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Sample records for preharvest interventions intended

  1. Streamlined analysis for evaluating the use of preharvest interventions intended to prevent Escherichia coli O157:H7 illness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withee, James; Williams, Michael; Disney, Terry; Schlosser, Wayne; Bauer, Nate; Ebel, Eric

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service is responsible for ensuring the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products consumed in the United States. Here we describe a risk assessment method that provides quantitative criteria for decision makers tasked with developing food safety policies. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we apply it to a hypothetical case study on the use of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 cattle vaccine to prevent human illness caused by consuming beef. A combination of quantitative risk assessment methods and marginal economic analysis are used to describe the maximum cost per unit that would still allow the vaccine to be a cost-effective intervention as well as the minimum effectiveness it could have at a fixed cost. We create two economic production functions where the input is number of vaccinated cattle and the output is human illnesses prevented. The production functions are then used for marginal economic analysis to assess the cost/benefit ratio of using the vaccine to prevent foodborne illness. In our case study, it was determined that vaccinating the entire U.S. herd at a cost of between $2.29 and $9.14 per unit (depending on overall effectiveness of the vaccine) would be a cost-effective intervention for preventing E. coli O157:H7 illness in humans. In addition, we determined that vaccinating only a given fraction of the herd would be cost effective for vaccines that are less effective or more costly. For example, a vaccine costing $9.00 per unit that had a 100% efficacy but required 100% herd coverage for immunity would be cost effective for use in about 500,000 cattle each year-equating to an estimated 750 human illnesses prevented per annum. We believe this approach could be useful for public health policy development in a wide range of applications.

  2. Completeness of reporting in abstracts from clinical trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Canning, Paisley; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Abstracts are the most commonly read part of a journal article, and play an important role as summaries of the articles, and search and screening tools. However, research on abstracts in human biomedicine has shown that abstracts often do not report key methodological features and results. Little research has been done to examine reporting of such features in abstracts from papers detailing pre-harvest food safety trials. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting of key factors in abstracts detailing trials of pre-harvest food safety interventions. A systematic search algorithm was used to identify all in vivo trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens in PubMed and CAB Direct published from 1999 to October 2009. References were screened for relevance, and 150 were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A checklist based on the CONSORT abstract extension and the REFLECT Statement was used to assess the reporting of methodological features and results. All screening and assessment was performed by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved by consensus. The systematic search returned 3554 unique citations; 356 were found to be relevant and 150 were randomly selected for inclusion. The abstracts were from 51 different journals, and 13 out of 150 were structured. Of the 124 abstracts that reported whether the trial design was deliberate disease challenge or natural exposure, 113 were deliberate challenge and 11 natural exposure. 103 abstracts detailed studies involving poultry, 20 cattle and 15 swine. Most abstracts reported the production stage of the animals (135/150), a hypothesis or objective (123/150), and results for all treatment groups (136/150). However, few abstracts reported on how animals were grouped in housing (25/150), the location of the study (5/150), the primary outcome (2/126), level of treatment allocation (15/150), sample size (63/150) or whether study units were lost to follow up

  3. Evaluation of sodium chlorate as a pre-harvest intervention for controlling Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate sodium chlorate as a potential pre-harvest intervention for reducing or eliminating Salmonella from the peripheral lymph nodes of experimentally-infected cattle. The peripheral lymph nodes of Holstein steers (approx. BW = 160 kg; 4 and 6 head in co...

  4. Introduction to Preharvest Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies. Examples include Escherichia coli and cattle, Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry, and interventions and prevention and control programs. The section on "nontraditional" preharvest food safety areas brings attention to potential emerging food safety issues and to future food safety research directions. These include organic production, the FDA's Produce Rule (water and manure), genomic sequencing, antimicrobial resistance, and performance metrics. The concluding section emphasizes important themes such as strategic planning, coordination, epidemiology, and the need for understanding food safety production as a continuum. Food safety research, whether at the pre- or postharvest level, will continue to be a fascinating complex web of foodborne pathogens, risk factors, and scientific and policy interactions. Food safety priorities and research must continue to evolve with emerging global issues, emerging technologies, and methods but remain grounded in a multidisciplinary, collaborative, and systematic approach.

  5. Can you design for Fidelity? How your intervention framework describes intended actions, participation and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    In recent years the term fidelity has been introduced within the field of organizational level interventions. Fidelity describes the extent to which the intervention has been implemented as it was originally intended, and is regarded critical for determining the validity of the research results...... in organizational level interventions. The concept of fidelity stems from clinical interventions although the concept has developed over time (Bellg et al. 2004). Organizational level interventions differ from clinical interventions, as they are more complex regarding both the “dose” given and the number and levels...... of participants involved at the same time. Steering organizational level interventions in every detail and secure full fidelity or treatment integrity can thus seem difficult. Organizational level intervention frameworks are often built on the designer’s experiences with previous interventions as well as what...

  6. Comparison of outcomes and other variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed papers involving pre-harvest or abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Campbell, Mollie; Totton, Sarah C; Guthrie, Alessia; Sargeant, Jan M

    2010-11-01

    Accuracy in the reporting of studies in conference abstracts is important because the majority of studies in such abstracts are never further detailed in peer-reviewed publications, and data from such abstracts may be used in systematic reviews. Previous research on interventional studies in human biomedicine indicates that there is no guarantee of consistency between a conference abstract and paper in the reporting of results and other key variables. However, no research has been done to determine if this lack of reporting consistency in abstracts and papers extends to interventional studies in pre-harvest/harvest-level food safety. The goal of this study was to compare outcome results and other key variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed publications describing studies of pre-harvest and abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens, and to determine whether the agreement in the results or key variables was associated with the time to full publication. A systematic search identified 59 conference abstracts with matching peer-reviewed papers (matches), and data on variables including outcome measures and results, pathogens, species, interventions, overall efficacy of intervention, sample size and housing were extracted from both the conference abstracts and the papers. The matching of variables between abstracts and papers was described, and logistic regression used to test for associations between variable matching and time to publication. Sample size was only provided for both abstract and paper in 24 matches; the same sample size was reported in 20 of these matches. Most other variables were reported in the majority of abstracts/papers, and with the exception of outcomes and intervention effect, the reporting of variables was relatively consistent. There was no significant difference in the numbers of authors, with the first author the same in 78.3% of matches. Of 231 outcome measures reported in both abstracts and papers

  7. Investigation into the Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a Novel Preharvest Intervention To Control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Cattle Using an In Vitro Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jennifer A; Lubbers, Brian; Maher, Joshua; Ritsch, Linda; Gragg, Sara E

    2015-09-01

    Cattle are an important reservoir for the foodborne pathogens Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7; they frequently harbor these microorganisms in their digestive tracts and shed them in their feces. Thus, there is potential for contamination of cattle hides and, subsequently, carcasses. Interventions aimed at reducing or eliminating pathogen shedding preharvest will also reduce the likelihood of beef product contamination by these pathogens. Therefore, this study used an in vitro model to evaluate Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, a gram-negative microorganism that preys upon other gram-negative microorganisms, as a preharvest intervention to control Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. Rumen fluid and feces were inoculated with pansusceptible or antimicrobial-resistant strains of one pathogen. Control samples were treated with HEPES buffer, whereas experimental samples were exposed to HEPES buffer plus B. bacteriovorus. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. The most-probable-number (MPN) technique, followed by streaking onto xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar, was used to determine Salmonella populations, whereas spread plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime and tellurite was employed to enumerate E. coli O157:H7. B. bacteriovorus reduced pansusceptible Salmonella in cattle feces by 2.02 Log MPN/g (P = 0.0005) and antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella by 3.79 (P < 0.0001) and 2.24 (P = 0.0013) Log MPN/g after 24 and 48 h, respectively, in comparison to control samples. Significant reductions were not observed for E. coli O157:H7 in rumen or feces. These data suggest that further investigation into B. bacteriovorus efficacy as a preharvest intervention to control Salmonella in cattle is warranted.

