WorldWideScience

Sample records for prehensile foot restraint

  1. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  2. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  3. Neuroplasticity of prehensile neural networks after quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, F; Guillot, A; Mateo, S; Daligault, S; Delpuech, C; Rode, G; Collet, C

    2014-08-22

    Targeting cortical neuroplasticity through rehabilitation-based practice is believed to enhance functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). While prehensile performance is severely disturbed after C6-C7 SCI, subjects with tetraplegia can learn a compensatory passive prehension using the tenodesis effect. During tenodesis, an active wrist extension triggers a passive flexion of the fingers allowing grasping. We investigated whether motor imagery training could promote activity-dependent neuroplasticity and improve prehensile tenodesis performance. SCI participants (n=6) and healthy participants (HP, n=6) took part in a repeated measurement design. After an extended baseline period of 3 weeks including repeated magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements, MI training was embedded within the classical course of physiotherapy for 5 additional weeks (three sessions per week). An immediate MEG post-test and a follow-up at 2 months were performed. Before MI training, compensatory activations and recruitment of deafferented cortical regions characterized the cortical activity during actual and imagined prehension in SCI participants. After MI training, MEG data yielded reduced compensatory activations. Cortical recruitment became similar to that in HP. Behavioral analysis evidenced decreased movement variability suggesting motor learning of tenodesis. Data suggest that MI training participated to reverse compensatory neuroplasticity in SCI participants, and promoted the integration of new upper limb prehensile coordination in the neural networks functionally dedicated to the control of healthy prehension before injury. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Astronaut Anna Fisher demonstrates sleep restraints on shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna L. Fisher demonstrates the versatility of shuttle sleep restraints to accommodate the preference of crewmembers as she appears to have configured hers in a horizontal hammock mode. Stowage lockers, one of the middeck walls, another sleep restraint, a jury-rigged foot and hand restraint are among other items in the frame.

  5. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  6. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDINGS......: Three mechanical restraint preventive factors were significantly associated with low rates of mechanical restraint use: mandatory review (exp[B] = .36, p mechanical...

  7. To grip or not to grip: An experimental approach for understanding the use of prehensile areas in mousterian tools

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Preysler, Javier; Torres Navas, Concepción; Pérez Díaz, Sara; Bustos-Pérez, Guillermo; Romagnoli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a more or less complex handling technology with the lithic tools during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic is an interesting topic for understanding aspects of the human behavior during these periods. In this work we present a preliminary experimental evaluation of the possible functionality of prehensile area in some of the most representative lithic types of the Mousterian assemblages (dorsal elements and levallois chapeau de gendarme proximal area), in which t...

  8. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  9. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  10. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S. Government vehicles on or off the installations. (b) Restraint systems will be worn by all civilian personnel...

  11. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  12. A week of Israeli restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In Israeli discourse, Israel is always the side exercising restraint in its conflict with the Palestinians. This was true again for the events of the past week: As the Qassam rockets were falling on the Southern Israeli town of Sderot, it was “leaked” that the Israeli Minister of Defense had

  13. Charcot Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking, the foot eventually changes ... difference. Advanced therapies for foot wounds are saving limbs, restoring ... in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve ...

  14. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  15. Predictors of restraint use among child occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marco; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict restraint use and optimal restraint use among children aged 0 to 13 years. The data set is a national sample of police-reported crashes for years 2010-2014 in which type of child restraint is recorded. The data set was supplemented with demographic census data linked by driver ZIP code, as well as a score for the state child restraint law during the year of the crash relative to best practice recommendations for protecting child occupants. Analysis used linear regression techniques. The main predictor of unrestrained child occupants was the presence of an unrestrained driver. Among restrained children, children had 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.27, 2.17) times higher odds of using the recommended type of restraint system if the state law at the time of the crash included requirements based on best practice recommendations. Children are more likely to ride in the recommended type of child restraint when their state's child restraint law includes wording that follows best practice recommendations for child occupant protection. However, state child restraint law requirements do not influence when caregivers fail to use an occupant restraint for their child passengers.

  16. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early. Start OverDiagnosisThe cause may be FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, TIBIAL TORSION or METATARSUS ADDUCTUS, commonly called intoeing. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a STRESS FRACTURE of the bones in your foot. The pain ...

  17. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  18. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  19. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  20. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  1. Seismic restraint means for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R.H.; Todt, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic restraint means are provided for mounting an elongated, generally cylindrical nuclear radiation detector within a tubular thimble in a nuclear reactor monitor system. The restraint means permits longitudinal movement of the radiation detector into and out of the thimble. Each restraint means comprises a split clamp ring and a plurality of symmetrically spaced support arms pivotally mounted on the clamp ring. Each support arm has spring bias means and thimble contact means eg insulating rollers whereby the contact means engage the thimble with a constant predetermined force which minimizes seismic vibration action on the radiation detector. (author)

  2. Mechanical Restraint - Which Interventions Prevent Episodes of Mechanical Restraint? - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE:  To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS:  Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS:  Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:  There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....

  3. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  4. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  5. Roadside observation of child passenger restraint use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Bruce

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite legislation and research evidence supporting the use of childhood vehicle restraints, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of injury, death and disability among Canadian children. Methods: Working in collaboration with trained car seat specialists and police officers, roadside checks were conducted to observe correct use of child restraints. Results: Of the 1323 child vehicle restraints inspected, 99.6% of the children were restrained, 91% were in the correct seat, and 48% of restraints were correctly installed. The seat/restraint types most used incorrectly used were booster seats (31% and seat belts (53%. The majority of incorrectly installed or fitted seats (55% were forward facing. Common errors in installation and fit included the seat not being secured tightly enough to the vehicle, incorrect tether strap use, the harness not being tight enough, and/or the chest clip being in the wrong place. Conclusions: The greatest proportion of incorrect seat use was among those children who transitioned to a seat belt too soon. The greatest proportion of installation and fit errors were among forward facing seats. Researchers recommend: 1 targeting parents with older children (ages 3 and above regarding transitioning too soon from forward facing seats to booster seats, and from booster seats to seat belts; 2 targeting parents with younger children regarding correct installation of rear facing and forward facing seats; 3 collaborating with police officers to review the most common errors and encourage observation at roadside checks; and 4 creating community awareness by way of roadside checks.

  6. Striving for balance between caring and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2017-01-01

    with 14 young adults were conducted. RESULTS: The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents...... that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health care professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations...

  7. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  8. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  9. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  10. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  11. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with ... were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. ... controlled conditions for the light/dark cycle, ..... increase the production of catecholamines. ... specific protein that has been suggested to play a role.

  12. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 .... and staff composition, type of ward and ward atmosphere. The type of ... (e.g. psychiatric diagnosis, strengths, family history), and restraint should be ...

  13. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, Roberto; Snyder, David; Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data

  14. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero, Roberto [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Snyder, David [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data.

  15. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2017-01-01

    . AIM: To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical...... restraint. METHODS: The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. RESULTS: The three sub-scales (Confounders......, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. CONCLUSIONS: MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items...

  17. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  18. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  19. Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Panicos O Demetriades; Kul B Luintel

    2000-01-01

    We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the adm...

  20. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  1. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  2. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  3. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  4. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  5. Restraint methods for radiography in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, P.V.; Bednarski, R.M.; Myer, C.W.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-01

    Excellent patient restraint techniques are necessary to produce high-quality diagnostic images during survey and contrast radiography and ultrasonography. Use of non manual physical restraint (i.e., devices to hold the patient in position) helps reduce the exposure of veterinary personnel to radiation. Exposure of personnel to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Usually, this involves taking the radiograph when no personnel are present in the room. Some procedures, however, require the presence of the veterinarian. No personnel should ever put any part of their bodies in the path of the x-ray beam. Protective gear must be worn. Physical restraint can be facilitated by chemical restraint, which varies from minimal sedation to general anesthesia. Appropriate chemical restraint for radiography is the minimum amount of sedation required for the efficient and safe completion of the radiographic examination. Chemical restraint techniques vary according to the patient's physical status, the type of examination, and the skill of the examiner in non manual restraint techniques. This article describes techniques for non manual restraint and protocols for chemical restraint for dogs and cats

  6. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their

  7. Electric foot shock stress adaptation: Does it exist or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-06-01

    Stress adaptation is a protective phenomenon against repeated stress exposure and is characterized by a decreased responsiveness to a repeated stress stimulus. The adaptation is associated with a complex cascade of events, including the changes in behavior, neurotransmitter and gene expression levels. The non-adaptation or maladaptation to stress may underlie the affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Electric foot shock is a complex stressor, which includes both physical and emotional components. Unlike immobilization, restraint and cold immersion stress, the phenomenon of stress adaptation is not very well defined in response to electric foot shock. A number of preclinical studies have reported the development of adaptation to electric foot shock stress. However, evidence also reveals the non-adaptive behavior in response to foot shocks. The distinct adaptive/non-adaptive responses may be possibly influenced by the type, intensity, and duration of the stress. The present review discusses the existence or non-existence of adaptation to electric foot shock stress along with possible mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Restraint Use in Older Adults Receiving Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  10. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  11. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesia or hyperalgesia has been reported to occur in animals under different stress conditions. This study examined the effect of acute restraint stress on nociception in rats. Acute restraint stress produced a time-dependant decrease in pain threshold; this hyperalgesia was not affected by prior administration of ...

  12. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  13. Continuous restraint control systems: safety improvement for various occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E. van der; Jager, B. de; Veldpaus, F.; Steinbuch, M.; Nunen, E. van; Willemsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Occupant safety can be significantly improved by continuous restraint control systems. These restraint systems adjust their configuration during the impact according to the actual operating conditions, such as occupant size, weight, occupant position, belt usage and crash severity. In this study,

  14. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  15. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    . The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...... physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous...

  16. Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Arunima; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Dufour, Alyssa B; Menz, Hylton B; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-01-01

    Although foot pain has been linked to fall risk, contributions of pain severity, foot posture, or foot function are unclear. These factors were examined in a cohort of older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of foot pain, severity of foot pain, and measures of foot posture and dynamic foot function with reported falls in a large, well-described cohort of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Foot pain, posture, and function were collected from Framingham Foot Study participants who were queried about falls over the past year (0, 1, and ≥2 falls). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of falls with foot pain, pain severity, foot posture, and foot function adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the 1,375 participants was 69 years; 57% were female, and 21% reported foot pain (40% mild pain, 47% moderate pain, and 13% severe pain). One-third reported falls in the past year (1 fall: n = 263, ≥2 falls: n = 152). Foot pain was associated with a 62% increased odds of recurrent falls. Those with moderate and severe foot pain showed increased odds of ≥2 falls (OR 1.78, CI 1.06-2.99, and OR 3.25, CI 1.65-7.48, respectively) compared to those with no foot pain. Foot function was not associated with falls. Compared to normal foot posture, those with planus foot posture had 78% higher odds of ≥2 falls. Higher odds of recurrent falls were observed in individuals with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as in individuals with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in increasing the risk of falls among older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  18. Metabolic immune restraints: implications for anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic immune restraints belong to a highly complex network of molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of naturally occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. In the light of the disappointing results yielded so far with anticancer vaccines in the clinical setting, the dissection of the cascade of molecular events leading to tumor immune escape appears the most promising way to develop more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we review the significant advances recently made in the understanding of the tumor-specific metabolic features that contribute to keep malignant cells from being recognized and destroyed by immune effectors. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits and thus to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer vaccines.

  19. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  20. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control systemm for a nuclear reactor core provides an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit is composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased by an amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  1. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  2. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  3. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Nigel W; Draizen, Eli J; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement.

  4. Environmental restraints and life strategies: a habitat templet matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E

    1988-02-01

    Four basic environmental restraints on life are deduced from the requirements of life's inherent order laws. Possible life strategies to contend with these restraints are listed. The various combinations of the restraints are subsequently investigated, and appropriate combinations of life strategies are fitted. This model is finally tested against insect case histories in various environments, and is demonstrated to explain some combinations of characteristics of insects in ecosystems not covered by the r-K or r-K-A continua. The role of heterochrony in achieving appropriate life strategies is briefly discussed.

  5. Overview of the design of core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of the core restraint system is an important condition for the safe and reliable operation of a fast breeder reactor. For KNK II which is under successful operation and SNR 300 all requirements for safety and operation have been met with help of a ring type system. For SNR 2 the decision between the ring type system and the free standing core has to be done in the near future. Within these considerations the advantages of a ring type restraint system of limiting deflections during operation and limiting of possible movements under seismic conditions have to be balanced against the somewhat more complicated structure of the ring type restraint system

  6. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  7. The diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the princ...

  8. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  9. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  10. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  11. The Relationship between Restraints of Trade and Garden Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, in view of the decision in Vodacom (Pty Ltd v Motsa 2016 3 SA 116 (LC. The Labour Court grappled with the question of whether the enforcement of the garden leave provision impacts on the enforcement of a post-termination restraint of trade clause. Enforcement of both these types of clauses may be problematic. It can result in unfairness if an employee ends up being commercially inactive for a long period. The author argues that garden leave has a direct effect on the enforcement of a post- termination restraint of trade clause. Accordingly, a restraint of trade will be enforced only if the employer's proprietary interest requires additional protection beyond what is achieved under the garden leave clause.

  12. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  13. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  14. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  15. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  16. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  17. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  18. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  19. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much pressure on your toes. If your feet have changed shape, such as from Charcot’s foot, you may need ... care visit if you have changes in the shape of your feet loss of feeling in your feet peripheral artery ...

  20. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, tendons and/or surrounding ... on the ball of the foot, such as running, basketball, football, golf, tennis and ballet. ... of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of ...

  1. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  2. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and testing of restraints for nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Skinner, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    As an alternative to current practice of pipe restraint within nuclear power plants it has been proposed to adopt restraints capable of dissipating energy in the piping system. The specific mode of energy dissipation focused upon in these studies is the plastic yielding of steels utilizing relative movement between the pipe and the base of the restraint, a general mechanism which has been proven as reliable in several allied studies. This report discusses the testing of examples of two energy-absorbing devices, the results of this testing and the conclusions drawn. This study concentrated on the specific relevant performance characteristics of hysteretic behavior and degradation with use. The testing consisted of repetitive continuous loadings well into the plastic ranges of the devices in a sinusoidal or random displacement controlled mode

  4. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  5. Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

    1990-02-01

    Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  7. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Scannella, John B

    2009-11-25

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  8. The diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestring, T.; Fiedler, R.; Greitemann, B.; Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [de

  9. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  10. 32 CFR 884.3 - Placing member under restraint pending delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placing member under restraint pending delivery. 884.3 Section 884.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... member under restraint pending delivery. Continue restraint only as long as is reasonably necessary to...

  11. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  12. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing, the... and fastener requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127 provided that— (1) The track owner... the minimum design requirements of a GRMS vehicle which specify that— (1) Gage restraint shall be...

