeological periods have been found here, referring to the Neolithic (the Kama culture, the Bronze and Early Iron Age (the Ananyino culture and the Early Middle Ages (the Bakhmutino culture. The site also yielded a hoard of the Chalcolithic flint weapons, consisting of four flint daggers. Additional salvage and conservation studies on the Dubovaya Griva II site have also been conducted, with materials of the Bronze Age cultures (a dwelling with Zaosinovo type pottery, ceramics of the Srubnaya and the Ananyino cultural-historical community discovered. The surface finds from the Dubovaya Griva II site include fragments of the Neolithic (the Kama culture and the Later Bronze Age (the Maklasheevka culture ceramics.

  3. Paleoparasitological Surveys for Detection of Helminth Eggs in Archaeological Sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ju; Shin, Dong Hoon; Song, Mi-Jin; Song, Hye-Young

    2013-01-01

    A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations. PMID:24039296

  4. New data on the geology of the archaeological site at Vinča (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundić Ljupko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides threaten Vinča, a world famous archaeological site of Neolithic culture. For this reason, a field investigation and geologic-geotechnical research of the cores of seven exploration boreholes were carried out. Avery interesting structural setting was identified. The oldest stratigraphic unit consists of Middle Miocene Sarmatian sediments, which were discovered along the right bank of Danube River and within its riverbed about 300 m upstream from the archaeological site. These Sarmatian strata give evidence that the Danube River eroded the right bank. In addition, within its recent valley, there is a fault zone along which a block on the right bank was uplifted while a block on the left bank of the river that was subsided. All the boreholes passed through sediments of a previously unknown geological formation. It lies unconformably over Sarmatian strip marls and makes the base for Pleistocene loessoid sediments (approx. 10 m under the surface. These sediments were formed in a marsh-lake environment with a strong river influence. According to its superposition, the supposed age of this formation is the Plio-Pleistocene. Above the right bank of the Danube River, there are steep sections where Pleistocene swamp loessoid sediments were found. True loess deposits are not present here, but are in the hinterland of the right bank of the Danube River. The loess delluvium was deposited over the Pleistocene sediments. On the right bank of the Danube River, below the archaeological site, there are the anthropogenic water compacted sands that were previously incorrectly shown on geological maps as alluvial fans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176015

  5. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  6. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  7. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  8. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  9. Fiscal year 1991 report on archaeological surveys of the 100 Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.; Minthorn, P.E.

    1992-09-01

    In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Hanford Cultured Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey during FY 1991 of the 100-Area reactor compounds on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. This survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive resources review of 100-Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) operable units in support of CERCLA characterization activities. The work included a lite and records review and pedestrian survey of the project area following procedures set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan.

  10. Uav Surveying for a Complete Mapping and Documentation of Archaeological Findings. The Early Neolithic Site of Portonovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Conati Barbaro, C.; Pierdicca, R.; Bozzi, C. A.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The huge potential of 3D digital acquisition techniques for the documentation of archaeological sites, as well as the related findings, is almost well established. In spite of the variety of available techniques, a sole documentation pipeline cannot be defined a priori because of the diversity of archaeological settings. Stratigraphic archaeological excavations, for example, require a systematic, quick and low cost 3D single-surface documentation because the nature of stratigraphic archaeology compels providing documentary evidence of any excavation phase. Only within a destructive process each single excavation cannot be identified, documented and interpreted and this implies the necessity of a re- examination of the work on field. In this context, this paper describes the methodology, carried out during the last years, to 3D document the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Ancona, Italy) and, in particular, its latest step consisting in a photogrammetric aerial survey by means of UAV platform. It completes the previous research delivered in the same site by means of terrestrial laser scanning and close range techniques and sets out different options for further reflection in terms of site coverage, resolution and campaign cost. With the support of a topographic network and a unique reference system, the full documentation of the site is managed in order to detail each excavation phase; besides, the final output proves how the 3D digital methodology can be completely integrated with reasonable costs during the excavation and used to interpret the archaeological context. Further contribution of this work is the comparison between several acquisition techniques (i.e. terrestrial and aerial), which could be useful as decision support system for different archaeological scenarios. The main objectives of the comparison are: i) the evaluation of 3D mapping accuracy from different data sources, ii) the definition of a standard pipeline for different archaeological needs

  11. Archaeology. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Oliver; Momber, Garry; Bates, Richard; Garwood, Paul; Fitch, Simon; Pallen, Mark; Gaffney, Vincent; Allaby, Robin G

    2015-02-27

    The Mesolithic-to-Neolithic transition marked the time when a hunter-gatherer economy gave way to agriculture, coinciding with rising sea levels. Bouldnor Cliff, is a submarine archaeological site off the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom that has a well-preserved Mesolithic paleosol dated to 8000 years before the present. We analyzed a core obtained from sealed sediments, combining evidence from microgeomorphology and microfossils with sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) analyses to reconstruct floral and faunal changes during the occupation of this site, before it was submerged. In agreement with palynological analyses, the sedaDNA sequences suggest a mixed habitat of oak forest and herbaceous plants. However, they also provide evidence of wheat 2000 years earlier than mainland Britain and 400 years earlier than proximate European sites. These results suggest that sophisticated social networks linked the Neolithic front in southern Europe to the Mesolithic peoples of northern Europe.

  12. Determination of the raw material source used in the production of ceramics of the Hatahara archaeological site, AM, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Kelly P.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: kquimica@usp.b, E-mail: camunita@ipen.b, E-mail: poliver@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Kazuo, Eduardo T., E-mail: edgneves@usp.b, E-mail: eduardo.tamanaha@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@usp.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological interventions carried out at the Hatahara archaeological site, located in the central Amazonia, showed the presence of a great amount of ceramic artifacts in this region. As a consequence, several works have been conducted with this archaeological material, searching clear questions on how the ancient societies produced such objects, as well as, the use they did of the environment where they were inserted. Considering that the analysis of the ceramic material showed the simultaneous occurrence of four distinct phases of occupation in the Hatahara site, which, in relation to its pre-colonial composition is as an integral part of a quite complex context, the present work had the purpose of helping the Archaeologists to understand better the development of the societies that occupied this region, with basis on the study of the archaeological ceramics provenance. For this, the chemical characterization was done, with application of the analytical technique by neutron activation analysis (NAA); the elementary concentrations of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were determined in 127 ceramic fragments and in 7 samples of clay, collected next to the Hatahara archaeological site. The data of elementary concentrations were submitted to the multivariate statistical analysis, the techniques of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed that a single type of clay was used in the manufacture of a group of 25 ceramic fragments, belonging to the phases Paredao, Manacapuru and Guarita. These results have been added to the archaeological interpretations with regard to the classification of the rescued ceramics fragments, in order to complement them. Therefore, this work supplied some pertinent clarifications that certainly will give support to the reconstruction of human path in the Hatahara archaeological site. (author)

  13. Radiocarbon dates from Wairau Bar and their implications for the prehistoric colonisation of New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand); Anderson, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A set of thirteen moa eggshell samples from burial features at the Wairau Bar site were used for dating. The samples were obtained from the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch where they have been displayed as part of a permanent exhibition.Three marine shell samples were also analysed. Radiocarbon dating of the samples was carried out using conventional and AMS techniques. The results will be presented and the archaeological implications for the prehistoric colonization of New Zealand will be discussed. Paper no. 39; Extended abstract. 7 refs.

  14. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  15. FAZENDINHA I: DESCOBERTA DE UM NOVO SÍTIO PRÉ-HISTÓRICO E DESCRIÇÃO PRELIMINAR DE SUAS INSCRIÇÕES RUPESTRES E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO (Fazendinha I: Discovery of a New Prehistoric Site, Preliminary Description from its Rock Inscriptions, and Conservation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico conhecido como Fazendinha I, descoberto em 2010, é um abrigo de arenito com inscrições pré-históricas, localizado na área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. O abrigo sob-rocha contém uma coleção excepcional de 141 pinturas rupestres e 65 gravuras rupestres. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos geométricos abstratos, carimbos de mãos humanas, zoomorfos (lagartos e ornitomorfos, antropomorfos e fitomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, alaranjado, vinho, púrpura-escuro e marrom-alaranjado. As gravuras rupestres (feitas por picotagem; algumas com acabamento por abrasão representam principalmente cúpules, mas também figuras abstratas e um lagarto (único animal gravado conhecido em todos os sítios pré-históricos da região arqueológica de Piripiri. A vasta maioria das gravuras foi também pintada. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos pintados e gravados. Vegetação, fauna e estado de conservação das inscrições pré-históricas e do abrigo sob-rocha, são mencionados. ENGLISH: The archaeological site known as Fazendinha I, discovered in 2010, is a sandstone shelter with prehistoric inscriptions located in the rural area of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The rockshelter contains an exceptional collection of 141 rock paintings and 65 rock engravings. The rock paintings consist of abstract geometric graphisms, human handprints, zoomorphs (lizards and ornithomorphs, anthropomorphs and phytomorphs, painted predominantly in different tonalities of red, but also in black, orangish, wine, dark-purple, and orangish brown. The rock engravings (made by pecking; some finished by abrading represent mainly cupules, but also abstract figures and a lizard (the only engraved animal known in all prehistoric sites of the archaeological region from Piripiri. The vast

  16. Solar efficient technologies for valorising an archaeological site in the rural area Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tǎmǎşan, Maria; Mǎrǎcineanu, Cristian; Bica, Smaranda Maria

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study is finding viable methods of rehabilitation and re-use of the cultural heritage in rural areas by efficient contemporary technological and architectural solutions. In this respect, this paper describes the phases of an environmental-friendly intervention on an archaeological site near the village Şiria, Arad County, as case study, the expected results and the steps which must be taken in order to implement the proposal. The final aim is to create a complex and sustainable tourist attraction through musealisation, integrated in the already known, but poorly promoted tourist itinerary, known as The Wine Path - Şiria is in a wine-growing region first documented in the 9th century. The proposed design reflects our sustainable approach by combining local materials with non-invasive structural solutions and efficient solar technologies. The purpose of this approach is to reduce the building's maintenance costs nearly to 0 and to extend the visiting time of the archaeological site during the entire year, whatever the weather or season. The proposals are to be submitted to the County Council, having issued the Strategy for Tourist Development for Arad County, elaborated in 2011 by The Analysis for Institutional Development Centre - Bucharest.

  17. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  18. 3D virtual reconstruction and visualisation of the archaeological site Castellet de Bernabé (Llíria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D virtual reconstruction of cultural heritage is a useful tool to reach many goals: the accurate documentation of our tangible cultural legacy, the determination of mechanical alteration on the assets, or the mere shape acquisition prior to restoration and/or reconstruction works, etc. Among these goals, when planning and managing tourism enhancement of heritage sites, it demands setting up specific instruments and tools to guarantee both, the site conservation and the visitors’ satisfaction. Archaeological sites are physical witnesses of the past and an open window to research works and scientific discoveries, but usually, the major structures do no exist nowadays, and the general public takes long time and many efforts to elaborate a mental reconstruction of the volumetry and appearance from these remains. This mental reconstruction is essential to build up a storyline that communicates efficiently the archaeological and historic knowledge and awares the public about its conservation. To develop this process of awareness about conservation, heritage interpretation starts with the mental inmersion of the visitors in the archaeological site, what 3D reconstruction definitely helps to achieve. Different technologies exist nowadays for the3D reconstruction of assets, but when dealing with archaeological sites, the data acquisition requires alternative approaches to be used, as most part of the assets do not exist nowadays. In this work, we will deal with the virtual reconstruction and visualisation of the archaeological site Castellet de Bernabé by following a mixed approach (surveying techniques and archaeological research. We further give a methodology to process and merge the real and virtual data in order to create augmented views of the site.

  19. Application of tandem accelerator mass spectrometor to the chronological study of archaeological samples on Ryukyu Islands

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    Taira, Hatsuo; Higa, Kenichi; Nakai, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Toshio.

    1987-10-01

    Along with the urbanization of rural areas on Ryukyu Islands, many shell mounds and pre-historic sites have been found in resent years. Chrological studies of shell samples from these mounds will lead to the better understanding of cultural background for the pre-historic human activities on the Ryukyu Islands. C-14 dating by beta counting is the common method to obtain the ages of the archaeological samples. It is, however, very limited in obtaining the absolute ages by the above mehtod due to the large sample sizes required and time consuming. There are many newly obtained archaeological samples left unstudied in detail. The alternate is a method called Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) installed at Nagoya University, which is composed of the tandem type accelerator to measure very low concentration of C-14 in archaeological samples. The system has been designed particularly to measure the radio-carbon and has advantages of being small sample size and very little time consuming for C-14 measurement as compared with the beta counting. It is the aim of this work to apply the above AMS for obtaining the absolute ages of the archaeological samples. The results agreed well with those estimated by the Erthenware method (relative method of dating), which ranged from 500 to 6000 y.b.p. The results may be helpful for the chronological arrangement of the samples and for the understanding of pre-historical human activities on the Ryukyu Islands.

  20. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016

  1. Review of Environmental and Geological Microgravity Applications and Feasibility of Its Employment at Archaeological Sites in Israel

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    Lev V. Eppelbaum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are widely applied at present for solving various environmental and geological problems. Unfortunately, microgravity survey is comparatively rarely used for searching for hidden ancient targets. It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register promptly and digitally microGal (10-8 m/s2 anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. An advanced methodology of gravity anomalies analysis and modern 3D modeling, intended for ancient targets delineation, is briefly presented. It is supposed to apply in archaeological microgravity the developed original methods for the surrounding terrain relief computing. Calculating second and third derivatives of gravity potential are useful for revealing some closed peculiarities of the different Physical-Archaeological Models (PAMs. It is underlined that physical measurement of vertical gravity derivatives in archaeological studying has a significant importance and cannot be replaced by any transformation methods. Archaeological targets in Israel have been ranged by their density/geometrical characteristics in several groups. The performed model computations indicate that microgravity investigations might be successfully applied at least in 20–25% of archaeological sites in Israel.

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  5. Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dating of bricks from the Thung Tuk archaeological site, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Pailoplee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL based dating were applied to ancient fired bricks to derive the chronology of the Thung Tuk archaeological site (TT, southern Thailand. In order to test the feasibility of brick dating, the inside and outside portions of the brick mass were dated separately. From the obtained results, the outside portion of the brick mass was found to be more suitable for luminescence dating than the inside portion since the inside might be incompletely fired during the production process. Among the brick ages obtained using the outside portion, both the TL and OSL (with a minimum model analyses were all in agreement with the known ages of the TT, except for one sample that appeared to be much younger. This likely represents a subsequent renovation brick. Thus, the assessment of renovation and other imports into sites should be carefully considered in future luminescence dating.

  6. Preface Special issue: Monitoring and Seismic Characterization of Archaeological Sites and Structures

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    Paolo Clemente

    2017-07-01

    In this perspective a team composed by researchers of ENEA, INGV and Sapienza University of Rome has recently carried out geophysical and structural investigations on the Amphiteatrum Flavium in Rome, better known as Colosseum, which is the symbol of monumental heritage in Italy and well-known all over the world. The experimental campaign was only a preliminary analysis of the very famous archaeological site that allowed outlining the state of knowledge about the characteristics of the site and the structure and should be considered as a starting point for an in-depth investigation of the monument vulnerability. In our opinion, the benefits of such an integrated approach can steer the political and social choices related with the preservation of the cultural heritage at National or European level.

  7. Preliminary archaeological survey of proposed gas well locations in Green Township (Scioto County) and Elizabeth Township (Lawrence County) Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.B.; Peebles, C.S.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-10-24

    The present archaeological survey and cultural resource assessment were conducted for the United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center in areas to be disturbed by gas well drilling and holding pond construction. The project area is the Pine Creek drainage system, which is a tributary of the Ohio River in Scioto and Lawrence Counties, Ohio. The literature search indicated that prehistoric archaeological sites do occur and have been documented in the Pine Creek drainage system. Presently, no archaeological sites have been reported in locations of direct impact. The literature search also indicated that historic features from the early iron industry period, ca. 1840 to 1870, are likely to occur throughout the project area. Field reconnaissance identified three prehistoric archaeological sites and one historic site in and adjacent to the proposed locations of disturbance. Two sites were determined to be of significant research value and may be nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. Consequently, recommendations were made to minimize the adverse effects of the proposed drilling project on these archaeological sites.

  8. Interoperability of photogrammetry in 3D modeling: documentation, research and dissemination in the archaeological site of Jamila

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    Pedro R. Moya-Maleno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be a sample, both theoretical and practical, of a protocol for the use of photogrammetric resources when generating a three-dimensional archaeological model. The use of said resources allows to cheaply compile, systematise, use and share the generated data –photogrammetric and 3D- in order to both work with hypothesis and share the knowledge –via online repositories with an academic public or with a wider audience using didactics and other means of spreading History and Archaeology–. As an example, the article analyses the possibilities and problems detected when applying said protocol at the site of the Columnated Building of Jamila (Villanueva de los Infantes, Ciudad Real, Spain. This archaeological site is ideal to put said protocol into practice, as one of its team’s aims is the public spreading of Archaeology of the site. Furthermore, it lacks information from its first archaeological seasons and a complex historical and archaeological interpretation, being a place with several reoccupations, some of them with unique typologies.

  9. Distributed Observing Networks of the Past: Using Archaeological Sites to Study Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is changing rapidly, and there is much concern over what the effects of those changes might be. Although changes of considerable magnitude have happened in the past, current understanding of Arctic systems is not yet sufficient to enable useful predictions. Scientific observations span a very limited period in the Arctic, and do not encompass even fairly recent (Little Ice Age, Medieval Climate Anomaly) periods of climate change. One way to address this would be to extend the period of observation, but the situation is urgent. As an alternative, various types of proxy data can serve a similar function. It is suggested that archaeological sites with good organic preservation are not only sources of data on past human behavior and cultural organization, but also valuable resources for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, with potential similar to other paleoenvironmental proxy records. The sites tend to be located at or near places that are still occupied today, thus providing locally relevant data. They also tend to incorporate the same range of species that are important for subsistence and food security today, so that one can examine how changes affected those species in the past in a fairly direct manner. Yet, just as new methods increase our ability to retrieve and study this information, global climate change poses a dire threat, both to the wealth of organic data in such sites, and to many of the sites themselves. Global change-related threats including increased coastal erosion and the warming and thawing of permafrost are major and imminent threats to the archaeological and paleoecological record.

  10. Distinct Element Modelling in Static and Dynamic Conditions with Application to an Underground Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, G.; Monacis, G.; Perino, A.; Hatzor, Y. H.

    2010-11-01

    This paper considers the seismic response of the underground water storage cavern at the archaeological site of Tel Beer Sheva, excavated about 3,000 years ago in a highly jointed chalk region in the Negev Desert, in Israel. By using the distinct element method and the UDEC code, the stability conditions of the cavern are analysed. Close attention is given during rock mass modelling to the presence of discontinuities including horizontal bedding and a vertical joint set. The results of the static analyses performed confirm, as illustrated with archaeological researches, that the cavern roof had collapsed, probably during the time of construction, when a massive support pillar in the centre of the opening was constructed to support the remaining roof. The results of the dynamic analyses, which considered the recorded accelerations of the 1995 Nuweiba earthquake, demonstrate that the cavern in its present configuration, with the massive pillar in its centre, did not undergo any significant damage throughout the years, even when subjected to seismic events.

  11. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ(15) N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ(15) N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

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    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  13. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In 2007, NASA awarded six competitively chosen projects in Space Archaeology through an open solicitation whose purpose, among several, was to addresses the potential benefits to modern society that can be derived through a better understanding of how past cultures succeeded or failed to adapt to local, regional, and global change. A further objective of NASA's space archaeology is the protection and preservation of cultural heritage sites while planning for the sustainable development of cultural resources. NASA s archaeological approach through remote sensing builds on traditional methods of aerial archaeology (i.e. crop marks) and utilizes advanced technologies for collecting and analyzing archaeological data from digital imagery. NASA s archaeological research and application projects using remote sensing have been conducted throughout the world. In North America, NASA has imaged prehistoric mound sites in Mississippi; prehistoric shell middens in Louisiana, Puebloan sites in New Mexico and more recently the sites associated with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery Expedition (1804-1806). In Central America, NASA archaeologists have researched Mayan sites throughout the region, including the Yucatan and Costa Rica, as well as Olmec localities in Veracruz. Other data has been collected over Angkor, Cambodia, Giza in Egypt, the lost city of Ubar on the Arabian Peninsula.

  14. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In 2007, NASA awarded six competitively chosen projects in Space Archaeology through an open solicitation whose purpose, among several, was to addresses the potential benefits to modern society that can be derived through a better understanding of how past cultures succeeded or failed to adapt to local, regional, and global change. A further objective of NASA's space archaeology is the protection and preservation of cultural heritage sites while planning for the sustainable development of cultural resources. NASA s archaeological approach through remote sensing builds on traditional methods of aerial archaeology (i.e. crop marks) and utilizes advanced technologies for collecting and analyzing archaeological data from digital imagery. NASA s archaeological research and application projects using remote sensing have been conducted throughout the world. In North America, NASA has imaged prehistoric mound sites in Mississippi; prehistoric shell middens in Louisiana, Puebloan sites in New Mexico and more recently the sites associated with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery Expedition (1804-1806). In Central America, NASA archaeologists have researched Mayan sites throughout the region, including the Yucatan and Costa Rica, as well as Olmec localities in Veracruz. Other data has been collected over Angkor, Cambodia, Giza in Egypt, the lost city of Ubar on the Arabian Peninsula.

  15. Recognition of earthquake-related damage in archaeological sites: Examples from the Dead Sea fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Shmuel

    2008-06-01

    Archaeological structures that exhibit seismogenic damage expand our knowledge of temporal and spatial distribution of earthquakes, afford independent examination of historical accounts, provide information on local earthquake intensities and enable the delineation of macroseismic zones. They also illustrate what might happen in future earthquakes. In order to recover this information, we should be able to distinguish earthquake damage from anthropogenic damage and from other natural processes of wear and tear. The present paper reviews several types of damage that can be attributed with high certainty to earthquakes and discusses associated caveats. In the rare cases, where faults intersect with archaeological sites, offset structures enable precise determination of sense and size of slip, and constrain its time. Among the characteristic off-fault damage types, I consider horizontal shifting of large building blocks, downward sliding of one or several blocks from masonry arches, collapse of heavy, stably-built walls, chipping of corners of building blocks, and aligned falling of walls and columns. Other damage features are less conclusive and require additional evidence, e.g., fractures that cut across several structures, leaning walls and columns, warps and bulges in walls. Circumstantial evidence for catastrophic earthquake-related destruction includes contemporaneous damage in many sites in the same area, absence of weapons or other anthropogenic damage, stratigraphic data on collapse of walls and ceilings onto floors and other living horizons and burial of valuable artifacts, as well as associated geological palaeoseismic phenomena such as liquefaction, land- and rock-slides, and fault ruptures. Additional support may be found in reliable historical accounts. Special care must be taken in order to avoid circular reasoning by maintaining the independence of data acquisition methods.

  16. Archaeological Studies of the Ancient Turkestan Site: results of 2011-2012 excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smagulov Yerbulat A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2011-12 excavations on the Eski-Turkestan site conducted by the Turkestani archaeological expedition (Institute of archaeology named after A. Margulan are presented. The site contains the remains of the ancient town of Yasy (modern town of Turkestan, South Kazakhstan oblast. The aim of the excavations was to study the earliest layers of the settlement, the primary stages of the city formation, and to identify construction elements of the ancient citadel in particular. It has been established that the most ancient nucleus of the city was located under Kultobe hill on the eastern edge of the settlement. The oldest architectural object of the citadel is a cruciform construction with powerful rammed clay defensive walls having narrow loopholes, preserved to a height of over 3 m. The three rooms were connected by arched doorways. In the second construction horizon, a building with long narrow rooms around a small open courtyard had been added to this "castle". During this period, around the perimeter of the citadel powerful rammed clay and mud-brick defensive walls had been erected, with the space between them and the extended castle being just partially built up. These two periods can be dated to the 1st–3rd centuries AD. This stage comes to an end with defeat and a fire. In the fire layer, numerous ceramic vessels in disassembling have been found. Individual unique finds have been made, and alabaster idols are of special interest. The restoration of the fortification wall and a new stage of the citadel development refer to the 9th-11th centuries. At the base of the new wall, pots with sacrificial food have been discovered, one of them bearing a runic inscription.

  17. Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological investigations to study the site of Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Zamuner, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    To enhance the knowledge finalised to the location and conservation of the unknown buried structures below the actual studied levels, in the territory of the Ancient Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy) a scientific collaboration, inside the "Ager Aquinas Project" between the University of Salento (Department of Cultural Heritage - Laboratory of Ancient Topography and Photogrammetry) and the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage (ITABC-C.N.R.) has been developed, during 2008-2009 and it is still in progress. The site which is the subject of this paper had been identified in the past through air photo interpretation of vertical historical coverage and field - walking surveys. Ancient Aquinum is characterised by two main aspects: the first depends by the presence of a very big defence-system with mighty walls and large ditch; the second characteristic is the presence or regular but not orthogonal road - system of the town, bordered by an unusual parallelogram shape of the blocks. With the results obtained after the elaborations of the first aerial data sets and field surveys, has been possible to map the main town - planning, drawing the main road system inside and outside the town. Although the analysis of the air photo evidence allowed the global interpretation of the site, it was not possible to reconstruct the archaeological evidences in the central portion of the town. Therefore the Project, during 2008, started with new acquisition and elaboration of aerial photos, field-walking surveys and GPR surveys with the aim to better define the urban plan of the central portion of the ancient town. The location, depth, and size of the buried buildings were effectively estimated from non-destructive remote sensing with a gradiometric and ground-penetrating radar systems. Recent archaeological excavations made (by Prof. Giuseppe Ceraudo - University of Salento, Lecce) during the summer 2009, have confirmed the structures individuated with the geophysical methods

  18. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in İzmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahor, Mahmut Göktuğ

    In the new millennium, globalisation, and with it urbanisation, has been expanding as a consequence of economic development throughout the world. Urbanisation is a major social problem, not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. Urbanisation also has a major impact on archaeological sites and cultural heritages in urbanised zones. Non-destructive investigation techniques, such as geophysics, which uses remote sensing, and is non-invasive, are of great importance in urban areas. We are now capable of solving urbanisation-related problems, and these techniques reduce the cost of projects at urbanised sites. Geophysics has increased the possibilities of new applications in determining intensive urbanisation effects in earth science. Geophysics deals with numerous physical variations such as electricity, electromagnetism, magnetics, acoustics, gravity and radioactivity. There are numerous ways geophysics can be applied in archaeological and cultural heritage studies. In addition the hazard mitigation, infrastructure investigation, waste management, water supply, urban gateways and other factors are documented by geophysics. In recent years, archaeological sites under the encroachment of urbanisation have been investigated on numerous occasions using non-invasive geophysical techniques, allowing parameters such as the depth, dimension and extension of targets to be clearly determined. The term “urban geophysics” has recently been seen in various references related to geophysics and other earth science studies. This study reviews the results of geophysical investigations carried out at important archaeological sites under encroaching urbanisation in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

  19. Geochemical and mineralogical investigation of domestic archaeological soil features at the Tiel-Passewaaij site, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, S.; Slomp, C.P.; Huisman, D.J.; Vriend, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Archaeological soil features can be defined as areas of staining in ancient cultural soil horizons and are frequently used in surveys to locate sites and activity areas. Visual observation of these features, however, provides only limited information on their origin and the processes leading to thei

  20. SÍTIOS ARQUEOLÓGICOS DO VALE DO BURITI DOS CAVALOS: UMA BREVE REVISÃO (Archaeological Sites from the Buriti dos Cavalos Valley: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O vale verdejante do Buriti dos Cavalos, na área rural do município de Piripiri, estado do Piauí (Brasil, é conhecido pelos diversos sítios arqueológicos, essencialmente abrigos sob-rocha e paredões decorados com pinturas rupestres e gravuras. Localizados nas margens do riacho Corrente, os monumentos rochosos apresentam elevada densidade de inscrições pré-históricas. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos puros e geométricos, carimbos de mãos humanas, motivos antropomórficos e zoomórficos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de cor vermelha; mas também em amarelo, preto, cinza (inclusive cinza-esverdeado, rosa, branco, alaranjado e na cor vinho. Além da policromia, as inscrições antigas exibem frequentes sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos representados em diferentes momentos de evolução gráfica. ENGLISH: The valley of the Buriti dos Cavalos, in the rural area from the municipality of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí (Brazil, is known for several archaeological sites, which are composed of rock shelters and walls decorated with rock paintings and engravings. Located in the Corrente stream margins, the rock monuments present high density of prehistoric inscriptions. The rock paintings consist of pure and geometric graphisms, human handprints, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs, painted predominantly in different tonalities of red color, but also in yellow, black, gray (including greenish-gray, pink, white, orangish, and in the wine color. Besides the polychrome, the ancient inscriptions exhibit frequent overlaps and recurrences of the motifs represented in different moments of graphic evolution.

  1. Rock-fall hazard in the Etruscan archaeological site of Norchia (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Argento, Alessia; Russo, Alfonsina

    2016-04-01

    The ancient Etruscan town of Norchia (Central Italy, 80 km North of Rome) is situated on a long volcanic plateau surrounded by steep slopes, at the confluence of rivers Pile and Acqua Alta into the river Biedano. It has been constructed along the ancient Via Clodia, a short-range route intended for commercial traffic between Rome and the colonies in Etruscan lands. The flourishing of the town, evidenced by the beautiful necropolis, is placed between the end of the fourth and half of the second century BC. With its necropolis Norchia is the most significant example of funerary architecture rock Hellenistic period (IV-II century BC.). Its rock-cut tombs, are among the most important archaeological sites of Etruscan civilisation. They are an important and rare example of rock architecture and one of the few preserved in Italy. Also, the necropolis, with an extension of more than 100 hectares, is composed of rock-cut tombs of various types (façade, half-cube, false-cube and temple type) and dimensions (4-10 m in height), exhibiting a remarkable similarity with Asian tombs. From geological point of view, the area is exhibiting the overly of rigid volcanic products from both Vico and Volsini volcanic apparatus; as a bedrock, a plastic clay formation is positioned. The rock-cut tombs were excavated on two main volcanic levels, following the natural profile of tuff outcrops. The tombs located in the upper part of the necropolis have been excavated in a Red Tuff from Vico volcanic district, while those in lower level are dug in a grey tuff (Nenfro) from Vulsini volcanic apparatus. Recent investigations revealed the presence of many threats affecting the conservation of the site, that are including: surface rock weathering, water percolation and infiltration, surface vegetation and biological colonisation, instability and collapse of the cliff. The purpose of this study is mainly focused to verify whether the geological, geomorphological and geomechanical processes that

  2. Living archaeology: artefacts of specific nest site fidelity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, F A; Piel, A K; McGrew, W C

    2011-10-01

    Savanna chimpanzees are known to re-use areas of the landscape for sleep, and patterns of chimpanzee sleeping site re-use are proposed as a referential model for early hominin archaeological site formation. We recorded the prevalence of deformed but healed branches and remnants of dead branches found around fresh nests at the savanna site of Issa in Ugalla, Tanzania. These old nest scars were found in 79% of 112 beds. We also randomly selected potential nesting locations for a subset of 32 beds within the same trees, and found nest scars in only 19% of these "control" locations. We then monitored 275 nests for up to 19 months for decay, regeneration of new branches, and re-use. Of these 275 nest locations, 24% were re-used within the first nine months of monitoring, and most re-use occurred when the nest had already decayed and was not easily visible from the ground. After 18 months, the proportion of specific nest positions re-used increased to 48%. This fidelity is likely a result of the creation of ideally-shaped support structures and supple new growth for mattress material with successive use of nest locations. We propose that specific nest site re-use may not be a direct product of environmental determination, but a result of "niche construction" through formation of good building sites within trees. Environmental modification through construction behaviour may have influenced both chimpanzee and early hominin ranging, and thus leaves behind recognisable patterns of artefact deposition across the landscape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary archaeometric study of pottery remains from the archaeological site of Timpone della Motta, in the Sibaritide area (Calabria - southern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andaloro, E.; Belfiore, C. M.; De Francesco, A. M.; Jacobsen, J. K.; Mittica, G. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the archaeometric characterisation of some pottery remains dated to the 8th and early 7th centuries BC. The sherds examined come from excavations carried out by the Groningen Institute of Archaeology (GIA) on the acropolis of Timpone della Motta, an archaeological site loc

  4. An Information Technology Framework for the Development of an Embedded Computer System for the Remote and Non-Destructive Study of Sensitive Archaeology Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Georgiev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an information technology framework for the development of an embedded remote system for non-destructive observation and study of sensitive archaeological sites. The overall concept and motivation are described. The general hardware layout and software configuration are presented. The paper concentrates on the implementation of the following informational technology components: (a a geographically unique identification scheme supporting a global key space for a key-value store; (b a common method for octree modeling for spatial geometrical models of the archaeological artifacts, and abstract object representation in the global key space; (c a broadcast of the archaeological information as an Extensible Markup Language (XML stream over the Web for worldwide availability; and (d a set of testing methods increasing the fault tolerance of the system. This framework can serve as a foundation for the development of a complete system for remote archaeological exploration of enclosed archaeological sites like buried churches, tombs, and caves. An archaeological site is opened once upon discovery, the embedded computer system is installed inside upon a robotic platform, equipped with sensors, cameras, and actuators, and the intact site is sealed again. Archaeological research is conducted on a multimedia data stream which is sent remotely from the system and conforms to necessary standards for digital archaeology.