  8. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-06-28

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions

  9. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans-Lacko Sara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. Methods This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Results This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential: (1 improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2 increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3 promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England’s Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4–6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions

  10. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives...

  11. Design for Fidelity – Inscription of Intended Actions, Participation and Behavior in Intervention Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe; Ipsen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we introduce the concept of script analysis first coined by Akrich (1992), to analyze and discuss the “fidelability” of intervention frameworks - meaning a framework’s ability to impose fidelity. Intervention frameworks are often designed by researchers according to their ear...

  12. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Psicodoc and Psyarticles. Fourteen articles were found and analyses show that most interventions had some efficacy in the psychological adjustment of children and their parents; nevertheless, there is a limited number of treatments that can in fact be considered effective. The convenience of psychological interventions is discussed and how they must comprehend strengths and the promotion of psychological health and should not be based solely on deficits and psychopathological models. Possibly, this reorientation will help fostering significant clinic changes regarding the stress associated to cancer and its treatment.

  13. [Evaluation of interventions intended to reduce psychosocial work stress. Proposal for a classification scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, R; Bauer, J; Nübling, M; Rose, U; Krause, A

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress is sporadic. This is contradictory to the requirement identified by the German Social Security Code (SGB VII) that interventions constitute the most important method of maintaining and improving employees' health. Reasons for this can be seen in the complexity of the subject and methodological issues concerning scientific standards. In addition, agreed quality standards are nonexistent for the evaluation of intervention measures. For this reason, a synopsis of existing audit and evaluation schemes was performed, thus, resulting in refined and adapted quality standards for intervention measures aiming to reduce psychosocial work stress. The quality criteria presented in this paper comprise aims, effectiveness, and facilitators, each being composed of several indicators. The criteria are designed as quality indicators which translate the outcome of an evaluation into quality figures. The process is transparent and offers a rational basis for communication, planning, and decision-making in health promotion.

  14. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... were asked to increase the bedroom temperature by at least 3 degrees C compared to the self-assessed temperature of the previous winter. Dust samples were repeatedly collected from mattress and floor, and bedroom temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly throughout one year. Dust...... C). Groups turned out not to be comparable with respect to initial (self-assessed) bedroom temperature (lowest in the intervention group). There was a significant seasonal variation, with doubled Der 1 concentrations in dust collected in July-November compared to January-May samples. No effect...

  15. Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschool-aged children: the MINISTOP randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Christine Delisle; Sandin, Sven; Henriksson, Pontus; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2017-06-01

    Background: Traditional obesity prevention programs are time- and cost-intensive. Mobile phone technology has been successful in changing behaviors and managing weight; however, to our knowledge, its potential in young children has yet to be examined.Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) obesity prevention program on body fat, dietary habits, and physical activity in healthy Swedish children aged 4.5 y.Design: From 2014 to 2015, 315 children were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Parents in the intervention group received a 6-mo mHealth program. The primary outcome was fat mass index (FMI), whereas the secondary outcomes were intakes of fruits, vegetables, candy, and sweetened beverages and time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Composite scores for the primary and secondary outcomes were computed.Results: No statistically significant intervention effect was observed for FMI between the intervention and control group (mean ± SD: -0.23 ± 0.56 compared with -0.20 ± 0.49 kg/m(2)). However, the intervention group increased their mean composite score from baseline to follow-up, whereas the control group did not (+0.36 ± 1.47 compared with -0.06 ± 1.33 units; P = 0.021). This improvement was more pronounced among the children with an FMI above the median (4.11 kg/m(2)) (P = 0.019). The odds of increasing the composite score for the 6 dietary and physical activity behaviors were 99% higher for the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.008).Conclusions: This mHealth obesity prevention study in preschool-aged children found no difference between the intervention and control group for FMI. However, the intervention group showed a considerably higher postintervention composite score (a secondary outcome) than the control group, especially in children with a higher FMI. Further studies targeting specific obesity classes within preschool-aged children are warranted. This trial was

  16. [Assessment of antibiotic use and impact of an intervention intended to modify the prescribing behavior in surgical prophylaxis in 6hospitals in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen; de la Garza-Camargo, Mauricio; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Carmona-González, Sandra; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Islas-Esparza, Luis Arturo; Saldaña-Flores, Gustavo; González-Cano, Juan Roberto; González-Ruvalcaba, Román; Valadez-Botello, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Montero-Cantú, Carlos Alberto; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino

    2017-01-04

    Improper use of antibiotics increases antimicrobial resistance. Evaluate the use of antibiotics and the impact of an intervention designed to improve antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis in 6 hospitals of Monterrey, Mexico. Design: A prospective multicenter survey and a pretest-postest experimental study. Phase 1: Survey to evaluate the use of antibiotics through an especially designed guide. Phase 2: Intervention designed to improve antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis by the medical staff by using printed, audiovisual and electronic messages. Phase 3: Survey to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Frequencies, percentages, medians, ranges and X(2) test. Phase 1: We evaluated 358 surgical patients, 274 prophylactic antibiotic regimens. A total of 96% of antibiotics regimens began with inappropriate timing (290/302), 82.8% were inappropriate regimens (274/331), 77.7% were in inappropriate dosage (230/296), 86% of inadequate length (241/280), and in 17.4% restricted antibiotics were used (52/299). Phase 2: 9 sessions including 189 physicians (14 department chairs, 58 general practitioners and 117 residents). Phase 3: We evaluated 303 surgical patients, 218 prophylactic antibiotics regimens. Inappropriate treatment commencement was reduced to 84.1% (180/214) (P<0.001), inappropriate regimens to 75.3% (162/215) (P=0.03), inappropriate dosages to 51.2% (110/215) (P<0.001), and use of restricted antibiotics to 8.3% (18/215) (P=0.003). Inappropriate use of prophylactic antibiotics in surgery is a frequent problem in Monterrey. The intervention improved the antibiotic prescription for surgical prophylaxis by reducing inappropriate treatment commencement, regimens, dosages, and overuse of restricted antibiotics. It is necessary to strengthen strategies to improve the prescription of antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Intended Brand Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...... (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion......Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...

  18. Preharvest Food Safety Under the Influence of a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Kalmia E; Spanninger, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Ensuring food safety and addressing the impact of climate change are both immense concepts. Food production systems must continue to evolve in order to develop food safety management programs and identify emerging risks linked to climate change. There are an infinite number of crosscutting issues regarding climate change and health. The changing climate of the globe manifests itself in fluctuating temperatures, intense storms, droughts, and fluctuating sea levels. These environmental variables in turn may increase the risk of foodborne disease transmission through our foods and increase the need for vigilance and risk mitigation at the preharvest level. While the influence of climate change is untold, four cases are discussed here, including waterborne disease, seafood, production of fruits and vegetables, and mycotoxins. Changes relative to climate have been documented at the preharvest level for these issues. Change must be addressed alongside education and research to safeguard the human health effects of climate change.

  19. The intended and unintended consequences of quality improvement interventions for small practices in a community-based electronic health record implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Andrew M; McCullough, Colleen M; Shih, Sarah C; Wang, Jason J; Ryan, Mandy S; Casalino, Lawrence P

    2014-09-01

    Despite the rapid rise in the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), commensurate improvements in health care quality have not been consistently observed. To evaluate whether the implementation of EHRs and complementary interventions-including clinical decision support, technical assistance, and financial incentives-improved quality of care. The study included 143 practices that implemented EHRs as part of the Primary Care Information Project-a long-standing community-based EHR implementation initiative. A total of 71 practices were randomized to receive financial incentives and quality feedback and 72 were randomized to feedback alone. All practices received technical assistance and had clinical decision support in their EHR. Using data from 2009 to 2011, we estimated measure-level fixed effects models to evaluate the association between exposure to clinical decision support, technical assistance, financial incentives, and quality of care. Associations were estimated separately for 4 cardiovascular measures that were rewarded by the financial incentive program and 4 measures that were not rewarded by incentives. Financial incentives for quality were consistently associated with higher performance for the incentivized measures [+10.1 percentage points at 18 mo of exposure (approximately +22%), P<0.05] and lower performance for the unincentivized measures [-8.3 percentage points at 12 mo of exposure (approximately -20%), P<0.05]. Technical assistance was associated with higher quality for the unincentivized measures, but not for the incentivized measures. Technical assistance and financial incentives-alongside EHR implementation-can improve quality of care. Financial incentives for quality may not result in similar improvements for incentivized and unincentivized measures.