  13. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  14. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  15. Conceptual design of pipe whip restraints using interactive computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protection against pipe break effects necessitates a complex interaction between failure mode analysis, piping layout, and structural design. Many iterations are required to finalize structural designs and equipment arrangements. The magnitude of the pipe break loads transmitted by the pipe whip restraints to structural embedments precludes the application of conservative design margins. A simplified analytical formulation of the nonlinear dynamic problems associated with pipe whip has been developed and applied using interactive computer analysis techniques. In the dynamic analysis, the restraint and the associated portion of the piping system, are modeled using the finite element lumped mass approach to properly reflect the dynamic characteristics of the piping/restraint system. The analysis is performed as a series of piecewise linear increments. Each of these linear increments is terminated by either formation of plastic conditions or closing/opening of gaps. The stiffness matrix is modified to reflect the changed stiffness characteristics of the system and re-started using the previous boundary conditions. The formation of yield hinges are related to the plastic moment of the section and unloading paths are automatically considered. The conceptual design of the piping/restraint system is performed using interactive computer analysis. The application of the simplified analytical approach with interactive computer analysis results in an order of magnitude reduction in engineering time and computer cost. (Auth.)

  16. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  17. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  18. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  19. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  20. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  1. Moderation: an alternative to restraint as a mode of weight self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S

    2012-12-01

    This study considered two types of eating and weight self-regulation, in five groups, including four types of weight controllers and one non-dieting group. New scales were developed to measure eating moderation and restraint. Moderation was largely uncorrelated with restraint in 4 groups and had a fairly strong positive relation in 1 group. The moderation scale was unrelated to the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) restraint scale and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) rigid restraint subscale and weakly positively related to TFEQ flexible restraint. The restraint scale was strongly correlated to the DEBQ restraint scale, and to both flexible and rigid restraint subscales of the TFEQ. Across the five groups, moderation had exclusively positive relationships with attitude, behavior and emotion variables, while restraint had primarily negative relationships. The study supports moderation as a new dimension of weight self-regulation, independent of restraint. The new measures of moderation and restraint can be used together in research on the processes of change in weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Lee, Lawrence S; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2008-12-01

    Current ventricular restraint devices do not allow for either the measurement or adjustment of ventricular restraint level. Periodic adjustment of restraint level post-device implantation may improve therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the feasibility of an adjustable quantitative ventricular restraint (QVR) technique utilizing a fluid-filled polyurethane epicardial balloon to measure and adjust restraint level post-implantation guided by physiologic parameters. QVR balloons were implanted in nine ovine with post-infarction dilated heart failure. Restraint level was defined by the maximum restraint pressure applied by the balloon to the epicardium at end-diastole. An access line connected the balloon lumen to a subcutaneous portacath to allow percutaneous access. Restraint level was adjusted while left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) and cardiac output was assessed with simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. All nine ovine successfully underwent QVR balloon implantation. Post-implantation, restraint level could be measured percutaneously in real-time and dynamically adjusted by instillation and withdrawal of fluid from the balloon lumen. Using simultaneous echocardiography, restraint level could be adjusted based on LV EDV and cardiac output. After QVR therapy for 21 days, LV EDV decreased from 133+/-15 ml to 113+/-17 ml (p<0.05). QVR permits real-time measurement and physiologic adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy after device implantation.

  3. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  4. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  5. Restraint use in older adults in home care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Milisen, Koen

    2018-03-01

    To get insight into restraint use in older adults receiving home care and, more specifically, into the definition, prevalence and types of restraint, as well as the reasons for restraint use and the people involved in the decision-making process. Systematic review. Four databases (i.e. Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library) were systematically searched from inception to end of April 2017. The study encompassed qualitative and quantitative research on restraint use in older adults receiving home care that reported definitions of restraint, prevalence of use, types of restraint, reasons for use or the people involved. We considered publications written in English, French, Dutch and German. One reviewer performed the search and made the initial selection based on titles and abstracts. The final selection was made by two reviewers working independently; they also assessed study quality. We used an integrated design to synthesise the findings. Eight studies were reviewed (one qualitative, seven quantitative) ranging in quality from moderate to high. The review indicated there was no single, clear definition of restraint. The prevalence of restraint use ranged from 5% to 24.7%, with various types of restraint being used. Families played an important role in the decision-making process and application of restraints; general practitioners were less involved. Specific reasons, other than safety for using restraints in home care were noted (e.g. delay to nursing home admission; to provide respite for an informal caregiver). Contrary to the current socio demographical evolutions resulting in an increasing demand of restraint use in home care, research on this subject is still scarce and recent. The limited evidence however points to the challenging complexity and specificity of home care regarding restraint use. Given these serious challenges for clinical practice, more research about restraint use in home care is urgently needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  6. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the complications related to diabetes as a result of this increasing ... A number of contributory factors work together to cause foot ... neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external ... it is usually a combination of problems rather than a single risk ... This results in increased oxidative stress.

  7. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  8. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  10. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  11. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  12. Supporting system for the core restraint of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, A.

    1973-01-01

    The core restraint of water cooled nuclear reactors which is needed to direct the flow of the coolant through the core can be manufactured only in a moderate wall thickness. Thus, the majority of the loads have to be transmitted to the core barrel which is more rigid. The patent refers to a system of circumferential and vertical support members most of which are free to move relatively to each other, thus reducing thermal stresses during operation. (P.K.)

  13. Construct Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe main purpose of this study was to adapt the Restraint Scale (RS to Portuguese and examine its psychometric properties, specifically its construct validity.MethodIn this study, 238 normal-weight adults (82% women; Mean age = 36.6, SD = 15.0 participated in an online survey containing measures of Restraint Scale, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness scales.ResultsExploratory factor analyses corroborated the two-factors structure found in previous studies, in particular when three items without clear factorial assignment and low correlation were excluded. A final two-factors version of the RS containing seven items presented a very good fit to the measurement model and good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 7-items RS in relation to a three-factor model of overeating, dieting and body dissatisfaction measures revealed that the RS was the only restraint measure loading in all three factors.ConclusionThis suggests that the 7-items Portuguese version of the RS has good psychometric properties and unique features that lend it appropriate to identify and study unsuccessful chronic dieters.

  14. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  15. Restraint reduction in a nursing home and its impact on employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, M; Garrett, R M; Horn, R D

    1994-04-01

    To reduce physical restraint use in a nursing home and increase employee support for the restraint-reduction program. A one-group pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to determine changes in restraint use with participants over a 14-month interval. All individuals employed at the nursing home were surveyed at two time periods to determine their opinions on restraint use. A 265-bed private, non-profit nursing home in Dallas, Texas. A restrained cohort of 170 residents with a mean age of 84 years; 84% were female. A total of 182 employees participated in the first survey and 209 in the second. Formation of a project team that planned and supervised restraint removal. Inservice training on restraint use was conducted for all employees. Type and frequency of restraint use among the restrained cohort at four evaluation points within a 14-month interval. The frequency of restraint use in the nursing home population was also recorded. Survey measures included employee responses to a 16-item closed-end questionnaire before and after training. The mean number of restraints used with each resident in the restrained cohort decreased from 1.56 to 0.67. The number of residents on restraints in the nursing home was reduced during the course of the study (67.5% vs. 36.7%, P reduction program in a nursing home can produce positive results in terms of decreased restraint use and supportive employee attitudes. More practical alternatives to restraints need to be developed for application in the training of nursing home employees. Future studies on resident, employee, and family attitudes about restraint use are suggested.

  16. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  17. Combined diabetic foot infections treatment, complicated by foot phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavruyan O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the analysis of treatment results of 163 patients with diabetic foot infections, complicated by foot phlegmon. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The control group received traditional treatment and had an autopsy deep plantar space done and then, during the second phase, cytokine-rich autoplatelet concentrate had been applied. The research results confirmed a significant decrease in the duration of treatment and hospitalization of patients in the hospital.

  18. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  20. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the influence of seismic restraint characteristics on breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    For the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) heat transport system piping within the reactor containment building, dynamic analyses of the piping loops have been performed to study the effect of restraint stiffness on the dynamic behavior of the piping. In addition, analysis and testing of typical CRBRP restraint system components have been performed for the purpose of quantifying and verifying the basic characteristics of the restraints used in the piping system dynamic analysis

  2. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  3. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Legislating child restraint usage -Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Ravindran, Karthik; Guse, Clare E

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of the newly enacted child passenger safety law, Wisconsin Act 106, on self-report of proper restraint usage of children in Milwaukee's central city population. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used. The settings used were (a) a pediatric urban health center, and (b) two Women, Infants and Children offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Participants included 11,566 surveys collected over 18 months that spanned the pre-legislation and post-legislation time periods from February 2006 through August 2008. The study set out to assess appropriate child passenger restraint. The results showed that the changes in adjusted proper restraint usage rates for infants between the pre-law, grace period, and post-fine periods were 94%, 94%, and 94% respectively. For children 1-3years old, the adjusted proper usage rates were 65%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. And for children 4-7years old, the rates were 43%, 44% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant increase in premature booster seat use in children who should have been restrained in a rear- or forward-facing car seat (10% pre-law, 12% grace period, 20% post-fine; padvertising and marketing to the correct age group, ease of installation, and mechanisms to prevent incorrect safety strap and harness placement. To ensure accurate and consistent use on every trip, car seat manufacturers must ensure that best practice recommendations for use as well as age, weight, and height be clearly specified on each child restraint. The authors support the United States Department of Transportation's new consumer program that will assist caregivers in identifying the child seat that will fit in their vehicle. In addition, due to the increase in premature graduation of children into belt-positioning booster seats noted as a result of legislation, promoting and marketing booster seat use for children less than 40 pounds should not be accepted. Child passenger safety technicians must continue to promote best

  5. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  6. Imaging the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.H.; Tong, D.T.F.; Crim, J.R.; Seeger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase 99m Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal 99m Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a 111 In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  7. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  9. Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand and foot pressures in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) reveal novel biomechanical trade-offs required for walking on gracile digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Schmitt, Daniel; Wunderlich, Roshna E

    2010-05-01

    Arboreal animals with prehensile hands must balance the complex demands of bone strength, grasping and manipulation. An informative example of this problem is that of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a rare lemuriform primate that is unusual in having exceptionally long, gracile fingers specialized for foraging. In addition, they are among the largest primates to engage in head-first descent on arboreal supports, a posture that should increase loads on their gracile digits. We test the hypothesis that aye-ayes will reduce pressure on their digits during locomotion by curling their fingers off the substrate. This hypothesis was tested using simultaneous videographic and pressure analysis of the hand, foot and digits for five adult aye-ayes during horizontal locomotion and during ascent and descent on a 30 degrees instrumented runway. Aye-ayes consistently curled their fingers during locomotion on all slopes. When the digits were in contact with the substrate, pressures were negligible and significantly less than those experienced by the palm or pedal digits. In addition, aye-ayes lifted their hands vertically off the substrate instead of 'toeing-off' and descended head-first at significantly slower speeds than on other slopes. Pressure on the hand increased during head-first descent relative to horizontal locomotion but not as much as the pressure increased on the foot during ascent. This distribution of pressure suggests that aye-ayes shift their weight posteriorly during head-first descent to reduce loads on their gracile fingers. This research demonstrates several novel biomechanical trade-offs to deal with complex functional demands on the mammalian skeleton.

  13. [Therapeutic restraint and freedom of movement, changing practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin-Niquet, Annick

    From confinement to the philosophy of care in the community, the history of psychiatry testifies to the evolution of practices in the matter of the restriction of freedom. The French National Health Authority still too often recommends practices based on restraint. Caregivers, in relation to the clinical aspect of the patients, need clearly identified therapeutic projects. While training can be vital for them, risk management policies can prove to be a hindrance to patients' freedom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  15. Restraint behavior of concrete under extreme thermal and hygral conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, P.; Dommnich, F.

    1989-01-01

    Stresses due to temperature may be a considerable part of the whole loading of the structure especially in reactor vessels, chimneys and other structures. During using of this structures the heating cycle consisting of heating and cooling may be repeated for several times. On the other hand the initial load, the preloading time, the heating rate and the moisture of concrete can differ in respect of the design or utilization of the structure. The effect of this environmental factors on the restraint behavior of concrete is presented in this paper

  16. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  17. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  18. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  19. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Frost

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD" passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82% and manual WhMDs (80% compared to scooters (39%, and this difference was significant (p< 0.01. Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  20. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  1. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate use...

  2. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  3. [Vision on and use of physical restraints and 'smart technology' in nursing homes in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlassara, V; Lampo, E; Degryse, B; Van Audenhove, C; Spruytte, N

    2017-04-01

    The STAFF-project investigates in what way 'smart technology' can offer an alternative for physical restraints in nursing homes. A survey is realized aimed at gaining more insight into the vision on and the use of physical restraints and 'smart technology'. Two partly overlapping structured questionnaires were developed and sent to nursing home staff in Flanders (Belgium). One hundred fifty six administrators (managers or assistant-managers) and 238 caregiving staff (nurses, nursing aids, paramedical staff and other) completed the online questionnaire. In general there is a low acceptability of physical restraint use, however, a more nuanced picture of acceptability is present depending on the specific motivation for using physical restraints and on the specific means of physical restraints. About half of the administrators say they use smart technology in the nursing home. The two main reasons for not applying (yet) smart technology are 'too high price for smart technology' and 'inadequate infrastructure of the nursing home'. All respondents underscore the importance of multiple strategies to diminish the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Physical restraint use is a complex theme and needs a nuanced analysis and management. This study shows that there is still room for improvement in diminishing the use of physical restraints and that nursing homes in Flanders are open to use smart technology.

  4. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  5. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  6. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  7. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  8. Torsional Restraint Problem of Steel Cold-Formed Beams Restrained By Planar Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Ivan; Melcher, Jindřich; Pešek, Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    The effect of continuous or discrete lateral and torsional restraints of metal thinwalled members along their spans can positively influence their buckling resistance and thus contribute to more economical structural design. The prevention of displacement and rotation of the cross-section results in stabilization of the member. The restraints can practically be provided e.g. by planar members of cladding supported by metal members (purlins, girts). The rate of stabilization of a member can be quantified using values of shear and rotational stiffness provided by the adjacent planar members. While the lateral restraint effected by certain shear stiffness can be often considered as sufficient, the complete torsional restraint can be safely considered in some practical cases only. Otherwise the values of the appropriate rotational stiffness provided by adjacent planar members may not be satisfactory to ensure full torsional restraint and only incomplete restraint is available. Its verification should be performed using theoretical and experimental analyses. The paper focuses on problem of steel thin-walled coldformed beams stabilized by planar members and investigates the effect of the magnitude of the rotational stiffness provided by the planar members on the resistance of the steel members. Cold-formed steel beams supporting planar members of cladding are considered. Full lateral restraint and incomplete torsional restraint are assumed. Numerical analyses performed using a finite element method software indicate considerable influence of the torsional restraint on the buckling resistance of a steel thin-walled member. Utilization of the torsional restraint in the frame of sizing of a stabilized beam can result in more efficient structural design. The paper quantifies this effect for some selected cases and summarizes results of numerical analysis.

  9. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  10. Diabetic gangrene of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Junji; Hoshi, Makoto; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo; Kimura, Masakata; Ichinohe, Hitomoto.