  5. Study of the Variations of Archaeological Marks at Neolithic Site of Lucera, Italy Using High-Resolution Multispectral Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images have been systematically explored by archaeologists to detect crop marks, which are considered as a proxy for the identification of buried archaeological remains. Even though several existing algorithms are frequently applied, such as histogram enhancements and vegetation indices, the detection of crop marks still remains a difficult task, while the final interpretation results can be very poor. This paper aims to present some of the current difficulties of “remote sensing archaeology” in terms of detection and interpretation of crop marks due to the crops’ phenological variations. At the same time, the presented work seeks to evaluate the recently proposed linear equations for the enhancement of crop marks, initially developed for the eastern Mediterranean region. These linear equations re-project the initial n-space spectral into a new 3D orthogonal space determined by three components: a crop mark component, a vegetation component, and a soil component. For the aims of this study, the Lucera archaeological site (southern Italy, where several Neolithic trenches have been identified, was selected. QuickBird and GeoEye high-resolution satellite images were analysed, indicating that vegetation indices may mismatch some crop marks depending on the phenological stage of the vegetation cultivated in the area of the archaeological site. On the contrary, ratios from linear equations were able to spot these crop marks even in shadow areas, indicating that improvements and developments of novel methodologies and equations based on remote sensing datasets can further assist archaeological research.

  6. Archaeological Bonanza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s construction boom unearths many important ancient sites China’s top 10 archaeological discoveries in 2008 were released by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) on March 31. The 10 winners, which were chosen from 25 nominees, include a Bronze-Age graveyard in

  7. Archaeological Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    From July to August of 1995 a jointarchaeological team from the InnerMongolian Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute and Japan’sEast Asian Archaeology Research Society unearthed the remains of a primitive human community dating back 6,000 years.This site was discovered at Wangmu Mountain on the southem bank of Daihai Lake in Liangcheng County Inner Mongolia. Within an area of 200 square meters,17 dwelling remains,22 cellars and over 100 pottery,stone and bone articles were unearthed.

  8. Mineralogical and textural characterization of mortars and plasters from the archaeological site of Barsinia, northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammad AL-Naddaf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve mortar and plaster samples excavated in the archaeological site of Barsinia were mineralogically and petrographically examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD and Stereo and Polarized Light Microscopy, while the total carbonate content was measured using a DietrichFruhling Calcimeter. The physical properties of the samples, such as water uptake under atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, together with density and porosity, were measured. Only twelve samples were available for the purposes of this study: 8 plaster samples and 4 mortar samples. Eleven samples out of the total number of samples were mortars or plasters with lime binder and silica aggregate; calcite and quartz were identified in all of these samples. In most of the samples one or more pozzolanic components were detected; a hydraulic effect therefore exists in practically most of the studied mortars. Excluding the plasters taken from waterbearing constructions such as cisterns, and the mortar sample from the compact floor, the binder content is high; in general, the overall porosity of the studied samples is high. Porosity and petrographic investigation results suggest that the burning temperature of the limestone was low and/or the duration of the combustion was short; such preparation conditions produce a desirable quicklime. Owing to the significant compositional and textural differences between the samples that were reported, there is consequently no suitable general mortar that can be adopted for the restoration of the whole site.

  9. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  10. Multivariate Thermo-Hygrometric Characterisation of the Archaeological Site of Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain) for Preventive Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Preventive conservation requires monitoring and control of the parameters involved in the deterioration process, mainly temperature and relative humidity. It is important to characterise an archaeological site prior to carrying out comparative studies in the future for preventive conservation, either by regular studies to verify whether the conditions are constant, or occasional ones when the boundary conditions are altered. There are numerous covered archaeological sites, but few preventive conservation works that give special attention to the type of cover installed. In particular, there is no background of microclimatic studies in sites that are in the ground and, as in the Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain), are buried and partially covered by a transparent roof. A large effect of the transparent cover was found by the sensors located below this area, with substantial increases in temperature and a decrease in the relative humidity during the day. Surrounding zones also have values above the recommended temperature values. On the other hand, the influence of a buried water drainage line near the site is notable, causing an increase in relative humidity levels in the surrounding areas. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled us to characterise the microclimate of the archaeological site, allowing future testing to determine whether the conservation conditions have been altered. PMID:23899937

  11. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  13. A large scale geophysical survey in the archaeological site of Europos (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, G. N.; Giannopoulos, A.; Tsourlos, P.; Vargemezis, G.; Tealby, J. M.; Sarris, A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Savopoulou, T.

    1994-04-01

    The results of a large scale exploration of an archaeological site by geophysical means are presented and discussed. The operation took place in the site where the ruins of the ancient city of Europos are buried. This site is in northern Greece. Resistivity prospecting was employed to detect the remnants of wall foundations in the place where the main urban complex of the ancient city once stood. The data were transformed in an image form depicting, thus, the spatial variation of resistivity in a manner that resembles the plane view of the ruins that could have been drawn if an excavation had taken place. This image revealed the urban plan of the latest times of the life of the city. Trial excavations verified the geophysical result. Magnetic prospecting in the same area complemented the resistivity data. The exact location of the fire hearths, kilns and remnants of collapsed roofs were spotted. Magnetic gradient measurements were taken in an area out of the main complex of the ancient city and revealed the location of several kilns. One of these locations was excavated and a pottery kiln was discovered. The resistivity prospecting in one of the graveyards of the ancient city showed anomalies which were expected and corresponded to monumental tombs. The locations of a few of them were excavated and large burial structures were revealed. Ground probing radar profiles were measured over the tombs which showed pronounced resistivity anomalies, so far unearthed. The relatively high resolving ability of the method assisted the interpretation in the sense that a few attributes were added. In the presented case, it was concluded that a particular tomb consists of two rooms and that it is roofless.

  14. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  15. Paleopathological analysis of changes on animal bones originating from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the estimation of incidence and analysis of paleopathological changes on skeletal remains of the animals from archaeological sites Caricin Grad and Studenica Monastery. Moreover, there has been carried out the assessment of the skeletal elements, as well as taxonomic and age determination. The total of 2595 bones or bone fragments were examined. In 22 specimens there were noticed various abnormal skeletal changes in following animal species: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, donkeys and camels. Pathological changes were noticed on the teeth, mandibles, joints of long bones and phalanxes. By macroscopic analysis of these acquired pathological changes on bones of the animals, there was determined that the observed lesions had had proliferative, hypertrophic and chronic character. Proliferative changes on the bones of the cattle, horses, donkeys and camels point out to the fact that these animals were used for towing and/or load carrying. Identified diseases of oral cavity in small ruminants point out to improper and inadequate nutrition of these animals in the past.

  16. Fluorescence lidar measurements at the archaeological site House of Augustus at Palatino, Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Alisi, Chiara; Barup, Kerstin; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Broggi, Alessandra; Conti, Cinzia; Hällström, Jenny; Lognoli, David; Palombi, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnostics and documentation fulfill an essential role for an effective planning of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage assets. In particular, remote sensing techniques that do not require the use of scaffolds or lifts, such as fluoresence lidar, can provide useful information to obtain an overall assessment of the status of the investigated surfaces and can be exploited to address analytical studies in selected areas. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish project focused on documenting and recording the status of some sections of the part closed to the public by using fluorescence hyperspectral imaging lidar. The lidar used a tripled-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm as excitation source and an intensified, gated 512x512-pixel CCD as detector. The lidar had imaging capabilities thanks to a computer-controlled scanning mirror. The fluorescence characteristics of fresco wall paintings were compared to those of fresco fragments found at the same archaeological site and separately examined in the lab using FT-IR and Raman techniques for the identification of pigments. The fluorescence lidar was also used to remotely detect the growth of phototrophic biodeteriogens on the walls. The fluorescence lidar data were compared with results from biological sampling, cultivation and laboratory analysis by molecular techniques.

  17. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  18. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  19. Archaeological sites along the Gujarat coast: Proxies to decipher the past shoreline

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    and even a few centimetres into the virgin soil bed. Layer by layer archaeological artifacts were recorded and samples collected and finally dated by radiocarbon and TL methods. Subsequently, differences in the level between depth of present high... took place and a large number of archaeological artifacts can be collected during low tide as far as 500 m from the high waterline. The study suggests that Bet Dwarka has a larger exposure towards the northeast side (Figure 7), followed...

  20. Shelters for archaeological sites in Serbia: A research aiming to develop guidelines for future design and construction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Between the years 2003. and 2013. the Republic of Serbia allocated in its own budgets around one billion dinars for designing and construction of shelters on archaeological sites. This paper researches the main factors for decision making on different levels, resulting in certain designs and construction solutions, but in numerous problems also. Based on all so far performed works and their results, the general guidelines applicable to the range of professi...

  1. Detection and Identification of Archaeological Sites and Features Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data Collected from Airborne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-26

    College Park , Maryland Space Imaging Corporation Stacey Otte, Executive Director, Catalina Island Museum, Catalina Island Conservancy Dr. Mark Raab...engineers developed what they dubbed “ Jurassic Proc” software (for the gigantic body of data used and the enormous processing power required to produce...Phase I surveys. Answer: Accuracy in identifying the location of archaeological sites was made possible by the Jurassic Proc software, written by a

  2. Close Range Photogrammetry Applied to the Documentation of AN Archaeological Site in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alby, E.; Elter, R.; Ripoche, C.; Quere, N.; de Strasbourg, INSA

    2013-07-01

    In a geopolitical very complex context as the Gaza Strip it has to be dealt with an enhancement of an archaeological site. This site is the monastery of St. Hilarion. To enable a cultural appropriation of a place with several identified phases of occupation must undertake extensive archaeological excavation. Excavate in this geographical area is to implement emergency excavations, so the aim of such a project can be questioned for each mission. Real estate pressure is also a motivating setting the documentation because the large population density does not allow systematic studies of underground before construction projects. This is also during the construction of a road that the site was discovered. Site dimensions are 150 m by 80 m. It is located on a sand dune, 300 m from the sea. To implement the survey, four different levels of detail have been defined for terrestrial photogrammetry. The first level elements are similar to objects, capitals, fragment of columns, tiles for example. Modeling of small objects requires the acquisition of very dense point clouds (density: 1 point / 1 mm on average). The object must then be a maximum area of the sensor of the camera, while retaining in the field of view a reference pattern for the scaling of the point cloud generated. The pictures are taken at a short distance from the object, using the images at full resolution. The main obstacle to the modeling of objects is the presence of noise partly due to the studied materials (sand, smooth rock), which do not favor the detection of points of interest quality. Pretreatments of the cloud will be achieved meticulously since the ouster of points on a surface of a small object results in the formation of a hole with a lack of information, useful to resulting mesh. Level 2 focuses on the stratigraphic units such as mosaics. The monastery of St. Hilarion identifies thirteen floors of which has been documented years ago by silver photographs, scanned later. Modeling of pavements is

  3. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, community development cultural resource data; per sq. mi., Published in 2004, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  4. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Athens-Clarke County Planning Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010....

  5. Archaeological field survey automation: concurrent multisensor site mapping and automated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowicz, Mateusz; Sokolov, Oleksandr; Meszyński, Sebastian; Siemińska, Dominika; Kołosowski, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    ABM SE develops mobile robots (rovers) used for analog research of Mars exploration missions. The rovers are all-terrain exploration platforms, carrying third-party payloads: scientific instrumentation. "Wisdom" ground penetrating radar for Exomars mission has been tested onboard, as well as electrical resistivity module and other devices. Robot has operated in various environments, such as Central European countryside, Dachstein ice caves or Sahara, Morocco (controlled remotely via satellite from Toruń, Poland. Currently ABM SE works on local and global positioning system for a Mars rover basing on image and IMU data. This is performed under a project from ESA. In the next Mars rover missions a Mars GIS model will be build, including an acquired GPR profile, DEM and regular image data, integrated into a concurrent 3D terrain model. It is proposed to use similar approach in surveys of archaeological sites, especially those, where solid architecture remains can be expected at shallow depths or being partially exposed. It is possible to deploy a rover that will concurrently map a selected site with GPR, 2D and 3D cameras to create a site model. The rover image processing algorithms are capable of automatic tracing of distinctive features (such as exposed structure remains on a desert ground, differences in color of the ground, etc.) and to mark regularities on a created map. It is also possible to correlate the 3D map with an aerial photo taken under any angle to achieve interpretation synergy. Currently the algorithms are an interpretation aid and their results must be confirmed by a human. The advantages of a rover over traditional approaches, such as a manual cart or a drone include: a) long hours of continuous work or work in unfavorable environment, such as high desert, frozen water pools or large areas, b) concurrent multisensory data acquisition, c) working from the ground level enables capturing of sites obstructed from the air (trees), d) it is possible to

  6. Vulnerability assessment of archaeological sites to earthquake hazard: An indicator based method integrating spatial and temporal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Minos-Minopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, numerous sites of cultural heritage value are at risk from a variety of human-induced and natural hazards such as war and earthquakes. Here we present and test a novel indicator-based method for assessing the vulnerability of archaeological sites to earthquakes. Vulnerability is approached as a dynamic element assessed through a combination of spatial and temporal parameters. The spatial parameters examine the susceptibility of the sites to the secondary Earthquake Environmental Effects of ground liquefaction, landslides and tsunami and are expressed through the Spatial Susceptibility Index (SSi. Parameters of physical vulnerability, economic importance and visitors density examine the temporal vulnerability of the sites expressed through the Temporal Vulnerability Index (TVi. The equally weighted sum of the spatial and temporal indexes represents the total Archaeological Site Vulnerability Index (A.S.V.I.. The A.S.V.I method is applied at 16 archaeological sites across Greece, allowing an assessment of their vulnerability. This then allows the establishment of a regional and national priority list for considering future risk mitigation. Results indicate that i the majority of the sites have low to moderate vulnerability to earthquake hazard, ii Neratzia Fortress on Kos and Heraion on Samos are characterised as highly vulnerable and should be prioritised for further studies and mitigation measures, and iii the majority of the sites are susceptible to at least one Earthquake Environmental Effect and present relatively high physical vulnerability attributed to the existing limited conservation works. This approach highlights the necessity for an effective vulnerability assessment methodology within the existing framework of disaster risk management for cultural heritage.

  7. The use of the archaeological record in the research of the celtiberian culture: the archaeological site of El Ceremeño (Guadalajara, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on Celtiberian Culture have increased over the past few years. This was due to the new approaches as well as to the finding of new sites which are yielding very important archaeological information, that was lacking till recently. Among these new sites El Ceremeño, and its associated cemetery, have become one of the most significant references to this culture. In the present work, the need to analyze in depth the radiocarbon dates obtained at both sites taking into account the general context of the Celtiberian Culture in the Meseta is stressed in order to avoid biases in their interpretation.

    Los estudios sobre la cultura celtibérica han avanzado notablemente en los últimos años debido tanto a nuevos planteamientos, como al hallazgo de nuevos enclaves que están proporcionando importante información arqueológica, hasta hace poco tiempo deficitaria. Entre ellos, el castro de El Ceremeño y su necrópolis asociada se han convertido en una de las referencias más significativas de esta cultura. En el presente trabajo se subraya la necesidad de analizar en profundidad, dentro del marco más general de la cultura celtibérica meseteña, los datos y fechas radiocarbónicas allí obtenidas para evitar desenfoques y sesgos en su interpretación.

  8. Using Stochastically Downscaled Climate Models and Multiproxy Lake Sediment Data to Connect Climatic Variations Over the Past 1000 Years and the History of Prehistoric Maize Farming in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. J.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating the relationship between climatic variations over the past 1000 years and the history of prehistoric maize farming expansion and decline in the American Southwest, with a focus on Utah. We are examining both the downscaled climate models and high resolution analyses of lake cores and dendrochronological data matched with occupation information. We are testing the specific utility of stochastically downscaled general circulation models (viz. ECHO-G) to reconstruct local conditions for sites with documented prehistoric dryland farming through the so-called Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA). We are testing our model-based reconstructions with proxies of temperature and aridity from three subalpine lake sediment cores transecting Utah. We compare the patterns of climate change from the downscaled models and the paleoclimate records to a database of 837 radiocarbon dates over 169 locations of archaeological Native American maize-farmer site occupations in Utah.

  9. ‘We Would Never Have Thought to Go There’ – The Changing Definitions of a Site in Central Italian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Rajala

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A ‘site’ is one of the key concepts in archaeology, and is not specific to central Italian archaeology. Archaeologists have tried to define what constitutes a site and how it can be measured. One definition of a site is ‘as places where significant traces of human activity are identified’ (Renfrew andamp; Bahn 1994: 42. Essentially, a ‘site’ has to be distinguished from a ‘non-site’ and the boundary between the two has to be drawn (Carman 1999. These definitions made in the field are archaeological decisions, not observations (Dunnell and Dancey 1983. Our practice is a pragmatic act of constructing boundaries on the basis of the density of finds and/or features. The definition of a specific site is subject to evaluation of the archaeological criteria used to define it. However, it is clear that the concepts behind those criteria have changed over time. In central Italian archaeology, the scholars have moved from the topographical archaeology of the 19th century to the GIS-assisted landscape studies of the 21st century and their definitions have evolved similarly. Central Italy is relevant as an example since Italian studies have contributed fundamentally to the developments in field archaeology.

  10. An archaeological site survey and inventory for the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1972: A report submitted to the Wilderness Studies Branch, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a 1972 voyage in the Aleutian archipelago to locate prehistoric and historic archeological sites. The report centers on the problems...

  11. Gerzeh, a prehistoric Egyptian meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.; Grady, Monica; Tyldesley, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the earliest examples of iron used by man was discovered in a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery. The site of Gerzeh, 40 miles south of Cairo, was excavated in 1911-1912, over 300 graves dat-ing from around 3300 BCE were discovered [1]. A few of the graves contained rare and precious materials such as gold and lapis lazuli. Two graves, Tombs 67 and 133, were also found to contain iron beads; at the time of excavation these examples of Egyptian pre-dynastic culture were considered to be the ...

  12. The Study of Prehistoric Artefacts in National Context: Belgian Archaeologists and the Problem of Ancient Stone Implements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Goodrum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the early nineteenth century European archaeologists were formulating new ideas about the significance of ancient stone artefacts. Some, such as Christian Thomsen in Copenhagen, believed that in Scandinavia, a Stone Age had preceded the Bronze and Iron Ages. In France some excavations had retrieved stone artefacts from deep levels of peat and cave deposits that suggested that these objects were of very great antiquity. While the collection and study of stone artefacts occurred across much of Europe, there were regional variations in their interpretation. Assisted by local institutions and motivated by patriotism, Belgian archaeologists who participated in this research, had much in common with their colleagues elsewhere in Europe, but the nature of local archaeological sites and the ideas of local researchers had an impact on the development and contributions of Belgian prehistoric archaeology.

  13. Archaeological fieldwork in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina (Monachil, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New archaeological fieldwork has been carried out from November 2003 to May 2004 in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina, due to the interest of the regional government of Andalusia in displaying the settlement for visitors. The aim of this fieldwork has been the systematic excavation of a large settlement area partially known thanks to the excavations developed at the beginning of 1980s. A first toccupation period belonging to the Argaric Culture has been documented, highlighting specially the funerary ritual characterized by individual inhumations located below dwellings. After a gap in the occupation of the settlement a new social group belonging to the Late Bronze Age Culture of Southeast of Spain inhabits the Cerro de la Encina.

    El interés de la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía por la musealización del yacimiento del Cerro de la Encina ha motivado el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones arqueológicas cuya primera fase se ha desarrollado entre Noviembre de 2003 y Mayo de 2004. Los trabajos han consistido en la excavación sistemática de un área de poblado de grandes dimensiones parcialmente conocida por las investigaciones realizadas a principios de los años 80. Los resultados han sido del máximo interés documentándose un primer momento de ocupación perteneciente a la Cultura de El Argar en el que destaca su espectacular registro funerario integrado dentro de las áreas de habitación. Tras un periodo de abandono del yacimiento se produce una nueva ocupación correspondiente a una comunidad del Bronce Final del Sureste.

  14. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  15. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  16. Reconstruction of measurable three-dimensional point cloud model based on large-scene archaeological excavation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Wei-Xing

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a low-cost, user-friendly photogrammetric technique with nonmetric cameras to obtain excavation site digital sequence images, based on photogrammetry and computer vision. Digital camera calibration, automatic aerial triangulation, image feature extraction, image sequence matching, and dense digital differential rectification are used, combined with a certain number of global control points of the excavation site, to reconstruct the high precision of measured three-dimensional (3-D) models. Using the acrobatic figurines in the Qin Shi Huang mausoleum excavation as an example, our method solves the problems of little base-to-height ratio, high inclination, unstable altitudes, and significant ground elevation changes affecting image matching. Compared to 3-D laser scanning, the 3-D color point cloud obtained by this method can maintain the same visual result and has advantages of low project cost, simple data processing, and high accuracy. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is often used to reconstruct 3-D models of large scenes and has lower accuracy if it is a reconstructed 3-D model of a small scene at close range. Results indicate that this method quickly achieves 3-D reconstruction of large archaeological sites and produces heritage site distribution of orthophotos providing a scientific basis for accurate location of cultural relics, archaeological excavations, investigation, and site protection planning. This proposed method has a comprehensive application value.

  17. Review of: T. Douglas Price: Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2015. 494 pp. ISBN 978-0-1902-3197-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Scandinavia is world-famous for its prehistoric archaeology, with exceptional finds of Mesolithic kitchen middens and submarine sites, Bronze Age oak-log coffins and rock carvings, Iron Age bog bodies and well-preserved settlement sites, Viking Age ships and burials, and thousands of field system...... Ice Age (13,000 BCE) to the end of the Viking period (1050 AD). It presents the latest of a number of national syntheses, filling an important gap by communicating these findings English...

  18. 'A Sea of Small Boats': places and practices on the prehistoric seascape of western Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Robinson

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years landscape archaeology in Britain has developed in many directions, providing increasingly sophisticated understandings of prehistoric people's sense of place. In contrast to the growing body of work considering landscape, little attention has been given to the sea. Some archaeologists have noted the significance of the sea to the settings of monuments, where the sea is interpreted as a symbolic or metaphorical backdrop to life, and death, on the land. But prehistoric coas...

  19. Integrating geomatics in archaeological research at the site of Thorikos (Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, C.; Docter, R.; van den Eijnde, F.

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological excavation is a destructive process, making accurate, fast and efficient 3D documentation of information essential. With this in mind, our research uses an integrated workflow of topographic measurements and image-based 3D modelling to generate highly accurate reconstructions of archa

  20. Archaeological Investigation in the Perry Lake Project Area, Northeastern Kansas National Register Evaluation of 17 Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    University of Kansas ( lithic analysis ), Ms. Michelle Dunlap, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kansas (ceramic analysis; historic assemblages). I...address relevant research goals of the Perry Lake Project. In the past, lithic analysis primarily consisted of classification schemes. From these...the methods of lithic analysis employed here will follow procedures established for the recent Clinton Lake Archaeological Project by Ritterbush

  1. Provenance analysis of Roman stone artefacts from sedimentary rocks from the archaeological site near Mošnje, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Miletić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia with the aim of defiing their provenance. A total of 28 representative fids (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and two architectural elements - one with a relief made of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks were examined. Comparison was made with rock samples taken from quarries and gravel bars close to the archaeological site, as well as from larger distance to the site. The majority of artefact sampled is composed of Upper Palaeozoic quartz sandstones, which are found as pebbles in gravel bars close to the archaeological site; while 2 samples were from Quaternary coarse grained clastic rocks which can be found in local glacio-flvial sediments. Other fids were made of four different Mesozoic shallow-water limestones which outcrop in different areas of Central and SW Slovenia. The nearest Lower Jurassic biopelmicritic limestones are found at the western periphery of Ljubljana in Podutik. Cretaceous miliolid limestones and biocalcarenitic limestones with rudists are common in the successions of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in SW Slovenia (for example, on the Trieste-Komen Plateau, NE Italy and SW Croatia. This indicates that the limestones for architectural elements, stone mortars and tesserae were brought to Mošnje from distant locations. Smaller stone tools are likely to have been made at the location of the archaeological site from material gathered locally, mostly pebbles from clastic rocks, which were accessible and suitable for tooling.

  2. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  3. Preliminary results of the ground penetrating radar (GPR prospection in the area of the prehistoric flint mine Borownia, southeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieszkowski Radosław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of GPR field prospection carried out in the area of the prehistoric mining field Borownia (Ćmielów, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski District are presented. This mining field forms a belt (30-50 m wide and 700 m long, starting from the valley edge of the Kamienna River southeastwards. Southeastern and western parts of the site have preserved the original post-exploitation relief. Geology of the Borownia mining field was examined and acquired radiograms revealed three distinct zones of anomaly concentrations. The central zone (B is clearly a fragment of the prehistoric mining field, confirmed not only by the GPR sounding but also by archeological surveys. The other two zones have not yet been investigated in detail yet but their surface and archaeological examination may determine only whether their underground structures are natural or have been created by humans. Data obtained during the GPR prospection at the Borownia archaeological site confirmed usefulness of 100, 250 and 500 MHz antennas. The relatively large depth range and good resolution are due to favorable geological conditions.

  4. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  5. ANTHROPOGENIC POLLEN INDICATORS (API FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AS LOCAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mercuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  6. Propuesta metodológica de selección de sitios arqueológicos para elaborar un producto turístico Methodological proposal for the selection of archaeological sites to be used in the development of a product for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martín Dabezies

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un trabajo de selección de sitios arqueológicos prehistóricos (Departamento de Rocha, Uruguay, destinados a formar parte de un producto turístico en el sector privado. Para esto se trabajó con una metodología novedosa para la zona (cadena valorativa orientada a objetivar y articular distintos valores que tiene el patrimonio arqueológico de acuerdo con los agentes que intervienen en su valoración. Además de presentar los efectos de la aplicación de la metodología, lo que se discute, fundamentalmente, es dicha aplicación en sí. A partir de la selección de estos sitios prehistóricos, fue posible elaborar una serie de itinerarios de turismo cultural que introdujeron nuevas variables en la discusión metodológica.This article presents the selection of a series of prehistoric archaeological sites from the Rocha area in Uruguay intended to be part of a private sector product for tourism. The work was based on a novel methodology for the area (string value, which aimed to objectify and articulate the different values of archaeological heritage according to the agents involved in the assessment. In addition to presenting the effect of applying the methodology, what is discussed, fundamentally, is the application itself. Based on the selection of these prehistoric sites it was possible to develop a series of cultural tourism itineraries that introduced new variables into the methodological discussion.

  7. Late Holocene stratigraphy of the Tetimpa archaeological sites, northeast flank of Popocatepetl volcano, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, M.S.; Gardner, T.W.; Hirth, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Late Holocene (240 km2 on the east side of the volcano with >25 cm of tephra. Lavas from eruptive sequence I dammed drainage in the lowland area near the town of San Nicolas and caused local upstream deposition of as much as 30 m of lacustrine silts, clays, and sands. These lacustrine deposits record an eruptive hiatus for the Tetimpa area of about 750 14C yr: between ca. 2100 and ca. 1350 yr B.P., no major tephras were deposited in the Tetimpa area. In upland areas, this time period is represented by an unconformity and by Entisols formed in the top of pumice deposits and lavas from eruptive sequence I. Artifacts, agricultural furrows, and dwellings record human reoccupation of this surface. At the end of this hiatus, several lahars were deposited above the lacustrine sequence and locally above the Entisol in upland positions adjacent to streams. Between ca. 1350 and ca. 1200 yr B.P., tephras from eruptive sequence II buried these paleosols, occupation sites, lacustrine sediments, and lahars. Andesitic (~62% SiO2) pumice lapilli deposits in the Tetimpa area record three pumice-fall eruptions directed northeast and east of the crater. The first and smallest of these (maximum Tetimpa area thickness = 12 cm; >52 km2 covered by >25 cm) took place at ca. 1350 yr B.P. and was accompanied by pyroclastic surge events preserved in the Tetimpa area by charcoal, sand waves, and cross-stratified sand-sized tephra. At ca. 1200 yr B.P., the products of two Plinian-style events and additional pyroclastic surges reached the Tetimpa area. The largest of these tephra-fall events covered the Tetimpa area with 0.5-1 m of tephra and blanketed an area of >230 km2 with a thickness of >25 cm. The Tetimpa record confirms two of the four periods of explosive volcanism recognized by studies conducted around Popocatepetl in the past 30 yr. Eruptive sequence I corresponds to the explosive period between 2100 and 2500 yr B.P., and eruptive sequence II corresponds to the period between 900 and

  8. Diagnostic analysis of stone materials from underwater excavations: the case study of the Roman archaeological site of Baia (Naples, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloise, P.; Ricca, M.; La Russa, M.F.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Crisci, G.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Belfiore, C.M. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali - Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Catania (Italy); Padeletti, G. [CNR-ICMAT, Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This work belongs to the framework of the national research project ''COMAS'' (Planned COnservation, ''in situ'', of underwater archaeological artifacts), funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), concerning the submarine archaeological area of Baia (Naples, Italy). The site includes remains of the ancient cities of Baiae and Portus Iulius, which, since the 4th century AD, started to be submerged because of the bradyseism phenomenon. The work aims to the characterization of four different types of stone materials collected from the site, specifically marbles, limestones, ignimbrites, and bricks, in order to investigate their state of conservation. In particular, specimens were sampled from some masonry structures and pavement slabs (opus sectile) in a specific area of the submerged site, called ''Villa a Protiro''. In order to characterize archaeological samples from a mineralogical-petrographic point of view, polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, while to assess their conservation state, the surface colonization by biodeteriogen agents and their interaction with the substrate were studied through observations under a stereomicroscope, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Marble and limestone samples revealed an intense bioerosion phenomena, attributable to epilithic and endolithic forms, particularly boring sponges. On the contrary, ignimbrites suffer a lower degree of biological colonization related to the activity of other species, such as serpulids and bryozoans. In bricks, biocolonisation is correlated to the type of temper used in the artifact, the quartz pastes having a greater susceptibility to biological attack than the volcanic ones. (orig.)

  9. Geologic setting of the Abdur Archaeological Site on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffler, Richard T.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Ghebretensae, Berhane N.; Walter, Robert C.; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Berhe, Seife M.; McIntosh, William; Park, Lisa E.