  20. Postharvest decay control of citrus fruit by preharvest pyrimethanil spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Preharvest infections or conidia load on fruit surface by Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, Alternaria citri and other filamentous fungi can cause important postharvest losses of citrus fruit. Reduction in pruning frequency occurred in the last decade together with un-picked yield that eventually rots on the trees have increased the risk of postharvest decay especially when environmental conditions at picking time are favourable to pathogens' development. Sanitation procedures in the packinghouses, alternate use of postharvest fungicides with different modes of action, along with fungicide application before harvest could be an effective approach to minimize postharvest decay in citrus fruit. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a preharvest treatment with pyrimethanil (PYR), a broad spectrum fungicide, recently registered in different citrus-producing countries for postharvest treatments of citrus fruit and widely used worldwide as a preharvest treatment to control various diseases in different crops. PYR (750 mg/L) was sprayed by a hand-back sprayer at run-off on 'Fremont' mandarins. The day after the treatment, half of the trees were sprayed with a 10(4) conidial suspension of P. digitatum at run-off. Fruit were harvested following 2 or 4 weeks from treatments. Sound or either wounded 2-mm-deep and 2-mm-wide or superficial wound-scratched fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 90% RH and inspected for decay after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of storage. In fruit harvested after 2 weeks from field treatment, PYR remarkably reduced decay development during two weeks of storage in sound fruit and in wound-scratched fruit and was fairly effective even after 4 weeks from treatment, but was ineffective in fruit wounded 2 mm deep and 2 mm wide. PYR was also effective in reducing preharvest decay incited by P. digitatum, P. italicum and Botrytis cinerea, but not by other pathogens. Results show that preharvest treatment with PYR could be a feasible approach to reduce

  1. 76 FR 63901 - Pre-Harvest Food Safety for Cattle; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... continuum. FSIS published cattle pre-harvest guidelines \\2\\ to inform beef slaughter establishments of the... slaughter establishments procure their cattle from beef producers that implement one or more documented pre...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Pre-Harvest Food Safety for Cattle; Public...

  2. The evidentiary value of challenge trials for three pre-harvest food safety topics: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisener, L V; Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Faires, M C; Glass-Kaastra, S K

    2014-11-01

    Reducing zoonotic pathogens in food animals prior to harvest will reduce the pathogen burden that enters the food chain and the environment. Consequently, the burden of enteric illness in humans may be reduced. Evaluating interventions to reduce a pathogen in animals often begins with challenge trials, in which animals are deliberately exposed to the pathogen under controlled conditions. Challenge trials are subsequently followed by field trials, also known as randomized controlled trials, in which the animals are naturally exposed to the pathogen. Challenge trials can most effectively inform field trials only if they precede field trials, are robust, internally valid and transparently reported. Using systematic review and meta-analysis methodology, we examined the pre-harvest food safety literature for three intervention-pathogen-species combinations: probiotics/competitive exclusion products in ruminants to reduce Escherichia coli O157 shedding, vaccines in ruminants to reduce E. coli O157 shedding and vaccines in swine to reduce Salmonella shedding. We examined two outcomes, prevalence of faecal shedding at the end of the trial and prevalence of faecal shedding throughout the trial period, to compare challenge trials and field trials. We found that challenge trials occurred concurrently with field trials, challenge trials suffered from reporting deficiencies of methodological features, challenge trials tended to report a more favourable outcome than field trials, and there was some evidence of publication bias among all three intervention-pathogen-species combinations. Challenge trials would better serve to inform field trials if they precede field trials, are methodologically sound, include transparent reporting and are published regardless of their results. In addition, due to our findings of greater efficacy reported among challenge trials compared with field trials, risk models predicting the public health benefits of pre-harvest interventions to reduce

  3. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  4. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  5. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  6. Transition: Intended and unintended processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the relationship between transition as that was intended by the international financial institutions and transition as it actually happened. Attention is paid to what has been learned by experience about stabilisation, liberalisation and privatisation. Attention is also given to the

  7. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.;

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...... an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig...... programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way...

  8. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  10. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drought Stress and Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Agricultural Commodity: Genetics, Genomics and Proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu Guo; Zhi-Yuan Chen; R. Dewey Lee; Brian T. Scully

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, aflatoxin contamination is considered one of the most serious food safety issues concerning health. Chronic problems with preharvest aflatoxin contamination occur in the southern US, and are particularly troublesome in corn, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts. Drought stress is a major factor to contribute to preharvest afiatoxin contamination. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-related proteins in corn kernels of resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes, suggesting that preharvest field condition (drought or not drought) influences gene expression differently In different genotypes resulting in different levels of "end products": PR(pathogenesis-related) proteins in the mature kernels. Because of the complexity of Aspergillus-plant interactions, better understanding of the mechanisms of genetic resistance will be needed using genomics and proteomics for crop improvement. Genetic Improvement of crop resistance to drought stress is one component and will provide a good perspective on the efficacy of control strategy. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to Aspergillus flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance. Gene expression studies in developing corn kernels are In agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be upregulated or downregulated by abiotic stresses.

  12. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  13. The effect of proteolytic activity on the technological value of wheat flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Dojczew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available . Investigations were conducted on the level of the overall proteolytic activity in flour fractions as well as fine and bruise bran, obtained from four varieties of wheat (‘Zyta’, ‘Pegassus’, ‘Sukces’, ‘Tonacja’, subjected to pre-harvest sprouting. Moreover, an analysis was conducted on the effect of pre-harvest sprouting on the functional properties of flour, determining the physical properties of gluten and dough. The analyses included a determination of crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, wet gluten, proteolytic activity and the rheologic properties of dough. The studies ended with a trial baking, with vitamin C and vital gluten added as improvers to the flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain. In all the milling fractions the overall proteolytic activity increased as result of sprouting, the highest increase being recorded for variety ‘Tonacja’. Simultaneously, in all the fractions tested an increased level of non-protein nitrogen was observed. Flour obtained from pre-harvest sprouted grain was characterised by an increased water holding capacity and the dough by poorer rheologic properties. Bread obtained from flour from pre-harvest sprouted grain was of insufficient quality. The use of improvers (vital gluten and vitamin C as a rule resulted in favourable palatability and physico-chemical changes in bread.

  14. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated area of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest burning. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest burning practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest burning practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the burning practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest burning contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm. Annual remote sensing based mappings of burned sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure

  15. Changes in postharvest quality of Swiss chard grown using 3 organic preharvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiss, N; Lobo, M G; Gonzalez, M

    2008-08-01

    Using storage conditions recommended for conventional chard (4 degrees C, 90% RH and 7 d), the chard treated with some organic preharvest treatments [effective microorganisms, a fermented mixture of effective microorganisms with organic matter (EM-Bokashi + EM), and an auxiliary soil product] lost considerable water (> 2%) and weight (> 25%). These results indicate that organic methods tested produce a vegetable that can not sustain its quality when commercialized through the conventional supply chain. Nevertheless, respiration, color, pH, and titratable acidity practically remained constant during conservation. Ascorbic acid content was constant in chard treated with the different preharvest treatments and collected at 8 wk after sowing (normal harvest). However, the ascorbic acid content of the control chard decreased 60% after 7 d of storage. This vitamin diminished (35%) in chard collected after 19 wk after sowing (late harvest) during the postharvest conservation. The greatest difference in chard quality was registered between sampling dates since chard collected during the late harvest had higher levels of dry matter, sugars, acids, proteins, and ascorbic acid than chard collected during the normal harvest.