    1983-01-01

    A case of severe diabetic gangrene was reported. Angiography showed no evidence of ischemic changes in the foot, except for mild atherosclerosis in the femoral and popliteal arteries. Tc-99m labelled macroagglugated albumine (MAA) was injected transcatheterally into the abdominal aorta to see the blood perfusion of the lower extremities, which showed increased blood flow of the foot as well as the presence of micro arteriovenous shuntings shown by the appearance of both lungs. Damages of the microcirculation are thought to have much influences on the formation of diabetic gangrene. Histopathological findings supported above. (author)

  11. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  12. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  13. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  14. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of viscous dampers as pipe restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.; Mays, B.; Rencher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic loading of power generation piping systems may result in nonpermissable deflections and stresses. Fatigue failure translate to increased maintenance costs and possible lost revenue. Undesirable loading can occur due to external events such as earthquakes and internal events such as water and steam hammer, two-phase flow and cavitation. Sway braces and snubbers have been employed to reduce the negative effects of piping motion in emergency cases, however, repetitive loading due to internal events has caused premature wear and failure. Visco elastic dampers, however, have proven to be piping response due to slugging, steam hammer and other repetitive loads. Functional and modeling aspects of visco elastic dampers are discussed, experimental evidence of their effectiveness in a steam hammer application is presented and examples of primary coolant loop restraint applications are illustrated

  17. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute...... a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented....... This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients...

  18. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (pinjuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  19. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. Can child restraint product information developed using consumer testing sustain correct use 6 months after child restraint purchase? Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Elkington, Jane; Hall, Alexandra; Keay, Lisa; Charlton, Judith L; Hunter, Kate; Koppel, Sjaan; Hayen, Andrew; Bilston, Lynne E

    2018-03-07

    With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted. Retail stores (n=22) in the greater Sydney area will be randomised into intervention sites (n=11) and control sites (n=11), stratified by geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Participants (n=836) will enter the study on purchase of a restraint. Outcome measures are errors in installation of the restraint as observed by a trained researcher during a 6-month follow-up home assessment, and adjustment checks made by the parent when the child is placed into the restraint (observed using naturalistic methods). Process evaluation measures will also be collected during the home visit. An intention-to-treat approach will be used for all analyses. Correct use and adjustment checks made by the parent will be compared between control and intervention groups using a logistic regression model. The number of installation errors between groups will be compared using Poisson regression. This cRCT will determine the effectiveness of targeted, consumer-driven information on actual error rates in use of restraints. More broadly, it may provide a best practice model for developing safety product information. ACTRN12617001252303p; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  2. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115... protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear foot protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers must...

  4. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  5. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  6. Physical and mechanical restraint in psychiatric units: Perceptions and experiences of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; da Silva, Danielle Maria; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2018-06-01

    Physical restraint in psychiatric units is a common practice but extremely controversial and poorly evaluated by methodologically appropriate investigations. The cultural issues and professionals' perceptions and attitudes are substantial contributors to the frequency of restraint that tend to be elevated. Aim In this qualitative study, we aimed to understand the experiences and perceptions of nursing staff regarding physical restraint in psychiatric units. Through theoretical sampling, 29 nurses from two Brazilian psychiatric units participated in the study. Data were collected from 2014 to 2016 from individual interviews and analyzed through thematic analysis, employing theoretical presuppositions of symbolic interactionism. Physical restraint was considered unpleasant, challenging, risky, and associated with dilemmas and conflicts. The nursing staff was often exposed to the risks and injuries related to restraint. Professionals sought strategies to reduce restraint-related damages, but still considered it necessary due to the lack of effective options to control aggressive behavior. This study provides additional perspectives about physical restraint and reveals the need for safer, humanized and appropriate methods for the care of aggressive patients that consider the real needs and rights of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Therapeutic restraint management in Intensive Care Units: Phenomenological approach to nursing reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Nuevo, M; González-Gil, M T; Solís-Muñoz, M; Láiz-Díez, N; Toraño-Olivera, M J; Carrasco-Rodríguez-Rey, L F; García-González, S; Velasco-Sanz, T R; Martínez-Álvarez, A; Martin-Rivera, B E

    2016-01-01

    To identify nursing experience on physical restraint management in Critical Care Units. To analyse similarities and differences in nursing experience on physical restraint management according to the clinical context that they are involved in. A multicentre phenomenological study was carried out including 14 Critical Care Units in Madrid, classified according to physical restraint use: Common/systematic use, lacking/personalised use, and mixed use. Five focus groups (23 participants were selected following purposeful sampling) were convened, concluding in data saturation. Data analysis was focused on thematic content analysis following Colaizzi's method. Six main themes: Physical restraint meaning in Critical Care Units, safety (self-retreat vital devices), contribution factors, feelings, alternatives, and pending issues. Although some themes are common to the 3 Critical Care Unit types, discourse differences are found as regards to indication, feelings, systematic use of pain and sedation measurement tools. In order to achieve real physical restraint reduction in Critical Care Units, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of restraints use in the specific clinical context. As self-retreat vital devices emerge as central concept, some interventions proposed in other settings could not be effective, requiring alternatives for critical care patients. Discourse variations laid out in the different Critical Care Unit types could highlight key items that determine the use and different attitudes towards physical restraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimizing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools: A Response to Beaudoin and Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Virginia L; Pinkelman, Sarah E

    2018-06-01

    Increasing efforts have been made in the field of special education to identify positive, evidence-based practices (EBPs) to meet the needs of students who engage in problem behavior, with a major goal being to eliminate or limit the use of reactive measures such as restraint and seclusion ( Snell & Walker, 2014 ). Various stakeholders, including families and self-advocates, have voiced concerns about the dangers of restraint and seclusion and the lack of protection afforded to students who engage in severe problem behavior. In the previous article in this issue of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Beaudoin and Moore (2018) echo these concerns in their account of a family's experience with restraint as told from the perspective of a father whose son was subjected to restraint, resulting in a number of adverse short- and long-term consequences that affected the entire family. In response to Beaudoin and Moore, we provide readers with a brief review of the current status of restraint and seclusion in school settings and evidence-based strategies that can be used to address severe problem behavior and reduce the need for restraint and seclusion. For readers interested in exploring restraint and seclusion in greater depth, we suggest recent work by Trader and colleagues (2017) . We also have outlined guidelines for behavior support planning that should be considered by various stakeholders as educators work toward establishing safe and supportive school environments that address a wide range of student behavioral needs.

  10. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  11. Stress analysis of two-dimensional C/C composite components for HTGR's core restraint techanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi Hanawa; Taiju Shibata; Jyunya Sumita; Masahiro Ishihara; Tatsuo Iyoku; Kazuhiro Sawa

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the most promising materials for HTGRs core components due to their high strength as well as high temperature resistibility. One of the most attractive applications of C/C composite is the core restraint mechanism. The core restraint mechanism is located around the reflector block and it works to tighten reactor core blocks so as to restrict un-supposition flow pass of coolant gas (bypass flow) in the core. The restriction of bypass flow reads to the high efficiency of coolant flow rate inside of the reactor core. For the future HTGRs and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), it is important to develop the core restraint mechanism with C/C composite substitute for metallic materials as used for HTTR. For the application of C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, it is important to investigate the applicability of C/C composite in viewpoint of structural integrity. In the present study, supposing the application of 2D-C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, thermal stress behavior was analyzed by considering the thickness of the C/C composite and the gap between reflector block and core restraint. It was shown from the thermal stress analysis that the circumferential stress decreases with increasing the gap and that the restraint force increases with increasing the thickness. By optimizing the thickness of C/C composite and gap between reflector block and core restraint, the C/C composite is applicable to the core restraint mechanism. (authors)

  12. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  13. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  15. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  16. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  17. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control s...

  19. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. AIMS: Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. METHODS: The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one...... unit served as the control group. In the very beginning of the study, a staff-training program in the use of SM including assessment tools and intervention strategies was established. Data on restraint and forced medicine were sampled post the course of the year of implementation and compared...... with the control group. RESULTS: The use of belts decreased with 38% compared to the control group. The use of forced medication decreased with 46% compared to the control group. Altogether the use of physical restraint and forced medication decreased significantly with 42% (p 

  20. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Nystrom, Paul C; Calvo, Darryl V; Berris, Marc S; Norlin, Jeffrey F; Clinton, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    When responders are dealing with an agitated patient in the field, safety for all involved may sometimes only be accomplished with physical or chemical restraints. While experiences using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described. We report a case of successful law enforcement-administered sedation of a noncommunicative, autistic, and violent minor using intramuscular droperidol and diphenhydramine. Although this case has some unique characteristics that allowed chemical restraint to be given by the law enforcement agency, it calls attention to some specific prehospital issues that need to be addressed when dealing with autistic patients with extreme agitation.

  1. Fabrication of a small animal restraint for synchrotron biomedical imaging using a rapid prototyper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin; McCrea, Richard; Bewer, Brian; Wiebe, Sheldon; Nichol, Helen; Ryan, Christopher; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research at synchrotron facilities may involve imaging live animals that must remain motionless for extended periods of time to obtain quality images. Even breathing movements reduce image quality but on the other hand excessive restraint of animals increases morbidity and mortality. We describe a humane animal restraint designed to eliminate head movements while promoting animal survival. This paper describes how an animal restraint that conforms to the shape of an animal's head was fabricated by a 3D prototyper. The method used to translate medical computed tomography (CT) data to a 3D stereolithography format is described and images of its use at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) are shown. This type of restraint holds great promise in improving image quality and repeatability while reducing stress on experimental animals

  2. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  3. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  4. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0044 Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical ...Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6500-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...experimental effort involving a series of +z-axis impact tests was conducted on the 711th Human Performance Wing’s Vertical Deceleration Tower (VDT

  5. How the architect-engineer manages design objectives and restraints for optimizing sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.A.; Roe, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    The design objectives of low capital and operating costs and high reliability are best attained by carefully defining criteria early in the development stage. Throughout the design development, unusual attention to constructibility, reliability and availability requirements, and the early resolution of licensing issues by designated engineering specialists are some of the approaches used to minimize design restraints. Effective management of these design objectives and restraints can assure that, on balance, LMFBR costs can be improved, reliability increased, and maintenance can be effective. (author)

  6. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  7. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  10. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  11. Bupleurum falcatum prevents depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Yun, Hye-Yeon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated restraint stress in rodents produces increases in depression and anxietylike behaviors and alters the expression of corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. The current study focused on the impact of Bupleurum falcatum (BF) extract administration on repeated restraint stress-induced behavioral responses using the forced swimming test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Immunohistochemical examinations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rat brain were also conducted. Male rats received daily doses of 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (i.p.) BF extract for 15 days, 30 min prior to restraint stress (4 h/day). Hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activation in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed base on serum corticosterone levels and CRF expression in the hypothalamus. Animals that were pre-treated with BF extract displayed significantly reduced immobility in the FST and increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test in comparison with controls. BF also blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus of treated rats that experienced restraint stress. Together, these results demonstrate that BF extract administration prior to restraint stress significantly reduces depression and anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through central adrenergic mechanisms, and they suggest a role for BF extract in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

  12. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  14. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  15. Effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Je-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Lee, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2005-01-01

    Generally, the bubble size in the rim structure of UO 2 is not dependent on the fuel burnup and the bubble pressure is higher than that in the equilibrium condition. However it was also observed that if the fuel pellet is not restrained, the size of the bubbles in the rim structure could be larger than that in the restraint condition. Although the wide variety of rim bubble sizes and porosities possibly result from an external restrain effect, the quantitative method to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble distribution in the rim is not available at the moment. In this paper, a method is developed which can be used to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on the bubble distribution in the rim structure of UO 2 fuel based on the data in the literatures. The total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume could be derived by a summation of the number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble in a unit rim volume. The number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble could be calculated by the Van der Waals equation of state and the pressure expressed by p=σ+C/r, where C is an unknown constant to be determined as a function of the temperature and the burnup. On the other hand, the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume can also be calculated by Xe depression data. If the fuel pellet is not restrained, the uniform hydrostatic stress, σ is zero. Hence if the data of the fuel disk without a restraint is used, a constant C can be obtained at 823K and a local burnup of 90 GWd/t. Although the local burnup of PCMI restraint case is slightly different from that without PCMI restraint, the value derived above is used for the analysis of PCMI restraint case. The calculated bubble distribution with PCMI restraint was similar to the measured one. Because the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size increased with the bubble size, the development of a large bubble was suppressed. Hence, the PCMI restraint caused a typical bubble size in the rim and

  16. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  17. Dietary restraint in college women: fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon E; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V

    2012-09-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the mediation pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint would have a greater impact than that from perfectionistic strivings. Participants were 222 female college students who reported their height and weight and completed measures of perfectionism, the likelihood of acquiring the feared fat and hoped-for thin selves, and dietary restraint. Statistical analyses revealed that the perceived likelihood of acquiring the feared fat self mediated both perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the mediating pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint was greater than that from perfectionistic strivings. Implications for future research and eating pathology interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  19. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  20. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...