    2010-07-01

    The Abdur Archaeological Site was defined initially by the discovery and dating (125 +/- ka by Ur/Th) of in situ stone tools within uplifted marine terrace deposits located along the southern Red Sea coast of Eritrea, near the small village of Abdur. These tools represent some of the earliest well-dated evidence for human occupation of coastal marine environments. The site is located on the Buri Peninsula along the eastern shoreline of the Gulf of Zula and covers an area of approximately 7 km by 1 km. Three main stratigraphic units are defined and discussed from oldest to youngest: The Buri Formation is defined herein as a sequence of brackish-freshwater (estuarine) and fluvial-deltaic sediments consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and limestones with ash and pumice beds. Ar-Ar dating of pumice and tephras puts the time of deposition of this unit from about 0.91 to 0.72 Ma (Early-Middle Pleistocene). Several stone tools were discovered in the Buri Formation, indicating early human occupation of a coastal environment during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. The Abdur Volcanic Complex (AVC) is a small basaltic shield complex that forms the highlands along the eastern part of the Abdur Site and extends to the north and south of the area. Basalts from this center were dated from 2.12 to 0.17 Ma, indicating that the volcanic complex has been tectonically and magmatically active prior to, during and after deposition of the Buri Formation. The Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) is the remnant of a shallow marine reef system deposited approximately 125 ka (last glacial highstand, isotope stage 5e) along the margins of the Abdur volcanic highlands. The ARL consists of a basal transgressive lag deposit overlain by extensive buildups of mollusks, echinoderms, bioclastic sands and corals up to 11 m thick. Numerous stone tools in the ARL fall into two tool kits, bifacial hand axes of the Acheulian industry and Middle Stone Age-type (MSA) obsidian flakes and

  10. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  11. Archaeoseismology in Algeria: observed damages related to probable past earthquakes on archaeological remains on Roman sites (Tel Atlas of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumane, Kahina; Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2017-04-01

    The seismological catalogue for Algeria exhibits significant lack for the period before 1365. Some attempts led to retrieve ancient earthquakes evidenced by historical documents and achieves. Archaeoseismology allows a study of earthquakes that have affected archaeological sites, based on the analysis of damage observed on remains. We have focused on the Antiquity period that include Roman, Vandal and Byzantine period from B.C 146 to A.D. 533. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of seismic hazard of the Tell Atlas region known as an earthquake prone area. The Tell Atlas (Algeria) experienced during its history many disastrous earthquakes their impacts are graved on landscape and archaeological monuments. On Roman sites such, Lambaesis (Lambèse), Thamugadi (Timgad) Thibilis (Salaoua Announa) or Thevest (Tebessa), damage were observed on monuments and remains related to seismic events following strong shacking or other ground deformation (subsidence, landslide). Examples of observed damage and disorders on several Roman sites are presented as a contribution to Archaeoseismology in Algeria based on effects of earthquakes on ancient structures and monuments. Keywords : Archaeoseismology. Lambaesis. Drop columns. Aspecelium. Ancient earthquakes

  12. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  13. Up Close and Personal: Feeling the Past at Urban Archaeological Sites

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    Tracy Ireland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on the emotional, sensory and aesthetic affordances of urban archaeological remains conserved in situ and explore what these ruins ‘do’ in the context of the layered urban fabric of the city. I am concerned with a particular category of archaeological remains: those that illustrate the colonial history of settler nations, exploring examples in Sydney and Montreal. Using Sara Ahmed’s concept of ‘affective economies’ – where emotions work to stick things together and align individuals with communities – I tease out some of the distinctive aspects of this particular form of social/emotional/material entanglement, that appears to create stable objects of memory and identity from a much more contingent and complex matrix of politics, social structures, and the more-than-human materiality of the city. I argue that an understanding of the affective qualities of ruins and archaeological traces, and of how people feel heritage and the past through aesthetic and sensuous experiences of materiality, authenticity, locality and identity, bring us closer to understanding how heritage works.

  14. Inhibition of microorganisms involved in deterioration of an archaeological site by silver nanoparticles produced by a green synthesis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Martínez-Gómez, Miriam Araceli; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Mendoza Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-15

    The Citadel, part of the pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan and listed as a World Heritage Site, harbors irreplaceable archaeological walls and murals. This city was abandoned by the 7th century and its potential deterioration represents a noteworthy loss of the world's cultural heritage. This research consisted of isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi contributing to this deterioration from walls of a pre-Hispanic city. In addition, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) produced, using a green synthesis method, were tested as potential inhibitors of microbes. AgNP of different sizes and concentrations were tested using in situ assays. Leaf aqueous extracts from two plants species (Foeniculum vulgare and Tecoma stans) and two extraction procedures were used in the NP synthesis. The potential of AgNP as preventive/corrective treatments to protect stucco materials from biodeterioration, as well as the microbial inhibition on three stone materials (stucco, basalt and calcite) was analyzed. Twenty-three bacterial species belonging to eight genera and fourteen fungal species belonging to seven genera were isolated from colored stains, patinas and biofilms produced on the surfaces of archaeological walls from the pre-Hispanic city, Teotihuacan. AgNP from F. vulgare were more effective for in vitro microbial growth inhibition than those from T. stans. Bacteria were less sensitive to AgNP than fungi; however, sensitivity mainly depended on the microbial strain and the plant extract used to prepare AgNP. The use of AgNP as a preventive or corrective treatment to decrease microbial colonization in three kinds of stone used in historical walls was successful. Calcite was more colonized by Alternaria alternata, but less by Pectobacterium carotovorum. This is the first study at different scales (in vitro and tests on different stone types) of inhibition of biodeterioration-causing microorganisms isolated from an archaeological site by green synthesized AgNP. Copyright © 2016

  15. Dating by thermoluminescence 127 pottery fragments collected from 4 archaeological sites in Taquari valley, Rio grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F.; Gennari, R.F.; Goncalves, D.C., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Machado, Neli T.G. [Centro Universitario UNIVATES, Lajeado, RS (Brazil). Natural Sciences Museum

    2011-07-01

    127 fragments of pottery from excavation of four archaeological sites in Taquari Valley, close to Lajeado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil have been dated by thermoluminescence. After usual crushing, sieving, immersing in HCl solution and then in HF solution, accumulated dose, Dac, (or equivalent or paleodose) has been measured using additive method. The annual dose rate of natural radiation was estimated from uranium, thorium and potassium content in both soil from where these fragments have been collected and in fragments itselves. Cosmic ray contribution was added. The interesting finding is that the glow curves of quartz grains from sites enumerated 101, 110 and 114 indicated rare variety of quartz known as reddish quarts, whereas the glow curves of quartz grains, from the site numbered 107 are equal to these of usual quartz (hyaline). Results of dating and the properties of reddish quartz will be discussed. (author)

  16. ANÁLISE ARQUEOMÉTRICA DE PINTURAS RUPESTRES PRÉ-HISTÓRICAS DO SÍTIO TAMBORIL, BARRAS, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Archaeometric Analysis of Prehistoric Rock Paintings from the Tamboril Site, Barras, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico Tamboril, localizado na área rural do município de Barras, estado do Piauí, Brasil, é um bloco arenítico que apresenta um nicho decorado com pinturas rupestres, principalmente grafismos puros, motivos zoomórficos e carimbos de mãos humanas, pintados em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho. A conservação das pinturas é afetada por eflorescências salinas, resíduos decorrentes da atividade de insetos (como cupins e vespas e impacto humano (visitação sem acompanhamento de guias e atividade agrícola nas proximidades. A análise arqueométrica de pigmentos dessas pinturas rupestres foi realizada no laboratório com fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia e espectroscopia Mössbauer do 57Fe em geometria de retroespalhamento de raios γ à temperatura ambiente. Os teores de Fe (como Fe2O3 encontrados nas pinturas variam de 2,953(1 massa% a 17,23(1 massa%. Os parâmetros hiperfinos Mössbauer revelaram que o pigmento vermelho-escuro das pinturas rupestres é composto de hematita (αFe2O3 e de um Fe3+ (superparamagnético. Os teores de P (como P2O5 variam de 21,70(1 massa% a 25,92(1 massa% e foram atribuídos às eflorescências salinas e aos resíduos orgânicos de atividades de insetos que cobrem as inscrições pré-históricas. ENGLISH: The archaeological site known as Tamboril, located in the rural area of the municipality of Barras, Piauí State, Brazil, is a sandstone block that contains a niche decorated with rock paintings. These paintings are mainly composed of pure graphisms, zoomorphic motifs, and human handprints, painted in different tonalities of red. Their conservation has been affected by saline efflorescences, residues of insect activities (such as wasps and termites and human impact (unguided visitors and nearby agricultural activity. The archaeometric analysis of pigments from these rock paintings was performed in the laboratory with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and room

  17. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  18. Discoveries from La Manche: Five Years of Early Prehistoric Research in the Channel Island of Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Pope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a new field project drawn from major UK institutions including the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has focused research on the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic record of the Channel Island of Jersey. In this retrospective of five years of research the history of the project to date, its focus on the Middle Palaeolithic site of La Cotte de St Brelade and its growth into an international research team is charted. The formation of the La Manche Prehistorique research network in 2015 marks a new chapter in the development of this project. With its wider focus, but continued commitment to research in the Channel Islands, the research group are working towards a unified early prehistoric research framework for the English Channel region.

  19. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  20. Marine Antifouling for Underwater Archaeological Sites: TiO2 and Ag-Doped TiO2

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    Silvestro A. Ruffolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine fouling plays a crucial role in the degradation of underwater archaeological sites. Limitation of fouling activity and its damages are one of the most critical issues for archaeologists and conservators. The common cleaning procedure, consisting in the manual removal of fouling, requires a continuous maintenance, while a proper inhibition of biological colonisation would provide a long-time protection against biofouling. On the other hand, the most used antifouling paints, especially for ship hulls, show considerable toxicity level. Since submerged archaeological sites are often included in environmental protected areas, more eco-friendly products must be used. We have explored the possibility to use titanium dioxide and Ag-doped titanium dioxide as antifouling agents. For this purpose, they have been synthetized by sol-gel method, and then XRD, XPS, and reflectance spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to gain structural information. The powders have been dispersed in a polymer and then applied to marble surface to evaluate the chromatic alteration induced by the treatments. By means of biological tests, it was possible to assess their behaviour as biofouling agents. Results show a decreasing of biofouling activity on treated stony surfaces.

  1. Integrated Geophysical and Aerial Sensing Methods for Archaeology: A Case History in the Punic Site of Villamar (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Piga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a recent integrated survey carried out on an archaeological urban site, generally free of buildings, except some temporary structures related to excavated areas where multi-chamber tombs were found. The two methods used to investigate this site were thermal infrared and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The thermography was carried out with the sensor mounted under a helium balloon simultaneously with a photographic camera. In order to have a synthetic view of the surface thermal behavior, a simplified version of the existing night thermal gradient algorithm was applied. By this approach, we have a wide extension of thermal maps due to the balloon oscillation, because we are able to compute the maps despite collecting few acquisition samples. By the integration of GPR and the thermal imaging, we can evaluate the depth of the thermal influence of possible archaeological targets, such as buried Punic tombs or walls belonging to the succeeding medieval buildings, which have been subsequently destroyed. The thermal anomalies present correspondences to the radar time slices obtained from 30 to 50 cm. Furthermore, by superimposing historical aerial pictures on the GPR and thermal imaging data, we can identify these anomalies as the foundations of the destroyed buildings.

  2. Potential landslide activity affecting the archaeological site of Orongo (Easter Island-Chile): preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, C.; Delmonaco, G.; Spizzichino, D.; Pandolfi, O.; Crisostomo, R.; Nohe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Easter Island forms part of the Easter Line, a continuous latitudinal chain of volcanic seamounts and islands in the Pacific Sea. The island's roughly triangular shape is determined by the merging of lava flows produced by its three main volcanoes (Rano Kau, Terevaka, Poike) which form its main mass. The Rano Kau volcano, sited in the SW vertex of the island, is made up of numerous basaltic lava flows and has been reduced in size by faulting and marine erosion. Its crater (1.4 km wide) is a small caldera that collapsed after a late, large explosive phase, as attested by the presence of breccia deposits around the eastern rim of the crater. The archaeological stone village of Orongo is located above the inner wall of the crater at an altitude of ca. 300m a.s.l. Prominent historical remains are the numerous petroglyphs that represent the ancient ceremonial of the birdman cult (tangata manu). Rano Kau is mainly composed of sequences of basaltic and intermediate lavas and pyroclastics. Most of the of the original caldera area, especially in the southern flank, has been disrupted by marine erosion. This has caused a dramatic change of the original morphology, resulting in a sub-vertical cliff and steep slopes, especially in the middle-low portions. In the upper part of the slopes weathered soils and regolith are outcropping. Topographical and geomorphological analysis of the area conducted by a direct field surveys in January and July 2008 have provided clear evidences of slope instability along the southern external flank of the caldera. Different landslide areas have been detected. The most active area is located at east of the village in correspondence of the crest zone of Rano Kau where a debris slide/fall has recently occurred. The analysis of photos taken in Nov. 2007 in the same area evidences that the landslide crown area was originated at an elevation of ca. 200m a.s.l. along a probable contact between basaltic layers on the top and weathered lava. Other minor

  3. 湖南考古的世纪回眸%A Review of Hunan Archaeology at the Turn of the Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何介钧

    2001-01-01

    Hunan is a province with abundant cultural relics and splendid ancient culture in South China. Since the founding of New China, archaeological work has vigorously grown across this region and has continuously obtained new fruits through its three major developmental stages. Spectacular achievements have been acquired in the understanding of Palaeolithic cultural groups, the study of cultural remains at the transitional stage between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Age, the establishment of the pedigree of Neolithic archaeological cultures and research on early Neolithic cultures, the investigation of the origin of rice agriculture and prehistoric city-sites, the revelation of remains of archaeological cultures in Shang and Zhou times and the grouping of bronzes, the discovery and study of numerous tombs from the Chu and Han periods, and the archaeology of kiln-sites and the study of ceramics. At present, archaeological work in Hunan has reached the new stage when excavations and synthetic studies are carried out mainly around important archaeological problems. With the application of new techniques and the deepening of researches, it will certainly achieve more glorious success in the new century.

  4. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

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    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  5. Phase III Archaeological Test Excavations Hagerman National Fish Hatchery Site 10GG176 Gooding County, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    n.d. Nahas Cave : an archaic hunting camp in the Owyhee uplands, Idaho. Ms. in preparation. 1976 An archaeological inventory of the Camas Creek...the High Plains, the Great Basin, and the Southwest. Some of the earliest firmly dated evidence of man in the New World derives from Wilson Butte Cave ...34Stratum C") which dates to 12,550 + 500 B.C. (But- ler 1978:11-12). Wilson Butte Cave is located 56 km east of IOGG176. Butler (1978) provides a

  6. GIS-based landform classification of Bronze Age archaeological sites on Crete Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V; Teeuw, Richard M; Sarris, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Various physical attributes of the Earth's surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes. This work examines the influence of landform classification on the settlement locations of Bronze Age (Minoan) Crete, focusing on the districts of Phaistos, Kavousi and Vrokastro. The landform classification was based on the topographic position index (TPI) and deviation from mean elevation (DEV) analysis to highlight slope steepness of various landform classes, characterizing the surrounding landscape environment of the settlements locations. The outcomes indicate no interrelationship between the settlement locations and topography during the Early Minoan period, but a significant interrelationship exists during the later Minoan periods with the presence of more organised societies. The landform classification can provide insights into factors favouring human habitation and can contribute to archaeological predictive modelling.

  7. GIS-based landform classification of Bronze Age archaeological sites on Crete Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Teeuw, Richard M.; Sarris, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Various physical attributes of the Earth’s surface are factors that influence local topography and indirectly influence human behaviour in terms of habitation locations. The determination of geomorphological setting plays an important role in archaeological landscape research. Several landform types can be distinguished by characteristic geomorphic attributes that portray the landscape surrounding a settlement and influence its ability to sustain a population. Geomorphometric landform information, derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), such as the ASTER Global DEM, can provide useful insights into the processes shaping landscapes. This work examines the influence of landform classification on the settlement locations of Bronze Age (Minoan) Crete, focusing on the districts of Phaistos, Kavousi and Vrokastro. The landform classification was based on the topographic position index (TPI) and deviation from mean elevation (DEV) analysis to highlight slope steepness of various landform classes, characterizing the surrounding landscape environment of the settlements locations. The outcomes indicate no interrelationship between the settlement locations and topography during the Early Minoan period, but a significant interrelationship exists during the later Minoan periods with the presence of more organised societies. The landform classification can provide insights into factors favouring human habitation and can contribute to archaeological predictive modelling. PMID:28222134

  8. Examining the diagenetic alteration of human bone material from a range of archaeological burial sites using nuclear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. A.; Grime, G. W.

    1993-05-01

    The inorganic analysis of archaeological bone material can potentially provide a wealth of information about the chronology, diet and palaeoenvironment of past populations: for example, strontium and uranium levels are used in palaeodietary and dating studies, respectively. However, the extent to which the chemical composition of bone is subject to diagenetic change during burial is open to controversy due, in part, to differences in analytical technique, bone types and burial conditions. To investigate this problem, archaeological human bone material from a number of different geological environments including Pompeii and a 12th century British ecclesiastical site, together with material from two seawater burials (The "Mary Rose" and a 6th century Mediterranean wreck) have been studied using the nuclear microprobe facility at the University of Oxford. Results using microbeam PIXE show that bone is subject to contamination from a wide range of trace elements depending on the burial conditions. Elemental maps are presented to demonstrate the distribution of trace element accumulation under different burial conditions, and the significance of this work to future trace element studies is discussed.

  9. Archaeology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  10. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    at Archaeological Objects", 65-92. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2004a. Initial visualization of magnetic survey results at the Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the 5th Intern. Symp. on Eastern Mediterranean Geology. Thessaloniki, Greece, Vol. 2, 747-750. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Khesin, B.E., 2005. Magnetic survey at the Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the 67th EAGE Conf., P331, Madrid, Spain, 4 pp. Eppelbaum, L., Itkis, S., and Khesin, B., 2006a. Detailed magnetic survey unmasks Prehistoric archaeological sites in Israel. Proceed. of the Symp. on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Calgary, Canada, 1366-1373. Eppelbaum, L.V., Itkis, S.E., and Petrov, A.V., 2000b. Physics and archaeology: magnetic field as a reliable tool for searching ancient remains in Israel. Scientific Israel, No. 2, 68-78. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Khesin, B.E., 2001. Disturbing factors in geophysical investigations at archaeological sites and ways of their elimination. Trans. of the IV Conf. on Archaeological Prospection, Vienna, Austria, 99-101. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2001b. Prompt magnetic investigations of archaeological remains in areas of infrastructure development: Israeli experience. Archaeological Prospection, 8 (3), 163-185. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2006b. Some peculiarities of geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel. Russian Archaeology, No. 1, 59-70. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2006c. Modern geophysical methodologies as reliable tool for reducing risk of archaeological heritage destruction. Trans. of the Intern. Conf. on Mathematical Geophysics, Sea of Galilee, Israel, p. 35. Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., and Itkis, S.E., 2009b. Archaeological geophysics in arid environments: Examples from Israel. Journal of Arid Environments (in Press). Eppelbaum, L.V., Khesin, B.E., Itkis S.E., and Ben

  11. Fusion between Satellite and Geophysical images in the study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Tsokas, G. N.; Petrou, M.; Maggidis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work various image fusion techniques are used between one satellite (Quickbird) and one geophysical (electric resistivity) image to create various combinations with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant images provide more information about possible buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is located in mainland Greece near the city of Boetia at the acropolis of Gla. The acropolis was built on a flat-topped bedrock outcrop at the north-eastern edge of the Kopais basin. When Kopais was filled with water, Glas was emerging as an island. At the end of 14th century the two palaces of Thebes and Orchomenos jointly utilized a large scale engineering project in order to transform the Kopais basin into a fertile plain. They used the acropolis to monitor the project, and as a warehouse to storage the harvest. To examine the Acropolis for potential archaeological remnants we use one Quickbird satellite image that covers the surrounding area of Gla. The satellite image includes one panchromatic (8532x8528 pixels) and one multispectral (2133x2132 pixels) image, collected on 30th of August 2011, covering an area of 20 square kilometers. On the other hand, geophysical measurements were performed using the electric resistivity method to the south west part of the Acropolis. To combine these images we investigate mean-value fusion, wavelets fusion, and curvelet fusion. In the cases of wavelet and curvelet fusion we apply as the fusion criterion the maximum frequency rule. Furthermore, the two original images, and excavations near the area suggest that the dominant orientations of the buried features are north-south and east-west. Therefore, in curvelet fusion method, in curvelet domain we enhance the image details along these specific orientations, additionally to the fusion. The resultant fused images succeed to map linear and rectangular features that were not easily visible in the original images

  12. The presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke in humans and cattle from a 4,500 Year old archaeological site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During an excavation of a site of the corded ware culture in the Saale-Unstrut-Valley (ca. 3000 BC in Germany, a soil sample from the pelvis of a human skeleton was studied under palaeoparasitological aspects. Eggs of the trematode Fasciola hepatica and of the nematode genus Capillaria were found. This is the first case of a direct association of a F. hepatica-infestation to both a prehistoric human skeleton and domesticated animal remains. Sheep and cattle bones were present at the same site and F. hepatica eggs were found in bovine samples. This strongly points toward an existing infection cycle, involving humans as a final host.

  13. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  14. Some case studies of geophysical exploration of archaeological sites in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatina, Snezana; Timotijevic, Zoran

    1999-03-01

    One of the youngest branches of environmental geophysics application is the preservation of national heritage. Numerous digital techniques developed for exploration directed to urban planning can also be applied to investigations of historic buildings. In identifying near-surface layers containing objects of previous civilizations, various sophisticated geophysical methods are used. In the paper, application of geophysics in quantification of possible problems necessary to be carried out in order to get an archaeological map of some locality is discussed [Komatina, S., 1996]. Sophisticated geophysical methods in the preservation of national heritage. Proc. of Int. Conf. Architecture and Urbanism at the turn of the Millenium, Beograd, pp. 39-44. Finally, several examples of archaeogeophysical exploration at Divostin, Bedem and Kalenic monastery localities (Serbia, Yugoslavia) are presented.

  15. Palaeoloxodon and human interaction: depositional setting, chronology and archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella site (Tarquinia, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Aureli

    Full Text Available The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  16. Palaeoloxodon and Human Interaction: Depositional Setting, Chronology and Archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella Site (Tarquinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. PMID:25898322

  17. Palaeoloxodon and human interaction: depositional setting, chronology and archaeology at the Middle Pleistocene Ficoncella site (Tarquinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Daniele; Contardi, Antonio; Giaccio, Biagio; Jicha, Brian; Lemorini, Cristina; Madonna, Sergio; Magri, Donatella; Marano, Federica; Milli, Salvatore; Modesti, Valerio; Palombo, Maria Rita; Rocca, Roxane

    2015-01-01

    The Ficoncella site in northern Latium (Italy) represents a unique opportunity to investigate the modalities of a short occupation in an alluvial setting during the Lower Palaeolithic. The small excavation area yielded a lithic assemblage, a carcass of Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and some other faunal remains. The main objectives of the study are to better characterize the depositional context where the Palaeoloxodon and the lithic assemblage occur, and to evaluate with greater precision the occupation dynamics. A 25 m-long well was drilled just above the top of the terrace of the Ficoncella site and faunal and lithic remains were analyzed with current and innovative techniques. The archaeological site contains floodplain deposits as it is located next to a small incised valley that feeds into a larger valley of the Mignone River. A tephra layer capping the site is 40Ar/39Ar dated to 441± 8 ka. Collectively, the geochronologic, tephrochronologic and geologic data, suggest the site was occupied during MIS 13. The new results should prompt further research at Ficoncella in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of human settlement in Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartzite cobbles from the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The burial age of an alluvially deposited cobble pavement at the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal) is investigated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Measurements on the cobbles (quartzite clasts) were carried out on intact slices and large aliquots...... luminescence characteristics. The variation in the natural OSL signal with depth below the cobble surface using intact slices from two different cobbles shows that both were bleached to a depth of at least similar to 2?mm before deposition. A model of the variation of dose with depth fitted to data from one...... contained within a single clast, and this suggests that the luminescence dating of rock surfaces may prove, in the future, to be at least as important as sand/silt sediment dating....

  19. Parasites in rodent coprolites from the historical archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán, Chubut Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Haydée Sardella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the parasitic remains that were found in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán (Chubut Province, 45º44'15"S, 70°25'9"W, which is assigned to the interface of the Araucanian and Tehuelche cultures, dated at 212 ± 35 years B.P. The faecal material from two unidentified rodent species (X-10 and X-11 was collected from one human pelvic cavity found in a multiple burial. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. The X-10 coprolites were positive for eggs of Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae and the X-11 faeces were positive for Pterygodermatites sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae, Trichosomoides sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae and Monoecocestus sp. In this study, we discuss parasitic life cycles, the zoonotic importance of parasites and the behaviour of the aboriginal people.

  20. Parasites in rodent coprolites from the historical archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán, Chubut Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydée Sardella, Norma; Horacio Fugassa, Martín

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the parasitic remains that were found in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Mazquiarán (Chubut Province, 45 degrees 44'15''S, 70 degrees 25'9''W), which is assigned to the interface of the Araucanian and Tehuelche cultures, dated at 212 +/- 35 years B.P. The faecal material from two unidentified rodent species (X-10 and X-11) was collected from one human pelvic cavity found in a multiple burial. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. The X-10 coprolites were positive for eggs of Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and the X-11 faeces were positive for Pterygodermatites sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), Trichosomoides sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) and Monoecocestus sp. In this study, we discuss parasitic life cycles, the zoonotic importance of parasites and the behaviour of the aboriginal people.

  1. Sedimentary Environment of the Early Pleistocene Gravels of the Edfu formation from the Saqqara Archaeological Site (Egypt – Preliminary Results

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    Wysocka Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A gravel horizon is preserved in several locations within the world-wide known archaeological site in Saqqara (northern Egypt. It is characterized by a variable thickness, composed of coarse, quartz, quartzitic and flint pebbles, and considered to correspond to gravels of the Edfu Formation, deposited in the Early Pleistocene by the early phase of the Nile development (Protonile Phase. This relatively short (ca. 200 ka and at the same time very dynamic period of Protonile activity during the Edfu Pluvial is one of the most poorly recognized hydrological-climatic episodes of the Quaternary in north-eastern Africa. This paper is focused on the preliminary sedimentological-petrographic characteristics of these deposits and an attempt to indicate their source areas as well as mechanisms of transportation and deposition in the context of Pleistocene pluvial episodes.

  2. New record of anoplocephalid eggs (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) collected from rodent coprolites from archaeological and paleontological sites of Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Barberena, Ramiro; Sauthier, Daniel Edgardo Udrizar; Sardella, Norma Haydée

    2013-10-01

    Results of paleoparasitological examination of rodent coprolites collected from archaeological and paleontological sites from Patagonia, Argentina, are present. Each coprolite was processed, rehydrated, homogenized, spontaneously sedimented and examined using light microscope. Coprolites and eggs were described, measured and photographed, and were compared with current faeces of Lagidium viscacia. Eggs with morphological features, attributed to an anoplocephalid cestode were found in samples collected from Cueva Huenul 1 (36°56'45″S, 69°47'32″W, Neuquén Province, Holocene) and Los Altares Profile (43º53'35″S, 68º23'21″W, Chubut Province, Late Holocene). These are the first findings of this anoplocephalid from faecal material from patagonic rodents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Luminescence profiling of loess-dominated archaeological layers of a Chalcolithic site, Northern Negev Desert fringe, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gloria I.; Roskin, Joel; Bee'ri, Ron

    2017-04-01

    along the profile are partly understood to be due to anthropogenic intervention with the sediment. The study highlights the potential and some of the complexities involved with portable OSL profiling of multi-layer prehistoric sites.

  4. Archaeological Investigations into the Prehistory of the Middle Cumberland River Valley: The Hurricane Branch Site (40JK27), Jackson County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-31

    VALLEY: THE HURRICANE BRANCH SITE (LiJK 27), JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE Archaeological Report 68 Edited by Tom Dillehay, Thomas W. Gatus and Nancy... Matanzas ) .... ............ 182 VI-58 Side Notched 27 .owan-like) ........ ........ 183 VI-59 Side Notched 28 ( amed) ....... ........... .. 184 VI-6Q...192 VI- 68 Triangular I (Madison) ............. ..... 193 VI-69 Triangular 2 (Ft. Ancient) ..... ................ ... 193 VI-70 Triangular 9

  5. Evaluation of SAR procedures for D-e determination using single aliquots of quartz from two archaeological sites in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available irradiated quartz grains from two different archaeological sites in South Africa showed substantial changes in sensitivity through the measurement cycles; one sample (SIB2) showed no trend in D-e as a function of pre-heat temperature, showing...

  6. Connection of the Late Paleolithic archaeological sites of the Chuya depression with geological evidence of existence of the Late Pleistocene ice-dammed lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatova, A. R.; Nepop, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of the age dating of the Pleistocene ice-dammed paleolakes in the Altai Mountains is a reason why geologists consider the Early Paleolithic archaeological sites as an independent age marker for dating geological objects. However, in order to use these sites for paleogeographic reconstructions, their locations, the character of stratification, and the age of stone artifacts need to be comprehensively studied. We investigate 20 Late Paleolithic archaeological sites discovered in the Chuya depression of the Russian Altai (Altai Mountains) with the aim of their possible use for reconstructions of the period of development of the Kurai-Chuya glacio-limnosystem in the Late Neopleistocene. The results of our investigation show that it is improper to use the Paleolithic archaeological sites for the dating of the existence period and the draining time of ice-dammed lakes of the Chuya Depression in the modern period of their study owing to a lack of quantitative age estimates, a wide age range of possible existence of these sites, possible redeposition of the majority of artifacts, and their surface occurrence. It is established that all stratified sites where cultural layers are expected to be dated in the future lie above the uppermost and well-expressed paleolake level (2100 m a.s.l.). Accordingly, there are no grounds to determine the existence time of shallower paleolakes. Since the whole stone material collected below the level of 2100 m a.s.l. is represented by surface finds, it is problematic to use these artifacts for absolute geochronology. The Late Paleolithic Bigdon and Chechketerek sites are of great interest for paleogeographic reconstructions of ice-dammed lakes. The use of iceberg rafting products as cores is evidence that these sites appeared after the draining of a paleolake (2000 m a.s.l.). At this time, the location of these archaeological sites on the slope of the Chuya Depression allows one to assume the existence of a large lake as deep

  7. “Ritual” and “Structured” discard in archaeological interpretations: Case study of water supply system at the site “Kale” in Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vranić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of cult, ritual, religion, and magic are important though to a large extent neglected and theoretically insufficiently developed subjects in the current archaeological literature. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate, on particular examples of potentially ritual activities associated to the erection and subsequent “ritual killing” of the water supply system at the site “Kale” in the village Krševica, that this neglect is not merely the consequence of trends in choices of research topics, but that it further points to certain disadvantages of current approaches based upon the archaeology of identity and the concepts of structured or symbolic deposition.

  8. Relationship between archaeological sites distribution and environment from 1.15 Ma BP to 278 BCin Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lan; WU Li; ZHU Cheng; LI Feng; MA Chunmei

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1362 archaeological sites from the Paleolithic Age to the Warring States time in Hubei Province increase gradually from west to east and from high land to low land.The number of Paleolithic sites with altitude of 50-500 m account for 78% of the whole,while 71%-95% of sites from the Neolithic Age to the Warring States time mainly distribute at the areas of 0-200 m.The temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is affected by two factors.For one thing,the human beings of every period need to choose the first or the second terrace as living sites which are near water source and are easy to withstand flood.Additionally,affecting by the regional tectonic uplift since the Holocene,down cutting of rivers can form new river valley,and lateral erosion and accumulation of river in stable time of tectonic movement can result in increasing of many new terraces.So,the human beings migrated to adapt to the change of terrace location,leading to the sites increase gradually in the lower areas of the central and eastern parts of this province.For other things,the temporal-spatial distribution of archeological sites in this area is affected by the climate condition.The Paleolithic sites mostly distribute in the Hanshui River Valley in northeastern Shiyan,southeast of Jinzhou and east of Jinmen,which is because rivers distributed in higher areas in this period.During the Chengbeixi Culture period,the sites are rare in the quondam Paleolithic sites distribution area,but increase obviously along the Yangtze River near the southwest Yichang.The spore-pollen record of Dajiuhu Basin indicates that only 23 Chengbeixi cultural sites may be related to more precipitation and flood during the Holocene wet and hot period.The Daxi Culture,Qujialing Culture and Shijiahe Culture are corresponding to middle and top of the Dajiuhu spore-pollen Zone Ⅳ,during which the climate is in order as a whole and is propitious to agricultural development.In the Qujialing

  9. Aerial Photogrammetry by drone in archaeological sites with large structures. Methodological approach and practical application in the medieval castles of Campo de Montiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Ruiz Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By writing this article we aim to illustrate the interesting combination of two existing techniques, accessible both for research groups and for professionals who want to study archaeological heritage: photogrammetry and aerial photography using a drone. We have applied these techniques to archaeological sites with standing structures, such as medieval castles in “Campo de Montiel” (Ciudad Real. Based on our expertise and experience, we have developed methodology for surface archaeological research, excavation and wall stratigraphy, thus identifying positive and negative aspects of this ethodology. The results obtained are truly positive, as we generated high-quality images offering news opportunities to investigate and show results, saving a considerable amount of time and money compared to traditional methods for graphical documentation.