  16. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  17. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  18. Preharvest Salmonella Detection for Evaluation of Fresh Ground Poultry Product Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas P; Evans, Robert D; Regalado, Jason; Sullivan, Joseph F; Dutta, Vikrant; Elvinger, Francois; Pierson, F William

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella is an important economic and public health concern for the poultry industry. Fresh ground product has been linked with multiple salmonellosis outbreaks in humans. Exposure can be controlled by proper handling and preparation by consumers; however, the industry desires to minimize carriage levels in the final product. A substantial obstacle in reducing product contamination stems from limitations in diagnostic methodologies. Detection of Salmonella contamination currently requires extended incubation periods, and by the time test results are available, the fresh product has reached retail shelves. The goal of this study was to develop a preharvest diagnostic protocol for the evaluation of ground product contamination. The turkey processing plant where this research was conducted had previously established Salmonella screening (BAX system) of ground product, thus providing an opportunity for preharvest sample comparison. Drag swabs were collected from live-haul trailers entering the processing plant over a 12-month period. The swabs were added to modified buffered peptone water and incubated at 40°C. After incubation for 6 h or overnight, samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella with the DNAble assay and related to ground turkey samples from corresponding lots. The linear relationship for the percentage of Salmonella-positive live-haul trailers was significant for both the 6-h (slope = 1.02, R(2) = 0.96, and P salmonellosis outbreaks.

  19. Advertising, Intended vs. unintended effects of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of television advertising on children and adolescents can be divided into two general types: intended and unintended. Intended effects are the effects that advertisers wish to achieve with their advertisements, and unintended effects include the often-undesired side effects of advertisin

  20. Predicting Intended Unethical Behavior of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    What is the likelihood that students would intend to act unethically in the work environment? The author measured business students' intended behavior for 4 hypothetical unethical situations by investigating the following determinants: belief toward the behavior, subjective norms (i.e., pressure), perceived behavioral control, perceived personal…

  1. Advertising, Intended vs. unintended effects of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of television advertising on children and adolescents can be divided into two general types: intended and unintended. Intended effects are the effects that advertisers wish to achieve with their advertisements, and unintended effects include the often-undesired side effects of

  2. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  3. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  4. HLB-associated preharvest fruit abscission is mediated by jasmonate/ethylene signaling triggered by secondary fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    One symptom of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Recently, higher incidence of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) was found in HLB-symptomatic orange calyx abscission zones (AZ-C) than in non-symptomatic fruit, and the infection was positively correlated with the reduc...

  5. Influence of pre-harvest calcium, potassium and triazole application on the proteome of apple at harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buts, Kim; Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Ho, Quang Tri; America, A.H.P.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Vercammen, J.; Carpentier, S.C.; Nicolaï, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Braeburn browning disorder is a storage disease characterised by flesh browning and lens-shaped cavities. The incidence of this postharvest diorder is known to be affected by pre-harvest application of fertilisers and triazole-based fungicides. Recent work has shown that calcium and potassium reduce

  6. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  7. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  8. Preharvest L-arginine treatment induced postharvest disease resistance to Botrysis cinerea in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sheng, Jiping; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Shengnan; Liu, Lingyi; Shen, Lin

    2011-06-22

    L-arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide (NO). In order to examine the influence of L-arginine on tomato fruit resistance, preharvest green mature tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum cv. No. 4 Zhongshu) were treated with 0.5, 1, and 5 mM L-arginine. The reduced lesion size (in diameter) on fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea, as well as activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Chitinase (CHI), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), was compared between L-arginine treated fruits and untreated fruits. We found that induced resistance increased and reached the highest level at 3-6 days after treatment. Endogenous NO concentrations were positively correlated with PAL, PPO, CHI, and GLU activities after treatment with Pearson coefficients of 0.71, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.87, respectively. These results indicate that arginine induces disease resistance via its effects on NO biosynthesis and defensive enzyme activity.

  9. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  10. Drunker than intended: misperceptions and information treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moxnes, Erling; Jensen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    by the difference between intended BAC and perceived BAC, and where the delay is not properly accounted for. If so, BAC will overshoot intended BAC. This hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested before; nor has the consequent and challenging educational problem. METHOD: High school students made drinking decisions...... in a laboratory experiment employing a personalized BAC simulator. A questionnaire and simulations complement the experiment. RESULTS: A long stomach delay causes much larger overshoots in BAC than a short delay. Drinking behavior is in both cases well explained by one and the same feedback strategy. Written...... information about the delay does not reduce overshoots, pre-test experience with a simulator parameterized for a mouse does. CONCLUSION: Our study warrants further studies to see if simulator training, analogies, and rules of thumb can help juveniles not to overshoot intended BAC in real drinking situations...

  11. The Intended Image of a Place Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Martin; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2016-01-01

    to the historically embedded image of the municipality. In this chapter the intended image of the municipality is compared to the image as it is perceived by newcomers. The study shows that historically embedded images of places are hard to manage and change when they involve elements with negative appeal towards...

  12. Drunker than intended: misperceptions and information treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, Erling; Jensen, Lene

    2009-11-01

    Juveniles becoming overly intoxicated by alcohol is a widespread problem with consequences ranging from hangovers to deaths. We ask: could overshoots of intended levels of intoxication be triggered by misperceptions of the types found in recent studies of decision making in dynamic systems? It is well known that the dynamics of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is complicated by a temporary accumulation of alcohol in the stomach delaying the uptake into the blood stream. We hypothesize that juveniles use an overly simplified drinking strategy, where drinking is guided by the difference between intended BAC and perceived BAC, and where the delay is not properly accounted for. If so, BAC will overshoot intended BAC. This hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested before; nor has the consequent and challenging educational problem. High school students made drinking decisions in a laboratory experiment employing a personalized BAC simulator. A questionnaire and simulations complement the experiment. A long stomach delay causes much larger overshoots in BAC than a short delay. Drinking behavior is in both cases well explained by one and the same feedback strategy. Written information about the delay does not reduce overshoots, pre-test experience with a simulator parameterized for a mouse does. Our study warrants further studies to see if simulator training, analogies, and rules of thumb can help juveniles not to overshoot intended BAC in real drinking situations. It also implies a modification of the 'folk wisdom' of not drinking on an empty stomach.

  13. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage.

  14. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  15. Determination of residue and pre-harvest interval of Imidacloprid insecticide on greenhouse cucumber in Varamin region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morowati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of chemical pesticides to control pests in developed and developing countries has led to the increase in crop production and decrease in post-harvest losses, which has caused harmful effects on human health. When the amount of pesticides exceeds permissible limits, some measures should be undertaken to reduce their application. In order to control cucumber pests in greenhouse, farmers use pesticides extensively, which their residues threaten human health in the society. Due to the importance of this problem, the residue and pre-harvest period of the Imidacloprid insecticide in some of the greenhouses of Varamin region, Tehran province, Iran was measured. In order to determine the pre-harvest period, spraying of Imidacloprid pesticide was done in a completely randomized block design with three replications, and two treatments of Imidacloprid and control (no insecticide. Sampling was done 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days after spraying. Samples were then transferred to the laboratory and preserved in freezer until the extraction and purification were performed and the amount of pesticide residues was measured. Based on the results, Imidacloprid residue reached below the maximum residue level (MRL of 1 mg/kg two days after spraying. But for more confidence, the third day after spraying was considered as the pre-harvest period. Sampling for determination of Imidacloprid residue was performed in four greenhouses of Varamin region. The results showed that mean Imidacloprid residue levels were above the MRL value in these greenhouses.