  1. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  2. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overuse syndromes of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Peloschek, P.; Weidekamm, C.; Uffmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse syndromes due to lifestyle problems or sporting activities commonly lead to foot abnormalities. The tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles are specifically prone to degeneration. The various disorders may be classified by a grading system that includes peritendinous inflammation, degenerative tendon disease, and ruptures. Bone marrow edema is another typical manifestation of overuse. It may be differentiated from inflammatory or traumatic forms of edema by its anatomic distribution. Systematic pattern recognition is based on the concept of musculotendinous and osseous kinetic chains. (orig.) [de

  4. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  5. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  6. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  7. Algorithm for selection of optimized EPR distance restraints for de novo protein structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Alexander, Nathan S.; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid protein structure determination approach combining sparse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) distance restraints and Rosetta de novo protein folding has been previously demonstrated to yield high quality models (Alexander et al., 2008). However, widespread application of this methodology to proteins of unknown structures is hindered by the lack of a general strategy to place spin label pairs in the primary sequence. In this work, we report the development of an algorithm that optimally selects spin labeling positions for the purpose of distance measurements by EPR. For the α-helical subdomain of T4 lysozyme (T4L), simulated restraints that maximize sequence separation between the two spin labels while simultaneously ensuring pairwise connectivity of secondary structure elements yielded vastly improved models by Rosetta folding. 50% of all these models have the correct fold compared to only 21% and 8% correctly folded models when randomly placed restraints or no restraints are used, respectively. Moreover, the improvements in model quality require a limited number of optimized restraints, the number of which is determined by the pairwise connectivities of T4L α-helices. The predicted improvement in Rosetta model quality was verified by experimental determination of distances between spin labels pairs selected by the algorithm. Overall, our results reinforce the rationale for the combined use of sparse EPR distance restraints and de novo folding. By alleviating the experimental bottleneck associated with restraint selection, this algorithm sets the stage for extending computational structure determination to larger, traditionally elusive protein topologies of critical structural and biochemical importance. PMID:21074624

  8. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  9. Effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczy, Petra; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klie, Thomas; Beische, Denis; Büchele, Gisela; Kleiner, Andrea; Guerra, Virginia; Rissmann, Ulrich; Kurrle, Susan; Bredthauer, Doris

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce the use of physical restraints in residents of nursing homes. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Forty-five nursing homes in Germany. Three hundred thirty-three residents who were being restrained at the start of the intervention. Persons responsible for the intervention in the nursing homes attended a 6-hour training course that included education about the reasons restraints are used, the adverse effects, and alternatives to their use. Technical aids, such as hip protectors and sensor mats, were provided. The training was designed to give the change agents tools for problem-solving to prevent behavioral symptoms and injuries from falls without using physical restraints. The main outcome was the complete cessation of physical restraint use on 3 consecutive days 3 months after the start of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were partial reductions in restraint use, percentage of fallers, number of psychoactive drugs, and occurrence of behavioral symptoms. The probability of being unrestrained in the intervention group (IG) was more than twice that in the control group (CG) at the end of the study (odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.05-4.46). A partial reduction of restraint use was also about twice as often achieved in the IG as in the CG. No negative effect was observed regarding medication or behavioral symptoms. The percentage of fallers was higher in the IG. The intervention reduced restraint use without a significant increase in falling, behavioral symptoms, or medication. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Use of top tethers with forward-facing child restraints: observations and driver interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; Decina, Lawrence E; Jermakian, Jessica S; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-02-01

    Despite the safety benefits, many parents do not use top tethers with forward-facing child restraints. Detailed information was collected about why parents are not using tethers. The sample included 479 drivers who had forward-facing child restraints installed in passenger vehicles equipped with tether anchors. The survey was conducted primarily at shopping centers, recreation facilities, child care facilities, car seat check events, and health care facilities in mostly suburban areas surrounding Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Fredericksburg (VA), and Seattle. Drivers were surveyed about their knowledge and use of tethers and experience with child restraints. Tether use was observed to verify whether tethers were being used correctly. Fifty-six percent of forward-facing child restraints were installed with the tether; 39% were installed with the tether used correctly. The tether was used with 71% of LATCH lower anchor installations and 33% of seat belt installations. Drivers who installed child restraints without tethers most often said they did not know about the tether or how to use it. Although the tether use rate was slightly higher in the current research than in previous studies, many parents and caregivers still use forward-facing child restraints without attaching the tether. Because the main problem is lack of awareness of the tether or how to use it, public education should focus specifically on the safety benefits of tethers and how to use them. Information about why caregivers fail to use top tethers is potentially useful to child restraint manufacturers, child passenger safety technicians, and others who work with parents to improve motor vehicle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  13. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  14. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  15. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  16. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically whiplash injury than males.  Improved seat design is the prevailing means of increasing the protection of whiplash injury for occupants in rear impacts. Since 1997, more advanced whiplash protection systems have been introduced on the market, the Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was 23 mm for females, which is within a satisfactory range and in accordance with recommendations; the corresponding value for males was 72 mm.

  18. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: preventative foot care; diabetes; risk stratification: self care. Introduction ... diabetes is considered to be a key indicator of the quality of foot ... loss of protective sensation, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper ...

  19. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  20. Chemical restraint in routine clinical practice: a report from a general hospital psychiatric ward in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichael Georgios

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies regarding chemical restraint in routine clinical psychiatric practice. There may be wide variations between different settings and countries. Methods A retrospective study on chemical restraint was performed in the 11-bed psychiatric ward of the General Hospital of Arta, in northwestern Greece. All admissions over a 2-year-period (from March 2008 to March 2010 were examined. Results Chemical restraint was applied in 33 cases (10.5% of total admissions. From a total of 82 injections, 22 involved a benzodiazepine and/or levomepromazine, whereas 60 injections involved an antipsychotic agent, almost exclusively haloperidol (96.7% of cases, usually in combination with a benzodiazepine (61.7% of cases. In 36.4% of cases the patient was further subjected to restraint or seclusion. Conclusions In our unit, clinicians prefer the combined antipsychotic/benzodiazepine regimen for the management of patients' acute agitation and violent behaviour. Conventional antipsychotics are administrated almost exclusively and in a significant proportion of cases further coercive measures are applied. Studies on the practice of chemical restraint should be regularly performed in clinical settings.

  1. Psychological assessment of acute schizophrenia patients who experienced seclusion either alone or in combination with restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-05-01

    Objective Numerous studies on the effects of seclusion and/or restraint in acute psychiatric treatment have reported both positive and negative effects. However, no studies to date have evaluated the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients using a rating scale. Thus, to examine the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients, we used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and assessed the psychological condition of patients. Methods Factor analysis was conducted to create subscales of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and psychiatric changes were assessed with respect to each subscale using multiple logistic regression analyses. Analyses were performed on three groups (i.e. entire, higher functioning, and lower functioning groups) involving a total of 1559 schizophrenia patients aged 18 to 65 years. Results In the entire and lower functioning groups, seclusion was a significant predictor of improvements related to the "hostility/suspiciousness" subscale. Seclusion combined with restraint was associated with improvements related to the "psychosis/thinking disorder" subscale. In the higher functioning group, there were no significant predictors. Conclusions It is implied that seclusion and/or restraint is related to improved psychiatric symptoms only among patients whose functioning is impaired. To verify the present findings, further studies involving multiple sites and additional psychiatric measures are necessary.

  2. Dietary restraint and impulsivity modulate neural responses to food in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Paulmichl, Katharina; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  4. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  5. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  6. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  7. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  9. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana

    2015-01-01

    following treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.94; P value 0.56, low quality of evidence)Although 11 trials reported time to complete healing of the foot ulcers in people with diabetes , meta-analysis was not possible for this outcome due to the unique comparisons within each trial...... (minimum of one toe), complete healing of the foot ulcer, and time to complete healing of the diabetic foot ulcer as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, we selected randomised clinical trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios......BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess...

  10. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  11. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  12. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  14. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  15. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  16. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  17. Relationship between sagittal plane kinematics, foot morphology and vertical forces applied to three regions of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, I.; Sawacha, Z.; Guiotto, A.; Mazza, C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of human motion with a multi-segment musculoskeletal foot model requires the distribution of loading applied to the modeled foot segments to be determined. This work thus examines the existence of any correlation between intersegmental foot kinematics, foot morphology, and the distribution of vertical loading in a multi-segment foot model. Gait analysis trials were performed by 20 healthy subjects at a self-selected speed with intersegmental foot joint angles and the distribu...

  18. Use of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Hirdes, John P; Smith, Trevor F; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Chi, Iris; Du Pasquier, Jean-Noel; Gilgen, Ruedi; Ikegami, Naoki; Mor, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    This study compares inter- and intra-country differences in the prevalence of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes, and examines aggregated resident conditions and organizational characteristics correlated with these treatments. Population-based, cross-sectional data were collected using a standardized Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) from 14,504 long-term care facilities providing nursing home level services in five countries participating in the interRAI consortium, including Canada, Finland, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region, China), Switzerland, and the United States. Facility-level prevalence rates of physical restraints and antipsychotic use were examined both between and within the study countries. The prevalence of physical restraint use varied more than five-fold across the study countries, from an average 6% in Switzerland, 9% in the US, 20% in Hong Kong, 28% in Finland, and over 31% in Canada. The prevalence of antipsychotic use ranged from 11% in Hong Kong, between 26-27% in Canada and the US, 34% in Switzerland, and nearly 38% in Finland. Within each country, substantial variations existed across facilities in both physical restraint and antipsychotic use rates. In all countries, neither facility case mix nor organizational characteristics were particularly predictive of the prevalence of either treatment. There exists large, unexplained variability in the prevalence of physical restraint and antipsychotic use in nursing home facilities both between and within countries. Since restraints and antipsychotics are associated with adverse outcomes, it is important to understand the idiosyncratic factors specific to each country that contribute to variation in use rates. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Oliver S., E-mail: osmart@globalphasing.com; Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  20. A new approach for applying residual dipolar couplings as restraints in structure elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, Jens; Blomberg, Niklas; Nilges, Michael; Griesinger, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings are useful global structural restraints. The dipolar couplings define the orientation of a vector with respect to the alignment tensor. Although the size of the alignment tensor can be derived from the distribution of the experimental dipolar couplings, its orientation with respect to the coordinate system of the molecule is unknown at the beginning of structure determination. This causes convergence problems in the simulated annealing process. We therefore propose a protocol that translates dipolar couplings into intervector projection angles, which are independent of the orientation of the alignment tensor with respect to the molecule. These restraints can be used during the whole simulated annealing protocol

  1. Forensic mental health clinician's experiences with and assessment of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lea Deichmann; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bech, Per

    2018-01-01

    One of the main reasons for prolonged duration of mechanical restraint is patient behaviour in relation to the clinician-patient alliance. This article reports on the forensic mental health clinicians experiences of the clinician-patient alliance during mechanical restraint, and their assessment...

  2. The concept of restraints in nursing home practice: a mixed method study in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although in most developed countries the use of restraints is regulated and restricted by law, the concept of restraint in nursing home care remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore how care professionals and family members of nursing home residents with dementia in the

  3. The concurrent validity of a classification of dieters with low versus high susceptibility toward failure of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    1997-01-01

    It has been experimentally shown that the population of high restrained eaters consists of two subpopulations, i.e., those with a low and those with a high susceptibility toward failure of restraint. Only those who combined high restraint with high scores on the disinhibition scale of the TFEQ

  4. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject ot surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better

  5. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had

  6. Reducing and Eliminating Restraint of People with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Behavior Disorders: An Overview of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the most recent research (1999-2009) on restraint reduction and elimination efforts in the literature and also examines the characteristics of restraint along with the risks and benefits. Some earlier papers were included in this review because of their importance to the topic. The results of this literature…

  7. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities - Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shao-Huan; Lu, Li-Chin; Lan, Shou-Jen; Chen, Jong-Chen; Wu, Wen-Jun; Chang, Shen-Peng; Lin, Long-Yau

    2017-08-01

    "Physical restraint" formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education) group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002); instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: -0.07, p educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Exploring perspectives on restraint during medical procedures in paediatric care: a qualitative interview study with nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Pedersen, Reidar; Moen, Anne; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and physicians' perspectives on and reasoning about the use of restraint during medical procedures on newly admitted preschoolers in somatic hospital care. We analysed qualitative data from individual interviews with a video recall session at the end with seven physicians and eight nurses. They had earlier participated in video recorded peripheral vein cannulations on preschool children. The data were collected between May 2012 and May 2013 at a paediatric hospital unit in Norway. The analysis resulted in three main themes: (1) disparate views on the concept of restraint and restraint use (2), ways to limit the use of physical restraint and its negative consequences, and (3) experience with the role of parents and their influence on restraint. Perspectives from both healthcare professions were represented in all the main themes and had many similarities. The results of this study may facilitate more informed and reflective discussions of restraint and contribute to higher awareness of restraint in clinical practice. Lack of guidance and scientific attention to restraint combined with conflicting interests and values among healthcare providers may result in insecurity, individual dogmatism, and a lack of shared discussions, language, and terminology.

  9. Dietary restraint in college women : Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V.

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  10. Dietary restraint in college women: Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, S.E.; Toffanin, P.; Pollet, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  11. "A Very Fine Line": Parents' Experiences of Using Restraint with Their Adult Son/Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Helen; Beail, Nigel; Clarke, Zara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Restraint is sometimes used on people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviours, and may be justifiable as a last resort to prevent harm. A substantial proportion of such people are cared for within the family home. The aim of this paper is to explore parents' experiences of using restraint with their…

  12. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  13. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John Am; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-03-01

    Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns' knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (chi(2) (vertical) = 16.13, chi(2) (horizontal) = 10.80, p .05). Interestingly, the 13.3 percent of the subjects who were aware of the vertical plane recommendations did not correctly position their own

  14. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  15. Seclusion and restraint in psychiatry: patients' experiences and practical suggestions on how to improve practices and use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hane, Kimmo; Holi, Matti; Välimäki, Maritta

    2012-01-01

    This study explored psychiatric inpatients' experiences of, and their suggestions for, improvement of seclusion/restraint, and alternatives to their use in Finland. The data were collected by focused interviews (n= 30) and were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Patients' perspectives received insufficient attention during seclusion/restraint processes. Improvements (e.g., humane treatment) and alternatives (e.g., empathetic patient-staff interaction) to seclusion/restraint, as suggested by the patients, focused on essential parts of nursing practice but have not been largely adopted. Patients' basic needs have to be met, and patient-staff interaction has to also continue during seclusion/restraint. Providing patients with meaningful activities, planning beforehand, documenting the patients' wishes, and making patient-staff agreements reduce the need for restrictions and offer alternatives for seclusion/restraint. Service users must be involved in all practical development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  17. Diabetic foot syndrome as an interdisciplinary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rymkiewicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease of the growing maturity. Diabetic foot syndrome is a chronic complications of diabetes. In neuropathic sensory disorders, ischemia of the lower limbs, and improper alignment metabolic control may occur in minor injuries around the foot, giving rise to a difficult healing ulcers. Even minor wounds rapidly infection by pathogenic bacteria, which significantly hinders their treatment. Health and life-saving solution in situations of persistent symptoms of infection is amputation of the lower limb. Doing so, however, does not solve the problem of diabetic and should be the final proceedings after having exhausted all possible treatments for diabetic foot syndrome.

  18. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (pFoot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (pfoot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  20. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  1. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  2. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  3. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  4. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feature story, podcast, and other CDC resources about personal hygiene... Prevention People infected with hand, foot, and mouth ... these countries can protect themselves by practicing good personal hygiene. Learn more . To learn more about outbreaks occurring ...

  6. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  7. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  8. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long bones of the fingers or toes. Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of tough tissue supporting ... the foot. Plantar fasciitis - An inflammation of the plantar fascia. Symptoms are usually pain at the bottom of ...

  9. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  10. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  11. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ... well as patient education will markedly .... broad spectrum antibiotic therapy only .... Discuss any foot powders with a healthcare professional prior to use. 2.

  12. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  13. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  14. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  15. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  16. [Foot growth and foot types in children and adolescents: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Foot shape and size are important for footwear design and production. Information about important foot characteristics helps not only to improve shoe comfort but to maintain the proper physiological development of the feet. What's more, plenty of studies have suggested that the shape of the shoe must closely resemble the shape of the foot to create a properly fitted shoe. This means that the differences between various populations should be considered and that footwear should be designed according to the measurements of users. Childhood and adolescent are important periods of human growth. During these periods, foot shape changes with human growth and can be influenced by extrinsic factors. Therefore, the foot shape characteristics of children and adolescents should be investigated. The results from these investigations can contribute to developing appropriate shoe for children and adolescents, improving perceived comfort of children shoes and preventing pedopathy among children and adolescents. This review aims to discuss measuring methods of foot shape, types of foot shape, and factors influencing foot shape. The results of the review can provide recommendations for investigating growth development of foot shape and useful information for consumers and shoe manufacturers.

  17. All tied up: the fine art of balancing regulatory restraint compliance and excellent patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybel, Barbara-Ann

    2016-10-01

    This article presents examples of different resources that can be implemented to help manage a patient in crisis. It discusses challenges and solutions in regard to the ED boarding of behavioral health patients and reviews various restraint types and definitions (violent, non-violent, forensic). It stresses the importance of teamwork between security police and clinicians.