  10. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  11. Building Sustainability in Community Archaeology: the Hendon School Archaeology Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hendon School Archaeology Project is a collaboration between Hendon School, the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to provide students at the school with an experience and understanding of archaeological fieldwork, while investigating an important multi-period site. This paper outlines the results of the first five years of the project: both the archaeological findings, and as an innovative collaborative form of community archaeology. The principal focus of research is the 16th-century residence of John Norden, cartographer to Elizabeth I; however, the most significant discovery to date is a substantial ceramic assemblage of 12th to 14th-century date. As community archaeology, an important aspect is the sustainability of the project, based on cost and resource sharing between the project partners, which we believe may offer a useful model for other such initiatives.

  12. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  13. ESTRATÉGIAS DE CAMPO E DE LABORATÓRIO UTILIZADAS NA INVESTIGAÇÃO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO PEDRA DO CANTAGALO I (Field and Laboratory Strategies Used in the Investigation of the Archaeological Site Pedra do Cantagalo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heralda Kelis Sousa Bezerra da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Pedra do Cantagalo I é um sítio arqueológico localizado na área rural do município de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. Consiste em um abrigo sob-rocha arenítica, cujas saliências e reentrâncias estão decoradas com mais de 1950 pinturas rupestres representando figuras abstratas, propulsores de dardos, carimbos de mãos humanas, antropomorfos e zoomorfos, realizados em padrões policromáticos. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições pré-históricas e da policromia, esse sítio também se destaca pela recorrência dos motivos pintados e pela sobreposição deles entre si. Nos sedimentos superficiais foram evidenciados fragmentos cerâmicos, líticos e ocres. Neste trabalho são reportadas as estratégias analíticas de campo e de laboratório utilizadas na investigação desse importante sítio arqueológico e dos testemunhos de atividade humana pré-históricos nele existentes ou dele coletados. Os exames físicos, a caracterização químico-mineralógica dos materiais, o monitoramento das condições ambientais e as prospecções no entorno foram primordiais. ENGLISH: Pedra do Cantagalo I is an archaeological site located in a rural area of the municipality of Piripiri, Piauí state, Brazil. It consists of a sandstone shelter decorated with more than 1,950 rock paintings representing abstract figures, spear-throwers, human handprints, and anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures in polychromatic patterns. In addition to the high density of prehistoric inscriptions and polychrome paintings, this site also stands out due to the recurrence of painted motifs and that overlap each other. We found evidence of ceramic materials, lithics and ochres in the sediments. In this work we report the field and laboratory analytical strategies used in the investigation of this important archaeological site and the evidence of prehistoric human activity contained within or collected from the site. Our fundamental investigative techniques included

  14. THE EMERGING WORLD SYSTEM AND COLONIAL YUCATAN:THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF CORE-PERIPHERY INTEGRATION, 1780-1847

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani T. Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of Mesoamerica by Spain during the period AD 1519-1821 forms part of a macroregional interaction network known as the modern or capitalist world system. Regions incorporated within the world-system usually undergo economic change such that production and labor are increasingly commoditized, dramatically altering the productive strategies of households and communities. As Price (1986 observes, world systems theory is difficult to apply to prehistoric or precapitalist macroregional systems because the world systems analogy lacks referents to broader processes of state expansion, political-economic structure, and the corresponding archaeological record. This paper uses archaeological and historical data from the Parroquia de Yaxcaba, Yucatan, to explore the variable impact of political and economic change on the organization of production and labor of rural communities. Archaeological site structure and spatial organization are analyzed to assess the implications of world-system expansion for the archaeological record in a region where the market transitionultimately fails. Settlement patterns and site structure in Yaxcaba Parish suggest variation in production organization among communities that differs from historical reconstructions. Comparison of independent lines of evidence indicates that variation inthe processes of core-periphery integration are archaeologically recognizable.

  15. Application of ERS in the Archaeological Prospecting of the Eastern Zhou City-site at Shangqiu%高密度电阻率法在商丘东周城址考古勘探中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立兵; 阎永利; 底青云; 王若

    2004-01-01

    In the Shangqiu area, the Sino-Americal Colleborative Archaeological Team has carried out a series of researches on archaeological prospecting. In the spring of 1997, important achievements were obtained in the exploration of the Eastern Zhou city-site southwest of the seat of Shangqiu County by using ERS. In combination with voluminous documents, the present paper introduces this method as to its development, application in archaeology, apparatus equipment, data gathering and inversion imaging. Through studies it can be concluded that ERS has shown its effectiveness for prospecting rammed-ear thstructures in the sedimentary circumstances of the Shangqiu area. But at present its role in archaeological survey is still limited.

  16. Contribution of the 40Ar/39Ar method to improve Middle-Pleistocene archaeological/palaeontological sites from the Italian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sebastien, ,, Dr.; Pereira, MSc. Alison; voinchet, Pierre, ,, Dr.; Bahain, Jean-Jacques, ,, Dr.; Aureli, Daniele, ,, Dr.; Arzarello, Marta, ,, Dr.; Anzidei, Anna-Paola, ,, Dr.; Biddittu, Italo, ,, Dr.; Bulgarelli, Maria-Grazia, ,, Dr.; Falguères, Christophe, ,, Dr.; Giaccio, Biagio, ,, Dr.; Guillou, Hervé, ,, Dr.; Manzi, Gorgio, ,, Dr.; Moncel, Marie-Hélène, ,, Dr.; Nicoud, Elisa, ,, Dr.; Pagli, Maria, ,, Dr.; Parenti, Fabio, ,, Dr.; Peretto, Carlo, ,, Dr.; Piperno, Marcello, ,, Dr.; Rocca, Roxane, ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    European Middle-Pleistocene archaeological and/or paleontological sites lack a unified and precise chronological framework. Despite recent efforts mostly focused on methods such as OSL, ESR/U-series or cosmogenic nuclides, the age of numerous sites from this period fundamentally still relies on qualitative and speculative palaeoenvironmental and/or palaeontological/palaeoanthropological considerations. The lack of robust chronologies, along with the scarcity of human fossils, prevent coherent correlations between European sites which in turn limits our understanding of human diffusion dynamics, understand techno-cultural evolution or correlate archaeological sites with palaeoclimatic and environmental records. With the goal of providing an accurate and precise chronological framework based on a multi-method approach, a research network including geochronologists, archaeologist and paleoanthropologists from various French and Italian institutions launched in 2010 a wide study of Middle-Pleistocene archaeological sites of central and southern Italy. This study combining the 39Ar/40Ar method with palaeo-dosimetric methods applied to European sites in the age range of 700 ka to 300 ka is unprecedented. In parallel, a large effort has been done to improve the regional Middle-Pleistocene tephrostratigraphic database through a massive application of both high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronological and geochemical investigations. We illustrate our approach and results in addressing several key-sites such as Notarchirico, Valle Giumentina; Ceprano-Campogrande and La Polledrara di Cecanibbio. The accurate and precise chronological framework we built permits us to replace all the investigated archaeological and palaeontological records into a coherent climatic and environmental context. Furthermore, our work provides the opportunity to compare lithic industries from a technical and evolutionary point of view within a homogeneous temporal frame. These preliminary results border

  17. Big Sites, Big Questions, Big Data, Big Problems: Scales of Investigation and Changing Perceptions of Archaeological Practice in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Wesson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since at least the 1930s, archaeological investigations in the southeastern United States have placed a priority on expansive, near-complete, excavations of major sites throughout the region. Although there are considerable advantages to such large–scale excavations, projects conducted at this scale are also accompanied by a series of challenges regarding the comparability, integrity, and consistency of data recovery, analysis, and publication. We examine the history of large–scale excavations in the southeast in light of traditional views within the discipline that the region has contributed little to the ‘big questions’ of American archaeology. Recently published analyses of decades old data derived from Southeastern sites reveal both the positive and negative aspects of field research conducted at scales much larger than normally undertaken in archaeology. Furthermore, given the present trend toward the use of big data in the social sciences, we predict an increased use of large pre–existing datasets developed during the New Deal and other earlier periods of archaeological practice throughout the region.

  18. First paleoparasitological record of digenean eggs from a native deer from Patagonia Argentina (Cueva Parque Diana archaeological site).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Ornela, Beltrame; Eleonor, Tietze; Alberto Enrique, Pérez; Norma Haydeé, Sardella

    2017-02-15

    Eggs representative of a digenean species were found in coprolites belonged to an endemic deer from Patagonia. Samples were collected from the archaeological site named "Cueva Parque Diana". This site is a cave located at the Lanín National Park, Neuquén Province, Argentina. The coprolites were dated from 2370±70 to 580±60 years B.P. The eggs were ellipsoidal, operculated, yellowish and thin-shelled. Measurements (n=65) ranged from 120.0 to 142.5 (133.2±6.53) μm long and 62.5 to 87.5 (72.6±6.15) μm wide. Eggs were well-preserved and were identified as belonged to Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea, similar to those of Fasciola hepatica or with another species not identified at present from Patagonia. This is the first report of digenean eggs from ancient deer worldwide. The present study confirms the presence of representatives of digenean species in endemic deer from Patagonia in ancient times and the presence of a trematode disease prior to the arrival of European cattle.

  19. Preliminary Results of GPR Surveys in two Mesoamerican Archaeological Sites: Ixcaquixtla, Puebla and El Opeño, Michoacán, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, J.; Maillol, J.; Bandy, W.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C.; Carreta, N.; Nunez-Garcia, U.

    2005-05-01

    We present the results of Ground Penetrating Radar surveys conducted during two field seasons in 2002 and 2004 on the archaeological sites of San Juan Ixcaquixtla, Puebla, in Central Mexico and El Opeño, Michoacán, in the western part of the country. In both sites a SIR-2 system was used with 300 MHz and 900 MHz fixed antennas. Radan software was used for data processing with 3D QuickDraw and Interactive 3D modules. The first site corresponds to the Classic Period and is located in a carbonate environment with caliche. The second site is from the Early Formative Period and is found in volcanic tuffs. In both cases the main objective was the detection and recognition of buried archaeological remains, particularly tombs. Data processing including spatial 2D filtering, and the display of three-dimensional data volumes and time slices allowed us to identify two major anomalies in each of the sites that could correspond to tombs. These preliminary results will be verified when archaeological excavations are conducted.

  20. NASA, Remote Sensing and Archaeology: An Example from Southeast Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center, located in Mississippi, USA, undertook an archaeological survey of the southeastern Louisiana marshes beginning in 2003. Progress on this activity was severely hampered by the 2005 hurricane season when both Katrina and Rita devastated the study area. In 2008, the NASA team reinitiated the analysis of the project data and that work continues today. The project was conducted initially in partnership with the U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers New Orleans District and Tulane University. NASA and its partners utilized a wide variety of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments combined with field verification surveys to identify prehistoric archeological sites in the Southeastern Louisiana delta, both known and still undiscovered. The main approach was to carefully map known sites and use the spectral characteristics of these sites to locate high probability targets elsewhere in the region. The archaeological activities were conducted in support of Coast 2050 whose stated goals is to sustain and restore a coastal ecosystem that supports and protects the environment, economy and culture of southern Louisiana. As the Coast 2050 report states: [T]he rate of coastal land loss in Louisiana has reached catastrophic proportions. Within the last 50 years, land loss rates have exceeded 40 square miles per year, and in the 1990's the rate has been estimated to be between 25 and 35 square miles each year. This loss represents 80% of the coastal wetland loss in the entire continental United States.

  1. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  2. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Study of anthropogenic and natural impacts on archaeological sites of the Volga Bulgaria period (Republic of Tatarstan) using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Sitdikov, A. G.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the possibility of using remote sensing data for determining various negative factors affecting archaeological objects condition on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. In our view, the analysis of medieval Volga Bulgars (X-XIII centuries A.D.), the most common in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, has the highest priority. The first task by using remote sensing was to obtain actual data on the current condition of archaeological monuments located on the Kuibyshev reservoir shore, where the threat of destruction is maximized. Due to the fact, that most of the Volga-Bulgaria settlements, is located on the small rivers banks, the second task was geomorphological description of monuments placement in order to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. Third objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. Ancient settlements under different types of negative impact were selected for the study. Deciphering of multitemporal remote sensing data allowed to assess the objects condition and to predict the risk of further damage. Additionally, it made able to correct the form of the Bulgars hillforts in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape, to restore the original appearance of destroyed fortified settlements, to determine precise coordinates for the further use of these data in the archaeological geographic information systems.

  4. The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mike; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A; Faulkner, Patrick; Manne, Tiina; Hayes, Elspeth; Roberts, Richard G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Carah, Xavier; Lowe, Kelsey M; Matthews, Jacqueline; Florin, S Anna

    2015-06-01

    Published ages of >50 ka for occupation at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II) in Australia's north have kept the site prominent in discussions about the colonisation of Sahul. The site also contains one of the largest stone artefact assemblages in Sahul for this early period. However, the stone artefacts and other important archaeological components of the site have never been described in detail, leading to persistent doubts about its stratigraphic integrity. We report on our analysis of the stone artefacts and faunal and other materials recovered during the 1989 excavations, as well as the stratigraphy and depositional history recorded by the original excavators. We demonstrate that the technology and raw materials of the early assemblage are distinctive from those in the overlying layers. Silcrete and quartzite artefacts are common in the early assemblage, which also includes edge-ground axe fragments and ground haematite. The lower flaked stone assemblage is distinctive, comprising a mix of long convergent flakes, some radial flakes with faceted platforms, and many small thin silcrete flakes that we interpret as thinning flakes. Residue and use-wear analysis indicate occasional grinding of haematite and woodworking, as well as frequent abrading of platform edges on thinning flakes. We conclude that previous claims of extensive displacement of artefacts and post-depositional disturbance may have been overstated. The stone artefacts and stratigraphic details support previous claims for human occupation 50-60 ka and show that human occupation during this time differed from later periods. We discuss the implications of these new data for understanding the first human colonisation of Sahul.

  5. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  6. Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    adjacent to the site. The first shovel test measured 33 cm across and was dug to a depth of 9 cm below surface ( cmbs ). From 0-4 cmbs was a rich black...5YR2.5/1) loam, which contained one brick fragment. The next stratum started at 4 cmbs but encountered groundwater at 9 cmbs (the site had been...CERL TR-12-6 58 encountered varied, being shallower (12 cmbs ) in the second shovel test and deeper (32 cmbs ) west of the root cellar. Only Shovel

  7. Microbiology of healing mud (fango) from Roman thermae aquae iasae archaeological site (Varaždinske Toplice, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulec, Janez; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Oarga, Andreea; Scharfen, Josef; Šestauberová, Martina

    2015-02-01

    We found well-preserved, rocky artefacts that had been buried in the healing mud (fango) for more than 1,500 years at the Roman archaeological site at Varaždinske Toplice. This Roman pool with fango sediments and artefacts is fed from hot sulphidic springs. The fango exhibited nearly neutral pH, a high level of organic C, an elevated concentration of heavy metals and a high total microbial biomass, greater than 10(8) cells per gram of dry weight. The dominant microbes, assessed by molecular profiling (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), were affiliated with Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, Polaromonas, and Bdellovibrio. Polymerase chain reaction screening for microbial functional guilds revealed the presence of sulphur oxidizers and methanogens but no sulphate reducers. The dominance of four Proteobacterial classes (α-, β-, δ- and ε-Proteobacteria) was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation; Actinobacteria were less abundant. Cultivable bacteria represented up to 23.4 % of the total bacterial counts when cultivation media was enriched with fango. These bacteria represented the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arthrobacter, Comamonas, Ewingella, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rahnella and Staphylococcus. This study showed that the heterogeneous nature of fango at neutral pH created various microniches, which largely supported microbial life based on sulphur-driven, autotrophic denitrification.

  8. Seasonality Records From Stable Isotopes and Trace Elements in Mussel and Limpet Shells From Archaeological Sites on Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, D.; Ferguson, J. E.; Atkinson, T. C.; Barton, R. N.; Ditchfield, P.; Finlayson, G.; Finlayson, J. C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal resolution climate records from mid and high latitudes would allow investigation of the role of seasonality in controlling mean climate on diverse timescales, and of the evolution of climate systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). But achieving such seasonal resolution is difficult for regions outside the growth range of surface corals. Marine mollusc shells provide a possible archive and contain growth increments varying in scale from tidal to annual. However, finding and dating sequences of marine mollusc shells spanning long periods of time is difficult due to sea-level change and the destructional nature of most coastal environments. In this study, we have made use of the habit of hominins on Gibraltar to collect molluscs for food over at least the last 120 kyr. In archaeological excavations of two caves (Gorham's and Vanguard Caves), mollusc shells were found, in habitation levels and in sediment blown into the caves. Existing 14C, OSL, and U-series chronologies provide a chronological framework for this suite of samples. The species found are predominantly Mytilus (mussels) or Patella (limpets). Gibraltar is an interesting location for paleoclimate reconstruction due to its proximity to the boundary of modern day climate belts but also due to its anthropological and archaeological importance. To gain a quantitative understanding of the local controls on stable isotopes and trace elements within Gibraltarian shells, we have initiated a water-sampling programme; emplaced a temperature and salinity logger near the sampling site; and marked live Patella and Mytilus with fluorescent dye to firmly establish growth rates and controls on chemical composition. We have also conducted stable-isotope and trace-element analysis of modern and fossil Patella and Mytilus shells by micromilling. Recent Patella and Mytilus shells show that the oxygen isotope composition of modern shells allow the accurate reconstruction of the full seasonal range in sea

  9. Impact of soil and groundwater corrosion on the Hierakonpolis Temple Town archaeological site, Wadi Abu Sufian, Idfu, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, A M; Atwia, M G; El-Gohary, A; Parizek, R R

    2013-06-01

    Hierakonpolis, Greek for City of the Hawk, nearly 25 km NW of Idfu (Egypt), is an important and extensive archaeological discovery covering a large area. Its richness in archaeological artifacts makes it a valuable site. It has a valid claim to be the first nation state, as indicated by the Palette of Narmer discovered in its main mound. Geological and hydrogeological investigations at the Hierakonpolis Temple Town site documented nearly a 4.0-m water table rise from as early as 1892 to the present. In addition to the rising water levels, the increase of both subsoil water salinity and humidity threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings within tombs in Kingdom Hill, the foundation stability of the site, and the known and still to be discovered artifact that recent pottery finds dates at least 4,000 BCE. Representative rock and soil samples obtained from drilled cores in the study area were chosen for conducting detailed grain size and X-ray analysis, light and heavy mineral occurrences, distribution of moisture and total organic matter, and scanning electron microscopy investigations. Mineralogical analysis of clays indicated that the soil samples are composed of smectite/illite mixed layers with varying proportions of smectite to illite. Kaolinite is the second dominant clay constituent, besides occasional chlorite. Swelling of the clay portion of the soil, due to the presence of capillary groundwater, in contact with buried mudbrick walls expands and causes severe damage to important exposed and buried mudbrick structures, including the massive ancient "fort" believed to date from the Second Dynasty (from 2,890 to 2,686 BC). The "fort" is 1.0 km south of the Temple Town mounds near to confluence of Wadi Abu Sufian. Groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer close by the intersection of Wadi Abu Sufian and the Nile flood plain were analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope ratios. The groundwater in the upper zone (subsoil water) within fine

  10. A new method for evaluating annual absorbed gamma dose rates in an archaeological site by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Misdaq, M A; Erramli, H; Mikdad, A; Rzama, A; Yousif-Charif, M L

    1998-01-01

    Uranium and thorium contents in different layers of an archaeological site have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption coefficient of the gamma-photons emitted by the uranium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U), thorium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th) and their corresponding decay products as well as the potassium-40 ( sup 4 sup 0 K) isotope for evaluating the annual absorbed gamma dose rates in the considered material samples. Results obtained have been compared with data obtained by using the TL dosimetry and Bell's methods. Ceramic samples belonging to the studied archaeological site have been dated.

  11. Testing Nine Archaeological Sites in the Downstream Corridor, Saylorville Lake, Iowa. 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    2*- - - - - - - - - 2 polygonum or sedge Paspalum sp. - - -1 not identified CYPERACEAE ( sedge ) 6 - - due to lack of time JU CACEAE (rush...fields. Also present are sedges and rushes which are found along the river. Components at the Christenson site can be understood only in the context of

  12. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-OK-11, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    arrived. During 1979, the crew profIled one off-site control unit west of the block plus 184 linear meters of walls within the block. Ten columns were...Bryan, A., and R. Gruhn 1964 Problems reI3ating to the Neotherma, climatic sequence. American Antiquity 29:307-315. Butler, B.R. 1961 The Old Cordi l

  13. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable

  14. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the oldest (2.34 Ma) Lokalalei archaeological site complex of the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Schuster, Mathieu; Roche, Hélène; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Thuo, Peter; Prat, Sandrine; Harmand, Sonia; Davtian, Gourguen; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Bohn, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    At the northwest end of the Lake Turkana Basin (northern Kenya Rift), intensive fieldwork conducted on the Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine Nachukui Formation by the National Museums of Kenya and the West Turkana Archaeological Project (WTAP), led to the discovery of more than 50 archaeological sites aged between 2.4 and 0.7 Ma. Among them is the Lokalalei archaeological site complex, which includes the two oldest archaeological sites (2.34 Ma) found in the Kenyan segment of the East African Rift System. The environmental background of the two sites was described as a succession of ephemeral streams with floodplain palaeosols in which the archaeological sites are situated, bordering the western bank of a large axial meandering river flowing southward. The Lokalalei 1 (LA1) and Lokalalei 2C (LA2C) archaeological sites are of extreme importance in terms of knowledge of hominins' knapping activities. The stratigraphic position of the LA1 and LA2C sites as well as implications on the technical differences between the two sites have been successively discussed by Roche et al. (1999), Brown and Gathogo (2002), and Delagnes and Roche (2005). In terms of stratigraphic position, Lokalalei 2C was estimated to be slightly higher in the section (i.e. younger) than Lokalalei 1. An alternative stratigraphic correlation was proposed by Brown and Gathogo (2002), who suggested that LA2C site should have been approximately 100,000 years younger than LA1. New considerations on the stratigraphy and environmental context of the Lokalalei sites have been developed following controversy on the stratigraphic position and time interval between the LA1 and LA2C sites. High-resolution lithostratigraphic work based on bed-to-bed field correlations, facies sedimentology and tephra geochemistry confirms that the LA2C site is slightly higher in the section than the LA1 site by about 11.20 m. This represents a time interval of ˜74,000 years based on an assumed sedimentation rate of 152 mm

  15. Urban Archaeology: how to Communicate a Story of a Site, 3d Virtual Reconstruction but not Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, M.

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few years experimental systems have been developed to introduce new ways of enjoying cultural heritage using digital media. Technology had a lead role in this testing ground increasing the need to develop new way of communication according to contemporary iconography culture. Most applications are aimed at creating online databases that allow free access to information, that helps to spread the culture and simplify the study about cultural heritage. To this type of application are added others, which are aimed at defining new and different ways of cultural heritage enjoyment. Very interesting applications are those regarding to reconstruction of archaeological landscape. The target of these applications is to develop a new level of knowledge that increases the value of the archaeological find and the level of understanding. In fact, digital media can bridge the gap of communication associated to archaeological find: the virtual simulation offers the possibility to put it in the context and it defines a new way to enjoy the cultural heritage. In most of these cases the spectacular and recreational factor generally prevails. We believe that experimentation is needed in this area, particularly for the development of Urban Archaeology. In this case, another trouble to enjoy is added to the lack of communication, typical of archaeological finds, because it is "hidden" in an irreversible way: it is under water or under city. So, our research is mainly oriented to define a methodological path to elaborate a communication strategy to increase interest about Urban Archaeology.

  16. Archaeology Through Computational Linguistics: Inscription Statistics Predict Excavation Sites of Indus Valley Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel L; Louwerse, Max M

    2016-11-01

    Computational techniques comparing co-occurrences of city names in texts allow the relative longitudes and latitudes of cities to be estimated algorithmically. However, these techniques have not been applied to estimate the provenance of artifacts with unknown origins. Here, we estimate the geographic origin of artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization, applying methods commonly used in cognitive science to the Indus script. We show that these methods can accurately predict the relative locations of archeological sites on the basis of artifacts of known provenance, and we further apply these techniques to determine the most probable excavation sites of four sealings of unknown provenance. These findings suggest that inscription statistics reflect historical interactions among locations in the Indus Valley region, and they illustrate how computational methods can help localize inscribed archeological artifacts of unknown origin. The success of this method offers opportunities for the cognitive sciences in general and for computational anthropology specifically.

  17. Statistical tools applied in the characterisation and evaluation of a thermo-hygrometric corrective action carried out at the Noheda archaeological site (Noheda, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Miguel Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Navajas, Ángel Fernández; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2014-01-17

    The Noheda archaeological site is unique and exceptional for its size, and the quality and conservation condition of the Roman mosaic pavement covering its urban pars. In 2008 a tent was installed as protection from rain and sun. Being of interest to characterise the microclimate of the remains, six probes with relative humidity and temperature sensors were installed in 2013 for this purpose. Microclimate monitoring allowed us to check relative humidity differences resulting from the groundwater level, as well as inner sensors reaching maximum temperatures higher than the outdoors ones as a consequence of the non-ventilated tent covering the archaeological site. Microclimatic conditions in the archaeological site were deemed detrimental for the conservation of the mosaics. Thus, in summer 2013, expanded clay and geotextile were installed over the mosaics as a corrective action. The outcomes of this study have proven the effectiveness of this solution to control temperature and relative humidity, helping to configure a more stable microclimate suitable for preservation of the mosaic.

  18. Statistical Tools Applied in the Characterisation and Evaluation of a Thermo-Hygrometric Corrective Action Carried out at the Noheda Archaeological Site (Noheda, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Valero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Noheda archaeological site is unique and exceptional for its size, and the quality and conservation condition of the Roman mosaic pavement covering its urban pars. In 2008 a tent was installed as protection from rain and sun. Being of interest to characterise the microclimate of the remains, six probes with relative humidity and temperature sensors were installed in 2013 for this purpose. Microclimate monitoring allowed us to check relative humidity differences resulting from the groundwater level, as well as inner sensors reaching maximum temperatures higher than the outdoors ones as a consequence of the non-ventilated tent covering the archaeological site. Microclimatic conditions in the archaeological site were deemed detrimental for the conservation of the mosaics. Thus, in summer 2013, expanded clay and geotextile were installed over the mosaics as a corrective action. The outcomes of this study have proven the effectiveness of this solution to control temperature and relative humidity, helping to configure a more stable microclimate suitable for preservation of the mosaic.

  19. Statistical Tools Applied in the Characterisation and Evaluation of a Thermo-Hygrometric Corrective Action Carried out at the Noheda Archaeological Site (Noheda, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Miguel Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Navajas, Ángel Fernández; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Noheda archaeological site is unique and exceptional for its size, and the quality and conservation condition of the Roman mosaic pavement covering its urban pars. In 2008 a tent was installed as protection from rain and sun. Being of interest to characterise the microclimate of the remains, six probes with relative humidity and temperature sensors were installed in 2013 for this purpose. Microclimate monitoring allowed us to check relative humidity differences resulting from the groundwater level, as well as inner sensors reaching maximum temperatures higher than the outdoors ones as a consequence of the non-ventilated tent covering the archaeological site. Microclimatic conditions in the archaeological site were deemed detrimental for the conservation of the mosaics. Thus, in summer 2013, expanded clay and geotextile were installed over the mosaics as a corrective action. The outcomes of this study have proven the effectiveness of this solution to control temperature and relative humidity, helping to configure a more stable microclimate suitable for preservation of the mosaic. PMID:24445414

  20. The Archaeology of the Bug Hill Site (34Pu-116): Pushmataha County, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    METAL OBJECTS Category 124 (07-03-09) N=1 This is a complete corroded saftey pin. It is 3.7 mm long. Category 125 (07-03-09) N=1 This is a corroded piece...naturally. The only snakes are rattlesnake and Southern black racer. Both may have been used as food , but their sporadic distribution throughout the site...9 may reflect this. None of the gastropods seem to have been used as food . The few aquatic specimens (Helisoa trivolvis) could have been brought to

  1. Palynofacial analysis in alkaline soils and paleoenvironmental implications: The Paso Otero 5 archaeological site (Necochea district, Buenos Aires province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, S.; Borromei, A.; Martínez, G.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Cornou, M. E.; Olivera, D.

    2007-06-01

    The combination of palynofacial and sedimentological analyses constitutes a valuable method for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions, especially when fossil pollen information is scarce or absent. This methodology elucidates a late Pleistocene/Holocene sequence at the Paso Otero 5 archaeological site in the middle basin of the Quequén Grande River, Necochea district, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Although the main factor responsible for the destruction of pollen grains is pH, biochemical and chemical oxidation and mechanical damage contribute to the deterioration as well. The site sequence indicates that extremely arid climatic conditions without vegetation cover prevailed during the late Pleistocene (˜12,000 14C yr BP), after which the climate changed to semiarid conditions associated with a disturbed environment due to strong eolian activity (Palynofacies 1 and 2; pre-10,400 14C yr BP). During the Pleistocene/Holocene transition (Palynofacies 3 and 4; ˜10,400-9400 14C yr BP), loamy facies associated with paleosoils reflected stable conditions and temporary ponds (spring deposits). Similar conditions occurred near the end of early Holocene (Palynofacies 5-9; ˜9400-6600 14C yr BP), whereas sandy and silty facies are associated with the flood margins of streams or rivers in the middle and late Holocene (Palynofacies 10-14; 6600-2500 14C yr BP). The top of the sequence (Palynofacies 15 and 16) consists of alluvium sediments and reflects locally humid conditions and modern vegetation with anthropic influence. One of the earliest Pampean sites with evidence of humans (10,450-10,200 14C yr BP), Paso Otero 5, provides a variety of megafauna bone specimens associated with ``fish-tail" projectile points, a lithic artifact diagnostic of early human occupations in South America. The site contains a complete stratigraphic record from the late Pleistocene to the present. The evidence presented herein supports the hypothesis that human colonization, at

  2. Corrosion of archaeological iron artefacts compared to modern iron at the waterlogged site Nydam, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, David;

    2004-01-01

    loss, corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrical resistivity. 3) Measurements of environmental parameter such as water level, redox potential, oxygen concentration, soil pH, and the concentration of a range of dissolved species in the pore water. This presentation shows...... focuses solely on the iron objects. A three-pronged approach has been used in the studies in Nydam: Studies of the excavated artefacts, including the compositon of corrosion products and a mapping of their exact state of preservation. 2) Use of modern iron samples placed in the soil for studies of weight...... some of the results obtained during the seven years of studies at the site. It is demonstrated how the three pronged approach is useful in understanding not only the current corrosion rate and threats against the artefacts but also the corrosion history, i.e. when were the deterioration patterns...