  16. Ethephon as a potential abscission agent for table grapes: effects on pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality and residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eFerrara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but dropper-harvest abscission was much lower (49% in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruit were slightly darker than non-treated fruit, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits.

  17. Exploring intended infant feeding decisions among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Kelly K; Hornsby, Paige P; Drake, Emily; Mulvihill, Evan M; Kinsey, Emily N; Yitayew, Miheret S; Lauer, Claire; Corriveau, Sharon; Coleman, Valerie; Gulati, Guari; Kellams, Ann L

    2014-10-01

    Low-income women have the lowest rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Greater understanding of factors that predict intention to feed artificial breastmilk substitute is needed to inform the design and timing of interventions to promote breastfeeding among vulnerable women. This study aimed to identify demographic and reproductive characteristics and other factors associated with intent to feed artificial breastmilk substitute among low-income women. Data from 520 low-income women interviewed at 24-41 weeks of gestation during enrollment in a prenatal breastfeeding education intervention study were analyzed. Participant characteristics, reasons for feeding decision, and sources and types of information received were compared among women intending to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute and other women. Most participants (95%) had already chosen an infant feeding method at the time of interview. There were no differences in plans to return to work by feeding plan. Women reporting intention to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute were less likely to report receiving information about the benefits of breastfeeding, how to breastfeed, and pumps and were more likely to cite personal preference and convenience as reasons for their decision. Women were more likely to intend to feed artificial breastmilk substitute if they had a previous live birth or had not breastfed a child, including the most recent. These findings suggest breastfeeding promotion should target women early and include sensitive, effective ways to promote breastfeeding among women who have not previously successfully breastfed. Breastfeeding history should be elicited, and plans to pump should be supported prenatally.

  18. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  19. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  20. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg∙l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg∙l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg∙l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg∙l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  1. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  2. Effect of aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG on preharvest fruit drop and maturity of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante Cassandro Vidal Talamini do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees cultivars Gala and Fuji were sprayed four weeks before commercial harvest with aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG, at doses of 0, 125, or 250 mg L-1, and assessed for preharvest fruit drop, fruit growth, and maturation on tree. In 'Gala', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control treatment was 85%, and AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 reduced it to 10%. In 'Fuji', 64 days after AVG spraying, fruit drop for control was 6%, while treatments with AVG (at 125 and 250 mg L-1 increased fruit drop to 10%. AVG was a powerful retardant of fruit maturation for 'Gala' but not for 'Fuji'. In 'Gala', the most affected attribute was the skin background color, followed, in decreasing order, by soluble solids content, the starch index, skin red color, the flesh firmness, and titratable acidity. In 'Gala', only flesh firmness retention was improved by increasing AVG dose from 125 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The AVG at 250 mg L-1 inhibited "Gala" late fruit growth but not 'Fuji'.

  3. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  4. Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of physiological changes in pummelo pre-harvest dropped fruit, termed “yellow fruit calyx symptoms” in Thailand, aimed to examine in two particular cultivars Thong Dee and Khao Nam Phueng grown in the central regionof Thailand. The results show that the normal pummelo fruits of either variety had statistically more total non-structuralcarbohydrate (TNC in their peel and pulp than did those of the dropped fruits. On the other hand, the leaves of normal fruittrees of both cultivars show less TNC than those found in the leaves of pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. There were significantdifferences in some plant nutrients in the leaves, peel and pulp of the dropped and normal pummelo cultivars. IAA concentration in fruit was determined with the result that normal fruits had a statistically higher IAA concentration than did those inpre-harvest dropped fruits. The PCR technique used for the greening disease test identified infections in leaves taken fromthe pre-harvest dropped fruit trees but none in leaves from the normal fruit trees. There were no differences in soil chemicalproperties between soil samples taken from the normal and pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. It seems likely that greeningdisease is the cause of ‘yellow fruit calyx symptom’ in Thailand and is the resulting from low TNC concentrations, low plantnutrients and low IAA concentrations in the pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars.

  5. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  6. Endogenous hormonal status in Pummelo fruitlets cultivar Thong Dee: relationship with pre-harvest fruit drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between endogenous hormonal status with pre-harvest fruit drop in pummelo fruitlets cultivar Thong Dee was studied during January 2013-August 2013. The results indicated that the concentration of IAA in normal and dropped fruitlets tended to decrease gradually during fruit development and the concentration of GA3 in normal and dropped fruitlets increased continually throughout the study. However, the concentration of ABA in normal and dropped fruitlets decreased during fruit development. The concentration of IAA and GA3 in normal fruitlets were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets during fruit development, whereas the concentration of ABA in normal fruitlets were significantly lower than that in dropped fruitlets. Consideration of plant growth promoters (IAA and GA3 and plant growth inhibitor (ABA ratio showed that IAA/ABA ratio in normal fruitlets at 6 week, 8 week and 10 week after fruit set were 7.54, 7.99 and 9.42, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets (1.81, 3.21 and 3.77, respectively. GA3 /ABA ratio in normal fruitlets at 6 week, 8 week and 10 week after fruit set were 4.54, 5.64 and 25.26 respectively which were significantly higher than those in dropped fruitlets (0.65, 3.10 and 6.71, respectively. Moreover, peel and pulp of normal fruitlets had significantly higher IAA concentration (2.63 and 3.85 mgL-1 than dropped fruitlets (2.07 and 1.45 mgL-1. Peel and pulp of normal fruitlets had also significantly higher GA3 concentration (2.52 and 4.20 mgL-1, whereas peel of normal fruitlets had significantly lower ABA concentration (0.39 mgL-1 than dropped fruitlets (5.28 mgL-1 but ABA concentration in pulp could not be detected either in normal or in dropped fruitlets. For the IAA/ABA and GA3 /ABA ratio measurement, it was found that the peel of normal fruitlets had significantly higher IAA/ABA ratio (6.74 than dropped fruitlets (0.39, whereas the peel of normal fruitlets had

  7. Effect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    García Cela, Esther; Gil-Serna, J.; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Acevedo, H. (Horacio); B. Patiño; Ramos Girona, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in pre-harvest and freshly harvested wheat. Spanish climatic conditions point to Aspergillus species as probably responsible for this OTA. In this study the effectiveness of 5 non-specific antifungal chemicals used on wheat fields (25.9% tebuconazole + 60.0% N,N-capramide dimethyl; 12.70% tebuconazole + 12.7% prothioconazole + 59.5% N,N‐amide dimethyldecane; 12.5% epoxiconazole; 12.5% tetraconazole; and 70% thiophanate methyl) and an extract from Equisetum ar...

  8. New symmetry of intended curved reaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Elizabeth B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand motions. Methods We investigated the conservation and violation of new movement regularity obtained from the hand motions traced by two untrained monkeys as they learned to reach outwardly towards spatial targets while avoiding obstacles in the dark. The regularity pertains to the transformation from postural to hand paths that aim at visual goals. Results In length-minimizing curves the area enclosed between the Euclidean straight line and the curve up to its point of maximum curvature is 1/2 of the total area. Similar trend is found if one examines the perimeter. This new movement regularity remained robust to striking changes in arm dynamics that gave rise to changes in the speed of the reach, to changes in the hand path curvature, and to changes in the arm's postural paths. The area and perimeter ratios characterizing the regularity co-varied across repeats of randomly presented targets whenever the transformation from posture to hand paths was compliant with the intended goals. To interpret this conservation and the cases in which the regularity was violated and recovered, we provide a geometric model that characterizes arm-to-hand and hand-to-arm motion paths as length minimizing curves (geodesics in a non-Euclidean space. Whenever the transformation from one space to the other is distance-metric preserving (isometric the two symmetric ratios co-vary. Otherwise, the symmetric ratios and their co-variation are violated. As predicted by the model we found empirical evidence for the violation of this movement regularity whenever the intended goals mismatched the actions. This