  18. [Injuries caused by traffic accidents: passive safety and restraint systems in automobiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppichini, F; Orlandi, E; Genna, M; Rodella, L; Ricci, G; Arienzo, A; Dorrucci, V; Inaspettato, G

    1986-10-01

    In this article are considered the multiple instruments today employed in cars, in order to prevent or ameliorate the lesions caused to the occupants in case of road accident. The acquisitions in the differentiated structure of the car, in the windshield, in the components of the passenger cell are described, and the peculiar importance of the restraint systems is evidenced.

  19. Reducing Seclusion Timeout and Restraint Procedures with At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Peterson, Reece; Tetreault, George; Hagen, Emily Vander

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to review the effects of professional staff training in crisis management and de-escalation techniques on the use of seclusion timeout and restraint procedures with at-risk students in a K-12 special day school. An exploratory pre-post study was conducted over a two-year period, comparing the use of these…

  20. Nuclear reactor support and seismic restraint with in-vessel core retention cooling features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Edwards, Michael J.

    2018-01-23

    A nuclear reactor including a lateral seismic restraint with a vertically oriented pin attached to the lower vessel head and a mating pin socket attached to the floor. Thermally insulating materials are disposed alongside the exterior surface of a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel including at least the lower vessel head.

  1. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  2. Dietary restraint and subjective well-being in university students in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Horacio, Miranda; Sepúlveda, José

    2014-01-01

    with a significant variation in PD, WF, SWLS and SWFL scoring, number of days with mental health problems, frequency of alcoholic drinks consumption, restraint on the consumption of certain foods, drinks and spices, consumption frequency of fruit out of the main meals and types. Typologies did not differ...

  3. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beyond eight hours requires the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified... Section 552.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess the inmate to ensure appropriate...

  4. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based A Speed Restraint Equipment for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan hidayat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Security riding is very important in the aspects of traffic. One of the main factors of traffic accidents is high speed. Therefore, it is required a speed restraint equipment for pressing the number of accidents. The car speed restraint system is available in the market, but on a motorcycle is not available yet. This paper presents a design of speed restraint equipment for motorcycle that safe for users, and is expected to reduce traffic accident. The Main idea this speed restriction is cutting off the flow of electrical signals from the pulser (the time ignition trigger sensor to the CDI for 1 second. The cutting Signal with mechanical relays controlled by microcontroller AT89S52 using the on-off algorithm. Speed sensor use optocoupler is used to detect the number of rounds wheel motorcycle. If a result of measurement is more than the speed setpoint, microcontroler make a decission to cut motorcycle ignition signal. Results of this research is a prototype speed restraint shown that it able to process data from the measurement of the speed limit on the speed of a motorcycle. This prototype safe for all users and accordance with the set value and the level of success is above 90% for speed of 10 km/hr to 40 km/hr.

  5. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...

  6. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  7. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  8. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  9. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  10. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diatri Hervita

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung.

  11. Design of the core support and restraint structures for FFTF and CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, H.G.; Rylatt, J.A.

    1977-12-01

    This paper presents and compares the design and fabrication of the FFTF and CRBRP reactor structures which support and restrain the reactor core assemblies. The fabrication of the core support structure (CSS) for the FFTF reactor was completed October 1972 and this paper discusses how the fabrication problems encountered with the FFTF were avoided in the subsequent design of the CRBR CSS. The radial core restraint structure of the FFTF was designed and fabricated such that an active system could replace the present passive system which is segmented and relies on the CSS core barrel for total structure integrity to maintain core geometry. The CRBR core restraint structure is designed for passive restraint only, and this paper discusses how the combined strengths of the restraint structure former rings and the CSS core barrel are utilized to maintain core geometry. Whereas the CSS for the FFTF interfaces directly with the reactor core assemblies, the CRBR CSS does not. A comparison is made on how intermediate structures in CRBR (inlet modules) provide the necessary design interfaces for supporting and providing flow distribution to the reactor core assemblies. A discussion is given on how the CRBR CSS satisfied the design requirements of the Equipment Specification, including thermal transient, dynamic and seismic loadings, and results of flow distribution testing that supported the CRBR design effort. The approach taken to simplify fabrication of the CRBR components, and a novel 20 inch deep narrow gap weld joint in the CSS are described

  12. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The Pattern of Physical Restraints applied to the Mentally-ill in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic groups found among the patients included Bipolar Affective Disorder current episode manic with psychotic symptoms (30%), Delirium (25%), Schizophrenia (20%), Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia (20%) and Dementia (5%). The reason for the use of restraints was ...

  14. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Foot blisters: Though not a musculoskeletal injury , past studies and reviews have described foot blisters as one of the most common marching... injuries were the highest among all activities in these studies, ranging from 36 to 69 limited duty days per injury .23, 24 The top three most common ...Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries . Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at

  15. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  16. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  17. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  18. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  19. Pine needle extract prevents hippocampal memory impairment in acute restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-07-31

    The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Boekhorst, S; Depla, M F I A; Francke, A L; Twisk, J W R; Zwijsen, S A; Hertogh, C M P M

    2013-04-01

    As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better quality of life scores for mood, behavioral and societal dimensions than residents with physical restraints. Quality of life was assessed longitudinally, with three measurements in six psychogeriatric nursing homes of residents with surveillance technology (n = 170) and residents with physical restraints (n = 22). QUALIDEM subscales were used to measure five dimensions of quality of life. Multilevel longitudinal univariate and multivariate regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Because physical restraints were almost exclusively used in residents with low activities of daily living (ADL) independency (18 of the 22), we restricted the regression analyses to residents with a Barthel Index score ≤ 5 (overall n = 53). Univariate results showed that highly ADL-dependent residents with surveillance technology had significantly more positive affect than highly ADL-dependent residents with physical restraints. However, this difference proved to be no longer significant after adjustment for the confounders: age, sex and stage of dementia. Quality of life of highly ADL-dependent nursing-home residents with dementia seems to be unrelated to the use of surveillance technology as opposed to physical restraints. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  3. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  4. Effects of Crocin on Learning and Memory in Rats Under Chronic Restraint Stress with Special Focus on the Hippocampal and Frontal Cortex Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgerdi, Azadehalsadat Hosseini; Radahmadi, Maryam; Pourshanazari, Ali Asghar; Dastgerdi, Hajaralsadat Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress adversely influences brain functions while crocin, as an effective component of saffron, exhibits positive effects on memory processes. This study investigated the effects of different doses of crocin on the improvement of learning and memory as well as corticosterone (CORT) levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats subjected to chronic stress. Forty male rats were randomly allocated to five different groups ( n = 8): Control, sham; stress (6 h/day for 21 days) groups, and two groups receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of one of two doses (30 and 60 mg/kg) of crocin accompanied by 21 days of restraint stress. Latency was evaluated as a brain function using the passive avoidance test before and one-day after a foot shock. CORT levels were measured in the homogenized hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results revealed that chronic stress had a significantly ( P effect on memory. Crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg), however, gave increase to significantly ( P effects than its higher (60 mg/kg) dose on learning and memory under chronic stress conditions. Moreover, it was speculated that different doses of crocin act on different neurotransmitters and biochemical factors in the brain.

  5. Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-01-01

    Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  7. In-hospital costs of diabetic foot disease treated by a multidisciplinary foot team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Willem D.; Luiten, Jacky; van Dongen, Jelle; Kuppens, Bram; Van Neck, Johan W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Coert, J. Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background The diabetic foot imposes significant burden on healthcare systems. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is of value to health care researchers investigating cost-effectiveness of interventions that prevent these costly complications. Objectives To

  8. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  9. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  10. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  11. From the diabetic foot ulcer and beyond: how do foot infections spread in patients with diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose Luis; Pulido-Duque, Juan; Maynar, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic foot infection is usually the result of a pre-existing foot ulceration and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. It is widely accepted that diabetic foot infections may be challenging to treat for several reasons. The devastating effects of hyperglycemia on host defense, ischemia, multi-drug resistant bacteria and spreading of infection through the foot may complicate the course of diabetic foot infections. Understanding the ways in which infections spread through the diabetic foot is a pivotal factor in order to decide the best approach for the patient's treatment. The ways in which infections spread can be explained by the anatomical division of the foot into compartments, the tendons included in the compartments, the initial location of the point of entry of the infection and the type of infection that the patient has. The aim of this paper is to further comment on the existed and proposed anatomical principles of the spread of infection through the foot in patients with diabetes. PMID:23050067

  12. The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis measuring models referenced by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in body composition in standing position. KC Hsieh, HK Lu, CH Chen, TR Jang, YY Chen, MF Kao ...

  13. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  14. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  16. Belt restraint reduction in nursing homes: design of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Erik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of physical restraints still is common practice in the nursing home care. Since physical restraints have been shown to be an ineffective and sometimes even hazardous measure, interventions are needed to reduce their usage. Several attempts have been made to reduce the use of physical restraints. Most studies used educational approaches and introduced a nurse specialist as a consultant. However, the success rate of these interventions has been inconsistent. We developed a new multi-component intervention (EXBELT comprising an educational intervention for nursing home staff in combination with a policy change (belt use is prohibited by the nursing home management, availability of a nurse specialist and nursing home manager as consultants, and availability of alternative interventions. The first aim of this study is to further develop and test the effectiveness of EXBELT on belt restraint reduction in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing homes. However, the reduction of belts should not result in an increase of other restrictive restraints (such as a chair with locked tray table or psychoactive drug use. The overall aim is an effective and feasible intervention that can be employed on a large scale in Dutch nursing homes. Methods and design Effects of EXBELT will be studied in a quasi-experimental longitudinal study design. Alongside the effect evaluation, a process evaluation will be carried out in order to further develop EXBELT. Data regarding age, gender, use of physical restraints, the number of falls and fall related injuries, psychoactive drug use, and the use of alternative interventions will be collected at baseline and after four and eight months of follow-up. Data regarding the process evaluation will be gathered in a period of eight months between baseline and the last measurement. Furthermore, changing attitudes will become an important addition to the educational part of EXBELT. Discussion A quasi

  17. Discordance between age- and size-based criteria of child passenger restraint appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Mary L; Bingham, C Raymond; Jacobson, Peter D; Macy, Michelle L

    2018-04-03

    In this study, we sought to accomplish the following objectives: to (1) calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across 8 criteria of increasing restrictiveness; (2) examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; (3) assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the 8 criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to U.S. guidelines) and 2015. Data from 2 cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017. Child age, weight, and height were measured at an emergency department visit and used to determine whether the parent-reported child passenger restraint was considered appropriate according to 8 criteria. Age-based criteria were derived from Michigan law and U.S. Weight, height, and size-based criteria were derived from typical restraints available in the United States in 2007 and 2011. The percentage appropriate restraint use was calculated for each criterion. The kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between criteria. Change in appropriateness from 2011 to 2015 was assessed with chi-square statistics. Percentage appropriate restraint use varied from a low of 19% for higher weight limits in 2011 to a high of 91% for Michigan law in 2015. Agreement between criteria was slight to moderate. The lowest kappa was for Michigan law and higher weight limits in 2011 (κ = 0.06) and highest for U.S. guidelines and lower weight limits in 2011 (κ = 0.60). Percentage appropriate restraint use was higher in 2015 than 2011 for the following criteria: U.S. guidelines (74 vs. 58%, P consistency in reporting results from studies of child passenger safety in the United States. Potential explanations for the increased percentage of children considered appropriately restrained between 2011 and 2015 include adoption of the updated U.S. guidelines and the use of child passenger restraints with

  18. Treatment options for diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Eric; Robineau, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic foot osteomyelitis therapeutical options are based on antibiotic therapy and surgical resection of the infected bone(s). Surgical and medical approaches of patients suffering from a diabetic foot osteomyelitis do not oppose but are complementary and need to be discussed as a tailored manner. Areas covered: The aim of the present article is to discuss data issued from the most recent guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot on the management of the diabetic foot infection and from a search in the current literature using the terms diabetic foot osteomyelitis and treatment/therapy/therapeutical in both PubMed and Medline, restricted to the last five years. Expert opinion: Surgical removal of the entire infected bone(s) has been considered in the past as the standard treatment but medical approach of these patients has now proven efficacy in selected situations. The current emergence of bacteria, especially among Gram negative rods, resistant to almost all the available antibiotics gradually augments the complexity of the management of these patients and is likely to decrease the place of the medical approach and to worsen the outcome of these infections in the next future.

  19. [Foot reflexology massage: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselring, A

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. 130 patients participated in the study. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different, but exclusively gynecological reasons. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. The following parameters were recorded: the subjective, self-assessed, general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, micturition and sleep, beginning on the day before operation until day 10. Two other treatments served as controls, a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of them were even negative. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. This project is one of the few studies planned, conducted and performed by the nursing staff.

  20. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  1. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  2. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  3. Dieting in Moderation: The Role of Dietary Restraint in the Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Psychological Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    1997-10-01

    This study demonstrates the substantial conceptual consequences in distinguishing a variable's role as a moderator as opposed to a mediator. In particular, the study investigates the role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being. Path analyses showed that, in addition to its mediating role, dietary restraint has a moderating role, such that there is a stronger relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being when dietary restraint is high than when dietary restraint is low. In contrast, gender had only a direct effect on weight dissatisfaction. It was concluded that the same processes occur for both men and for women, whereby it is the individuals who diet who suffer loss of psychological well-being.

  4. A network approach to response inhibition: dissociating functional connectivity of neural components involved in action restraint and action cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Schuhmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to inhibit action tendencies is vital for adaptive human behaviour. Various paradigms are supposed to assess action inhibition and are often used interchangeably. However, these paradigms are based on different conceptualizations (action restraint vs. action cancellation) and the

  5. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  6. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  7. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  8. Determination of protein global folds using backbone residual dipolar coupling and long-range NOE restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Alexander W.; Homans, Steve W.; Brown, Jonathan Miles

    2003-01-01

    We report the determination of the global fold of human ubiquitin using protein backbone NMR residual dipolar coupling and long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data as conformational restraints. Specifically, by use of a maximum of three backbone residual dipolar couplings per residue (N i -H N i , N i -C' i-1 , H N i - C' i-1 ) in two tensor frames and only backbone H N -H N NOEs, a global fold of ubiquitin can be derived with a backbone root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 A with respect to the crystal structure. This degree of accuracy is more than adequate for use in databases of structural motifs, and suggests a general approach for the determination of protein global folds using conformational restraints derived only from backbone atoms

  9. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  10. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number...... of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...

  11. A smart base restraint for wind turbines to mitigate undesired effects due to structural vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Spizzuoco, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns in the last decades of the negative impact of the use of fossil fuels on the environment has lead to a boom in the production of wind turbines. To take advantage of the smoother stronger winds at height, wind turbine heights are progressively increasing. This has led to an increased demand...... to control tower forces. The application of a semi-active (SA) control system is herein proposed and discussed. Its aim is to limit bending moment demand at the base of a wind turbine by relaxing the base restraint of the turbine's tower, without increasing the top displacement. This is done thanks....... This smart restraint is made of a central smooth hinge, elastic springs and SA magnetorheological dampers driven by a control algorithm properly designed for the specific application. A commercial 105 m tall wind turbine has been assumed as a case study. Several numerical simulations have been performed...