  3. Characteristics of the short rachillae of rice from archaeological sites dating to 7000 years ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG YunFei; SUN GuoPing; CHEN XuGao

    2007-01-01

    The abscission layer formed on a pedicel situated at the basal part of a short rachilla is an important characteristic for discriminating between wild,japonica,and indica rice.The short rachillae of paddy rice grains excavated from the Kuahuqiao,Luojiajiao,and Tianluoshan sites,located in the lower eaches of the Yangtze River and dating to 7000 years old,were observed.The results showed that the short rachillae could be divided into two types:a wild type and japonica type.These results indicated that the rice had been domesticated,but was a primitive cultivated rice that retained some of the characteristics of wild rice.The results also suggested that the rice was changing to resemble japonica type rice.Based on the ratios of wild and japonica types,it was inferred that rice domestication began 10000 years ago.

  4. Acari in archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne S

    2009-10-01

    Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.

  5. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, The Maryland Historical Trust, the Maryland SHPO, has created a vector layer of the approximate locations of the archeological sites recorded in the state of Maryland. Sites are confidential and are protected from release under state law., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Historical Trust (SHPO)/Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It...

  6. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: momo@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Noto-Town Board of Education, Mawaki Noto-cho, Ishikawa 927-0562 (Japan); Takada, Hideki [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. {sup 14}C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of {sup 14}C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. {sup 14}C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  7. Activities of the society of archaeology, history and ethnography on Bolgar hillfort site in the late XIX – early XIX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persova Svetlana G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published and archival sources, the article analyzes the activity of the Society for Archaeology, History and Ethnography (SAHE with Kazan Imperial University devoted to the study and preservation of the Bolgar hillfort site. Initial excavations with SAHE participation were conducted here in 1887 at the ruins of the “White Chamber” by I.I. Vashchuk and V.V. Glinski, the trustees of Moscow 1st-guild merchant N.S. Rasteryaev. SAHE’s role was reduced to participation of V.A. Kazarinov, a researcher, as observer. Nevertheless, the Society laid the foundation for professional research of the Bolgar hillfort, collected exhibits displayed in SAHE museum, compiled plans of the settlement and individual buildings, performed measurements and topographic surveying, identified the destination of the majority of architectural monuments and provided partially accurate determination of their construction periods. In 1916, the last pre-revolutionary season on Bolgar hillfort site was held. The researcher V.F. Smolin studied the ruins of the “Hellenic Chamber”. In 1916, Archaeological prospecting was aimed at finding Christian burials in the vicinity of the edifice. Excavations by SAHE uncovered only a small part of the Bolgar hillfort area. The obstacles for the scientific activity of the Society were a lack of money, and then WWI. Despite all the shortcomings, during the pre-revolutionary period SAHE researchers accumulated a certain experience and offered a framework methodology for the study of this historical and archaeological medieval settlement.

  8. FT-Raman and FT-Infrared investigations of archaeological artefacts from Foeni Neolithic site (Banat, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cîntă Pînzaru

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An impressive collection of chert artefacts from the Foeni Neolithic archaeological site (Timiş County, Banat region, Romania is hosted by the Banat Museum in Timişoara. A representative set of seven specimens was non-destructively investigated using FT-Raman and ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. The research was carried out for checking if these readily-available, non-destructive, fast, and cheap methods, which do not require preliminary sample preparation could provide significant information for characterizing the mineral composition of chert artefacts. Based on vibrational data, it was confirmed that the raw material was represented by microcrystalline quartz and moganite, with local concentrations of accessory minerals (calcite, dolomite, and clay minerals. In spite of their wide macroscopic heterogeneity (colour, transparency, based on single point FT-Raman measurements the chert artefacts could not be assigned to distinctive groups of raw silica materials, in order to provide specific arguments for provenance studies. However, the presence of specific accessory minerals (dolomite, illite pointed to distinctive genetic conditions in the case of one lithic material. Sets of measurements (mapping are required for statistically characterizing each artefact specimen. IR data were less significant, due to the rough surface texture of the specimens in contact with the ZnSe crystal of the ATR-FT-IR module. However, illite was identified based solely on its contribution to the IR spectrum. This pioneering study on chert artefacts from Romania based on optical spectroscopic methods shows that there are good premises for a systematic investigation of highly-valuable museum collections, in particular in terms of chert geology.

  9. Assessment of chemical analyses by means of portable XRF in the Roman mortars of Complutum archaeological site (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenç, Duygu; Freire, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The chemical characterization of lime mortars used in Roman period has a great significance and plays a key role in the acquisition of knowledge with respect to construction technology, raw materials and, accordingly, in its conservation works. When it comes to cultural heritage studies, sampling is always complicated since the minimum damage is the primary concern. The use of non-destructive techniques and direct measurements with portable devices reduce the amount of samples and time consumed in analyses, consequently it could be stated that such techniques are extremely useful in conservation and restoration works. In this study, the portable XRF device was used to determine the composition of chemical elements which compose the Roman lime mortars in the archaeological site of Complutum, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) which is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1998. Portable XRF devices have some detection limits below the ones of the laboratory equipment that are immovable and require sampling. In order to correlate the results, sampling and grinding were initially done to prepare the powders for the laboratory XRF analysis with the following elements: Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Ti, Nb, Zr, Sr, Rb, Pb, Zn and Cr. The analyses of the powdered samples were conducted with the laboratory equipment PHILIPS Magix Pro (PW-2440) from the Centre of Scientific Instrumentation CIC in the University of Granada, and the results were compared to the results gathered with X Ray Florescence (EDTRX) THERMO NITON model XL3T from the Petrophysics Laboratory Geosciences Institute IGEO (CSIC-UCM). Analyses were performed on the surfaces of the samples -without any previous preparation-, and on the powdered samples to compare the variations between both traditional XRF analyses and the portable XRF. A good correlation was found among the results obtained by the laboratory equipment, the portable device as well as the surface measurements. The results of this study

  10. Chupicuaro archaeological sites: from magnetic survey to excavation (late pre-classic period, Middle Lerma Valley, Guanajuato, Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Bichet, Vincent; Durlet, Christophe; Petit, Christophe; Darras, Véronique; Faugère, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the project The area of Chupicuaro, located in the middle valley of the Lerma river, is regarded as one of the major archaeological targets of central Mexico for the late pre-classic period (600 BC-AD 300). Archaeological investigations in the area have been limited because of a large reservoir constructed in 1948 and severe plundering. Since 1999 a French-Mexican research program has concentrated on broadening knowledge of the local Chupicuaro culture and its development (Faugère & D...

  11. Archaeological Discoveries in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    LIAONING Province, in northeastern China, has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. It is one of the sites of China’s earliest civilization. Since the 1950s many archaeological discoveries from periods beginning with the Paleolithic of 200,000 years ago, and through all the following historic periods, have been made in the province.

  12. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times.

  13. Roman, Visigothic and Islamic evidence of earthquakes recorded in the archaeological site of “El Tolmo de Minateda” (Prebetic Zone, southeast of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A.; Abad Casal, L.; Pérez-López, R.; Gamo Parra, B.; Silva, P.G.; Garduño-Monroy, V.H.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Perucha, M.A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Bischoff, J.; Calvo, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The archaeological site of “El Tolmo de Minateda” is located within the Albacete province (SE of Spain) and shows a continuous time record of ancient civilizations from 3500 yr BP onwards. However, three temporal gaps were identified in this archaeological record, all of them in relationship with a sudden and unclear abandonment of the city (Centuries 1st, 7th and 9-10th). The Archaeological Earthquake Effects (EAEs) supports the possibility that moderate to strong earthquakes were the cause of such abandonments: oriented columns fallen, collapsed walls and arches, abandonment of irrigation systems and fresh-water supplies, crashed pottery, etc. Despite of the scarce of instrumental seismicity and a few historical chronicles, paleoseismic studies performed in the neighbouring zone (Tobarra) suggest the presence of closer seismic sources as faults (Pozohondo Fault) affecting Quaternary alluvial, lacustrine deposits and colluviums. In this work, we propose the possibility that three moderate earthquakes devastated the ancient Roman city of Ilunum (Century 1st AD), the Visigothic city of Elo (Century 7th AD) and the Islamic city of Madinat Iyih (Century 9th-10thAD), all of them the same place: “El Tolmo de Minateda”.

  14. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  17. Preliminary Investigations: Archaeology and Sediment Geomorphology, Navigation Pool 12, Upper Mississippi River. Volume II. Technical Documents and Site Data Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Presence Determined From : surace coi ection s Archaeological Sub-Surface Features: hearth , no artifacts Approxzimate Size (in Meters): N/S IX E/W...and to minimize destruction of that data base from artificially high water levels. 3 METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF THE PROPOSED STUDY The proposed

  18. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  19. Soil erosion in the archaeological area of Aksum, Ethiopia: a multi-site, spatio-temporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Sernicola, Luisa; Billi, Paolo; Ferrari, Giovanni; Borselli, Lorenzo; Follain, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize previous works on soil erosion evaluation in response to soil conservation strategies practiced in the area of Aksum (Tigray, northern Ethiopia) throughout the last three millennia. This location presents favourable conditions for the implementation of a long-term approach for assessing soil conservation techniques that have been used for centuries (i.e., since the Aksumite kingdom, 2400 y BP to 1200 y BP). These techniques have been maintained until present and parts of the terraced systems of the area are still in use. The study is based on an archaeologically based reconstruction of the ancient settlement pattern of the whole area which provided significant information on the changes occurred in land occupation, exploitation and management throughout the Aksumite civilization. In such context, the rate of soil erosion was evaluated on the basis of the analyses of the presently exposed, deep scratches (plough marks) left on the rocks in the soil by the maresha, the ard-plough pulled by oxen used in agricultural practices of the area; further considerations have been done by the means of associated patinas, varnishes and weathering rinds on the boulders exposed by soil loss. Analyses for the assessment of soil erosion have been focused on three terraced areas where evidence of occupation and ploughing could be traced back since at least the beginning of the Aksumite kingdom, and where the plough marks are still well preserved. The plough marks method indicates average rates of soil erosion of 3.1, 2.8 and 1.2 tha-1 y-1, respectively. Recent changes in land-management in one of the sites, shifting from soil conservation conditions under traditional agriculture (long-term observations) to accelerated erosion after abandonment (short-term observations) occurred during the land use reorganisation in the 70s, produced a high soil erosion of about 62.6 t ha-1 y-1. These data lead up to a new survey phase able to provide a

  20. The earliest well-dated archeological site in the hyper-arid Tarim Basin and its implications for prehistoric human migration and climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, WenXia; Yu, LuPeng; Lai, ZhongPing; Madsen, David; Yang, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    The routes and timing of human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are crucial for understanding the evolution of Tibetan populations and associated paleoclimatic conditions. Many archeological sites have been found in/around the Tarim Basin, on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Unfortunately, most of these sites are surface sites and cannot be directly dated. Their ages can only be estimated based on imprecise artifact comparisons. We recently found and dated an archeological site on a terrace along the Keriya River. Our ages indicate that the site was occupied at ~ 7.0-7.6 ka, making it the earliest well-dated archeological site yet identified in the Tarim Basin. This suggests that early human foragers migrated into this region prior to ~ 7.0-7.6 ka during the early to mid-Holocene climatic optimum, which may have provided the impetus for populating the region. We hypothesize that the Keriya River, together with the other rivers originating from the TP, may have served as access routes onto the TP for early human foragers. These rivers may also have served as stepping stones for migration further west into the now hyper-arid regions of the Tarim Basin, leading ultimately to the development of the Silk Road.

  1. Palaeomagnetic results from an archaeological site near Rome (Italy): new insights for tectonic rotation during the last 0.5 Myr

    OpenAIRE

    De Pirro, M; P. Montone; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Boschi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 20 km north-east of Rome, along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by Roman engineers. This site falls inside the Acque Albule Basin, a travertine plateau Upper Pleistocene in age, that has been interpreted as a rhombshaped pull-apart basin created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone. This study provides evidence that two narrow water channels of this aqueduct system ...

  2. Inferences on Late Holocene climate from stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratio variability in soil and land snail shells from archaeological site 41KM69 in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Mauldin, R.; Munoz, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Well-preserved land snail shell excavate from archaeological site 41KM69 in Texas, USA, span the past 2200 years and provide an opportunity to explore the paleoclimate implications of isotopic variability in archaeological shell carbonates, bulk soil carbonates and soil organic matter. Terrestrial snail shells belonging to three genera (Polygyra, Rabdotus, and Helicina) were hand-picked from the 120 cm thick soil profile, for stable isotopic analyses. A wood charcoal radiocarbon date constrains samples below 100 cm depth in our soil profile to be ~2200 14C yr BP. Isotopic composition of modern adult snail specimens (n=24) and plants (n=18), collected from the study area, were determined for comparison with the archaeological data sets. All isotopic analyses were performed at the University of Texas at San Antonio using a Thermo Finnigan Gasbench II and a Costech Elemental Analyzer (EA) attached online to a DeltaPlus XP Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer in continuous flow mode. Carbon isotopic compositions of both modern (-12.72 to -5.49%) and archaeological (-5.34 to -8.99%) adult snail shell carbonates suggest significant (> 60%) input of C3 plants into the diet of the snails over the past 2200 yrs. Oxygen isotopic compositions of archaeological and modern shells vary from -2.21% to -0.71% and -2.88 to +0.99%), respectively. This suggests that isotopic composition of environmental water (mainly rainwater) available at the time of shell growth was similar to that of the present day. A linearly decreasing trend in δ13C of soil organic matter from -22.83% at 2200 14C yr BP to -25.61% for modern samples imply progressively increasing abundance of C3 plants up to the present day. This implies a progressively wetter climate, or decreasing summer rainfall and less severe water stress conditions, in agreement with other studies on Holocene climate change in the southern Great Plains of USA. The studies, in general, document warm/arid conditions at ~ 2000 BP and

  3. Posterior Probability Modeling and Image Classification for Archaeological Site Prospection: Building a Survey Efficacy Model for Identifying Neolithic Felsite Workshops in the Shetland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Megarry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of custom classification techniques and posterior probability modeling (PPM using Worldview-2 multispectral imagery to archaeological field survey is presented in this paper. Research is focused on the identification of Neolithic felsite stone tool workshops in the North Mavine region of the Shetland Islands in Northern Scotland. Sample data from known workshops surveyed using differential GPS are used alongside known non-sites to train a linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier based on a combination of datasets including Worldview-2 bands, band difference ratios (BDR and topographical derivatives. Principal components analysis is further used to test and reduce dimensionality caused by redundant datasets. Probability models were generated by LDA using principal components and tested with sites identified through geological field survey. Testing shows the prospective ability of this technique and significance between 0.05 and 0.01, and gain statistics between 0.90 and 0.94, higher than those obtained using maximum likelihood and random forest classifiers. Results suggest that this approach is best suited to relatively homogenous site types, and performs better with correlated data sources. Finally, by combining posterior probability models and least-cost analysis, a survey least-cost efficacy model is generated showing the utility of such approaches to archaeological field survey.

  4. Diagnosis of abnormal patterns in multivariate microclimate monitoring: a case study of an open-air archaeological site in Pompeii (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Chemometrics has been applied successfully since the 1990s for the multivariate statistical control of industrial processes. A new area of interest for these tools is the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage. Sensors record climatic parameters over time and statistical data analysis is performed to obtain valuable information for preventive conservation. A case study of an open-air archaeological site is presented here. A set of 26 temperature and relative humidity data-loggers was installed in four rooms of Ariadne's house (Pompeii). If climatic values are recorded versus time at different positions, the resulting data structure is equivalent to records of physical parameters registered at several points of a continuous chemical process. However, there is an important difference in this case: continuous processes are controlled to reach a steady state, whilst open-air sites undergo tremendous fluctuations. Although data from continuous processes are usually column-centred prior to applying principal components analysis, it turned out that another pre-treatment (row-centred data) was more convenient for the interpretation of components and to identify abnormal patterns. The detection of typical trajectories was more straightforward by dividing the whole monitored period into several sub-periods, because the marked climatic fluctuations throughout the year affect the correlation structures. The proposed statistical methodology is of interest for the microclimatic monitoring of cultural heritage, particularly in the case of open-air or semi-confined archaeological sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The F. L. Brinkley Midden (22Ts729): Archaeological Investigations in the Yellow Creek Watershed, Tishomingo County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Cultural Resource Management Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Structures Prehistoric Archaeology Lithic Analysis Archaic Period Paleoethnobo tany .. COTI...1976 Cedar Creek Archaeological Project, 1976 Season Lithic Analysis . Manuscript on file at University of Alabama, Office of Archae- ological Research...in the Formation of Edge Damage: A New Approach to Lithic Analysis . Journal of Field Archaeology 1(1-2): 171- 196. Watson, Patty Jo 1976 In Pursuit of

  6. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops ( figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  7. Specialized Processing of Aquatic Resources in Prehistoric Alaskan Pottery? : A Lipid-Residue Analysis of Ceramic Sherds from the Thule-Period Site of Nunalleq, Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jordan, Peter; Tache, Karine; Lucquin, Alexandre; Gibbs, Kevin; Jorge, Ana; Britton, Kate; Craig, Oliver; Knecht, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Largely missing from the debate surrounding the use of pottery among arctic and sub-arctic hunter-gatherers are site-based biomolecular studies of vessel contents. This study used lipid-residue analysis to elucidate vessel function at Nunalleq (GDN-248), a late Thule-period coastal village

  8. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern.

  9. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application...... of organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  10. Physical-chemical characterization of sediments from Lapa Grande de Taquaracu archaeological site, MG; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de sedimentos do sitio arqueologico Lapa Grande de Taquaracu, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, Diego Renan Giclioti

    2013-07-01

    In this project the elemental concentrations of Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 60 sediment samples from Lapa Grande de Taquaracu archaeological site, located in MG State. The samples were provided by Dr. Astolfo Gomes de Mello Araujo from the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, University of Sao Paulo. This site is a palaeoindian rockshelter located near Lagoa Santa karst with characteristics which could be used to test karst abandonment model during the Middle Holocene related to dry conditions. The results of elemental concentrations, interpreted by multivariate statistical analysis, showed the formation of three different compositional and well-defined groups. The variable selection study by means of Procrusts analysis was also carried out. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were also performed in 8 samples to study their mineralogical composition and they showed that there are distinctions in crystalline structure between the samples of the three elemental compositional groups, being quartz, calcite, dolomite and mica the main crystalline phases present in the samples. (author)

  11. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeremy M.; Niemi, Tina M.; Atallah, Mohammad

    2006-10-01

    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using paleoseismic and archaeological evidence collected from a trench excavated across the fault zone, we identified evidence for four ground-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating from key stratigraphic horizons and relative dating using potsherds constrains the dates of the four earthquakes from the sixth to the nineteenth centuries. Individual earthquakes were dated to the seventh, ninth and eleventh centuries. The fault strand that slipped during the most recent event (MRE) extends to just below the modern ground surface and juxtaposes alluvial-fan sediments that lack in datable material with the modern ground surface, thus preventing us from dating the MRE except to constrain the event to post-eleventh century. These data suggest that the historical earthquakes of 634 or 659/660, 873, 1068, and 1546 probably ruptured this fault segment.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  13. 青藏高原边缘地区史前遗址2009年调查试掘报告%A Preliminary Report on Investigations in 2009 of Some Prehistoric Sites in the Tibetan Plateau Marginal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪明洁; 高星; 张晓凌; 孙永娟; P.Jeffrey Brantingham; David B.Madsen; David Rhode

    2011-01-01

    2009年6月-7月,在青藏高原边缘地区调查、试掘了6处遗址,获得一批石制品、动物骨骼残片、火塘等材料.石制品多数个体较小,类型包括石核、石片、工具、断块、细石核、细石叶等.通过对比出土材料及部分遗址测年数据判断,6处遗址的年代处于13ka BP左右的晚更新世至全新世.此次调查试掘,丰富了该区域人类活动的证据,对研究青藏高原环境变化、古人类的适应生存过程及技术交流有一定意义.%During a systematic archaeological investigation from June to July 2009, six sites were discovered in the Tibetan Plateau marginal region.A large number of archaeological remains such as stone artifacts, broken animal bones, hearths, and charcoal was unearthed.The stone artifacts consisted of cores, flakes, chunks, microblade cores, microblades, and retouched tools.Some of the scrapers were retouched in great detail.The stone assemblage of this region shows that the flake industry and microblade industry were used synchronously at the majority of sites.Some charcoal collected from the hearths yielded radiocarbon dates.For example, the age of Yantaidong (also called "Ten Hearths") was about 10360 ± 60 BP, and Baifosi (also called "White Buddha Temple") was dated to 4280±40BP.Based on evidence from the sites discovered in this region, we suggest that humans move into Tibetan Plateau 8radually.This region provided humans with an extensive and broad spectrum of foodstuffs, opportunities for toolmaking technology, access to natural resources and warm and wet conditions during the interglacial stage.Between 40- 25ka BP (last interglacial), the climate was moist and warm, which gave humans the opportunity to move into the region.There is some archaeological evidence that clearly showed a human presence in this region around 30ka BP, in the form of seasonal resources.The Lenghu Locality 1 and Xiao Qaidam Lake are possible sites dating to this time but there still

  14. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  15. Small drones for geo-archaeology in the steppe: locating and documenting the archaeological heritage of the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczipka, M.; Bemmann, J.; Piezonka, H.; Munkabayar, J.; Ahrens, B.; Achtelik, M.; Lehmann, F.

    2009-09-01

    The international project "Geo-Archaeology in the Steppe - Reconstruction of Cultural Landscapes in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia" was set up in July 2008. It is headed by the Department of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology of Bonn University. The project aims at the study of prehistoric and historic settlement patterns, human impact on the environment and the relation between towns and their hinterland in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia. The multidisciplinary project is mainly sponsored for three years by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and bridges archaeology, natural sciences and engineering (sponsorship code 01UA0801C). Archaeologists of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences and of the Bonn University, geographers of Free University Berlin, geophysics of the Institute for Photonic Technology Jena and the RWTH Aachen University, and geographers and engineers of the German Aerospace Centre Berlin collaborate in the development of new technologies and their application in archaeology1. On the basis of Russian aerial photographs from the 1970s, an initial evaluation regarding potential archaeological sites was made. Due to the poor geometric and radiometric resolution of these photographs, identification of archaeological sites in many cases remained preliminary, and detailed information on layout and size could not be gained. The aim of the flight campaign in September 2008 was therefore the confirmation of these sites as well as their high resolution survey. A 10 megapixel range finder camera was used for the recording of high resolution aerial photography. This image data is suited for accurate determination and mapping of selected monuments. The airborne camera was adapted and mounted on an electrically operated eight propeller small drone. Apart from high resolution geo-referenced overview pictures, impressive panoramic images and very high resolution overlapping image data was recorded for photogrammetric stereoscopic

  16. Utility of multiple chemical techniques in archaeological residential mobility studies: case studies from Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Price, T Douglas

    2007-01-01

    In the south central Andes, archaeologists have long debated the extent of Tiwanaku colonization during the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000). We tested the hypotheses regarding the nature of Tiwanaku influence using strontium isotope, trace element concentration, and oxygen isotope data from archaeological human tooth enamel and bone from Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the south central Andes. Strontium isotope analysis of 25 individuals buried at the Tiwanaku-affiliated Moquegua Valley site of Chen Chen demonstrates that it was likely a Tiwanaku colony. In contrast, no immigrants from the Lake Titicaca Basin were present in 27 individuals analyzed from the San Pedro de Atacama cemeteries of Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, and Solcor-3; it is likely that these sites represent economic and religious alliances, but not colonies. However, strontium isotope analysis alone cannot distinguish movement between the Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the Moquegua and Ilo Valleys of southern Peru. Analyzing oxygen isotope and trace element concentration data and comparing it with strontium isotope data from the same individuals provides a more detailed picture of residential mobility in the Tiwanaku and Chiribaya polities. In addition to monitoring diagenetic contamination, trace element concentration data identified movement during adulthood for certain individuals. However, these data could not distinguish movement between the Moquegua and Ilo Valleys. While oxygen isotope data could clearly distinguish the high-altitude sites from others, more data is needed to characterize the local oxygen isotope ratios of these regions. These data demonstrate the potential for archaeological reconstruction of residential mobility through multiple lines of evidence.

  17. It's all in the pixels: high resolution remote sensing data and the mapping and analysis of the archaeological and historical landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Meylemans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Flanders (Belgium a large amount of remote-sensing data has been acquired and processed over the past few years, including high-resolution lidar and multi/hyperspectral aerial photography. These new data are contributing to the detection of archaeological sites and the characterisation of the cultural/historical landscape. Of particular use in historically stable areas under forest and pasture, lidar demonstrates the presence of a large number of previously unknown features and sites. The analysis and modelling of these data, combined with other landscape data such as soil maps, augering data, geological and historical maps, and aerial photographs, also provide possible new instruments for the characterisation and evaluation of prehistoric and historic landscapes. This vast amount of new remote-sensing data, plus the information it delivers, however, presents not only obvious opportunities but also a number of challenges. A centralised online system was developed by the 'GIS-Flanders agency', storing both processed and raw data from multispectral recordings, airborne lidar, mobile mapping images etc., and presenting several download and visualisation possibilities and tools. A new system has also been set up to handle specific archaeological and cultural historical data (historical images and aerial photographs, archaeological field data. Dialogue is needed so that the preservation and management needs of the archaeological heritage are also included.

  18. review of the archaeological evidence for food plants from the British Isles: an example of the use of the Archaeobotanical Computer Database (ABCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Tomlinson

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The Archaeobotanical Computer Database is an electronic compilation of information about remains of plants from archaeological deposits throughout the British Isles. For the first time, this wealth of published data, much of it post-dating Godwin's (1975 History of the British Flora has been brought together in a form in which the user can explore the history of a particular species or group of plants, or investigate the flora and vegetation of a particular archaeological period or part of the British Isles. The database contains information about the sites, deposits and samples from which the remains in question have been recovered, together with details of the plant parts identified and their mode of preservation. It also provides some interpretative guidance concerning the integrity of contexts and the reliability of dating as an aid to judging the quality of the data available. In this paper the compilers of the ABCD make use of the database in order to review the archaeological evidence for food plants in the British Isles. The paper begins with a definition of its scope, examining the concept of a "food plant" and the taphonomy of plant remains on British archaeological sites. It then summarises the principal changes in food plants from the prehistoric period to post-medieval times. The body of the paper is a detailed discussion of the evidence for the use of berries, other fruits, vegetables, pulses, herbs and flavourings, oil plants, cereals and nuts. Finally, the paper compares the archaeological evidence with that known from documentary sources. Readers will be able to view the archaeological evidence as distribution maps and will be able to explore aspects of the database online, enabling queries by taxa, site or worker. Instructions on obtaining electronic copies of the database tables and registering as an ABCD user are also included.

  19. Temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites in the Nihewan-Huliu Basin during the Paleolithic-Neolithic and Iron Age in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R. X.; Li, X. Z.; Zhang, W.

    2016-11-01

    The Nihewan-Huliu Basin is one of the great regions of human evolution, located in geographical transition zone. This study reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites based on the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, and analyses the changes for four periods (Paleolithic-Neolithic transition, Neolithic Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age). These sites expanded from the Sanggan River to the Huliu River and from the central and lower Huliu River to its upper reaches. The population and cultural development in the Nihewan Basin gradually lagged behind the Huliu River Baisin after the Paleolithic-Neolithic transition Age, because of the environmental impacts. The results may aid the understanding and study of the cultural heritage and civilization evolution in northern China.

  20. 内蒙古赤峰市兴隆沟聚落遗址2002~2003年的发掘%2002-2003 Excavation on the Settlement-site at Xinglonggou in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古第一工作队

    2004-01-01

    In 2002- 2003, the First Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, carried out two seasons of excavation on the Xinglonggou site. The work resulted in the confirmation of the first locality as a large-sized settlement of the middle Xinglongwa culture (8000-7500 BP). The significant findings in dwelling form, settlement layout, burial custom, primitive religion, economic formation and environmental archaeology represent a new type in the Xinglongwa culture. The second locality is left over from a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Hongshan culture (5500-5000 BP). Its discovery made up the gap of late Hongshan Culture sites in the prehistoric data. The third locality remains of a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (4000-3500BP), which offers new material for studying the civilizing course and early state form of the West Liaohe River valley. The excavation of the Xinglonggou site will forcefully promote the deep-going study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in Northeast China and exert active influence upon the research on Sino-Japanese cultural relations in prehistoric times.

  1. The Landscape and Archaeology of Jebel Sabaloka and the Sixth Nile Cataract, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Suková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are only six cataracts on the Main Nile of which the sixth Nile cataract located ca. 80 km downstream of the confluence of the Blue and White Niles represents the southernmost and smallest of theseries. Despite its close vicinity to Khartoum, this area was the least studied cataract zone along the Middle Nile until 2009 when it became the object of geoarchaeological research by the Czech Institute of Egyptology (Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague and the Institute of Geology (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Four field campaigns have been carried out in Jebel Sabaloka and the Sixth Nile Cataract up to now, of which the first two were focused on landscape archaeology of a “large scale”, i.e. on the recognition of all observable human influencesin the research area of approx. 15×20 km. The main result of the first landscape archaeological reconnaissance consistsin the localisation and first description of ca. 30 major sites spanning from the Middle Palaeolithic up to the recent past. A peculiar archaeological feature of this part of the nile Valley has turned out to be the existence of a dense network of terraced “villages” connected via old paths with the Nile and with the periphery of the mountains. Furthermore, two Christian and Islamic forts have been found at places guarding the crossing of the Nile above the sixth cataract. Last but not least, a large number of prehistoric sites, including an extraordinarily rich settlement dated to the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, has been described as well. After the first two seasons, the findings of which are summarised in this paper, it can be argued that the last of the six Nile cataracts to be investigated has finally begun to reveal its rich and hitherto unknown archaeological past.

  2. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  3. Archaeological Site Vulnerability Modelling: The Influence of High Impact Storm Events on Models of Shoreline Erosion in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Rourke Michael J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the Inuvialuit archaeological record is situated along shorelines of the western Canadian Arctic. These coastal sites are at substantial risk of damage due to a number of geomorphological processes at work in the region. The identification of threatened heritage remains is critical in the Mackenzie Delta, where landscape changes are taking place at an increasingly rapid pace. This paper outlines some preliminary observations from a research program directed toward identifying vulnerable archaeological remains within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Coastal erosion rates have been calculated for over 280 km of the Kugmallit Bay shoreline, extending along the eastern extent of Richards Island and neighbouring areas of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. Helicopter surveys conducted during the 2014 field season confirmed that areas exposed to heavy erosive forces in the past continue to erode at alarming rates. Some of the calculated rates, however, have proven far too conservative. An extreme period of erosion at Toker Point in the autumn of 2013 has yielded a prime example of how increasingly volatile weather patterns can influence shoreline erosion models. It has also provided a case with which to demonstrate the value of using more recent, shorter time-interval imagery in assessing impacts to cultural landscapes.

  4. Before Smith’s Mill: Archaeological and Geological Investigations, Smithville Lake, Missouri. Volume 1. Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    longer and broader than Variant A. This form may correspond with specimens designated B2x by Wood (1960), and Bla and B2a from the Pomme de Terre ...Archaeological Investigations at the Pomme de Terre Springs. In Wood, W. R. and R. B. McMillian, eds., Prehistoric Man and His Environments - A Case Study...London, Cambridge University Press. 475 pp. 0 Chapman, Carl H., 1954, Preliminary Salvage Archaeology in the Posse de Terre Reservoir Area, Missouri

  5. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    , Jabalpur, Rewa, Sidhi, Bastar, Raipur, Bilaspur, Raisen, Sehore, Guna, Gwalior etc. by Archaeological Survey of India and many universities. An attempt has been made in this paper to give a clear picture of Stone Age succession in Madhya Pradesh from Lower...