  9. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  10. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  11. ASAS Centennial Paper: Developments and future outlook for preharvest food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Patel, D A; Callaway, T R; Torrence, M E

    2009-01-01

    The last century of food animal agriculture is a remarkable triumph of scientific research. Knowledge derived through research has resulted in the development and use of new technologies that have increased the efficiency of food production and created a huge animal production and food manufacturing industry capable of feeding the US population while also providing significant quantities of high-quality food for export to other countries. Although the US food supply is among the safest in the world, the US Center for Disease Prevention and Control estimates that 76 million people get sick, more than 300,000 are hospitalized, and 5,000 die each year from foodborne illness. Consequently, preventing foodborne illness and death remains a major public health concern. Challenges to providing a safe, abundant, and nutritious food supply are complex because all aspects of food production, from farm to fork, must be considered. Given the national and international demand and expectations for food safety as well as the formidable challenges of producing and maintaining a safe food supply, food safety research and educational programs have taken on a new urgency. Remarkable progress has been made during the last century. Wisdom from a century of animal agriculture research now includes the realization that on-farm pathogens are intricately associated with animal health and well-being, the production of high-quality food, and profitability. In this review, some of the developments that have occurred over the last few decades are summarized, including types, sources, and concentrations of disease-causing pathogens encountered in food-producing animal environments and their association with food safety; current and future methods to control or reduce foodborne pathogens on the farm; and present and future preharvest food safety research directions. Future scientific breakthroughs will no doubt have a profound impact on animal agriculture and the production of high-quality food

  12. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  13. RNA sequencing of contaminated seeds reveals the state of the seed permissive for pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination and points to a potential susceptibility factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most potent naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and b...

  14. Investigation of environmental factors on the prevalence of free bacteriophages against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in produce pre-harvest environment in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of environmental factors on the prevalence of free bacteriophages against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in produce pre-harvest environment in Salinas, California Yen-Te Liaoa, Irwin Quintelab, Kimberly Nguyena, Alexandra Salvadora, Michael Cooleya, and Vivian C.H. Wu*a...

  15. Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3 g and 6 g of dietary fibre per serving (100 g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3 g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index.

  16. Pre-harvest assessment of perennial weeds in cereals based on images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egilsson, Jon; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    vision techniques to assess pre-harvest weed infestations in cereals based on true color (RGB) images from consumer graded cameras mounted on UAS. The objective is to develop a fully automatic algorithm in an open programming language, Python, to discriminate and quantify weed infestations in cereals...... before harvest. Results are compared with an in-house image analysis procedure developed in the commercial eCognition Developer software. The importance of flight altitude and robustness across fields are emphasised. Image acquisition took place during the summer of 2013 and 2014 in a number of fields...... was not competitive with results achieved with eCognition, which provided accuracies in the range of 86% to 92%. Flight altitude and image resolution (3 to 15 mm/pixel) were not important for the accuracy and ortho-mosaicking had no clear impact. Models including texture-based methods were not fully evaluated because...

  17. Pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to Penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Jie; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Jiang, Tianjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mM oxalic acid (OA) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (SSC) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). Pre-harvest application of OA led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in SSC during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidence, lesion diameter, and patulin accumulation in fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum, indicating that the OA treatment increased quality and induced disease resistance in kiwifruit. It was suggested that the increase in activities of defense-related enzymes and in levels of substances related to disease resistance might collectively contribute to resistance in kiwifruit against fungi such as P. expansum in storage.

  18. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-09-08

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm(-2); a medium dose: 15kJm(-2); and a high-dose: 29.4kJm(-2)). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  20. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  1. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20 Section 1010.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards...

  2. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus HARMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3 treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST [20 days at 2 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH]; distribution center (DC (5 days at 6 °C and 80% RH, and shelf life conditions (SL (2 days at 20 °C and 70% RH. Pre-harvest GA3 treatments increased the fruit weight and size. Treatment of GA3 at 50, 75, and 100 ppm increased the fruit flesh firmness and total soluble substances (TSS values in both the plum varieties during storage, transport, and marketing; it also limited the weight loss during the marketing process. Treatment of GA3 had no significant effects on the color, titratable acidity (TA, and the total phenolic and antioxidant activity values of plums. Pre-harvest GA3 treatment at 50 ppm GA3 can be thus recommended for both the plum varieties due to its effect on the fruit quality.

  3. Effect of pre-harvest application of gibberellic acid on the contents of pigments in cut leaves of Asarum europaeum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pogroszewska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment determined the effect of gibberellic acid applied prior to harvest on the contents of plant pigments in cut leaves of wild ginger (Asarum europaeum L., cultivated in an unheated plastic tunnel and in the field. Foliar application of GA3 at a concentration of 100, 200, 400, 600 mg x dm-3 was repeated four times every two weeks. It has been proven that pre-harvest spraying of plants with gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 mg x dm-3 has a positive effect on the content of photosynthetically active pigments in the leaves of A. europaeum cultivated in an unheated plastic tunnel. Application of GA3 at a concentration of 600 mg x dm-3 led to the accumulation of the greatest amount of anthocyanins in the leaves of Asarum europaeum cultivated both in the unheated plastic tunnel and in the field. The response of plants to GA3 application, expressed in the amount of flavonoids, depended on conditions related to the cultivation site. Pre-harvest treatment of A. europaeum plants with gibberellic acid at concentrations of 100-600 mg x dm-3 reduced the production of flavonoids in tunnel-grown wild ginger, but enhanced their accumulation in plants cultivated in the field. Pre-harvest application of gibberellic acid did not affect the fresh weight or dry mass content in plant material.

  4. Impact of preharvest and postharvest alginate treatments enriched with vanillin on postharvest decay, biochemical properties, quality and sensory attributes of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuk Takma, Dilara; Korel, Figen

    2017-04-15

    Alginate solution enriched with vanillin as a bioactive compound was investigated for improving preharvest and postharvest quality and safety of table grapes. Alginate treatments with or without vanillin as preharvest spray and postharvest coating were implemented on table grapes of Alphonse Lavalleé and Razaki cultivars. Fungal decay, biochemical properties, quality and sensory attributes were evaluated at day of preharvest treatment, at harvesting and during 35days of storage at 4±2°C. Alginate treatments with or without vanillin were effective in preventing weight and firmness losses. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and color of grapes coated with alginate coatings with or without vanillin showed minor changes compared to control grapes. Alginate coating incorporating vanillin provided significant reduction (1.73log CFU/g) in yeast-mold growth. Moreover, the coatings maintained greater total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to others during postharvest storage. In terms of sensory attributes, appearance was ranked as the highest for alginate coating without vanillin due to glossiness of alginate.

  5. Pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride to increase quantitative and qualitative traits of Lilium longiflorum cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Mortazavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lily (Lilium longiflorum L. is one of the most important potted flowers, which is used largely as cut flower. An experiment, arranged as a factorial besed on completely randomized dasign with three replications, was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride on quality and longevity of lilium cut flowers. Treatments  included humic acid as factor a (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L and three salicylic acid concentrations (0, 150 and 200 mg/L and two calcium chloride concentrations (300 and 600 mg/L as factor b, which were sprayed at two stages before harvesting the flowers. Results showed that treating the plants with 500 mg/L humic acid increased water uptake and chlorophyll a content and decreased number of fallen florets. Application of 1000 mg/L humic acid increased total chlorophyll content. Pre-harvest treatment of flowers with 600 mg/L calcium chloride increased florets’ diameter, relative water content, chlorophyll b content and shelf life, as compared to other concentrations and different salicylic concentrations. In this research, the highest shelf life was observed for flowers sprayed with 1000 mg/L humic acid and 300 mg/L calcium chloride. Therefore, pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride could have positive effects on quantitative and qualitative traits of lilium cut flowers.

  6. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  7. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  8. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM.