  12. [Use of restraint in psychiatry: Feelings of caregivers and ethical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarch, J; Cano, N

    2013-09-01

    The return of restraint in psychiatry raises many ethical issues for caregivers. However their experience is little explored in literature. Our objective was to study the feelings of caregivers facing restraint with regard to an ethical perspective and to identify areas for improvement. Between November 2011 and February 2012 a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed in two psychiatric emergency services and two closed units in which doctors and nurses were individually interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Five topics were explored: indications and contexts, impact on the patient, caregiver-patient relationship, perspective on the practice and feelings of caregivers on which we insist particularly. Results were presented in tables with percentages and possibly diagrams. The notable responses of caregivers were also cited. Twenty nurses and nine psychiatrists, mostly female, were recruited. They all had participated in experiments of restraint. The self-aggressiveness, the aggressiveness against other persons and agitation were the most frequent indications. In the patients, caregivers identified misunderstanding (79.3%) and anger (75.9%). The majority of nurses (75%) felt that there was an improvement in the caregiver-patient relationship after the episode of restraint compared to what it had been in the moments preceding this measure. The emotional experience of caregivers was rich, intense and predominantly negative type of frustration (35% of nurses; 66.7% of doctors), anger (30 and 33.3%) and lack of feeling (35 and 44.4%). The feelings of doctors and nurses were not completely similar. For caregivers it was "a difficult but necessary experience" (82.75%), "an act of care and safety" (68.9%). All psychiatrists and almost half of the nurses (45%) said they did not feel the same when they used seclusion. In their opinion, seclusion entailed a less painful experience because of its therapeutic properties. More than half of the

  13. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  14. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  15. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in the fourth ventricle modifies responses to mild but not restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Miragaya, Joanna R.; Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated restraint stress (RRS; 3 h of restraint on 3 consecutive days) in rodents produces temporary hypophagia, but a long-term downregulation of body weight. The mild stress (MS) of an intraperitoneal injection of saline and housing in a novel room for 2 h also inhibits food intake and weight gain, but the effects are smaller than for RRS. Previous exposure to RRS exaggerates hypophagia, glucocorticoid release, and anxiety-type behavior caused by MS. Here we tested the involvement of brain...

  16. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  17. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  18. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  19. MR Imaging of the Diabetic Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Morrison, William B; Zoga, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of the peripheral nervous, vascular, and immune systems contribute to the development of numerous foot and ankle pathologies in the diabetic population. Although radiographs remain the most practical first-line imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) is the tertiary imaging modality of choice, allowing for optimal assessment of bone and soft tissue abnormalities. MR allows for the accurate distinction between osteomyelitis/septic arthritis and neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Furthermore, it provides an excellent presurgical anatomic road map of involved tissues and devitalized skin to ensure successful limited amputations when required. Signal abnormality in the postoperative foot aids in the diagnosis of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  2. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  3. Repeated restraint stress lowers the threshold for response to third ventricle CRF administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S

    2017-03-01

    Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight. Eight days after the end of restraint, rats received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF (0-3.0μg). The lowest dose of CRF (0.25μg) increased corticosterone release in RRS, but not control rats. Higher doses caused the same stimulation of corticosterone in the two groups of rats. Fifteen days after the end of restraint, rats were food deprived during the light period and received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF at the start of the dark period. The lowest dose of CRF inhibited food intake during the first hour following infusion in RRS, but not control rats. All other doses of CRF inhibited food intake to the same degree in both RRS and control rats. The lowered threshold of response to central CRF is consistent with the chronic hyper-responsiveness to CRF and mild stress in RRS rats during the post-restraint period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  5. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  6. Adrenocortical and behavioural response to chronic restraint stress in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Morales, Raúl; del Río, Eva; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Bisagno, Verónica; Nadal, Roser; de Felipe, Carmen; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Brain substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1, NK1) have a widespread brain distribution and are involved in an important number of behavioural and physiological responses to emotional stimuli. However, the role of NK1 receptors in the consequences of exposure to chronic stress has not been explored. The present study focused on the role of these receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to daily repeated restraint stress (evaluated by plasma corticosterone levels), as well as on the effect of this procedure on anxiety-like behaviour, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), a hippocampus-dependent task. Adult null mutant NK1-/- mice, with a C57BL/6J background, and the corresponding wild-type mice showed similar resting corticosterone levels and, also, did not differ in corticosterone response to a first restraint. Nevertheless, adaptation to the repeated stressor was faster in NK1-/- mice. Chronic restraint modestly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the light-dark test, irrespective of genotype. Throughout the days of the MWM trials, NK1-/- mice showed a similar learning rate to that of wild-type mice, but had lower levels of thigmotaxis and showed a better retention in the probe trial. Chronic restraint stress did not affect these variables in either genotype. These results indicate that deletion of the NK1 receptor does not alter behavioural susceptibility to chronic repeated stress in mice, but accelerates adaptation of the HPA axis. In addition, deletion may result in lower levels of thigmotaxis and improved short-term spatial memory, perhaps reflecting a better learning strategy in the MWM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  8. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male mac...

  9. Retrospective analysis of detomidine infusion for standing chemical restraint in 51 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Bohart, G V; Evans, A T; Robertson, S; Rondenay, Y

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a detomidine infusion technique to provide standing chemical restraint in the horse. Retrospective study. Fifty-one adult horses aged 9.5 ± 6.9 years (range 1-23 years) and weighing 575 ± 290.3 kg. Records of horses presented to our clinic over a 3-year period in which a detomidine infusion was used to provide standing chemical restraint were reviewed. Information relating to the types of procedure performed, duration of infusion, drug dosages and adjunct drugs administered was retrieved. Detomidine was administered as an initial bolus loading dose (mean ± SD) of 7.5 ± 1.87 μg kg -1 . The initial infusion rate was 0.6 μg kg -1 minute -1 , and this was halved every 15 minutes. The duration of the infusion ranged from 20 to 135 minutes. Twenty horses received additional detomidine or butorphanol during the procedure. All horses undergoing surgery received local anesthesia or epidural analgesia in addition to the detomidine infusion. A wide variety of procedures were performed in these horses. Detomidine administered by infusion provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses. Supplemental sedatives or analgesics may be needed in horses undergoing surgery. An effective method that provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses is described. The infusion alone did not provide sufficient analgesia for surgery and a significant proportion of animals required supplemental sedatives and analgesics. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A prospective study of children aged children and are associated with restraint misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen, Marianne; Naess, Paal Aksel; Hansen, Trond Boye; Gaarder, Christine; Lereim, Inggard; Stray-Pedersen, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of the compulsory wearing of seat belts (SBs) for children and improvements in child restraint systems have reduced the number of deaths and severe injuries among children involved in motor vehicle (MV) collisions (MVCs). Establishing the characteristics predictive of such injuries may provide the basis for targeted safety campaigns and lead to a further reduction in mortality and morbidity among children involved in MVCs. This study performed a multidisciplinary investigation among child occupants involved in MVCs to elucidate injury mechanisms, evaluate the safety measures used and determine the characteristics that are predictive of injury. A prospective study was conducted of all child occupants aged interior of the MVs were investigated and the injured children were medically examined. Supplementary information was obtained from witnesses, the crash victims, police reports, medical records and reconstructions. Each case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to assess the mechanism of injury. In total, 158 child occupants involved in 100 MVCs were investigated, of which 27 (17%) exhibited Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 2+ injuries and 15 (9%) exhibited AIS 3+ injuries. None of the children died. Of those with AIS 2+ injuries (n=27), 89% (n=24) were involved in frontal impact collisions and 11% (3/27) were involved in side impacts. Multivariate analysis revealed that restraint misuse, age, the prevailing lighting conditions and ΔV were all independently correlated with AIS 2+ injuries. Safety errors were found in 74% (20/27) of those with AIS 2+ injuries and 93% (14/15) of those with AIS 3+ injuries. The most common safety error was misuse of restraints, and in particular loose and/or improperly positioned SBs. The risk of injury among child occupants is significantly higher when the child occupants are exposed to safety errors within the interior of the vehicle. Future campaigns should focus on the prevention of restraint misuse

  11. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  12. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  13. Emotional eating and routine restraint scores are associated with activity in brain regions involved in urge and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Schembre, Susan M; He, Qinghua; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Ames, Susan L; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-10-15

    Researchers have proposed a variety of behavioral traits that may lead to weight gain and obesity; however, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these weight-related eating behaviors. In this study, we measured activation of reward circuitry during a task requiring response and inhibition to food stimuli. We assessed participants' emotional eating, external eating, and two subscales of dietary restraint-routine restraint and compensatory restraint-using the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire. For routine restraint, we found positive associations with activation in the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. For emotional eating, we found positive associations with insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. We also found positive associations between emotional eating and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to approach versus inhibition towards high-calorie foods. Thus, our results demonstrate an increase in activation across brain regions related to self-control and urges in response to high-calorie food associated with both emotional eating and routine restraint. Overall, these results support the construct validity of both emotional eating and routine restraint and provide preliminary evidence that these subscales have similar neural correlates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld; Sippel, Volkmar; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2017-10-01

    Clinical training in managing conflicts and preventing violence seldom contains sensory modulation (SM) as a method to de-escalate and prevent restraint and seclusion. Sensory-based interventions promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion. SM is a complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one unit served as the control group. In the very beginning of the study, a staff-training program in the use of SM including assessment tools and intervention strategies was established. Data on restraint and forced medicine were sampled post the course of the year of implementation and compared with the control group. The use of belts decreased with 38% compared to the control group. The use of forced medication decreased with 46% compared to the control group. Altogether the use of physical restraint and forced medication decreased significantly with 42% (p mental healthcare facilities has a significant effect on the reduction of restraint and seclusion. As a part of the implementation, staff training and education in SM are crucial.

  15. Nursing staff members' intentions to use physical restraints with older people: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Mendelsson, G

    2001-09-01

    To examine nursing staff members' attitudes, subjective norms, moral obligations and intentions to use physical restraints, using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). During the last two decades an extensive body of research has examined nurses' attitudes as one of the main factors affecting the decision to use or not to use physical restraints with older persons. However, no studies have examined empirically the antecedents to nurses' intentions to use physical restraints within a theoretically based framework. A correlational design was used with 303 nursing staff members from an 800-bed elder care hospital in central Israel. Participants completed a questionnaire including questions based on the TRA as well as socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Regression analyses found attitudes, subjective norms and moral considerations to be significantly associated to intention to use physical restraints with older people. The TRA explained 48% of the variance in nurses' intentions. The TRA proved to be a useful framework for examining nurses' intentions to use physical restraints. Nurses' attitudes, beliefs and expectations of significant others should be examined before implementing educational programmes regarding the use of physical restraints.

  16. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  17. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  18. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  19. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  20. Social isolation alters central nervous system monoamine content in prairie voles following acute restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Neal; Anderson, Eden M; Moenk, Deirdre; Trahanas, Diane; Matuszewich, Leslie; Grippo, Angela J

    2018-04-01

    Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals. Isolated prairie voles displayed significantly increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as elevated serotonin and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus, and potentially decreased levels of serotonin in the frontal cortex. However, no group differences in monoamine levels were observed in the hippocampus or raphe. The results suggest that social stress may bias monoamine neurotransmission and stress hormone function to subsequent acute stressors, such as restraint. These findings improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the consequences of social stress.

  1. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  2. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  3. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  5. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  6. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  7. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  8. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  9. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard... above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [62...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for... effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards...

  12. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  13. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  14. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  15. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  16. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  17. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  18. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  19. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  20. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  1. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  2. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  3. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  4. A Foot Operated Timeout Room Door Latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a foot operated timeout room door latch that permits staff members to maintain a misbehaving retarded individual in timeout without locking the door. Use of the latch also frees the staff member involved to record behavioral observations or reinforce appropriate behavior. (Author)

  5. Intraarterial tolazoline in angiography of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, B.

    1978-01-01

    Foot angiography was performed in 32 diabetic patients with and without intraarterial injection of tolazoline (Priscoline). The angiographic quality was improved with tolazoline, manifested as an increased flow rate with acceleration of the arteriovenous transit time, a higher incidence of complete arterial filling with contrast medium in clinically important regions, and considerably longer arterial segments demonstrated within defined regions of measurement. (Auth.)

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  7. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  8. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  9. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  10. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  11. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  12. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  13. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  14. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  15. Ankle and foot tuberculosis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To know the biological behavior of ankle and foot tuberculosis (AFTB and to know the reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of AFTB in our population. Materials and Methods: Patients with non-healing ulcers/sinuses/swellings in the ankle and foot region are the subjects of present study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and relevant investigations were done in all cases. Pus/wound discharge for acid fast bacillus (AFB study and biopsy from wound margin/sinus tract was taken in all the cases. Results: During the period from July 2007-June 2012, 20 cases of AFTB were treated. Out of them five cases were difficult to diagnose and a mean period of 6 month to 5year was elapsed before final diagnosis was established. Out of these five cases - three cases were diabetic with ulcers and sinuses in the heel and ankle region. One case was wrongly diagnosed as angiodysplasia with A-V malformation of foot and diagnosis was delayed for 5 year. In one case of rheumatoid arthritis with abscess in ankle joint, the diagnosis was delayed for 1year. Conclusion: AFTB is very rare condition. AFTB is suspected in cases with long standing pain/swelling/discharging sinus in the foot and thorough investigations is must to differentiate from other foot diseases. Diagnosis is delayed due to lack of clinical suspicion and non-confirmatory biopsy reports. Early diagnosis and ATT for 9-18 months is must in all cases of AFTB to prevent joint involvement and other complications.

  16. Utilization of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements for high-resolution NMR structure determination of a soluble loop-rich protein with sparse NOE distance restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuita, Kyoko; Kataoka, Saori; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Hattori, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Kojima, Chojiro

    2015-01-01

    NMR structure determination of soluble proteins depends in large part on distance restraints derived from NOE. In this study, we examined the impact of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-derived distance restraints on protein structure determination. A high-resolution structure of the loop-rich soluble protein Sin1 could not be determined by conventional NOE-based procedures due to an insufficient number of NOE restraints. By using the 867 PRE-derived distance restraints obtained from the NOE-based structure determination procedure, a high-resolution structure of Sin1 could be successfully determined. The convergence and accuracy of the determined structure were improved by increasing the number of PRE-derived distance restraints. This study demonstrates that PRE-derived distance restraints are useful in the determination of a high-resolution structure of a soluble protein when the number of NOE constraints is insufficient

  17. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  18. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  19. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities – Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Huan Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available “Physical restraint” formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. Design: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p < 0.001 compared to the control group. Meta-regression revealed the period of post education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002; instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: −0.07, p < 0.001; β: −0.04, p = 0.056. The educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers.