  6. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  7. Technologies for Prehistoric & Historic Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Archaeological remains and historic structures and landscapes are important tangible reminders of the United States' rich and diverse cultural heritage. In recent years the stresses on these unique, nonrenewable cultural resources have increased dramatically. This report presents the primary findings of an assessment requested by the House of…

  8. New Luminescence Ages for the Galería Complex Archaeological Site: Resolving Chronological Uncertainties on the Acheulean Record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee J.; Parés, Josep M.; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Ortega, Ana I.; Arsuaga, Juan L.; Bermúdez de Castro, José M.; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain), has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts) belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth), as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data). For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50%) younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL) chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb) at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka), while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa) was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4). The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka). Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  9. New luminescence ages for the Galería Complex archaeological site: resolving chronological uncertainties on the acheulean record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee J; Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Ortega, Ana I; Arsuaga, Juan L; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain), has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts) belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth), as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data). For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50%) younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL) chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb) at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka), while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa) was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4). The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka). Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  10. New luminescence ages for the Galeria Complex archaeological site: resolving chronological uncertainties on the acheulean record of the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Demuro

    Full Text Available The archaeological karstic infill site of Galería Complex, located within the Atapuerca system (Spain, has produced a large faunal and archaeological record (Homo sp. aff. heidelbergensis fossils and Mode II lithic artefacts belonging to the Middle Pleistocene. Extended-range luminescence dating techniques, namely post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL dating of individual quartz grains, were applied to fossil-bearing sediments at Galería. The luminescence dating results are in good agreement with published chronologies derived using alternative radiometric dating methods (i.e., ESR and U-series dating of bracketing speleothems and combined ESR/U-series dating of herbivore teeth, as well as biochronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions inferred from proxy records (e.g., pollen data. For the majority of samples dated, however, the new luminescence ages are significantly (∼50% younger than previously published polymineral thermoluminescence (TL chronologies, suggesting that the latter may have overestimated the true burial age of the Galería deposits. The luminescence ages obtained indicate that the top of the basal sterile sands (GIb at Galería have an age of up to ∼370 thousand years (ka, while the lowermost sub-unit containing Mode II Acheulean lithics (base of unit GIIa was deposited during MIS 9 (mean age = 313±14 ka; n = 4. The overlying units GIIb-GIV, which contain the richest archaeopalaeontological remains, were deposited during late MIS 8 or early MIS 7 (∼240 ka. Galería Complex may be correlative with other Middle Pleistocene sites from Atapuerca, such as Gran Dolina level TD10 and unit TE19 from Sima del Elefante, but the lowermost archaeological horizons are ∼100 ka younger than the hominin-bearing clay breccias at the Sima de los Huesos site. Our results suggest that both pIR-IR and single-grain TT

  11. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  12. Ancient DNA analyses of early archaeological sites in New Zealand reveal extreme exploitation of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) at all life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Walter, Richard; Scofield, R. Paul; Haile, James; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael; Jacomb, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The human colonisation of New Zealand in the late thirteenth century AD led to catastrophic impacts on the local biota and is among the most compelling examples of human over-exploitation of native fauna, including megafauna. Nearly half of the species in New Zealand' s pre-human avifauna are now extinct, including all nine species of large, flightless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The abundance of moa in early archaeological sites demonstrates the significance of these megaherbivores in the diet of the first New Zealanders. Combining moa assemblage data, based on DNA identification of eggshell and bone, with morphological identification of bone (literature and museum catalogued specimens), we present the most comprehensive audit of moa to date from several significant 13th-15th century AD archaeological deposits across the east coast of the South Island. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from 251 of 323 (78%) eggshell fragments and 22 of 27 (88%) bone samples, and the analyses revealed the presence of four moa species: Anomalopteryx didiformis; Dinornis robustus; Emeus crassus and Euryapteryx curtus. The mtDNA, along with polymorphic microsatellite markers, enabled an estimate of the minimum number of individual eggs consumed at each site. Remarkably, in one deposit over 50 individual eggs were identified - a number that likely represents a considerable proportion of the total reproductive output of moa in the area and emphasises that human predation of all life stages of moa was intense. Molecular sexing was conducted on bones (n = 11). Contrary to previous ancient DNA studies from natural sites that consistently report an excess of female moa, we observed an excess of males (2.7:1), suggestive that males were preferential targets. This could be related to different behaviour between the two highly size-dimorphic sexes in moa. Lastly, we investigated the moa species from recovered skeletal and eggshell remains from seven Wairau Bar burials, and identified

  13. Mössbauer studies of prehistoric Cherokee pottery sherds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, K. M.; McKenzie, K. P.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy is a very useful tool in the examination and characterization of ancient pottery sherds. In this study, Mössbauer spectra for sherds and clay from the Warren Wilson Site, a prehistoric Native American (Cherokee) settlement in western North Carolina, were measured. Data from one sherd and samples from two clay beds indicate that the sherd was not made from local clays and was originally fired to 350 ‡C.

  14. Application of geoelectrical 3D probability tomography in a test-site of the archaeological park of Pompei (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaia, Raffaele; Patella, Domenico; Mauriello, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    The 3D geoelectric probability tomography method has been previously developed as a powerful approach to localize in the subsoil the sources of the apparent resistivity anomalies detected on the ground surface. We show that this method can be successfully applied in the archaeological park of Pompei to recognize buried remains of the ancient Roman urbanization including roads, squares and buildings which were heavily damaged and totally buried under a thick cover of volcanic fall products resulting from the well-known disastrous 79 AD Vesuvius eruption. A further development is made in this work concerning the identification of source poles and dipoles underground, ascribable to the physical centre of the bodies with anomalous resistivity and to their boundaries, respectively. Different imaging systems are used to enhance the quality of information derived from the tomography analysis.

  15. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  16. Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfiore, Cristina Maria, E-mail: cbelfio@unict.it [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy); Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio [Universita di Messina, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, C.da Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, Sant' Agata, Messina (Italy); Viccaro, Marco [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

  17. DATACIÓN DE TINAJAS ARQUEOLÓGICAS DEL SITIO GUACHIMONTONES, OCCIDENTE DE MESOAMÉRICA (Dating of Archaeological Jars from the Guachimontones Site, Western Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Novillo Verdugo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza un conjunto de fragmentos cerámicos correspondientes a tinajas de gran tamaño recuperadas en el sector de Talleres del sitio arqueológico Guachimontones, Jalisco, México (fig. 1. La cerámica en estudio guardaba relación con unidades habitacionales, sin embargo se desconocía su funcionalidad en este espacio. Por tal motivo se aplicaron técnicas arqueométricas y arqueomagnéticas para conocer su uso específico, su funcionamiento dentro de la organización social y su cronología. El punto de partida del análisis es la idea de que estas tinajas sirvieron para la preparación de tejuino (bebida fermentada elaborada a partir de maíz; esto se debe, en gran medida, a las comparaciones etnográficas con otras regiones. Los resultados obtenidos de la datación arqueomagnética nos permitieron comprobar que las tejuineras son parte del periodo Posclásico del sitio, y que las edades obtenidas son muy similares a las ya publicadas para el Posclásico del sitio arqueológico de Guachimontones. ENGLISH: This paper analyzes a set of ceramic fragments from giant jars (tejuineras recovered within the Guachimontones archaeological site, Jalisco State, Mexico. These jars, found at several ceramic workshops, are related to housing units. However, until now the use of these objects and their temporality has been unclear. In order to better characterize and date the archaeological context, archaeometric and archaeomagnetic investigations were performed. The starting point for the analysis is the idea that the jars were used for the preparation of tejuino (fermented drink made from corn; in large part, this theory is based on ethnographic comparisons with other regions. Through archaeomagnetic dating, it was found that tejuineras are dated to the Postclassic period, and that the dates obtained were very similar to those already published for the Guachimontones archaeological site.

  18. Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and model for the deposition of the Abdur Reef Limestone : context for an important archaeological site from the last interglacial on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggemann, JH; Buffler, RT; Guillaume, MMM; Walter, RC; von Cosel, R; Ghebretensae, BN; Berhe, SM

    2004-01-01

    Stone tools discovered within uplifted marine terraces along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea at the Abdur Archaeological Site, dated to 125 +/- 7 ka (the last interglacial, marine isotope stage 5e), show that early humans occupied coastal areas by this time [Walter et al. (2000) Nature 405, 65-69]. In

  19. Contribution of GIS and digital archaeology to the interpretation of stratigraphic relations on the Bronze Age site al-Khidr, Failaka island, State of Kuwait : Imagery analyses of trenches 22S and 22T - case study

    OpenAIRE

    Benediková, Lucia; Štolc, Svorad; Bartík, Martin; Ďuriš, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the stratigraphic analysis of the northern part of excavated KH-1 mound on al-Khidr site (Failaka island, State of Kuwait) based on the GIS and digital archaeology approaches. The results are compared with already published results of stratigraphic analysis based on the field observations only.

  20. Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and model for the deposition of the Abdur Reef Limestone: : context for an important archaeological site from the last interglacial on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Buffler, R.T; Guillaume, M.M; Walter, R.C; von Cosel, R; Ghebretensae, B.N.; Berhe, S.M

    2004-01-01

    Stone tools discovered within uplifted marine terraces along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea at the Abdur Archaeological Site, dated to 125±7 ka (the last interglacial, marine isotope stage 5e), show that early humans occupied coastal areas by this time [Walter et al. (2000) Nature 405, 65–69]. In the

  1. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  2. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  3. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye; Fairley, Helen; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  4. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and elemental analyses were carried out to determine whether the pottery found in the archaeological sites was locally made or trading items. Several clay samples from rivers in Ulu Kelantan such as Perias River, Chai River, Peralon River, Nenggiri River, Betis River and Jenera River were taken to be analysed. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mineralogical and elemental content of the pottery shards showed that the pottery shards did not originate from the Ulu Kelantan area and one of the samples contained clinochlore mineral. Clinochlore forms from the metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations of other iron and magnesium silicate minerals and is usually found in igneus rock and metamorphic rock formation.

  5. Archaeological investigations at a toolstone source area and temporary camp: Sample Unit 19-25, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Technical report No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.C.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Pippin, L.C.; Beck, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    Archaeological investigations were initiated at Sample Unit 19--25 to retrieve information concerning settlement and subsistence data on the aboriginal hunter and gatherers in the area. Studies included collection and mapping of 35.4 acres at site 26NY1408 and excavation and mapping of 0.02 acres at site 26NY7847. Cultural resources include two rock and brush structures and associated caches and a large lithic toolstone source area and lithic artifact scatter. Temporally diagnostic artifacts indicate periodic use throughout the last 12,000 years; however dates associated with projectile points indicate most use was in the Middle and Late Archaic. Radiocarbon dates from the rock and brush structures at site 26NY7847 indicate a construction date of A.D. 1640 and repair between A.D. 1800 and 1950 for feature 1 and between A.D. 1330 and 1390 and repair at A.D. 1410 for feature 2. The dates associated with feature 2 place its construction significantly earlier than similar structures found elsewhere on Pahute Mesa. Activity areas appear to reflect temporary use of the area for procurement of available lithic and faunal resources and the manufacture of tools.

  6. Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara

    2005-12-01

    Some archeoastronomical aspects regarding the development of observational astronomy in India during prehistoric times are described. A plea is made for the preservation of megalithic monuments of possible astronomical significance.

  7. Plant Remains from an Archaeological Site as Indicators of Vegetation and Agricultural Practice Between (3320±400) and (2080±80) yr BP in Gangetic West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruby Ghosh; Subir Bera; Ashalata D'Rozario; Manju Banerjee; Supriyo Chakraborty

    2006-01-01

    Diverse plant remains recovered from an archaeological site of Chalcolithic-Early Historic age in the Bhairabdanga area of Pakhanna (latitude 23°25′N, longitude 87°23′E), situated on the west bank of the Damodar river, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, include food grains, wood charcoals, and palynomorphs. Radiocarbon dating of the recovered biological remains reveal the age of the site as (3320±400) to (2080±80) yr BP. The food grains were identified as Oryza sativa L. and Vigna mungo L, and seeds of Brassica cf.campestris L. were also found; these indicate the agricultural practice and food habits of the ancient people living at Pakhanna from the Chalcolithic to the Early Historic period. Sediments including plant remains have been broadly divided into two zones, considering archaeological findings and radiocarbon dating. Analysis of the plant remains (i.e. wood charcoals and palynomorphs) in addition to cultivated food grains has revealed that a rich vegetation cover existed in this area, with a prevailing tropical and humid climate,comprising the timber-yielding plants Shorea sp., Terminalia sp., and Tamarindus sp., with undergrowths of diverse shrubs and herbs during the Chalcolithic period (zone Ⅰ) dated (3320±400) yr BP. Comparatively poorer representation and frequency of plant remains indicate a drier climate during the Early Historic period (zone Ⅱ) dated as (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. Comparisons of the archaeobotanical data recovered from the Chalcolithic and Early Historic period and also a principle components analysis indicate a change in the climate of the area from tropical and humid at (3 320 ± 400) yr BP to tropical and drier conditions at (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. The present-day tropical, dry deciduous vegetation of the area suggests that climate change has occurred in the area since the contemporaneous past. The plant remains database has been utilized to reconstruct the settlement pattern of the community living

  8. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  9. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  10. 陶寺、殷墟白灰面的红外光谱研究%Study on Archaeological Lime Powders from Taosi and Yinxu Sites by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国锋; 张晨; 陈国梁; 何毓灵; 高江涛; 张秉坚

    2015-01-01

    采用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)对天然石灰石、模拟白灰面以及采自陶寺遗址和殷墟遗址的白灰面进行了分析检测,以探明陶寺和殷墟遗址白灰面所用原料。结果显示,人工烧制石灰碳化后所形成的方解石,其ν2/ν4比值高达6.31,明显高于天然石灰石中的方解石,从而表明人工烧制石灰碳化所形成的方解石较之天然石灰石中的方解石具有较高的晶体无序度;随着研磨程度的增加,天然石灰石中的方解石和人工烧制石灰碳化形成的方解石,其ν2和ν4值逐渐减小,人工烧制石灰碳化形成方解石的ν2-ν4特征趋势线斜率较高,从而为考古出土人工烧制石灰的判定提供了一种简便、有效的方法。根据此判别方法,陶寺和殷墟遗址的白灰面很可能是采用人工烧制石灰所制备的,表明中国古代先民在距今4300多年的新石器时代晚期已掌握了石灰烧制技术。%Archaeological lime powders samples from Taosi and Yinxu sites,natural limestone and experimentally prepared lime mortar were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR)to identify the raw material of lime pow-ders from Taosi and Yinxu sites.Results show thatν2/ν4 ratio of calcite resulted from carbonation reaction of man-made lime is around 6.31,which is higher than that of calcite in natural limestone and reflects the difference in the disorder of calcite crystal structure among the natural limestone and prepared lime mortar.With additional grinding,the values ofν2 andν4 in natural lime-stone and prepared lime mortar decrease.Meanwhile,the trend lines ofν2 versusν4 for calcite in experimentally prepared lime mortar have a steeper slope when compared to calcite in natural limestone.These imply thatν2/ν4 ratio and the slope of the trend lines ofν2 versusν4 can be used to determine the archaeological man-made lime.Based on the experiment results,it is

  11. De arqueología menorquina: Maria Lluïsa Serra Belabre y los círculos talayóticos de Sant Vicenç d’Alcaidús (Alaior, Menorca. – Menorcan archaeology: Maria Lluïsa Serra Belabre, the talayotic circles and Sant Vicenç d’Alcaidús (Alaior, Minorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Torres Gomariz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Lluïsa Serra Belabre (1911 – 1967 was a Minorcan archaeologist who devoted her life to the cultural heritage of the island where she was born. Director of the Cultural Centre of Mahon (Minorca, among many other positions she held, she studied the history of Menorca tirelessly through their archives, libraries and archaeological sites. In this paper, her research will be addressed only in the field of Archaeology of Balearic Islands, especially in its analysis of the architectural forms of prehistoric island communities, through their numerous conferences and papers published in journals. Of all the sites in which she intervened, he highlights Sant Vicenç d’Alcaidús (Alaior, Minorca, stands out as the interpretive key to her theories on Talayotic houses.

  12. Marine geophysical methods for archaeological investigation of volcanic and bradyseismic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giordano

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to test several geophysical methods for the identification and study of submerged prehistorical coastlines and archaeological sites. This research program was carried out in collaboration with the <> in the Gulf of Pozzuoli and dealt in particular with the bathymetric strips extending from - 5 m to - 50 m Within these strips we identified the coastline dating from the Rornan period. former beach boundaries associated with the vertical movements of the earth's surface caused by seismic-volcanic activity, and the variations in sea level following the climactic changes throughout the last 15000 years. The UNIBOOM system was used for this part of the programme, perinittiilg the identification of several coastlines and submerged beaches lying at different levels. The use of a modern Side Scan Sonar - for the morphological invesdgation of the sea bed - in a zone which had been the object of numerous archaeological surveys in the past, permitted previously unknown structures near the Lacuus Baianus to be identified. Other features worth pointing out include the operating speed of the system (15000 m'lfirst minute approx and its observation capacity in cloudy waters compared to visible radiation, as well as its ability to penetrate thin layers of mud which generally impede direct underwater observation.

  13. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  14. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  15. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    ¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total...

  16. An Archaeology of the Troubles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    contentious remnants of the conflict and has become central to debates about what we do with such sites, what they mean, and how they relate to contemporary rememberings of the difficult recent past. The only independent archaeological investigation of Long Kesh / Maze prior to its partial demolition...

  17. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal...... species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron...

  18. A Dynamical Analysis of the Suitability of Prehistoric Spheroids from the Cave of Hearths as Thrown Projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Zhu, Qin; Barham, Lawrence; Stanistreet, Ian; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-10

    Spheroids are ball-shaped stone objects found in African archaeological sites dating from 1.8 million years ago (Early Stone Age) to at least 70,000 years ago (Middle Stone Age). Spheroids are either fabricated or naturally shaped stones selected and transported to places of use making them one of the longest-used technologies on record. Most hypotheses about their use suggest they were percussive tools for shaping or grinding other materials. However, their size and spherical shape make them potentially useful as projectile weapons, a property that, uniquely, humans have been specialised to exploit for millions of years. Here we show (using simulations of projectile motions resulting from human throwing) that 81% of a sample of spheroids from the late Acheulean (Bed 3) at the Cave of Hearths, South Africa afford being thrown so as to inflict worthwhile damage to a medium-sized animal over distances up to 25 m. Most of the objects have weights that produce optimal levels of damage from throwing, rather than simply being as heavy as possible (as would suit other functions). Our results show that these objects were eminently suitable for throwing, and demonstrate how empirical research on behavioural tasks can inform and constrain our theories about prehistoric artefacts.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological samples (sambaqui) using CO(2) absorption and liquid scintillation spectrometry of low background radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Maria Lúcia T G; Godoy, José M; da Cruz, Rosana P; Perez, Rhoneds A R

    2006-01-01

    Sambaqui means, in the Tupi language, a hill of shells. The sambaquis are archaeological sites with remains of pre-historical Brazilian occupation. Since the sambaqui sites in the Rio de Janeiro state region are older than 10,000 years, the applicability of CO(2) absorption on Carbo-sorb and (14)C determination by counting on a low background liquid scintillation counter was tested. In the present work, sambaqui shells were treated with H(3)PO(4) in a closed vessel in order to generate CO(2). The produced CO(2) was absorbed on Carbo-sorb. On saturation about 0.6g of carbon, as CO(2), was mixed with commercial liquid scintillation cocktail (Permafluor), and the (14)C activity determined by counting on a low background counter, Packard Tricarb 3170 TR/SL, for a period of 1000 mins to enable detection of a radiocarbon age of 22,400 BP. But only samples with ages up to 3500 BP were submitted to the method because the samples had been collected in the municipality of Guapimirim, in archaeological sambaqui-type sites belonging to this age range. The same samples were sent to the (14)C Laboratory of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP) where similar results were obtained.

  20. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  1. Palaeomagnetic results from an archaeological site near Rome (Italy: new insights for tectonic rotation during the last 0.5 Myr

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    M. Pirro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20 km north-east of Rome, along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by Roman engineers. This site falls inside the Acque Albule Basin, a travertine plateau Upper Pleistocene in age, that has been interpreted as a rhombshaped pull-apart basin created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone. This study provides evidence that two narrow water channels of this aqueduct system were significantly deformed by tectonic movement that occurred subsequent to their construction (II-III century A.D.. The geometry of the deformation pattern is compatible with that expected for a shear zone bounded by N-S oriented, right-lateral faults. The palaeomagnetic study of the volcanic formation («Pozzolane Rosse» Formation, 457± 4 kyr containing the Roman aqueduct system evidences significant clockwise rotation around sub-vertical axis, consistent with the above-mentioned tectonic style.

  2. The estimation of D{sub e} using the fast and medium components in fired quartz from archaeological site Karakorum, Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solongo, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, Peace ave. 54b, 210654 Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) and Forschungsstelle Archaeometrie der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: saran@ipt.ac.mn; Wagner, G.A. [Forschungsstelle Archaeometrie der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften am Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Galbaatar, T. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, Peace ave. 54b, 210654 Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2006-08-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to estimate the radiation dose derived from environmental radiation since the last heating event-the production of brick, tile, terracotta figures and ceramics in the archaeological site Karakorum, Mongolia. The dose distributions of some quartz samples showed a large scatter in the D{sub e} obtained using the initial OSL signal. Isolation of components by curve fitting procedure revealed that the characteristics of dose distribution depend on the variability of the ratio fast to medium components within the aliquots considered. Using the infrared stimulation at 220 deg. C allowed depletion and the individual dose estimation of the medium OSL component, while the post-IR OSL gave less scatter in D{sub e} for the fast OSL component. Analytical tools such as D{sub e}(t)-plots, dose recovery tests and the component-resolved sensitivity changes aimed to identify and to diagnose the OSL signal composition, which can be used to estimate a correct mean D{sub e} value.

  3. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  4. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Misra

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar–Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500–1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide

  5. High-Precise Gravity Observations at Archaeological Sites: How We Can Improve the Interpretation Effectiveness and Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity investigations are comparatively rarely used for searching of hidden ancient targets (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2013). It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register microGal (10-8 m/s2) anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. Correspondingly, an accuracy of gravity variometers (gradientometers) is also sharply increased. How we can improve the interpretation effectiveness and reliability? Undoubtedly, it must be a multi-stage process. I believe that we must begin since nonconventional methodologies for reducing topographic effect and terrain correction computation. Topographic effect reducing The possibilities of reducing topographic effects by grouping the points of additional gravimetric observations around the central point located on the survey network were demonstrated in (Khesin et al., 1996). A group of 4 to 8 additional points is located above and below along the relief approximately symmetrically and equidistant from the central point. The topographic effect is reduced to the obtained difference between the gravity field in the center of the group and its mean value for the whole group. Application of this methodology in the gold-pyrite deposit Gyzyl-Bulakh (Lesser Caucasus, western Azerbaijan) indicated its effectiveness. Computation of terrain correction Some geophysicists compare the new ideas in the field of terrain correction (TC) in gravimetry with the 'perpetuum mobile' invention. However, when we speak about very detailed gravity observations, the problem of most optimal computation of surrounding relief influence is of a great importance. Let us will consider two approaches applied earlier in ore geophysics. First approach A first method was applied in the Gyzyl-Bulakh gold-pyrite deposit situated in the Mekhmana ore region of

  6. THE SMALL MAMMALS (INSECTIVORES, BATS AND RODENTS FROM THE HOLOCENE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF VALLONE INFERNO (SCILLATO, LOWER IMERA VALLEY, NORTHWESTERN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL LÓPEZ-GARCÍA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vallone Inferno rock-shelter is an archeological site located at 770 m a.s.l. in the Madonie massif in Sicily. This massif is modeled into the Triassic and Oligocene sedimentary rocks of the Imerese Basin. Thearchaeological excavations conducted since 2008 have provided a long prehistoric and historic sequence from the Neolithic to the medieval period. From the four sedimentary complexes identified, only levels 3.4 to 3.1 from complex 3 and 4.2 from complex 4 have yielded small-mammal material. Level 4.2 is poor in remains and as yet without cultural ascription, though it has a radiocarbon age of 9450±50 years BP. Level 3.4 has yielded fragments of ceramic characteristic of the Middle Neolithic-Bronze Age period, with a radiocarbon age between 3948±35 and3244±42 years BP. Levels 3.3 to 3.1 have provided ceramic fragments ascribed to the Late Roman-Byzantine period, with a radiocarbon age between1332±26 and 1260±34 years BP.The small-mammal assemblages recovered from the sieving-washing of all the sediment from the excavation campaigns include a total of at least 14 taxa (three insectivores, four chiropterans and seven rodents. The materials from this locality provide the first mention in the fossil record of Sicily for Suncus etruscus, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus and Rattus norvegicus, as well as the last occurrence for Arvicola amphibius. The scarcity of the remains recovered from stratigraphic levels 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 4.2 makes it difficult to undertake a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatical interpretation of them. However, the richness in small mammal contents from level 3.4 allow us to show that this level is dominated by dry meadows and woodland areas with a temperature and precipitation range that lies within the current values for the surrounding area, coinciding with the dry and temperate phase detected previously by marine surveys and pollen and microcharcoal studies. 

  7. A Report of Archaeological Testing at Site 3CT263 Within the Proposed Edmondson Wastewater Pond, Crittendon County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    and Mixing 15 Vernacular Architecture and Disappearing Structures 15 Site Formation and Preservation Factors 16 Archival and Field Methods 16...period format Paleoindian Period The Paleoindian period (ca. 11,500-9800 B.P I represents the earliest human occupation in the southeastern United...Governor of Louisiana, as a agent to the Chickasaw. In 1797 he moved from Ft. San Fernando de las Barrancas (present day Memphis) to a new fort on the

  8. The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Mammalia: Rodentia, found at the archaeological site SC PRV 02, Santa Catarina Island, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões-Lopes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina Island possesses dozens of archeological sites where the skeletal remains of a great array of animals can be found. The goal of this study was to quantify the skeletal remains of capybaras found at the archeological site SC PRV 02 (1067 to 1735 BP, located in the northern part of the island, along the shores of Lagoa da Conceição, a saltwater lagoon. Thirty-seven skeletal fragments of at least 12 different individuals were identified. The anatomic regions of the capybaras most sought-after by pre-colonial inhabitants were the anterior and posterior limbs. About 40% of the skeletal fragments did not show any epiphyseal fusion with the shaft. Approximately 48% of the fragments found presented evidence of human activity. Our analyses suggest that capybaras played an important role in the diet of these inhabitants and that they were also used for the confection of different functional goods. We diagnosed the manipulation techniques used to obtain these goods, such as percussion and transversal section. The evidence of carbonization and superficial incisions indicates dismembering, preparation, and consumption of capybaras for feeding. Similar techniques were found at other archeological sites of the same age, suggesting that even though pre-colonial inhabitants of the island were considered to be fishermen, capybaras represented a well-appreciated resource.

  9. SOME ETHNO-ARCHAEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES OF THE VEDDAS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M. Chandraratne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Veddas are considered to be the indigenous people of Sri Lanka. A century ago, the Veddas were scattered across the Eastern Province, and some parts of the North-Central and Uva Provinces, although at present they are confined to Bintanne that stretches to some parts of the Uva and Eastern provinces. This paper explores the subsistence pattern of the Veddas in Sri Lanka in relation to their old equipment and practices. It builds on ethno-archaeological interpretations drawing from archaeological evidence from Prehistoric to Historical periods. Evidence of interaction of humans, technology,faunal and floral resources found from archaeological sites in relation to subsistence was interpreted through the method of ethnographic analogy. Evidence suggests that during the historical period, the Veddas lived in various parts of Sri Lanka including Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Ratnapura, Buttala, Tambalagam pattu, Kattakulam pattu, Bintannae, Nilgala and Batticaloa. They bartered deer hide, dried flesh, cotton and honey for rice, Kurrakkan (Elusine coracana , tobacco, salt, clothes and iron arrow heads a century ago. The existence of charred bones and arrow head type of bone tools shows the practice of hunting during the protohistoric and early historic periods. The Veddas did not adopt Sinhalese mode of life up till the 19th century. However, acculturation is gradually taking place at least in the lifestyle of Veddas in Dambana at present. Especially the Anuradhapura Veddas who lived outside the Bintanne area do not seem to possess traditional Vedda livelihoods, and maintain a lifestyle comparable with the Sinhalese Buddhist culture. Based on the above evidence, the paper concludes that the subsistence patterns of Veddas prior to the last century are quite comparable with similar evidence found from the Mesolithic, Proto and the Early Historic periods in Sri Lanka, though a certain decline in the distinction between Vedda culture and the dominant culture

  10. Stockton Lake Survey and Assessment. National Register Assessment of Prehistoric Archeological Sites 23DA407 and 23DA408 and Historic Properties Survey in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pomme de Terre reservoirs, principal investigators generally agree that the culture history and chronology of the...1992 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri. Report of Investigations, No. 33...Conservation Program, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Haynes, C. Vance 1976 Late Quaternary Geology of the Lower Pomme de Terre Valley. In

  11. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  12. Geophysical exploration for preserving archaeological site in construction projects; Kokudo no kaihatsu to iseki hozon no tame no butsuri tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    When considering more harmonious ways of mutual existence of development and preservation of buried cultural assets subjected to today`s social demand, how far can exploration of archeological sites make a contribution. This paper discusses the possibility thereof while introducing some examples of explorations done in recent years. The geophysical exploration includes the following groups of ancient tombs (field improvement operations using underground radar), remains of ditches around ancient temples (construction of golf courses using underground radar and electric exploration), castles in the modern period (urban redevelopment using electric exploration and underground radar), castles in the medieval period (improvement of parks in hilly areas using underground radar), moated settlements (improvement of historic site parks using underground radar and electric exploration), remains of settlements (land improvement operations using underground radar), two kiln remains (highway construction using magnetic exploration), bronze wares (road construction using electromagnetic method and metal exploration), and remains of stream sluices in the modern period (development of four rivers using underground radar, specific resistance imaging method, and gravity exploration). It is intended to take up as a theme for the future development issues that how archeological conceptions should be `fused` into scientific technologies. 5 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Mythological and Prehistorical Origins of Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush

    2016-05-01

    Mythology has a cultural appeal, and the description of some neurosurgical procedures in the Hindu, Greek, Egyptian, and Chinese mythology has a bearing to the origins of our professions. The traces to some of our modern-day practices also can be linked back to the ancient prehistoric eras of the Siberian, Persian, and the Andean region. In this historical perspective, we briefly dwell into individual accounts through the prism of different cultures to highlight the development of neurosurgery in mythology and prehistoric era.

  14. Alluvial systems as archives for environmental change at a Hominid site with Oldowan archaeological occurrences: the Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thomas; Whitfield, Elizabeth; Kirby, Jason; Hunt, Christopher; Bishop, Laura; Plummer, Thomas; Ditchfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Homa Peninsula, southwestern Kenya, preserves fossiliferous sedimentary sequences dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. Evidence of hominids inhabiting an open grassland setting and utilising Oldowan tools has been reported here, as well as some of the oldest known traces of hominin activity. Reconstructions of the palaeoenvironment have suggested that alluvial and lake marginal environments on a grassy plain, between wooded slopes and a permanent water body might be plausible. However, these interpretations are based only on field sedimentological analyses and stable isotope analysis at a single site on the peninsula (Kanjera South). It is the aim of this study to utilise a multiproxy approach to develop our understanding of the palaeoenvironmental characteristics here. Sediments will also be characterized at a new site (Nyayanga) through field analyses, as well as through analyses of particle size, siliceous microfossils (diatoms, phytoliths and sponge spicules), pollen and stable isotopes. By utilizing this approach, new insights into the palaeoecology, palaeohydromorphology and palaeoclimate of the locale may be revealed, expanding the limited data available to palaeoanthropological studies of Oldowan occurrences in east Africa. Efforts to refine palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Kanjera South through particle size analysis have shown that sediments in the lower beds of the sequence are characterised by poor sorting, a bimodal distribution and sand/silty-sand grade material. This suggests rapid deposition and/or a variable hydrological regime and may represent the role of relatively unconfined ephemeral channels in the transportation and deposition of sediments. Fluvial reworking of aeolian sediments, most likely during unconfined flood events may also have occurred.