  9. Recent and intended drug trafficking among male and female urban African-American early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Feigelman, S

    1994-06-01

    To investigate associations between recent and intended involvement in drug trafficking and perceptions of the social environment among high-risk urban African-American youths. A multicomponent risk assessment survey was conducted among a convenience sample of 351 African-American youths 9 through 15 years of age residing in low-income communities. Both univariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to examine the association of youths' perceived social environment with recent and intended involvement in drug trafficking. Drug selling or delivering in the previous 6 months was reported by 6% of the youths; 12% expected to engage in these activities in the next 6 months. There was a strong association between drug trafficking and other high-risk behaviors, including drug use. Among both genders, perceptions that neighbors, friends, or family members were involved in drug trafficking were correlated with recent or intended drug trafficking. For boys, personal economic needs had a strong association with drug trafficking. For girls, personal feelings were more important correlates of intended involvement. Efforts aimed at both drug-trafficking prevention and intervention need to be community-based and multifaceted. Programs should address the youths' perceived social environments and consider gender differences regarding correlates of drug-trafficking involvement.

  10. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jinhe; McCollum, Greg; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. By means of DNA sequencing, diplodia was found in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-positive juice from HLB-symptomatic fruit (S) but not in "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-negative juice. Therefore, the incidence of diplodia in fruit tissues, the impact on HLB-related postharvest decay, and the implications for HLB-related preharvest fruit drop were investigated in Hamlin and Valencia oranges. Quantitative PCR results (qPCR) revealed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater incidence of diplodia in the AZ-C of HLB-symptomatic (S; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" threshold cycle [CT] of <30) than in the AZ-C of in asymptomatic (AS; "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" CT of ≥30) fruit. In agreement with the qPCR results, 2 weeks after exposure to ethylene, the incidences of SER in S fruit were 66.7% (Hamlin) and 58.7% (Valencia), whereas for AS fruit the decay rates were 6.7% (Hamlin) and 5.3% (Valencia). Diplodia colonization of S fruit AZ-C was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by PCR test and morphology of conidia in isolates from the AZ-C after surface sterilization. Diplodia CT values were negatively correlated with ethylene production (R = -0.838 for Hamlin; R = -0.858 for Valencia) in S fruit, and positively correlated with fruit detachment force (R = 0.855 for Hamlin; R = 0.850 for Valencia), suggesting that diplodia colonization in AZ-C may exacerbate HLB-associated preharvest fruit drop. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. ABA gene expression during kernel development in relation to pre-harvest sprouting in wheat and triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, De Laethauwer; Jan, De Riek; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) during wet and cool harvest periods remains a serious problem in the production of cereals like barley, wheat and triticale. Being involved in dormancy induction and maintenance during seed development, abscisic acid (ABA) may play a key role to improve dormancy level and hence PHS-tolerance in these grains. In this study, we investigated the ABA levels and expression profiles of ABA biosynthesis and degradation genes during kernel development to explore the potential of these genes for improving PHS-tolerance in wheat and triticale. Plants of a PHS-tolerant and a PHS-susceptible variety of both wheat and triticale were grown under controlled conditions from flowering to harvest. At regular time points, kernels were harvested for ABA analysis and RNA extraction. RNA extracts were used in an RT-qPCR assay to obtain expression profiles of the ABA synthesis genes ZEP, NCED1 and NCED2 and the ABA degradation genes CYP707A1 and CYP707A2. In contrast to reports in Arabidopsis, the ZEP gene was predominantly expressed towards harvest maturity in both wheat and triticale. NCED1 expression coincided well with the observed ABA levels during kernel development, while NCED2 expression was mainly detected in early development, indicating a potential role for dormancy induction. ABA degradation towards harvest maturity was mainly associated with increased CYP707A1 expression, whereas CYP707A2 expression appeared to correlate with the regulation of ABA levels during kernel development. However, no differential expression of the investigated genes was detected between PHS-tolerant and PHS-susceptible varieties.

  12. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in US hard white winter wheat Rio Blanco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shubing; Cai, Shibin; Graybosch, Robert; Chen, Cuixia; Bai, Guihua

    2008-09-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat is a major problem that severely limits the end-use quality of flour in many wheat-growing areas worldwide. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance, a population of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from the cross between PHS-resistant white wheat cultivar Rio Blanco and PHS-susceptible white wheat breeding line NW97S186. The population was evaluated for PHS in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment. After 1,430 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were screened between the two parents and two bulks, 112 polymorphic markers between two bulks were used to screen the RILs. One major QTL, QPhs.pseru-3AS, was identified in the distal region of chromosome 3AS and explained up to 41.0% of the total phenotypic variation in three greenhouse experiments. One minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.1, was detected in the 2005 and 2006 experiments and for the means over the greenhouse experiments, and explained 5.0-6.4% of phenotypic variation. Another minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.2, was detected in only one greenhouse experiment and explained 4.5% of phenotypic variation for PHS resistance. In another RIL population developed from the cross of Rio Blanco/NW97S078, QPhs.pseru-3AS was significant for all three greenhouse experiments and the means over all greenhouse experiments and explained up to 58.0% of phenotypic variation. Because Rio Blanco is a popular parent used in many hard winter wheat breeding programs, SSR markers linked to the QTLs have potential for use in high-throughput marker-assisted selection of wheat cultivars with improved PHS resistance as well as fine mapping and map-based cloning of the major QTL QPhs.pseru-3AS.

  13. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  14. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    OpenAIRE

    HARMAN,Yunus; Sen, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST) [20 days at 2 °C and 90% rel...

  15. The effect of different concentrations of pre-harvest gibberellic acid on the quality and durability of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ plum varieties

    OpenAIRE

    HARMAN,Yunus; Sen, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The research work aimed at investigating the effect of pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment on the quality of ‘Obilnaja’ and ‘Black Star’ Japanese plum varieties. GA3 was sprayed onto the trees during the fruit color break at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations. After pre-cooling, the plums were placed in modified atmosphere packages and exposed to the following conditions as follows: short storage-transportation (ST) [20 days at 2 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH)]; di...

  16. Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Crops and Its Management%农作物收获前黄曲霉毒素污染与控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王后苗; 廖伯寿

    2012-01-01

    黄曲霉毒素(aflatoxin,AFT)是曲霉属真菌产生的一大类生物毒素,是危及食品安全和人类健康的主要物质之一.农产品收获前黄曲霉毒素污染是热带、亚热带地区普遍存在的问题,其中在玉米、花生、棉籽、辣椒籽和一些木本坚果及其产品中尤为严重.国内外现有研究结果表明,多种因素可影响作物收获前黄曲霉毒素污染,其中干旱和高温的综合胁迫是最主要的环境因素.作物抗性对降低毒素污染具有重要作用.综合运用分子生物学及常规育种 技术改良作物品种对黄曲霉菌侵染或产毒的抗性以及对其他病虫害及干旱的抗(耐)性,是解决黄曲霉毒素污染问题的重要途径.作物生产过程中病虫害的防治和合理的田间管理是作物收获前黄曲霉毒素污染的有效防控措施.%Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus is considered as the most serious factor influencing food safety concerning human health. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination in the field has been a common problem in certain agricultural products including corn, peanut, cottonseed, pepper, and tree nuts. Several factors have been associated with preharvest aflatoxin contamination in various crops. Drought stress along with high temperature is the most major environmental factor related to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. Resistance of host plant could effectively reduce the contamination. Genetic enhancement for resistance to fungi invasion and aflatoxin production as well as diseases and insect pests and tolerance to drought through combination of conventional breeding and molecular biology approaches will be the priority for aflatoxin contamination management. Meanwhile, integrated control of diseases and pests with suitable crop management is also crucial to prevent preharvest aflatoxin contamination.

  17. Pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride to increase quantitative and qualitative traits of Lilium longiflorum cut flowers

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Mortazavi; Karimi, V.; M.H. Azimi

    2015-01-01

    Lily (Lilium longiflorum L.) is one of the most important potted flowers, which is used largely as cut flower. An experiment, arranged as a factorial besed on completely randomized dasign with three replications, was carried out to evaluate the effects of pre-harvest foliar application of humic acid, salicylic acid and calcium chloride on quality and longevity of lilium cut flowers. Treatments  included humic acid as factor a (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L) and three salicylic acid concentrations...