  1. Evaluation Model for Restraint Effect of Pressure Induced Bending on the Plastic Crack Opening of Circumferential Through-Wall-Crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon

    2006-01-01

    Most of the pipe crack evaluation procedures, including leak-before-break (LBB) analysis, assume that the cracked pipe subjected to remote bending or internal pressure is free to rotate. In this case, the pressure induced bending (PIB) enhances crack opening of a through-wall-crack (TWC) in a pipe. In a real piping system, however, the PIB will be restrained because the ends of the pipe are constrained by the rest of the piping system. Hence, the amount of restraint affects the crack opening of a TWC in a pipe, and the restraint effect on crack opening directly affects the results of LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on crack opening displacement (COD) to quantify the uncertainties in current analysis procedures and to ensure the application of LBB concepts to nuclear piping systems. Recently, several researches were conducted to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on COD, and they proposed a simplified model to evaluate COD under restrained conditions. However, these results are quite limited because the restraint effect was evaluated only in terms of linear-elastic crack opening. In practice, the TWC in a pipe behaves plastically under normal operating loads, and the current LBB analysis methodologies require elastic-plastic crack opening evaluation. Therefore, this study evaluates the restraint effect of PIB on the plastic crack opening of a TWC in a pipe using finite element analysis under various influencing parameters. Based on these results, a closed-from model to be able to estimate the restraint effect of PIB on plastic crack opening is proposed

  2. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  3. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  4. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  5. Chronic restraint stress exacerbates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: the role of the P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Man; Zhou, Zhong-He; Liu, Bao-Jun; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Chronic restraint stress exacerbates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated: (1) the effect of two-week restraint stress with daily 2 or 8 h on the baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT), paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw circumference (PC); (2) the effect of chronic stress on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in PWM, PWTL and increase in PC of the injected paw induced by BV. The results showed that (1) chronic restraint decreased significantly the PWMT and inhibited significantly the increase in PC, but had no effect on PWTL, compared with control group; (2) chronic restraint enhanced significantly BV-induced SPFR and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress was determined. Systemic pretreatment with P2X7R antagonist completely reversed the decrease in PWMT produced by chronic restraint, inhibited significantly the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic restraint stress-enhanced nociception and inflammation in the BV pain model, possibly involving the P2X7R.

  6. A methodological framework for detecting ulcers' risk in diabetic foot subjects by combining gait analysis, a new musculoskeletal foot model and a foot finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Alessandra; Guiotto, Annamaria; Malaquias, Tiago; Spolaor, Fabiola; Sinigaglia, Giacomo; Cobelli, Claudio; Jonkers, Ilse; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most debilitating complications of diabetes and may lead to plantar ulcers. In the last decade, gait analysis, musculoskeletal modelling (MSM) and finite element modelling (FEM) have shown their ability to contribute to diabetic foot prevention and suggested that the origin of the plantar ulcers is in deeper tissue layers rather than on the plantar surface. Hence the aim of the current work is to develop a methodology that improves FEM-derived foot internal stresses prediction, for diabetic foot prevention applications. A 3D foot FEM was combined with MSM derived force to predict the sites of excessive internal stresses on the foot. In vivo gait analysis data, and an MRI scan of a foot from a healthy subject were acquired and used to develop a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) foot MSM and a 3D subject-specific foot FEM. Ankle kinematics were applied as boundary conditions to the FEM together with: 1. only Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs); 2. OpenSim derived extrinsic muscles forces estimated with a standard OpenSim MSM; 3. extrinsic muscle forces derived through the (6 DOF) foot MSM; 4. intrinsic and extrinsic muscles forces derived through the 6 DOF foot MSM. For model validation purposes, simulated peak pressures were extracted and compared with those measured experimentally. The importance of foot muscles in controlling plantar pressure distribution and internal stresses is confirmed by the improved accuracy in the estimation of the peak pressures obtained with the inclusion of intrinsic and extrinsic muscle forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS......: This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  9. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  10. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  12. [Effects of a training of power and balance on the use of mechanical restraint among in-patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Bohnet, Ulrich; Flammer, Erich; Lüchtenberg, Dietmar; Eisele, Frank

    2009-09-01

    Patients with dementia are most frequently affected by mechanical restraint in psychiatric hospitals, most frequently due to falls. There is evidence for beneficial effects of a training of power and balance on the frequency of falls in residential homes. An adapted training of power and balance was developed by specialists of training in sports. In 2007, 159 patients with dementia were trained. The frequency and duration of mechanical restraint was compared with a control group of a different hospital (n = 217) and the patients treated in the year before (n = 164). The percentage of patients with mechanical restraint and the mean duration of restraint per admission were significantly lower than in the control group. However, only a non-significant reduction could be achieved in comparison with the patients treated in the year before without an increase of falls. A considerable reduction of the use of mechanical restraint in patients with dementia is feasible. An unequivocal association with the training could not be confirmed due to other influencing factors.

  13. Effective applied moment in circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for leak-before-break evaluation considering pipe restraint effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: yjoh2@kepco-enc.com [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.

  14. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  15. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  16. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  17. Nurses' ethical reasoning in cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In their practice, nurses make daily decisions that are ethically informed. An ethical decision is the result of a complex reasoning process based on knowledge and experience and driven by ethical values. Especially in acute elderly care and more specifically decisions concerning the use of physical restraint require a thoughtful deliberation of the different values at stake. Qualitative evidence concerning nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint provided important insights in the complexity of decision-making as a trajectory. However a nuanced and refined understanding of the reasoning process in terms of ethical values is still lacking. A qualitative interview design, inspired by the Grounded Theory approach, was carried out to explore nurses' reasoning process in terms of ethical values. We interviewed 21 acute geriatric nurses from 12 hospitals in different regions in Flanders, Belgium in the period October 2009-April 2011. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used to analyse interview data. Nurses' decision-making is characterized as an ethical deliberation process where different values are identified and where the process of balancing these values forms the essence of ethical deliberation. Ethical decision-making in cases of physical restraint implies that nurses have to choose which values receive priority in the process, which entails that not all values can be respected to the same degree. As a result, decision making can be experienced as difficult, even as a dilemma. Driven by the overwhelming goal of protecting physical integrity, nurses took into account the values of dignity and justice more implicitly and less dominantly.

  18. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  19. A restraint molecular dynamics and simulated annealing approach for protein homology modeling utilizing mean angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Till

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed the program PERMOL for semi-automated homology modeling of proteins. It is based on restrained molecular dynamics using a simulated annealing protocol in torsion angle space. As main restraints defining the optimal local geometry of the structure weighted mean dihedral angles and their standard deviations are used which are calculated with an algorithm described earlier by Döker et al. (1999, BBRC, 257, 348–350. The overall long-range contacts are established via a small number of distance restraints between atoms involved in hydrogen bonds and backbone atoms of conserved residues. Employing the restraints generated by PERMOL three-dimensional structures are obtained using standard molecular dynamics programs such as DYANA or CNS. Results To test this modeling approach it has been used for predicting the structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from E. coli and the structure of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Ppar γ. The divergence between the modeled HPr and the previously determined X-ray structure was comparable to the divergence between the X-ray structure and the published NMR structure. The modeled structure of Ppar γ was also very close to the previously solved X-ray structure with an RMSD of 0.262 nm for the backbone atoms. Conclusion In summary, we present a new method for homology modeling capable of producing high-quality structure models. An advantage of the method is that it can be used in combination with incomplete NMR data to obtain reasonable structure models in accordance with the experimental data.

  20. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  1. Anti-stress effect of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba in chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nade, Vandana S; Yadav, Adhikrao V

    2010-09-01

    Restraint stress is a well-known method to induce chronic stress which leads to alterations in various behavioral and biochemical parameters. The present work was designed to study anti-stress effects of Morus alba in chronic restraint stress (RS)-induced perturbations in behavioral, biochemical and brain oxidative stress status. The stress was produced by restraining the animals inside an adjustable cylindrical plastic tube for 3 h once daily for ten consecutive days. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba (EASF) 25, 50, 100 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg) per day was administered 60 min prior to the stress procedure. The behavioral and biochemical parameters such as open field, cognitive dysfunction; leucocytes count; blood glucose and corticosteroid levels were determined. On day 10, the rats were sacrificed and biochemical assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH) in whole rat brain were performed. Chronic restraint stress produced cognitive dysfunction, altered behavioral parameters, increased leucocytes count, SOD, LPO, glucose and corticosterone levels, with concomitant decrease in CAT and GSH activities. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights were also used as the stress indices. All these RS induced perturbations were attenuated by EASF of Morus alba. The results of the study suggest that in addition to its classically established pharmacological activities, the plant also has immense potential as an anti-stress agent of great therapeutic relevance. This study indicates the beneficial role of Morus alba for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders.

  2. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  3. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  4. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  6. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of Fluoxetine on the Hippocampus of Wistar Albino Rats in Cold Restraint Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Saikarthik; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Ilango, Saraswathi; Vijayakumar, J; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2017-06-01

    Stress has been known to be a potential modulator of learning and memory. Long term stress can lead to depression. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor group of drug used in the treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Fluoxetine on cold restraint induced stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A total of 18 male wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (n=6). Group 1 was the control group which were kept in normal laboratory conditions. Group 2 was the negative control group which were given cold restraint stress for period of four weeks. Group 3 was the experimental group, where the animals were pretreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of one week followed by cold restraint stress for 30 minutes and cotreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. The whole study was done for a period of five weeks followed by behavioural studies and subsequently sacrificed with removal of brain for various histological, Immunohistochemical (IHC), neurochemical and antioxidant analysis. The values were expressed as Mean±SEM. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant using Prism Graphpad software version 6.01. The results show there was significant improvement in the Morris water maze test after treatment with fluoxetine in Group 2. Similar results were also noted in the levels of neurotransmitters and antioxidant levels in brain and also in the number of cells counted in IHC and histological studies by H&E when Group 3 was compared with Group 2. The treatment reversed the damage in Group 2 which was comparable with the control group. The results revealed that administration of fluoxetine 10 mg/kg given orally has a potential antistressor effect by improving the neurogenic and neuroprotective effect on the cold restraint stress induced

  8. Evaluation of the international restraints and limitations on the Argentine nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2002-01-01

    The first part of the book makes a short description of the nuclear development in the 20th. Century in the international, Latin American and Argentine frameworks. The second part outlines the relationship between the nuclear technology and the international relations in the light of the different theoretical models of international relations. Finally the third part analyzes in the international context the Argentine nuclear policy, from the presidency of J. D. Peron that of C. Menem. The international restraints to the Argentine nuclear policy are also described

  9. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi B. Arfer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Differential Restraint: The Devil is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Restraint, a mechanism used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover to maintain symmetry of the mobility system during the launch, cruise, and entry descent and landing phases of the MSL mission, completed nearly three full design cycles before a finalized successful design was achieved. This paper address the lessons learned through these design cycles, including three major design elements that can easily be overlooked during the design process, including, tolerance stack contribution to load path, the possibility of Martian dirt as a failure mode, and the effects of material properties at temperature extremes.

  11. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  13. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  14. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  15. Conservative management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Soliman, M; Egun, A; Rajbhandari, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this retrospective study, 130 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis were analysed. 66.9% of these healed with antibiotic treatment alone and 13.9% needed amputation, of which 1.5% were major. Presence of MRSA was associated with adverse outcome (53.3% vs 21.1%, p=0.04) which was defined as death, amputation and failure to heal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  17. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  18. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  19. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  20. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A large extraskeletal osteochondroma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estil, Jose Carlos C; Yeo, Eui-Dong; Kim, Hak Jun; Cho, Won Tae; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are very common benign tumors composed of cartilage and bone. They are usually found at the end of the growth plate of long bones, most often at the area of the joints, and are contiguous with the medullary cavity. Extraskeletal osteochondromas, the same as their namesake, are composed of cartilage and bone. However, unlike typical osteochondromas, extraskeletal osteochondromas are not contiguous with bone, as their name implies. They usually arise from the synovial tissue and tendon sheaths. Although rare, extraskeletal osteochondromas have been reported to occur within the knee and around the hip; however, they are more commonly reported to occur in the hands and feet. When found in the hands or feet, these new growths are often very small and only occasionally symptomatic. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who had a slow-growing mass of 4 years' duration, located on the plantar aspect of her left foot. The mass was slowly becoming more palpable as it increased in size and was progressively causing pain and discomfort during ambulation. Imaging studies revealed an ossified mass bearing no connection to any other structure on the plantar aspect of her foot. An excision biopsy was performed, and the easily dissectible mass, although much larger than its usual presentation, proved to be an extraskeletal osteochondroma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  3. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  4. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  5. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  6. Restraint and eating concern in North European and East Asian women with and without eating disorders in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry

    2007-06-01

    To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.

  7. The prevalence of diabetic foot disease in the Waikato region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C; McClintock, J; Lawrenson, R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetic foot disease by utilising the retinal eye screening register in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Understanding both the prevalence and the degree of foot disease across the general diabetes population will help to determine what podiatry services are required for people with diabetes. 2192 people aged 15years and over, who attended the Waikato Regional Diabetes Service mobile retinal photo screening service for the six-month period between May and November 2014, consented to a foot screen including testing for sensation and pedal pulses. A digital image was taken of the dorsal and plantar aspect of each foot for review by a registered Podiatrist. Thirteen percent of the study sample was identified as having a high-risk foot including active foot complications. 65% were categorised as low risk and a further 22% at moderate risk of diabetic foot disease. Factors identified as significant included age, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These factors placed people at greater risk of diabetic foot disease. A significant number of people with diabetes are at risk of diabetic foot disease. This study has highlighted the need for targeted podiatry services to address diabetic foot disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  9. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  10. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  11. Acute restraint stress decreases c-fos immunoreactivity in hilar mossy cells of the adult dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jillian N.; Duffy, Áine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although a great deal of information is available about the circuitry of the mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus, their activity in vivo is not clear. The immediate early gene c-fos can be used to gain insight into the activity of MCs in vivo, because c-fos protein expression reflects increased neuronal activity. In prior work, it was identified that control rats that were perfusion-fixed after removal from their home cage exhibited c-fos immunoreactivity (ir) in the DG in a spatially stereotyped pattern: ventral MCs and dorsal granule cells (GCs) expressed c-fos protein (Duffy et al., Hippocampus 23:649–655, 2013). In this study, we hypothesized that restraint stress would alter c-fos-ir, because MCs express glucocorticoid type 2 receptors and the DG is considered to be involved in behaviors related to stress or anxiety. We show that acute restraint using a transparent nose cone for just 10 min led to reduced c-fos-ir in ventral MCs compared to control rats. In these comparisons, c-fos-ir was evaluated 30 min after the 10 min-long period of restraint, and if evaluation was later than 30 min c-fos-ir was no longer suppressed. Granule cells (GCs) also showed suppressed c-fos-ir after acute restraint, but it was different than MCs, because the suppression persisted for over 30 min after the restraint. We conclude that c-fos protein expression is rapidly and transiently reduced in ventral hilar MCs after a brief period of restraint, and suppressed longer in dorsal GCs. PMID:28190104

  12. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  13. Do emotion regulation difficulties when upset influence the association between dietary restraint and weight gain among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T; Hagan, Kelsey E; Chapa, Danielle A N

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity. We hypothesized that dietary restraint and weight gain would be mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. College students (N = 227) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory, UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale, and self-reported weight and height to calculate body mass index. Results showed that the association between dietary restraint and weight gain was mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. Our findings indicated that negative urgency might represent a mechanism that explains why dietary restraint leads to future binge-eating episodes and weight gain among college students with overweight and obesity. Results suggest that future treatment and prevention programs for overweight and obesity may benefit from incorporating strategies to improve emotion regulation as a way to reduce binge eating and to prevent additional weight gain among 'at-risk' populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock–paper–scissors community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Joshua R.; Harding, Brittany N.; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock–paper–scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism. PMID:21690371

  15. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock-paper-scissors community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Joshua R; Harding, Brittany N; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-06-28

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock-paper-scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism.