  15. Basalt Pb isotope analysis and the prehistoric settlement of Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisler, M I; Woodhead, J D

    1995-03-14

    The prehistoric settlement of the Pacific Ocean has intrigued scholars and stimulated anthropological debate for the past two centuries. Colonized over a few millennia during the mid to late Holocene, the islands of the Pacific--displaying a wide diversity of geological and biotic variability--provided the stage for endless "natural experiments" in human adaptation. Crucial to understanding the evolution and transformation of island societies is documenting the relative degree of interisland contacts after island colonization. In the western Pacific, ideal materials for archaeologically documenting interisland contact--obsidian, pottery, and shell ornaments--are absent or of limited geographic distribution in Polynesia. Consequently, archaeologists have relied increasingly on fine-grained basalt artifacts as a means for documenting colonization routes and subsequent interisland contacts. Routinely used x-ray fluorescence characterization of oceanic island basalt has some problems for discriminating source rocks and artifacts in provenance studies. The variation in trace and major element abundances is largely controlled by near-surface magma-chamber processes and is broadly similar between most oceanic islands. We demonstrate that Pb isotope analysis accurately discriminates rock source and is an excellent technique for charting the scale, frequency, and temporal span of imported fine-grained basalt artifacts found throughout Polynesia. The technique adds another tool for addressing evolutionary models of interaction, isolation, and cultural divergence in the eastern Pacific.

  16. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  17. Space Archaeology: Attribute, Object, Task and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new

  18. Chemical-physical and mineralogical investigation on ancient mortars from the archaeological site of Monte Sannace (Bari-Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, P.; Calabrese, D.; Di Pierro, M.; Genga, A.; Laganara, C.; Manigrassi, D.A.P.; Traini, A.; Ubbriaco, P

    2004-08-15

    This study concerns experimental results of a chemical-physical and mineralogical characterisation of some mortars, sampled by different masonries brought to light during excavations of the site of Monte Sannace. The aim of the research is to provide, through the characterisation of the mortar samples and the relative raw materials, useful information in order to define the stages of construction and the workers' technological knowledge during different historical periods. DTA/TG/DTG thermoanalytical investigations and X-ray diffractometry analyses can allow to define the nature of both the binder and aggregate materials. As regards a specific mortar with hydraulic behaviour such a study has allowed to recognise also the residual reactivity towards lime of the 'pozzolanic' sand, rich in volcanic ashes, used as aggregate in the original mortar. The thermoanalytical and X-ray diffractometric results together with the granulometric and chemical determinations allow to get information about the preparation techniques of binding materials of old masonries.

  19. Assessing automated image analysis of sand grain shape to identify sedimentary facies, Gran Dolina archaeological site (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2016-12-01

    Gran Dolina is a cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) infilled by a 25 m thick sedimentary record, divided into 12 lithostratigraphic units that have been separated into 19 sedimentary facies containing Early and Middle Pleistocene hominin remains. In this paper, an automated image analysis method has been used to study the shape of the sedimentary particles. Since particle shape is interpreted as the result of sedimentary transport and sediment source, this study can provide valuable data about the sedimentological mechanism of sequence formation. The shape of the sand fraction in 73 samples from Gran Dolina site and Sierra de Atapuerca was analyzed using the Malvern Morphologi G3, an advanced particle characterization tool. In this first complete test, we used this method to the published sequence of Gran Dolina, defined previously through field work observations and geochemical and textural analysis. The results indicate that this image analysis method allows differentiation of the sedimentary facies, providing objective tools to identify weathered layers and measure the textural maturity of the sediments. Channel facies have the highest values of circularity and convexity, showing the highest textural maturity of particles. On the other hand, terra rossa and debris flow samples show similar values, with the lowest particle maturity.

  20. Trajectories and temporalities of later prehistoric embanked field systems in Northwestern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette; Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers the first systematic account of the development of late prehistoric landscape enclosure, in Northwestern Europe. The study provides groundbreaking core research in that it builds on an exceptionally large amount of dated sites as well as highly detailed micro scale evidence, com...

  1. 3D Modeling Method of Archaeological Sites Based on Hand Drawings%基于手绘图件的考古遗址三维建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冰仙; 周良辰; 盛业华; 闾国年

    2014-01-01

    考古遗址是研究古代人类活动的重要场所。重建考古遗址三维模型对于历史回溯、古环境恢复和古迹保护等考古工作均具有重要的意义。传统考古发掘过程中普遍采用的手绘图件难以实现考古现场环境的模拟与再现,也不能准确地反映出遗址中文化层与其所包含地物的空间关系。近年来,考古学家引入各类勘察新技术用于考古文化层与遗迹的三维建模,但这些方法无法应用于已完成发掘工作的遗址三维重建。针对这一问题,本文提出一种以考古发掘过程中普遍采用的手绘图件为数据源的考古遗址三维建模方法。该方法以探方为基本建模单元,将考古文化层与遗迹分开建模,利用探方分布图及探方图建立考古文化层三维模型,利用遗迹图建立考古遗迹三维模型,并以三维实体布尔运算方法,将两者无缝整合,构建完整的田野考古遗址三维模型。最后,以湖南澧县八十垱东区为研究区,验证了本文相关研究成果的有效性与实用性。实践证明,该方法能够充分利用传统考古过程中积累的大量资料,有助于将传统考古学在宏观尺度下的定性描述转化为现代“数字考古”中微观尺度的定量描述。%The archaeological sites are important places for the studying of ancient human activities. 3D model-ing of archaeological sites could be helpful in the context of archaeological excavation unit representation and analysis, and therefore have great significance for the archaeological works such as ancient environmental resto-ration and historic preservation. Nevertheless, most of the archaeologists are still relying on hand drawings of the excavation units for their analysis and interpretation. These 2D representations are difficult to make an effective simulation of the archaeological site environment and cannot accurately repent the geometric and spatial rela-tions of

  2. Archaeology and Science in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Elia Valori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The monuments and historical memories of a people are its non-biological DNA, through which a political system creates its identity. Archaeological research, the protection and valorization of artistic heritage in China envisages the glorification of Beijing’s unifying power, recreating, through the business of cultural and archaeological tourism, sustained economic development, especially in depressed areas, also by taking into consideration the relationship between ecology, cultural heritage and economic development. Protecting Chinese artistic and archaeological structures fosters the interest of the government for leading-edge technologies used in discovering, protecting and managing the most delicate and complex finds.  Italy can supply Beijing with these technologies, together with the know-how, developed over many years of care and analysis of some of the world’s greatest artistic heritage. With the use of these technologies, in accordance with legislation related to environmental  protection, artistic and archaeological finds can be studied thoroughly and rapidly, thus providing the possibility of learning about the context in which a work is inserted and allowing the whole site to be valorized.

  3. Archaeological Sites Inventory of the High Priority Portions of Training Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, and H of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-18

    1 2.0 PHY SICAL AND CULTURA L BA CK G RO UND...Verde (Dillehay 1989; Meltzer et al. 1997) in southern Chile . No apparent pre-Clovis remains have been encountered in southeastern Colorado or the... Chile . Smithsonian series in archaeological inquiry. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. Dixon, J. E. 1999 Bones, Boats, and Bison: Archaeology

  4. Use of archaeology to date liquefaction features and seismic events in the new madrid seismic zone, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Lafferty, R. H.; Guccione, M.J.; Schweig, E. S.; Lopinot, N.; Cande, R.F.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Haynes, M.

    1996-01-01

    Prehistoric earthquake-induced liquefaction features occur in association with Native American occupation horizons in the New Madrid seismic zone. Age control of these liquefaction features, including sand-blow deposits, sand-blow craters, and sand dikes, can be accomplished by extensive sampling and flotation processing of datable materials as well as archaeobotanical analysis of associated archaeological horizons and pits. This approach increases both the amount of carbon for radiocarbon dating and the precision dating of artifact assemblages. Using this approach, we dated liquefaction features at four sites northwest of Blytheville, Arkansas, and found that at least one significant earthquake occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone between A.D. 1180 and 1400, probably about A.D. 1300 ?? 100 yr. In addition, we found three buried sand blows that formed between 3340 B.C. and A.D. 780. In this region where very large to great earthquakes appear to be closely timed, archaeology is helping to develop a paleoearthquake chronology for the New Madrid seismic zone. ?? 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Archaeological Sites Inventory of the Training Area 10 and 12 Portions of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Kay Winchester and Courtney Yilk did a great job for us despite the fact that the bugs were thick and the temperatures were often extreme. Volunteers...but skunkbrush, bluestem, milkweed , and mountain mahogany also observed in the area. The soils are thin on this canyon slope, but silty clay of 20 cm...site is located on grassland, with sparse juniper trees along the terrace edge. Recorded vegetation includes blue grama, milkweed , threeawn, tree

  6. Connection of Geodesy and Archaeology in Modern Geovisualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poslončec-Petrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One type of thematic maps is also the map of archeological sites. In order to obtain high-quality cartographic presentation on thematic maps of archaeological sites, a cartographer must know the basic terms and classification of archaeology. The paper presents a few existing archaeological maps (static and interactive and there is also the interactive map of archaeological sites on the island Pag presented. The map has been made within the frame of the diploma thesis by a student Martina Triplat, and the data presented are the result of research made at the archaeological sites of the island Pag and of the geodetic works made at the excavation sites in Uvala Vlaška, the locality Blato and at the economic objects in the vicinity of the locality Blato.

  7. John Lubbock, caves, and the development of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Paul; White, Mark

    2014-01-01

    John Lubbock's Pre-Historic Times (1865) was the first publication to use the terms ‘Palaeolithic’ and ‘Neolithic’ to define major periods of early prehistory. Because of this he has come to be seen as one of the most influential figures in the history of prehistoric archaeology. We examine this image here, in terms of his influence on contemporaries both in Britain and in France, where early excavations were providing materials that came to form the basic periodization of the Palaeolithic that is still in use today. We show how Lubbock contributed to this emergence of a professional Palaeolithic archaeology, and what he did and did not achieve in the critical decades of the 1850s and 1860s before his interests moved elsewhere.

  8. Study of the paleolithic parietal art from the archaeological perspective: old ghosts / new approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Hernando Álvarez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the parietal palaeolithic graphic designs from an archaeological perspective, leaving aside the aesthetic ties of traditional historiography. Traditional European analysis techniques of palaeolithic rock art will be contrasted with new interdisciplinary applications, looking for an archaeological knowledge about the artistic graphic expression of prehistoric societies. Finally, a methodological trial will be suggestedapplying the Harris Matrix in the reading and arrangement (ordination of the palaeolithic graphic designs of the central panel of Llonin's cave (Peñamellera Alta, Asturias.

  9. The Toqua site, 40MR6: A late Mississippian, Dallas phase town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.; Polhemus, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Archaeological work in the Little Tennessee River Valley was very much affected by the fluctuations in the Tellico Reservoir scheduling and funding. Stated project goals were: ''Questions regarding Cherokee origins, culture change and acculturation, and the length of time during which the valley was inhabited by man will be among the major ones to be considered.'' From the project inception, the principal research commitment was to the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee occupation of the valley. By 1967, the inundation date was set for 1971. Four main research problems were identified: (1) a complete survey of the reservoir area to locate all prehistoric and historic sites that will be inundated; (2) a thorough testing of the eighteenth century Cherokee towns to determine the effects of acculturation; (3) to determine how long the Overhill Cherokee have occupied the Little Tennessee Valley by excavating a late prehistoric Mississippian village or an early Historic Cherokee village to discover by (sic) continuities between the prehistoric Mississippian complexes and the Historic Cherokee; and (4) to test intensively occupied sites in depth to find earlier Woodland and Archaic complexes in stratigraphic succession (Guthe, 1967). This report describes the results of these investigations.

  10. Acoustic measurements in archaeological sites in the state of Guanajuato Mediciones acústicas en sitios arqueológicos del estado de Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Aboites

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of the acoustic characteristics of some of the most important sunken squares in the archeological sites of “Cañada de la Virgen”, “El Cóporo”, “Peralta” and “Plazuelas”, in the state of Guanajuato. Pseudo-colored digital maps about the dis­tribution of acoustic intensity in sunken squares were obtained using a sound source op­erating with an intensity level of 120 dB and a constant frequency of 440 Hz. An acoustic intensity level meter graduated in dB was also used. The authors consider that the results and data are relevant not only due to their architectonic, historical and archeological intrin­sic value, but also because they provide archaeology specialists with information that can be used to corroborate or reject some hypothesis related to the use of the squares in term of religious, ceremonial, astronomical, social or commercial exchange practices.Este artículo presenta los resultados de las características acústicas de algunas de las principales plazas hundidas de los siguientes sitios arqueológicos del estado de Guanajua­to: Cañada de la Virgen, El Cóporo, Peralta y Plazuelas. Utilizando una fuente de sonido operando con un nivel de intensidad de 120 dB y a una frecuencia sinusoidal y constante de 440 Hz, así como de un medidor acústico de niveles de intensidad graduado en deci­beles, se obtuvieron planos digitales pseudo-coloreados de la distribución de intensidad acústica de las plazas hundidas. Consideramos que estos datos son importantes no solo por su interés arquitectónico, histórico y arqueológico intrínseco, sino también y sobre todo por que proporcionan a los especialistas en Arqueología información que puede contribuir a corroborar o rechazar algunas hipótesis sobre el uso religioso, ceremonial, astronómico, social o de intercambio comercial, entre otros. 

  11. 青海东部史前人口数量分析——以民和、乐都为例%Population estimation to the prehistoric culture of Eastern Qinghai province——A case of Minhe and Ledu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小浩; 侯光良; 王小梅; 王鹏程

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric population estimation has a significant meaning for understanding the development of human society.Prehistoric cultural sites are rather rich in eastern Qinghai,and with an intact sequence.According to archaeological data and GIS tools,we built the tombs and ruins' dimension models to calculate the population distribution in core areas and dense areas of prehistoric culture in east Qinghai,and proposed different method results mainly supported by social and environmental considerations in comprehensive population estimate model to study the changes of regional prehistoric population.The results showed that the population hed reached more than 7,600 people at the very beginning of the Neolithic.The population reached its maximum of 36,000 at the late Neolithic.The sharp drop of the population came just after 4000 aBP.When it steped into Bronze Age,the population showed a slight recovery,and reached about 12,000;Environmental change should be one of the important driving forces to evolution of the population in this area.%史前人口的估算对于了解人类社会发展具有重要意义。青海东部史前文化遗迹丰富、序列完整。文中根据考古资料和GIS工具,构建墓葬和遗址面积两种模式来计算青海东部史前人类分布的密集区和核心区人口数量,提出以不同方法计算结果为主,辅之以社会与环境因素的考量综合人口估算模式,来研究区域史前人口变化。结果表明:研究区人口在新石器伊始就具一定规模,达到7600余人;新石器晚期人口达到最大值,当时人口约为36000人,4000aBP以后人口数量锐减,进入青铜时代,人口规模略有恢复,达到12000人左右;环境变化应该是本区人口演变的重要驱动力之一。

  12. Imaging of Archaeological Remains at Barcombe Roman Villa using Microwave Tomographic Depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Utsi, E.; Alani, A.; Persico, R.

    2012-04-01

    The site of the Barcombe Romano-British villa lies in a field on the perimeter of Barcombe village in East Sussex, England. The site came to the attention of the Mid Sussex Field Archaeological Team (MSFAT) and the University College London Field Archaeological Unit (UCL, subsequently replaced by the Centre for Continuing Education of the University of Sussex, CCE) because it was in danger of disappearing altogether without being adequately recorded [1]. In common with many other UK sites of the period, the villa had been extensively robbed out in the centuries following its demise in order to provide building material for the adjacent village and its associated farms, a common problem with Romano-British sites in the UK [2]. In addition, the site is positioned on the ridge of a field in agricultural use and has therefore been extensively ploughed out. As a result, the archaeological evidence was sparse and the little that remained was being rapidly eroded. In April 2001, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out jointly by the Department of Engineering, Portsmouth and Utsi Electronics Ltd on behalf of the archaeological team in order to investigate the possibility of mapping both the villa and earlier prehistoric remains on the same ridge. Using a 40m by 60m grid laid out by the archaeological team, a Groundvue 1, with antennas of central frequency 400MHz, was used to survey along a series of parallel transects at intervals of 50cm. The sampling interval along the line of survey was 5cm and probing was carried out to 40ns. The results of the GPR survey, including a comparison with the evidence from the resistivity work, were published in 2002 [3]. The original GPR data were processed (using the ReflexW package) by applying background removal, adding time based gain, averaging over 2 traces in order to reduce noise resulting from the relative movement of the antennas across the ploughed field and finally applying a Bandpass Butterworth filter of 200

  13. Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Plog, Stephen; George, Richard J.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Watson, Adam S.; Skoglund, Pontus; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Stewardson, Kristin; Kistler, Logan; LeBlanc, Steven A.; Whiteley, Peter M.; Reich, David; Perry, George H.

    2017-01-01

    For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United States. We show that nine individuals buried in an elite crypt at Pueblo Bonito, the largest structure in the canyon, have identical mitochondrial genomes. Analyses of nuclear genome data from six samples with the highest DNA preservation demonstrate mother–daughter and grandmother–grandson relationships, evidence for a multigenerational matrilineal descent group. Together, these results demonstrate the persistence of an elite matriline in Chaco for ∼330 years. PMID:28221340

  14. Prehistoric iconography and dance: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudenzio Ragazzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest documentation on the dance consists of images produced with various techniques on a wide range of material supports (rock, ceramic, metal. Due to the nature of the document, in the search for the origins of the dance, the choreutic competence must proceed to the iconographic. The figurative language of prehistoric images is highly formalized, and expresses the limits imposed by the ritual to the rules of communication. Moreover, precisely to the value attributed to the sacral support, to represent an action, as a dance, rather than plowing, or something else, means to activate a mechanism that perpetually produces the effects for which the representation was produced. This mechanism reveals that there is a strong relationship between the representations of prehistoric dance and the cosmological context.

  15. A systematic review of animal predation creating pierced shells: implications for the archaeological record of the Old World

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    Anna Maria Kubicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The shells of molluscs survive well in many sedimentary contexts and yield information about the diet of prehistoric humans. They also yield evidence of symbolic behaviours through their use as beads for body adornments. Researchers often analyse the location of perforations in shells to make judgements about their use as symbolic objects (e.g., beads, the assumption being that holes attributable to deliberate human behaviour are more likely to exhibit low variability in their anatomical locations, while holes attributable to natural processes yield more random perforations. However, there are non-anthropogenic factors that can cause perforations in shells and these may not be random. The aim of the study is compare the variation in holes in shells from archaeological sites from the Old World with the variation of holes in shells pierced by mollusc predators. Methods Three hundred and sixteen scientific papers were retrieved from online databases by using keywords, (e.g., ‘shell beads’; ‘pierced shells’; ‘drilling predators’; 79 of these publications enabled us to conduct a systematic review to qualitatively assess the location of the holes in the shells described in the published articles. In turn, 54 publications were used to assess the location of the holes in the shells made by non-human predators. Results Almost all archaeological sites described shells with holes in a variety of anatomical locations. High variation of hole-placement was found within the same species from the same site, as well as among sites. These results contrast with research on predatory molluscs, which tend to be more specific in where they attacked their prey. Gastropod and bivalve predators choose similar hole locations to humans. Discussion Based on figures in the analysed articles, variation in hole-location on pierced shells from archaeological sites was similar to variation in the placement of holes created by non-human animals

  16. A systematic review of animal predation creating pierced shells: implications for the archaeological record of the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Background The shells of molluscs survive well in many sedimentary contexts and yield information about the diet of prehistoric humans. They also yield evidence of symbolic behaviours through their use as beads for body adornments. Researchers often analyse the location of perforations in shells to make judgements about their use as symbolic objects (e.g., beads), the assumption being that holes attributable to deliberate human behaviour are more likely to exhibit low variability in their anatomical locations, while holes attributable to natural processes yield more random perforations. However, there are non-anthropogenic factors that can cause perforations in shells and these may not be random. The aim of the study is compare the variation in holes in shells from archaeological sites from the Old World with the variation of holes in shells pierced by mollusc predators. Methods Three hundred and sixteen scientific papers were retrieved from online databases by using keywords, (e.g., ‘shell beads’; ‘pierced shells’; ‘drilling predators’); 79 of these publications enabled us to conduct a systematic review to qualitatively assess the location of the holes in the shells described in the published articles. In turn, 54 publications were used to assess the location of the holes in the shells made by non-human predators. Results Almost all archaeological sites described shells with holes in a variety of anatomical locations. High variation of hole-placement was found within the same species from the same site, as well as among sites. These results contrast with research on predatory molluscs, which tend to be more specific in where they attacked their prey. Gastropod and bivalve predators choose similar hole locations to humans. Discussion Based on figures in the analysed articles, variation in hole-location on pierced shells from archaeological sites was similar to variation in the placement of holes created by non-human animals. Importantly, we found that

  17. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  18. 阿房宫前殿遗址的考古勘探与发掘%ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION AND EXCAVATION OF THE ANTERIOR HALL SITE OF THE EPANGGONG PALACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毓芳; 孙福喜; 王自力; 张建锋

    2005-01-01

    The Epanggong Palace site of Qin period lies to the south of the Weihe River and to the west of the old Zaohe River course that extends 13 km west of Xi'an City. It stands opposite to the Qin capital Xianyang across the river. From October 2002 to December 2004, the Epanggong Palace Archaeological Team made a prospection on the anterior hall site,covering :350, 000 sq m, and revealed an area of 3, 000 sq m by trial and extensive excavations. The results include a rough understanding of the limits of the hall and the layout of its auxiliary buildings. It can be confirmed that the rammed earth foundations of the hall represents just the anterior hall of that of the Qin Epanggong Palace. What merits special notice is that there are no fire traces on the site of the anterior hall of the Qin Epanggong Palace, which forms a clear contrast to the archaeologically excavated Nos. 1-3 palaces in the Qin capital Xianyang that were destroyed by a great fire. Thus the excavations prove that the historically handed-down belief taking the Qin Epanggong Palace to have been fired by Xiang Yu is actually incorrect. There are no any building remains on the excavated hall foundations, which demonstrate that the anterior hall was not completed and that the Qin Epanggong Palace was destroyed not by fire。

  19. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  20. The Archaeological Imagination

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    Tina Paphitis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study of the ‘archaeological imagination’ is an area of growing interest within archaeology and other fields (see, for example, Finn 2004; Wallace 2004; Schwyzer 2007, and Michael Shanks’s book is a timely addition to this important and inspiring subject. Building on his Experiencing the Past (1992 and other collaborative works, the author makes a foray into the worlds that create and are created by archaeological remains and experiences of them, in a journey that is as much a personal reflection as a disciplinary one. He does, however, emphasise that he is expanding out from the disciplinary definition of archaeology, blending literature, current popular culture, historical texts, archaeological remains, antiquarian interpretation, philosophy, cultural geography, geology, photography, contemporary art and social theory.

  1. Crowd-sourcing archaeological research: HeritageTogether digital public archaeology in practice

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    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists are increasingly working with crowd-sourced digital data. Using evidence from other disciplines about the nature of crowd-sourcing in academic research, we suggest that archaeological projects using donated data can usefully be differentiated between generative projects (which rely on data collected by citizen scientists, and analytical projects (which make use of volunteers to classify, or otherwise analyse data that are provided by the project. We conclude that projects which privilege hyper-local research (such as surveying specific sites might experience tension if the audience they are appealing to are 'cyber local'. In turn, for more 'traditional' archaeological audiences (when the primary motivating interests may be the tangible, physical nature of portable material culture or the archaeological site itself, then intangible, digital simulacra may not provide an effective medium through which to undertake digital public archaeology.

  2. 25 years of satellite InSAR monitoring of ground instability and coastal geohazards in the archaeological site of Capo Colonna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, F.; Confuorto, P.; Novellino, A.; Tapete, D.; Di Martire, D.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.; Plank, S.; Ietto, F.; Brigante, A.; Sowter, A.

    2016-10-01

    For centuries the promontory of Capo Colonna in Calabria region, southern Italy, experienced land subsidence and coastline retreat to an extent that the archaeological ruins of the ancient Greek sanctuary are currently under threat of cliff failure, toppling and irreversible loss. Gas extraction in nearby wells is a further anthropogenic element to account for at the regional scale. Exploiting an unprecedented satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) time series including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed and Sentinel-1A data stacks acquired between 1992 and 2016, this paper presents the first and most complete Interferometric SAR (InSAR) baseline assessment of land subsidence and coastal processes affecting Capo Colonna. We analyse the regional displacement trends, the correlation between vertical displacements with gas extraction volumes, the impact on stability of the archaeological heritage, and the coastal geohazard susceptibility. In the last 25 years, the land has subsided uninterruptedly, with highest annual line-of-sight deformation rates ranging between -15 and -20 mm/year in 2011-2014. The installation of 40 pairs of corner reflectors along the northern coastline and within the archaeological park resulted in an improved imaging capability and higher density of measurement points. This proved to be beneficial for the ground stability assessment of recent archaeological excavations, in an area where field surveying in November 2015 highlighted new events of cliff failure. The conceptual model developed suggests that combining InSAR results, geomorphological assessments and inventorying of wave-storms will contribute to unveil the complexity of coastal geohazards in Capo Colonna.

  3. AustArch: A Database of 14C and Non-14C Ages from Archaeological Sites in Australia - Composition, Compilation and Review (Data Paper

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    Alan N. Williams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been 20 years since Smith and Sharp (1993 undertook the first comprehensive review of archaeological ages across Australia and used them as a proxy for exploring human activity in the Pleistocene. It was a pioneering paper, building on the preliminary application of these techniques in Australia by Bird and Frankel (1991, and with several similar studies to follow (e.g. Holdaway and Porch 1996; Lourandos and David 1998; Ulm and Hall 1996. The last few years has witnessed increasing use of radiocarbon data as a mainstream proxy with which to explore archaeological trends, facilitated by the increasing publication of large datasets and the availability of calibration and statistical software such as Oxcal, Calpal and R (e.g. Buchanan et al. 2008, 2011; Collard et al. 2010a, 2010b; Peros et al. 2010. In Australia, these advances have not gone unnoticed and, as part of recent research, we have now compiled an archaeological age dataset for Australia. Here, we present the complete Australian dataset and undertake a brief review of its composition, strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Nutrition, modernity and the archaeological record: coastal resources and nutrition among Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers on the Western Cape coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Katharine; Parkington, John E; Marais, Adrian D; Braun, David R

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the nutritional value of some marine and terrestrial food resources available to Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers in the Western Cape of South Africa with respect to an important macronutrient (protein) and an essential micronutrient (iron) and introduce a framework for assessing the relative utility of marine and terrestrial resources. Whilst the ability to extract nutrients from the environment has always been a lynchpin in archaeologists' reconstructions of human evolution, a recent paradigm shift has recognized the role of marine resources in encephalization. Nutritional research indicates that marine ecosystems are the best source for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for proper brain development, and excavations at securely dated archaeological sites in South Africa provide firm evidence for the exploitation of marine resources by Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers from at least Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130 ka), and possibly even earlier. Because marine molluscs are abundant, predictably located and easily harvested, they would have been readily available to all members of the community, in contrast to terrestrial resources. The improving archaeological record gives important clues to resource choice, but many more nutritional observations are needed to determine the extent to which marine resources could have met the nutrient requirements of prehistoric people. Our observations indicate that marine and terrestrial fauna are both excellent sources of protein, and that marine molluscs have higher iron concentrations than we expected for invertebrate fauna. We calculate the number of individual food items from a selection of marine and terrestrial species needed to provide the protein and iron requirements of a hypothetical group of hunter-gatherers, identify contrasts in peoples' requirements for and access to nutrients and resources, and discuss the implications for prehistoric subsistence strategies and human evolution

  5. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

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    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  6. John Howard Marsden (1803–1891 First Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge 1851–1865

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    Michael Leach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there were ten chairs of archaeology at universities in Germany, and one in France, by the mid-nineteenth century, in Great Britain it was the amateur societies and museums (the British Museum in particular that encouraged the study of this subject. In 1851 John Disney established the first university chair in Great Britain at Cambridge University. His proposal was initially received with considerable caution by the governing body of the university, and was only accepted by the narrowest margin of eight votes to seven. His agreement with the University of Cambridge stipulated that six lectures a year should be given on the subject of ‘Classical, Medieval, and other Antiquities, the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith’ (Clark 1904, 222–225. However university archaeology was slow to establish its academic credibility nationally, and it was more than thirty years before Oxford University established its chair of classical archaeology. The Cambridge Board of Anthropological Studies, which included instruction in prehistoric archaeology, was not created until 1915, and as late as 1945 there were still only a few university lecturers in archaeology in Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that Oxford University appointed a Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology (Wilson 2002, 153; Daniel 1976, 6–12; Smith 2004, 4–5, 53–54.

  7. Saxon Obsequies: the Early Medieval Archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

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    Howard Williams

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.

  8. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  9. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the “Villa con ingresso a protiro”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Michela, E-mail: michela.ricca@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Belfiore, Cristina Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali, University of Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); De Buergo, Monica Alvarez [Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, planta 7, despacho 17.4c/José Antonio Nováis 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Archaeometric investigations of ancient marbles from underwater environment. • Distinguish the different variety of marbles by using minero-petrographic and geochemical-isotopic investigations. • Compare the results with literature data allowing to broaden the existing database. - Abstract: This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  10. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans-disciplinary...

  11. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans...

  12. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

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    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  13. Growth and Stability Among Complex Societies in Prehistoric Lingnan, Southeast China

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    Francis Allard

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available One significant advance in the field of Chinese archaeology over past decades has been the identification of numerous prehistoric societies characterized by unequal access to status and wealth (henceforth referred to a 'complex societies' in areas peripheral to the Yellow River valley, a region traditionally regarded as the cradle of Chinese civilization. Lingnan, an area which comprises the two modern provinces of Guangdong and Guanxi in Southeast China, also witnessed the emergence of small-scale complex societies prior to its incorporation into the unified Qin and Han states during the last centuries of the pre-Christian era (Allard 1995. This paper examines the circumstances and features of five instances of complex socio-political development in Lingnan over a period from the late Neolithic to the early Iron Age (ca. 3000-200 B.C. with each of these trajectories tested against recent models dealing with the issues of societal types, complexity, growth and stability.

  14. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida T Miró-Herrans

    Full Text Available Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102 and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing

  15. Human migration patterns in Yemen and implications for reconstructing prehistoric population movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  16. Human Migration Patterns in Yemen and Implications for Reconstructing Prehistoric Population Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Herrans, Aida T.; Al-Meeri, Ali; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Population migration has played an important role in human evolutionary history and in the patterning of human genetic variation. A deeper and empirically-based understanding of human migration dynamics is needed in order to interpret genetic and archaeological evidence and to accurately reconstruct the prehistoric processes that comprise human evolutionary history. Current empirical estimates of migration include either short time frames (i.e. within one generation) or partial knowledge about migration, such as proportion of migrants or distance of migration. An analysis of migration that includes both proportion of migrants and distance, and direction over multiple generations would better inform prehistoric reconstructions. To evaluate human migration, we use GPS coordinates from the place of residence of the Yemeni individuals sampled in our study, their birthplaces and their parents' and grandparents' birthplaces to calculate the proportion of migrants, as well as the distance and direction of migration events between each generation. We test for differences in these values between the generations and identify factors that influence the probability of migration. Our results show that the proportion and distance of migration between females and males is similar within generations. In contrast, the proportion and distance of migration is significantly lower in the grandparents' generation, most likely reflecting the decreasing effect of technology. Based on our results, we calculate the proportion of migration events (0.102) and mean and median distances of migration (96 km and 26 km) for the grandparent's generation to represent early times in human evolution. These estimates can serve to set parameter values of demographic models in model-based methods of prehistoric reconstruction, such as approximate Bayesian computation. Our study provides the first empirically-based estimates of human migration over multiple generations in a developing country and these

  17. Bryozoans in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Law

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa are colony-forming invertebrates found in marine and freshwater contexts. Many are calcified, while some others have chitinous buds, and so have archaeological potential, yet they are seldom investigated, perhaps due to considerable difficulties with identification. This article presents an overview of bryozoans, as well as summarising archaeological contexts in which bryozoans might be expected to occur, and highlighting some previous work. It also presents methods and directions to maximise the potential of bryozoans in archaeological investigations.

  18. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  19. A Digital Registry for Archaeological Find Spots and Excavation Documentation in IANUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbmann, Wibke

    2014-01-01

    Grey literature (site notebooks, reports etc.) and research data in archaeology are invaluable sources of information currently lacking a central reference registry in Germany. This paper discusses requirements and the underlying data model of a registry to be developed for find spots and archaeological excavation data within the IANUS project at the German Archaeological Institute. This registry is to collect information on archaeological investigations data for a finding aid service. The fo...