  16. Vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Zongyue

    2005-10-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) recognition is of great importance to many traffic applications. Though researchers have paid much attention to VLP recognition there has not been a fully operational VLP recognition system yet for many reasons. This paper discusses a valid and practical method for vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision including statistical and structural features. In general, the VLP recognition includes the following steps: the location of VLP, character segmentation, and character recognition. This paper discusses the three steps in detail. The characters of VLP are always declining caused by many factors, which makes it more difficult to recognize the characters of VLP, therefore geometry restraints such as the general ratio of length and width, the adjacent edges being perpendicular are used for incline correction. Image Moment has been proved to be invariant to translation, rotation and scaling therefore image moment is used as one feature for character recognition. Stroke is the basic element for writing and hence taking it as a feature is helpful to character recognition. Finally we take the image moment, the strokes and the numbers of each stroke for each character image and some other structural features and statistical features as the multi-feature to match each character image with sample character images so that each character image can be recognized by BP neural net. The proposed method combines statistical and structural features for VLP recognition, and the result shows its validity and efficiency.

  17. Restraint effect of water infiltration by soil cover types of LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    Since soil cover for LLW disposal vault shows quite different restraint effect of water infiltration depending on its type, four different types of soil cover were studied and simulated using HELP code. Simulation result showed that Profile B1 is the most effective type in restraint of water infiltration to the disposal vault. Profile B1 is totally 6m thick and composed of silt, gravelly sand, pea gravel, sand and clayey soil mixed with bentonite 20%. Profile B1 also includes artificial layers, such as asphalt and geomembrane layers. This profile is designed conceptually by NETEC for the soil cover of the near surface disposal facility of the low-level radioactive waste. For comparison, 3 types of different profile were tested. One profile includes bentonite mixed layer only as water barrier layer, or one as same as profile B1 but without geomembrane layer or one without asphalt layer respectively. The simulation using HELP code showed that the water balance in profile B1 was effectively controlled

  18. The central effect of biological Amines on immunosuppressive effect of restraint stress in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of some histaminergic agents were evaluated on stress- induced immunosuppression in immunized nale rats. In rat immunized with sheep red blood cells ( SRBCs. Restraint stress (RS prevented the booster-induced rise in anti-SRBC antibody titre and cell immunity response. Intracerebroventicular (I.C>V injection of histamine (150 µg/rat induced a similar effect with RS. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 µg/rat reduced the inhibitory effect of Ras on immune function. Also histamine could inhibit the effect of RS on immune function. Also histamine could inhibitory the effect of chlorpheniramine when injected simultaneously. Pretreatment with ranidine (10 µg/rat had not a significant effect. Serotonin (3 µg/rat and dopamine (0.2 µg/rat could reverse the effects of chlorpheniromine when injected with chlorpheniramine (P<0.05. Epinephrine (0.2 µg/rat had not a significant effect. The results indicate that histamine mediates the immunosuppression of restraint stress by influencing the histamine H1 receptor in the brain and this effects of histamine may be modulated by serotoninergic and dopaminergic system.

  19. Sleep in prenatally restraint stressed rats, a model of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Gatta, Eleonora; Marrocco, Jordan; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Consolazione, Michol; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) can induce persisting changes in individual's development. PRS increases anxiety and depression-like behaviors and induces changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult PRS rats after exposure to stress. Since adaptive capabilities also depend on temporal organization and synchronization with the external environment, we studied the effects of PRS on circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, that are parameters altered in depression. Using a restraint stress during gestation, we showed that PRS induced phase advances in hormonal/behavioral circadian rhythms in adult rats, and an increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep, positively correlated to plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma corticosterone levels were also correlated with immobility in the forced swimming test, indicating a depressive-like profile in the PRS rats. We observed comorbidity with anxiety-like profile on PRS rats that was correlated with a reduced release of glutamate in the ventral hippocampus. Pharmacological approaches aimed at modulating glutamate release may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat stress-related disorders. Finally, since depressed patients exhibit changes in HPA axis activity and in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the paradoxical sleep regulation, we suggest that PRS could represent an original animal model of depression.

  20. Dietary restraint, life satisfaction and self-discrepancy by gender in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Socio-demographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.

  1. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  2. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  3. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  4. Metronome rate and walking foot contact time in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Plax, Michael

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that when people walk guided by an audible constant rate, they match foot contact to the external pace. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test that assumption by examining the temporal relationship between audible signals generated by a metronome and foot contact time during gait. Ten healthy young women were tested in walking repetitions guided by metronome rates of 60, 110, and 150 beats/min. Metronome beats and foot contact times were collected in real time. The findings indicated that foot contact was not fully synchronized with the auditory signals; the shortest time interval between the metronome beat and foot contact time was at the prescribed rate of 60 beats/min., while the longest interval was at the rate of 150 beats/min. The correlation between left and right foot contact times was highest with the slowest rate and lowest with the fastest rate.

  5. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  6. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  7. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.

    2000-01-01

    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.


Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  8. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). CONCLUSION: We conducted a survey of the diagnosis...

  9. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  10. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  11. Repeated Neck Restraint Stress Bidirectionally Modulates Excitatory Transmission in the Dentate Gyrus and Performance in a Hippocampus-dependent Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrka, Jadwiga; Hess, Grzegorz

    2018-05-21

    The consequences of stress depend on characteristics of the stressor, including the duration of exposure, severity, and predictability. Exposure of mice to repeated neck restraint has been shown to bidirectionally modulate the potential for long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) in a manner dependent on the number of restraint repetitions, but the influence of repeated brief neck restraint on electrophysiology of single DG neurons has not yet been investigated. Here, we aimed at finding the effects of 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 daily neck restraint sessions lasting 10 min on electrophysiological characteristics of DG granule cells as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to these neurons. While the excitability of DG granule cells and inhibitory synaptic transmission were unchanged, neck restraint decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents after three repetitions but enhanced it after 14 and 21 repetitions. The consequences of repeated neck restraint on hippocampus-dependent memory were investigated using the object location test (OLT). Neck restraint stress impaired cognitive performance in the OLT after three repetitions but improved it after 14 and 21 repetitions. Mice subjected to three neck restraint sessions displayed an increase in the measures of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, however, prolongation of the exposure to neck restraint resulted in a gradual decline in the intensity of these measures. These data indicate that stress imposed by an increasing number of repeated neck restraint episodes bidirectionally modulates both excitatory synaptic transmission in the DG and cognitive performance in the object location memory task. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  13. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  14. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A FOOT VALVE BY USING ANSYS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KARAOĞLU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, main components of a foot valve, being produced by casting, were optimized for minimum weight. The study was focused on the minimization of casting costs by reducing the volumes of two main parts of the foot valve. ANSYS® finite elements package was used in the study. In the optimization stage, parametrical dimensions were determined according to manufacturer's design criteria and related standards. Final design of the foot valve was completed by using the calculated values of optimum dimensions of the main components. Design optimization procedure gave about 8.5% of weight reductions in the main foot valve components.

  15. Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Mako; Iso, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch heigh...

  16. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  17. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ewing sarcoma of the foot. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisinni, U.; Capanna, R.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor of the foot. The radiological picture is characterized, in 14 patients, by a pure osteolytic lesion (9 cases) or by a mixed one (5 cases); the interruption of the cortical bone and swelling of the soft tissues were always present; the periostal reaction was occasional. The radiological aspects cannot be considered typical of the ES and it is suggested that biopsies should always be performed in the presence of structural alteration of the bone

  20. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on

  1. The reliability and validity of a three-camera foot image system for obtaining foot anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Damien; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hunt, Adrienne; Smith, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The purpose was to develop a foot image capture and measurement system with web cameras (the 3-FIS) to provide reliable and valid foot anthropometric measures with efficiency comparable to that of the conventional method of using a handheld anthropometer. Eleven foot measures were obtained from 10 subjects using both methods. Reliability of each method was determined over 3 consecutive days using the intraclass correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE). Reliability was excellent for both the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer for the same 10 variables, and good for the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint height. The RMSE values over 3 days ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 mm for the handheld anthropometer, and from 0.8 to 3.6 mm for the 3-FIS. The RMSE values between the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer were between 2.3 and 7.4 mm. The 3-FIS required less time to collect and obtain the final variables than the handheld anthropometer. The 3-FIS provided accurate and reproducible results for each of the foot variables and in less time than the conventional approach of a handheld anthropometer.

  2. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  3. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M.; Lokin, Joost L. C.; Nielen, Mark M.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that

  4. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of the foot function index and the foot function index – revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a self-report, foot-specific instrument measuring pain and disability and has been widely used to measure foot health for over twenty years. A revised FFI (FFI-R) was developed in response to criticism of the FFI. The purpose of this review was to assess the uses of FFI and FFI-R as were reported in medical and surgical literature and address the suggestions found in the literature to improve the metrics of FFI-R. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Embase databases from October 1991 through December 2010 comprised the main sources of literature. To enrich the bibliography, the search was extended to BioMedLib and Scopus search engines and manual search methods. Search terms included FFI, FFI scores, FFI-R. Requirements included abstracts/full length articles, English-language publications, and articles containing the term "foot complaints/problems." Articles selected were scrutinized; EBM abstracted data from literature and collected into tables designed for this review. EBM analyzed tables, KJC, JM, RMS reviewed and confirmed table contents. KJC and JM reanalyzed the original database of FFI-R to improve metrics. Results Seventy-eight articles qualified for this review, abstracts were compiled into 12 tables. FFI and FFI-R were used in studies of foot and ankle disorders in 4700 people worldwide. FFI Full scale or the Subscales and FFI-R were used as outcome measures in various studies; new instruments were developed based on FFI subscales. FFI Full scale was adapted/translated into other cultures. FFI and FFI-R psychometric properties are reported in this review. Reanalysis of FFI-R subscales' confirmed unidimensionality, and the FFI-R questionnaires' response categories were edited into four responses for ease of use. Conclusion This review was limited to articles published in English in the past twenty years. FFI is used extensively worldwide; this instrument pioneered a quantifiable measure

  6. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  7. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  8. Foot ulcer risk and location in relation to prospective clinical assessment of foot shape and mobility among persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S; Boyko, Edward J; Shofer, Jane B; Ahroni, Jessie H; Ledoux, William R

    2008-11-01

    We assessed baseline clinical foot shape for 2939 feet of diabetic subjects who were monitored prospectively for foot ulceration. Assessments included hammer/claw toes, hallux valgus, hallux limitus, prominent metatarsal heads, bony prominences, Charcot deformity, plantar callus, foot type, muscle atrophy, ankle and hallux mobility, and neuropathy. Risk factors were linked to ulcer occurrence and location via a Cox proportional hazards model. Hammer/claw toes (hazard ratio [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI])=1.43 (1.06, 1.94) p=0.02), marked hammer/claw toes (HR=1.77 (1.18, 2.66) p=0.006), bony prominences (HR=1.38 (1.02, 1.88), p=0.04), and foot type (Charcot or drop foot vs. neutrally aligned) (HR=2.34 (1.33, 4.10), p=0.003) were significant risk factors for ulceration adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin medication, ulcer history and amputation history. With adjustment for neuropathy only hammer/claw toes (HR=1.40 (1.03, 1.90), p=0.03) and foot type (HR=1.76 (1.04, 3.04), p=0.05) were significantly related to ulceration. However, there was no relationship between ulcer location and foot deformity. Certain foot deformities were predictive of ulceration, although there was no relationship between clinical foot deformity and ulcer location.

  9. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  10. Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note: Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study: Characteristics Of Those Not Restrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The National Child Restraint Use Special Study (NCRUSS) recorded the use of car seats and belt-positioning booster seats in children up to 8 years old in 4,167 vehicles. Observers approached vehicles that carried at least one child. They interviewed ...

  11. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... No. NHTSA-2010-0158 Regulation Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... (SNPRM). SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213...

  12. Testing the relative associations of different components of dietary restraint on psychological functioning in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Newton, Richard; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Jenkins, Zoe; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Castle, David

    2018-05-25

    Although empirical evidence identifies dietary restraint as a transdiagnostic eating disorder maintaining mechanism, the distinctiveness and significance of the different behavioural and cognitive components of dietary restraint are poorly understood. The present study examined the relative associations of the purportedly distinct dietary restraint components (intention to restrict, delayed eating, food avoidance, and diet rules) with measures of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress), disability, and core eating disorder symptoms (overvaluation and binge eating) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Data were analysed from a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with AN (n = 124) and BN (n = 54). Intention to restrict, food avoidance, and diet rules were strongly related to each other (all r's > 0.78), but only weakly-moderately related to delayed eating behaviours (all r's psychological distress. Patient diagnosis did not moderate these associations. Overall, findings indicate that delayed eating behaviours may be a distinct component from other indices of dietary restraint (e.g., intention to restrict, food avoidance, diet rules). This study highlights the potential importance of ensuring that delayed eating behaviours are screened, assessed, and targeted early in treatment for patients with AN and BN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score': testing the clinical validity of a new risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Unstructured risk assessment, as well as confounders (underlying reasons for the patient's risk behaviour and alliance), risk behaviour, and parameters of alliance, have been identified as factors that prolong the duration of mechanical restraint among forensic mental health inpatients. To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint. The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. The three sub-scales (Confounders, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items, and the instrument can be used to support the clinical decision-making regarding the possibility of releasing the patient from mechanical restraint. The present three studies have clinically validated a short MR-CRAS scale that is currently being psychometrically tested in a larger study.

  14. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raja Sabapathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot.

  15. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  16. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  17. [Effects of foot reflexology on essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Sook; Cho, Gyoo-Yeong

    2004-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure, serum lipids level and life satisfaction in essential hypertension patients. The research design used was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Foot Reflexology was used as the experimental treatment from June 23rd, 2003 until August 31st, 2003. Thirty-four subjects were assigned to an experimental group(18) and control group(16). Foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks and self foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 4 weeks on the experimental group. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure but no significant decrease in diastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. The total cholesterol level in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. However, the triglyceride level in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly decreased after foot reflexology. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. Life satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly improved after foot reflexology. The results proved that foot reflexology was an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic pressure, and triglyceride but not for the blood cholesterol and to improve life satisfaction. Therefore, blood cholesterol should be further evaluated in a larger group of subjects and for a longer period. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology.

  18. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  20. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.