  20. Teeth size reduction in the prehistoric populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Tina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anthropological studies show craniofacial changes with a reduction in teeth size during evolution of the human population. Objective. The objective was to measure and compare the sizes of teeth in the population of the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Iron Gate Gorge and the population from the Early Bronze Age site of Mokrin. Methods. The study included teeth without advanced wear near the pulp. The material was divided according to the site of the skeletal population in two groups. Group 1 comprised 107 teeth from the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites Lepenski Vir and Vlasac. Group 2 included 158 teeth from the Mokrin graveyard dated in the Early Bronze Age. The mesio-distal diameter was measured in all teeth, while the vestibulo-oral diameter was measured in the molars only. Using the two-factor analysis of variance, the influence of sex, site and their interaction on the size of the teeth were investigated. Results. The vestibulo-oral diameter of the upper third molar was significantly higher in males compared to females. The comparison between the groups showed that the vestibulooral diameter of the lower first molar was significantly higher in group 1. Conclusion. The present difference in teeth size indicates the existence of reduction during the prehistoric times. However, the time period between the populations studied is probably too short to be manifested on a large number of teeth.

  1. Digitising the Archaeological Process at the Swedish National Heritage Board: producing, managing and sharing archaeological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Larsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Archaeological Process (DAP programme was initiated by the Swedish National Heritage Board in order to create a more seamless process for storing and sharing digital information generated through archaeological surveys and excavations. The programme aims to increase the availability of digital data as well as the quality and usefulness of the information. The Cultural Environment Register is being developed, which will contain and/or link to information about where fieldwork has been done and what was found: archaeological sites, field documentation, finds, as well as the reports and publications. In addition to creating a new system for storing this information, a large amount of old digital projects previously kept by museums and archaeological contractors is being collected to be made publicly available. Our goal is to make heritage management more efficient, and in the process the information will also become more useful to researchers, museums and the general public.

  2. Capo Mannu Project 2011 - Prehistoric Pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giandaniele Castangia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the results of a study carried out on the prehistoric pottery from the 2011 survey of the Capo Mannu Project, central-western Sardinia. The chrono-typological analysis of ceramics clearly indicates the presence of different chronological phases of occupation of the area prior to the seventh century BC: Final Neolithic or Ozieri phase, Early, Middle and Recent Bronze Age. This confirms old reports, such as those concerning the presence of a Neolithic settlement on the hill of Monte Benei, but it also raises some important questions that will be investigated in the next campaigns.

  3. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  4. The Archaeologist Undeceived: Selecting Quality Archaeological Information from the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of unreliable information and actual misinformation available via the Internet makes its use problematic for academic purposes, particularly for data-intensive disciplines such as archaeology. Whilst there are many sources for reviews of websites, few apply the type of criteria most appropriate to archaeology. Information and library professionals have developed sets of criteria that can be adapted for the evaluation of archaeological websites. An evaluative tool for archaeological websites, using al-ready-available criteria, was developed and tested on twenty archaeological web sites. It proved capable of allowing its user to make clear distinctions between sites on the basis of quality. Further refining of the evaluative tool is possible on the basis of testing by both archaeologists and information professionals.

  5. Dating of the archaeological site 'El Tigre' by the thermoluminescent method; Fechamiento del sitio arqueologico 'El Tigre' por el metodo de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portilla, R. De la [ENAH, Periferico Sur y Zapote, 14030 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R.; Mendoza, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vargas, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dating of pre hispanic pottery, is supported by techniques such as stratigraphy, typology, in physical and chemical procedures, as the analysis of {sup 14}C and the thermoluminescence (TL). The last one permits us obtain absolute dating of archaeological pottery with an acceptable precision. In this work we apply the applied the thermoluminescent technique to verify the age of the Pre-Classic and Classic Terminal periods proposed for the archaeological site 'El Tigre', Campeche. The samples were obtained during a work period and the radiation of the ground of background (emitted by the ground), as well as the contribution of the cosmic radiation was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Cu,P + PTFE, put in the sample zone. The preliminary results indicate that not all the analyzed samples can be dated. The viability of the dating of the samples is discussed based on the fact and function of the presence of certain crystalline phases such as calcite and quartz. The discussion is complemented emphsizing the importance of handling the conditions of handling of samples. (Author)

  6. A Preliminary Excowation of the Wujiazi site in Shuangyang District, Changchun Changchun Municipal Institute of Archaeology%长春市双阳区五家子遗址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a rescuing execwation was done by Jilin oproincial Institute of Archaeology, and Changchun Municipal Institute of Archaeology. 5 house foundations, 3 ash pits, and 2 ash ditches were found, some stones and potteries were unearthed. The typical stones include stone axe, knife with a punched hole. Most of the potteries were made with clay pieces or rings in a lower heating temperature. Some smaller one was moulded with finger. The site should be of the Xituanshan Culture according to those relics found here.%2005年,吉林省文物考古研究所、长春市文物保护研究所联合对长春市双阳区五家子遗址进行了抢救性考古发掘,揭露了5座房址、3个灰坑、2条灰沟,并出土一批石器和陶器。石器制法为磨制或打磨结合,兼有琢制,典型器物有石斧、穿孔石刀等。陶器烧制火候比较低。从出土遗物特征判断,其应属西团山文化范畴。

  7. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  8. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  9. Crop Management Practices in the Humid Hills from Northeastern Brazil between 670-530 Yrs BP: Palynological Evidences from Archaeological Site Evaristo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first cultural traces of ancient pottery towns in the Serra de Baturité are presented. The pollen spectrum of sediments reveals a mosaic of moist mountainous vegetation, xerophytes, annual nitrophilous, hygrophilous and bog plants. Useful pollen recovered from ceramic, such as cassava (Manihot type, sweet potatoes (Ipomoea type, cotton (Gossypium type, palm trees and fruitful (Arecaceae, cf. Astronium and Anacardium type, together with pathogenic microfungi corn, cotton and some tubers (Curvularia type, Alternaria, Puccinia type and cf. Ustilago maydis indicate agricultural and livelihood activities. The coprophilous fungi of humans and other animals (Cercophora type Gelasinospora type and Sordariaceae reflect the time spent by these groups in the archaeological area. The Gelasinospora fungus also shows the use of fire as fuel for agricultural practices and hunting. These data demonstrate the use of ceramics in funerary and domestic contexts.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric rock paintings by selective oxidation of organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, J.; Hyman, M.; Shafer, H.J.; Rowe, M.W. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA))

    1990-12-27

    Dating of prehistoric rock paintings (pictographs) has traditionally relied on indirect evidence. This includes inferences based on the archaeological context, such as superpositions of pictorial styles and the depiction of images that constrain their ages, as well as dating of deposits that either cover the art in situ or contain separated fragments of the painted surface. Migration of ions between the bulk rock and the natural coatings that form on a newly exposed surface has also been exploited to date petroglyphs (rock carvings) in desert regions. Until recently, however, direct dating (by radiocarbon techniques) of pictographs has not been possible, mainly because of the problem of separating inorganic carbon from the organic material in the pigments. Here we report on a new technique which allows this separation to be effected by using a low-temperature, low-pressure oxygen plasma to oxidize selectively the organic component; this may then be analysed using standard {sup 14}C methods. We have applied this technique to a portion of a pictograph from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas. The date obtained, 3,865{plus minus}100 yr BP (before present) is consistent with that expected on the basis of archaeological inference. As organic carbon is a ubiquitous component of pictograph paints, this technique should be applicable to rock paintings throughout the world. (author).

  11. Lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos: resultados preliminares do sítio arqueológico Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina (SC Lipids in archaeological sediments: preliminary results of the archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Augusto Hansel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de lipídios em sedimentos arqueológicos do sítio Rio do Meio, Ilha de Santa Catarina. Nos extratos totais de lipídios, analisados por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massas (CG e CG-EM, predominaram os compostos ácidos e álcoois saturados. Foram detectados pelo menos dois tipos de matéria orgânica: uma antiga e outra comparativamente recente. Na primeira, o extrato total de lipídios foi dominado por ácidos graxos de cadeias curtas ( Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Em contraste, na deposição classificada como recente, foram identificados em maiores teores os ácidos e álcoois de cadeias longas (> Ac20:0 e Al20:0. Neste estudo, foi possível observar a incorporação de material orgânico procedente de fontes de origem vegetal, bacteriana e, possivelmente, animal (gorduras nos sedimentos arqueológicos analisados.In this study the distribution of lipid compounds was evaluated in sediment samples of an archaeological site Rio do Meio, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. In the total lipid extracts, analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC and GC-MS, saturated fatty acids and alcohols were predominant. At least two sources of organic matter were detected, an older and a more recent one. In the old deposit, the most abundant lipids were short-chain fatty acids ( Ac20:0 and Al20:0. In contrast, the fresh deposit was dominated by long-chain fatty acids and alcohols (> Ac20:0 and Al20:0. This paper described the incorporation of vegetal, bacterial and possible animal (fat sources into the archaeological sediments analyzed.

  12. [Disciplinary non-consolidation. On the original of medieval archaeology in the 1920s and the 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the roots of the sub-discipline medieval archaeology that emerged in German-speaking universities in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1930s, research practices crucial for the formation of medieval archaeology, such as the investigation of medieval castles and peasant houses, became more prominent in the humanities, especially in the context of vilkisch research. After the Nazis took power in Germany, they encouraged such research because it built a scientific basis for their nationalist policy. This politically motivated funding did not result in a new discipline, in contrast to research fields such as prehistory and folklore studies. In this article, I propose two explanations for why medieval archaeology did not emerge as an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s and 1940s, even though the course was set for its development. First, for archaeologists, art historians, and regional medieval historians, research objects such as medieval castles were semantically too indeterminate. Archaeologists would investigate a castle as a building completely destroyed and buried under rubble, while art historians would be interested in its building technique, and regional medieval historians in its written record. Second, disciplines that were important for the creation of medieval archaeology, such as prehistoric archaeology, art history, and regional medieval history, structurally did not allow for the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s. In particular, prehistoric archaeology, which was crucial for the development of medieval archaeology, itself was not fully institutionalized at universities in the 1930s. This institutionalization process prevented the emergence and development of an interdisciplinary research field such as medieval archaeology To demonstrate this argument, I draw on two examples of investigations of castles, one in Nazi Germany and the other in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.

  13. Multispectral thermal airborne TASI-600 data to study the Pompeii (IT) archaeological area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    calibration of the raw data by using the RADCORR software provided by ITRES (Canada) and the application of a new correction tool for blinking pixel correction, developed by CNR (Italy); (b) atmospheric compensation of the TIR data by applying the ISAC (In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation) algorithm [7]; (c) Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) according to the methods described by [8] to obtain a LST map. The obtained preliminary results are encouraging, even though, suitable integration approaches with the classical geophysical investigation techniques have to be improved for a rapid and cost-effective assessment of the buildings status. The importance of this study, moreover, is related to the evaluation of the impact of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) imaging in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage that can provide: i) low cost imaging; ii) very high spatial resolution thermal imaging. References 1. Scollar, I., Tabbagh, A., Hesse, A., Herzog, A., 1990. Archaeological Prospecting andRemote Sensing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Seitz, C., Altenbach, H., 2011. Project ARCHEYE: the quadrocopter as the archaeologists eye. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 38 2. Sever, T.L., Wagner, D.W., 1991. Analysis of prehistoric roadways in Chaco Canyonusing remotely sensed data. In: Trombold, C.D. (Ed.), Ancient Road Networksand Settlement Hierarchies in the New World. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, pp. 42 3. Pascucci S., Cavalli R M., Palombo A. & Pignatti S. (2010), Suitability of CASI and ATM airborne remote sensing data for archaeological subsurface structure detection under different land cover: the Arpi case study (Italy). In Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Vol. 7 (2), pp. 183-189. 4. Bassani C., Cavalli R.M., Goffredo, R., Palombo A., Pascucci S. & Pignatti S. (2009), Specific spectral bands for different land cover contexts to improve the efficiency of remote sensing archaeological prospection: The Arpi case study. In Journal of

  14. 西安市阿房宫遗址的考古新发现%New Discoveries in the Archaeology of the Epanggong Palace-site, Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所阿房宫考古工作队; 西安市文物保护考古所阿房宫考古工作队

    2004-01-01

    The Epanggong Palace-site lies west of Xi'an City,opposite to the Qin capital Xianyang with the Weihe River running between them. Exploration revealed the rammed-earth foundation-platform of the anterior hall with a contracted terrace at the northern edge and vestiges of a rammed-earth wall on the southern side. To the south are mixed earth without traces of ramming and road deposits extending northward to the platform. Beyond the southern edge of the platform, remains of a tile-covered building were found to belong to the turn from the Qin to the Han period. It is an important discovery in the exploration of the Epanggong Palace and the archaeology of the Qin period.

  15. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  16. Photographs and Archaeological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Guha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which photographs and their archives establish archaeological knowledge. It draws upon histories of photography and archaeology within South Asia to create focus upon archaeology’s evidentiary regimes. The aims are to: a demonstrate the importance of engaging with photographs and their archives as objects for reckoning archaeology’s evidentiary terrains, b draw attention to multiple social biographies a photograph or photographic archive acquires, c highlight the visual as a force of archaeology’s historiography, and d impress upon the necessity of attending to historiographical issues. The aims allow us in seeing some of the ways in which field sciences create their evidentiary frames, and have a special resonance within the context of South Asian archaeology where professional and amateur archaeologists continue to promote the belief that archaeological facts exist out there, and that archaeological research produces better and more robust sources for the past than scholarship based on texts. Visual histories also highlight the mutation of the so-called ‘colonialist’ historiography within the post-colonial histories of archaeology’s developments, and encourage us to go beyond the hackneyed formulations of colonial legacies and the hagiographic literature of individual practitioners.

  17. Methodological remarks on studying prehistoric Greek religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pakkanen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to the study of Greek religion of the period which lacks written documents, i.e. prehistory. The assumptions and interpretations of religion of that time have to be based on archaeological material. How do we define religion and cultic activity on the basis of primary archaeological material from this period, and which are the methodological tools for this difficult task? By asking questions on the nature and definition of religion and culture scholars of religion have provided us with some methodological apparatus to approach religion of the past in general, but there are models developed by archaeologists as well. Critical combination of these methodological tools leads to the best possible result. Archaeology studies the material culture of the past. History of religion studies the spiritual culture of the past. In the background the two have important theoretical and even philosophical speculations since they both deal with meanings (of things or practices and with interpretation.

  18. Assessing anthropogenic impact on soil genesis through archaeological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Gabriel PÎRNĂU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work is to analyse soils properties and their evolution related to prehistoric settlements (Neolithic to Bronze Age from Ruginoasa-Strunga saddle, located in western part of the Moldavian Plateau.Although the actual climatic conditions favor the development of forest soils in this area, the morphology and chemical proprieties show soils characteristics much closer to those of Cambic Chernozems. Therefore this soils were termed in the former Romanian soil classification systems forest chernozemic soils, chernozemic black soils, pratozems, brunizems, typically having chernozemic aspect but which are not encountered under a specific forest-steppe environment. Currently, these soils are classified as Cambic Phaeozems according to the Romanian Soil Taxonomy System (2012.Through the computation of zonal statistics, it was found that these soils are characterized by higher values of humus content, higher thickness of Am horizons and higher values of mobile phosphorus than the other soils in the study area. Concerning the mobile phosphorus content, several spatial anomalies were detected, which may prove the continuity of settlements and agricultural practices in the area. In this respect, seven profiles were identified displaying gradual increase of phosphorus values with soil depth, which are situated in the proximity of archeological sites. Moreover, the maximum phosphorus value (450 ppm is located in the proximity of such a site.Although the archaeological data covering this area are limited and fragmentary, a clustered settlements distribution is observed in both northern and south-eastern extremities of the saddle. The axis of the saddle appears to have been an open, unforested space which was used for agricultural purposes and probably as a travel corridor. The presence in the same area of several Bronze Age tumuli, support this hypothesis. There is considerable evidence to suggest that barrows tended to be built in cleared

  19. Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeology at Beedings, West Sussex: new contexts for Pleistocene archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pope

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site of Beedings in Sussex was first recognized as the source of some exceptional Upper Palaeolithic flintwork in 1900, but subsequently disappeared from the archaeological literature. In the 1980s it was recognized again, but it was not until 2007–8 that in situ Palaeolithic archaeology was found at the site. In this article, the director of the excavations describes the discovery, within a network of geological fissures, of two separate industries, one Middle Palaeolithic and the other Early Upper Palaeolithic. The archaeology at Beedings spans a crucial cultural transition in the European Palaeolithic and therefore provides an important new dataset for the analysis of late Neanderthal groups in northern Europe and their replacement by modern human populations.

  20. 30 Years of Archaeological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s archaeology has achieved remarkable outcomes during the 30 years after the carrying out of the reform and opening up policy. In theoretical research, various archaeological theories and genres have been introduced to China, which have influenced the development of the archaeology of China.

  1. Analyzing the Nature of the Carved Signs of Prehistoric Pottery from Bengbu Shuangdun Site%从蚌埠双墩遗址陶符看史前陶器刻划符号的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖

    2013-01-01

    The carved symbols and pictograms or pictographs on pottery unearthed in Shuangdun site can prove that the graphics or symbols were produced in Pei Ligang,qingliangang and Yangshao culture periods,although they w ere still not mature Chinese characters,but these and later Chinese characters form a complementary structure,and they should be the source of the Chinese characters and the incubation period.They can be referred to as the"literal symbols"and"pictographs."Geo-metrical carved symbols on pottery unearthed in Shuangdun site can be referred to as the"non text symbols"and they have no relation with later Chinese characters.Quantities of carved signs on pot-tery of Shuangdun site provide very favorable conditions for us to examine the nature of carved signs on Neolithic pottery.%双墩遗址陶符中象形类的刻划符号以及“文字画”类陶符,可以证明文字性的图形或符号产生于裴李岗、青莲岗与仰韶文化时期,虽还不是成熟的汉字,但这些与后来汉字形体结构一脉相承,应该就是汉字的源头和孕育期,可称之为“文字性符号”和“文字画”。双墩遗址陶符中的几何类的刻划符号,可称之为“非文字性符号”,与后来汉字没有什么关系。数量甚多的双墩遗址陶符对我们检视新石器时代陶器刻划符号的性质提供了十分有利的条件。

  2. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history.

  3. Evaluating the Quality and Accuracy of TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Models at Archaeological Sites in the Cilician Plain, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Erasmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful instrument for mapping and monitoring traces of historical settlements and infrastructure, not only in distant areas and crisis regions. It helps archaeologists to embed their findings from field surveys into the broader context of the landscape. With the start of the TanDEM-X mission, spatially explicit 3D-information is available to researchers at an unprecedented resolution worldwide. We examined different experimental TanDEM-X digital elevation models (DEM that were processed from two different imaging modes (Stripmap/High Resolution Spotlight using the operational alternating bistatic acquisition mode. The quality and accuracy of the experimental DEM products was compared to other available DEM products and a high precision archaeological field survey. The results indicate the potential of TanDEM-X Stripmap (SM data for mapping surface elements at regional scale. For the alluvial plain of Cilicia, a suspected palaeochannel could be reconstructed. At the local scale, DEM products from TanDEM-X High Resolution Spotlight (HS mode were processed at 2 m spatial resolution using a merge of two monostatic/bistatic interferograms. The absolute and relative vertical accuracy of the outcome meet the specification of high resolution elevation data (HRE standards from the National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG at the HRE20 level.

  4. PROSPECCIÓN ARQUEOLÓGICA EN EL SITIO PURUHÁ DE COLLAY, RIOBAMBA, ECUADOR (Archaeological Survey at the Site of Puruha Collay, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Carretero Poblete

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2016 realizamos prospecciones arqueológicas en el cerro Collay de Riobamba, Ecuador. Entre el material recuperado, destaca la cerámica de los estilos Puruhá, Cañari y Costeña, pertenecientes a las fases finales del Formativo Tardío (ca. 800 a. C. e inicios del periodo de Desarrollo Regional (ca. 500 d. C.. La cerámica recuperada en el cerro Collay sugiere la presencia de un importante centro Puruhá, muy próximo a la llanura de Tapi, con importantes conexiones con los Cañari de la Sierra Centro del Ecuador. ENGLISH: In 2016, we carried out archaeological surveys on the Collay mountain of Riobamba, Ecuador. Among the recovered material, there is Puruhá, Cañari and Costeño style pottery, all belonging to the end of the Late Formative Period (ca. 800 BC and the Regional Development Period (ca. 500 AD. The discovery of these ceramic styles suggests the presence of an important Puruhá settlement, very near the Llanura de Tapi, that maintained important connections with the Cañari of Ecuador’s central highland region.

  5. Crustáceos no cerrito Ariano Souza, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul e distribuição de Callinectes sapidus (Brachyura, Portunidae Crustaceans in the archaeological site Ariano Souza, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul and distribution of Callinectes sapidus (Brachyura, Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléverson Ranniéri M. dos Santos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available While all species of the genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860 have a continuous distribution on the Atlantic coast of the Americas, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 is the only one with disjunct distribution. Considering that this species was introduced in Europe and Japan, it has been suggested that the occurrence of C. sapidus on the southern coast of Brazil was due to the transport by ballast water. In the archaeological site Ariano Souza, located in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon (southern Brazil, remains of crustaceans, including claws of approximately two thousand years ago, were found. A preliminary analysis of this material showed Callinectes chelae. Because this archaeological site is located inside the estuary, it has been hypothesized that these chelae belong either to C. sapidus or to C. danae Smith, 1869. A comparison between pincers collected in the archaeological and pincers of these two species (90 dactyls, 30 of each type was performed. The analysis (ANOVA considered the variability of seven characters of the dactyls, and demonstrated the existence of two groups. Results showed that the measured characters suffice to separate these species, and indicated that the material found in the archaeological site belongs to C. sapidus. The hypothesis of the introduction of C. sapidus in the area is rejected. The possible biogeographic history of the species is discussed.

  6. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  7. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  8. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnership...

  9. Mineralogy of the clay fraction of soils from the moray cusco archaeological site: a study by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron Loayza, Maria L., E-mail: malucelo@hotmail.com; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge A.; Mejia Santillan, Mirian E. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Laboratorio de Analisis de Suelos, Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Moessbauer, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this work is to report the advances in the elemental and structural characterization of the clay fraction of soils from the terraces of the Moray Archaeological site, located 38 km north of the city of Cusco, Cusco Region. One sample was collected from each of the twelve terraces of this site and its clay fraction was separated by sedimentation. Previously the pH of the raw samples was measured resulting that all of the samples were from alkaline to strongly alkaline. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used for the elemental characterization, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS), using the {gamma} 14.4 keV nuclear resonance transition in {sup 57}Fe, were used for the structural characterization of the clays and clay minerals present in each sample. The EDXRF analyses of all the samples show the presence of relatively high concentrations of sulfur in some of the samples and relatively high concentrations of calcium in all of the samples, which may be related to the high alkalinity of the samples. By XRD it is observed the presence of quartz, calcite, gypsum, cronstedtite, 2:1 phyllosilicates, and iron oxides. The mineralogical analysis of Fe by TMS shows that it is present in the form of hematite and occupying Fe{sup 2 + } and Fe{sup 3 + } sites in phyllosilicates, cronstedtite, and other minerals not yet identified.

  10. Mineralogy of the clay fraction of soils from the moray cusco archaeological site: a study by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón Loayza, María L.; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge A.; Mejía Santillán, Mirian E.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to report the advances in the elemental and structural characterization of the clay fraction of soils from the terraces of the Moray Archaeological site, located 38 km north of the city of Cusco, Cusco Region. One sample was collected from each of the twelve terraces of this site and its clay fraction was separated by sedimentation. Previously the pH of the raw samples was measured resulting that all of the samples were from alkaline to strongly alkaline. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used for the elemental characterization, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS), using the γ 14.4 keV nuclear resonance transition in 57Fe, were used for the structural characterization of the clays and clay minerals present in each sample. The EDXRF analyses of all the samples show the presence of relatively high concentrations of sulfur in some of the samples and relatively high concentrations of calcium in all of the samples, which may be related to the high alkalinity of the samples. By XRD it is observed the presence of quartz, calcite, gypsum, cronstedtite, 2:1 phyllosilicates, and iron oxides. The mineralogical analysis of Fe by TMS shows that it is present in the form of hematite and occupying Fe2 + and Fe3 + sites in phyllosilicates, cronstedtite, and other minerals not yet identified.

  11. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization; Estudo de ceramicas de sitios arqueologicos circulares da Bacia Amazonica por meio de metodos geoquimicos: datacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  12. A methodological proposal to study the prehistorical metallurgy: the case of Gorny in the Kargaly Region (Orenburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological field-work realised at the site of Gorny (occupied from 1700 to 1400 BC has furnished an important collection of materials related to metallurgical activities (ores, slags, by-products and copper objects. These have been analyzed by a variety of instrumental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and metallography. The results show that metallurgy was a primitive one that worked oxidised copper ores by a non-slagging smelting process. Cast objects were finished by cold hammering and, on some occasions, annealing. A replication of the prehistoric technology has been achieved by means of on-site smelting experiments. Thus, economic variables such as the efficiency of copper recovery and charcoal consumption have been evaluated and, using them, theoretical models of copper production and its behavioural impact have been constructed.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos de campo en el sitio de Gorny (habitado durante los siglos XVII-XV AC han proporcionado una importante colección de materiales relacionados con actividades metalúrgicas (minerales, escorias, restos de fundición y objetos metálicos. En su estudio analítico se han empleado diversas técnicas de laboratorio (microscopía electrónica de barrido, espectrometría por fluorescencia de rayos x, metalografía cuyos resultados caracterizan una metalurgia de rasgos primitivos que parte de la fundición directa de minerales oxídicos de cobre. Los objetos de metal, fundidos en molde, eran terminados mediante trabajos de forja y aplicación, en ocasiones, de tratamientos térmicos. Con la ayuda de experimentos de fundición in situ se ha reproducido el proceso prehistórico, permitiendo de ese modo establecer variables económicas tales como el rendimiento en cobre de las fundiciones y el consumo de combustible, a partir de las cuales se elaboran modelos teóricos estimativos de la producción metalúrgica y su impacto en el medio

  13. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  14. Palaeo-coastline of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A study based on archaeological proxies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    Important archaeological sites of our investigation include Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Kindar Kheda, Pindara, Somnath and sites in Gulf of Khambhat and evidences recorded from these sites include stone anchors, remains of jetties and other structures While...

  15. PALAEOVEGETATION AND PALAEOENVIRONMENT BASED ON POLLEN ANALYSIS AT THE ZHONGBA SALT PRODUCTION ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE,SOUTH WEST CHINA%中坝制盐遗址的孢粉分析与古植被、古环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宜垠; 赵凤鸣; 李水城; 崔海亭

    2011-01-01

    考古证据表明,距今4000多年以前,重庆三峡地区的中坝遗址就开始了规模性的盐业生产.为了解盐业生产的环境背景及其影响,在中坝遗址厚达12.5m的文化堆积层进行了孢粉取样和分析.AMS 14C测年结果显示,这些样品分别来自新石器时代晚期(4420~3700aB.P.)、商至西周(3550~2700aB.P.)和东周(2700 ~2300aB.P.).孢粉分析表明:中坝遗址的样品均以草本植物花粉和蕨类植物孢子占绝对优势.主要以禾本科(Poaceae)、楼梯草属(Elatostema)和蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium)为主,而乔灌木植物花粉所占比例很低,除松属(Pinus)、桦木属(Betula)、枫杨属(Pterocarya)、栎属(Quercus)花粉外,还见到夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)、女贞属(Ligustrum)、檵木属(Loropetalum)和枫香属(Liquidambar)等亚热带树种的花粉.中坝遗址及附近地区自新石器时代以来的植被以少林、灌丛草地为主,遗址周围分布大片杂草群落,并可能有大面积的农田,表明这个地区始终存在较强的人类活动.早在新石器时代,制盐业和种植业使得低山丘陵与河谷的森林植被遭到破坏,遗址附近的河谷形成疏林草地景观.商至西周时期,尽管气候变干,但人类活动仍很强烈,似乎气候变化对盐业生产的影响不大;东周时期的气候较为温暖湿润,制盐业和农业活动规模扩大,森林植被破坏程度加大,草坡随之增多.%Zhongba archaeological site ( 30°20'43"N, 108°01 '37"E, elevation 135 ~ 148m) is located in the terrace of Canjing River,6km from Zhongxian County,Congqing City. Archaeological evidence from the Zhongba site indicates that salt production was well developed in a time period more than 4000a B. P old. To explore the natural background of the salt production and its effect on the environment, samples from a cultural layer with a depth of 12.5m in Zhongba archaeological site were collected for pollen analysis. According to AMS C dating data, these samples

  16. Thermal History of Archaeological Objects, Studied by Electron Spin Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoll, Jens; Tani, Atsushi

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a sensitive tool for distinguishing between "burned" and "unburned" states of archaeological objects. Prehistoric heating conditions, such as the temperature, atmosphere, time of exposure to heat, and when the heating took place, can be studied by this method with some success. ESR "reporters," such as (a) radiation defects, (b) pyrolytic defects, and (c) transition metal ions, can even reflect changes induced at relatively low temperatures (e.g., in the range of 200° C for objects containing organic compounds). Several ESR heating markers are so stable that samples dating back to the ages when fire first began to be used can be analyzed today. An overview is presented of the literature concerning objects, such as stone, soil, pottery, and plant and animal products.

  17. 江汉平原石家河谭家岭遗址新石器时代环境考古%Environmental archaeology of the Tanjialing Neolithic Site in the Shijiahe Ancient City, the Jianghan Plain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立; 朱诚; 李冰; 李枫; 孙伟; 王晓翠; 刘辉; 孟华平; 孙珏

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The middle Yangtze River basin is a developing and lfourishing area of the Neolithic cultures, as revealed by abundant archaeological sites in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture is representative of an advanced stage in the Neolithic Age, and archaeological remains reflect the features of native culture in the Jianghan Plain. The Shijiahe Culture fully flourished in its early and middle stages, but it deteriorated around 4.2 ka BP. Some topics of the cause of this cultural deterioration such as the war, disaster, climatic events, southward migration, and abandonment of the ancient city are still under debate. Also, no systematic analysis was conducted throughout the method of archaeological stratigraphy. Therefore, the Tanjialing Neolithic Site during the Shijiahe cultural period provides a good opportunity and material to examine the relationship between anthropogenic impact and environmental dynamics by palynomorph-TOC-TN-δ13Corg-magnetic susceptibility analysis, owing to its well chronological control, rich organic sediment, and unique archaeological ifndings. This study is highly necessary to better understand interaction between human and nature in this special historical period. Materials and methods The Shijiahe ancient city is located in the northwest of Shihe Town, Tianmen City, Hubei Province, and geographically lies in the north-central Jianghan Plain. The terrain is higher in the northwest, and the elevation is 33—40 m above sea level. The Tanjialing Neolithic Site is situated in the center of Shijiahe ancient city. An archaeological sedimentary proifle, in the south wall of T0620 from the site, was examined for pollen, TOC, TN, δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility. The proifle is 330 cm in thickness and divided into 9 lithological horizons. 28 samples were collected in the 9th layer, 22 samples in the cultural layers for palynological analysis, and 97 samples for TOC, TN,δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility analysis

  18. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  19. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  20. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha McKay

    Full Text Available Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions.

  1. Is It Health or the Burial Environment: Differentiating between Hypomineralised and Post-Mortem Stained Enamel in an Archaeological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. PMID:23734206

  2. Culturological Reinterpretation of Xi'an Yangguanzhai Archaeological Site (Part Ⅱ):On the “Negation of Negation” Development of Chinese Contemporary Archeology Cultural Thoughts%西安杨官寨遗址考古的文化学再解读(下)--兼论中国当代考古文化学思潮“否定之否定”式发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡义成

    2015-01-01

    Only the excavated material clearly marked with Yellow Emperor's“word”,“pattern”, or confirmed thro