  18. The callipyge phenomenon: tenderness intervention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B

    1999-01-01

    Consumers continue to desire leaner meats. Lambs expressing the callipyge gene have been identified as having superior, leaner carcasses compared with normally muscled lambs. However, the longissimus muscle, a major merchandised muscle in lamb, has repeatedly been shown to be significantly less tender in callipyge lamb compared with normally muscled lambs. Preharvest factors, such as genetics, sex, and production/management practices, have thus far shown no promise at alleviating this tenderness problem. But a number of postharvest interventions have been introduced to alleviate it. Included among the strategies are postmortem aging, carcass electrical stimulation, the combination of freezing and thawing before aging, calcium chloride injection, and the Hydrodyne process. These strategies have exhibited various degrees of success. Postharvest strategies to improve callipyge longissimus tenderness are described in this article.

  19. Examining Students' Intended Image on Facebook: "What Were They Thinking?!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluchette, Joy; Karl, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines factors that influence why students post information on their social network profile which employers would find inappropriate. Results show that many students make a conscious attempt to portray a particular image and, as predicted, their intended image was related to whether they posted inappropriate information.…

  20. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent–child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first par

  1. Intending the Faculty and its Relation with the City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vande Putte, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the preparation of the idea competition 'Building for Bouwkunde' that was held in 2008. The competition intended entrants to design a replacement building for the lost building of the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology, based on the refle

  2. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent–child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first par

  3. The Intended and Unintended Consequences of International Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Robbin D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on service-learning in international contexts tends to focus on the benefits and outcomes for students and educational institutions. This essay is intended to provoke further examination of issues related to university-community engagement in global contexts, particularly in terms of the consequences for host communities. In…

  4. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent-child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first par

  5. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  6. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  7. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent-child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first par

  8. Examining Students' Intended Image on Facebook: "What Were They Thinking?!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluchette, Joy; Karl, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines factors that influence why students post information on their social network profile which employers would find inappropriate. Results show that many students make a conscious attempt to portray a particular image and, as predicted, their intended image was related to whether they posted inappropriate information.…

  9. Intending the Faculty and its Relation with the City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vande Putte, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the preparation of the idea competition 'Building for Bouwkunde' that was held in 2008. The competition intended entrants to design a replacement building for the lost building of the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology, based on the

  10. Dissipation kinetics and pre-harvest residue limit of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo Var. makuwa) grown under regulated climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyung Suk; Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Chang, Byung-Joon; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-02-23

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was used to estimate the disappearance rates as well as the pre-harvest residue limits of pyriofenone in oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) grown under greenhouse conditions in two different locations (A and B) in Seongju, Republic of Korea. The identity of the compound in standard solution and representative field incurred samples was confirmed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy (expressed as recovery) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for accurate and precise quantitation. Notably, the residual levels of field incurred samples collected over days 0-10 post-application were below the maximum residue level (0.2 mg/kg) established by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Site A showed lower residue levels and a higher decline rate than site B, which might be attributed to seasonal variation (high temperature) and increased metabolic and enzyme profiling in the mature fruits. The half-lives were similar, 4.9 and 4.3 days, at sites A and B, respectively. Using the pre-harvest residue limit, we predicted the residue amounts at 10 and 5 days before harvest, which resulted in concentrations lower than the provisional maximum residue level at harvest time.

  11. Pre-harvest sugarcane burning emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw burning is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate annual emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw burning. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  12. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself.

  13. Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of metakaolin in grouts intended for soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husson B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a feasibility study to evaluate the pertinence of using metakaolin in grout intended for soil nailing. After a first step of grout optimisation based on technical and environmental constraints, an in-situ study was performed to evaluate the compatibility of metakaolin with this kind of application. This part highlights the minimum performance levels necessary if grout is to fulfil its role of transferring stresses between soil and nail.

  15. Screening tests for intended medication adherence among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raehl, Cynthia L; Bond, C A; Woods, Tresa J; Patry, Roland A; Sleeper, Rebecca B

    2006-05-01

    Medication nonadherence is increasingly recognized as a cause of preventable adverse events, hospitalizations, and poor healthcare outcomes. While comprehensive medication adherence assessment for the elderly is likely to identify and prevent drug-related problems, it is time consuming for patient and healthcare providers alike. To identify screening tools to predict elderly patients' intended medication adherence that are suitable for primary-care settings and community pharmacies. This study evaluated 57 English-speaking persons aged 65 years and older who were from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Intended adherence was quantified, and the relationships to demographic, medical history, socioeconomic, and literacy variables were determined. In a multivariate analysis with the composite MedTake Test (a quantitative measure of each subject's intent to adhere to prescribed oral medications) as the dependent variable, independent predictors of intended adherence included: age, car ownership in the last 10 years, receipt of food assistance in the last 10 years, number of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). The strongest predictor was the REALM word-recognition pronunciation test (beta = 0.666; R2 = 0.271; p pronunciation test, along with age, number of OTC drugs, and 2 socioeconomic questions, predicted the intent of seniors to correctly take their own prescribed oral medications.

  16. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting, wasting, and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices among children 6-23 months of age in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas Pacelli; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora Mary

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and access are strongly affected by seasonality in Ethiopia. However, there are little data on seasonal variation in Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and malnutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, anthropometry and IYCF indicators were assessed in post- and pre-harvest seasons among children aged 6-23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 39.8% and 26.9% in post-harvest to 46.0% and 31.8% in pre-harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in prevalence of stunting and underweight between post- and pre-harvest seasons was noted in the midland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% post-harvest to 8.5% pre-harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the lowland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. There is seasonal variation in malnutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect in midland agro-ecological zone. A major contributing factor for child malnutrition may be poor feeding practices. Health information strategies focused on both IYCF practices and dietary diversity of mothers could be a sensible approach to reduce the burden of child malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

  17. Twitter manager GO API intended for GNU Social API

    OpenAIRE

    Janiga, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor’s thesis had two goals. The first one was to create API for GO programming language that communicates with GNU Social API. The second one was to create an application that uses the mentioned API. The main purpose of creating the application was to reduce the time spent with the login and logout of the accounts by the members in the white team. The application is intended for training purposes in JYVSECTEC project at JAMK University of Applied Sciences. JYVSECTEC sta...

  18. The Selfish Goal: Unintended Consequences of Intended Goal Pursuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-10-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed.

  19. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended and…

  20. Application of plant growth regulators at pre-harvest for fruit development of 'PÊRA' oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of auxins and gibberellins when applied at pre-harvest to the fruit development, and to the ripening and natural fall of the fruit, in 'Pêra' oranges. Trees of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Pêra, 5 years old, were utilized. The treatments applied were: GA3 + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1 of each; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1 ; GA3 + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; and water (control. The treatments were applied 3 times, at intervals of 45 days. The variables evaluated were: rate of natural fall (%, fruit length and diameter (mm, and fresh fruit weight (g. None of the treatments promoved alterations in the development of the fruits, but they did reduce the natural fall rate, when compared to control, up to 78.05%, inhibiting the fruits' abscision as much as 3 months.O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita no desenvolvimento e na taxa de queda natural de frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra'. Foram utilizadas árvores de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra com 5 anos de idade. Os tratamentos foram: GA3 + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Durante todo o período experimental foram realizadas três aplicações a intervalos de 45 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: Taxa de queda natural dos frutos (%, comprimento (mm, diâmetro (mm e massa fresca dos frutos (g. Nenhum dos tratamentos proporcionaram alterações no desenvolvimento final dos frutos, mas reduziram a taxa de queda natural em comparação com a testemunha em até 78,05%, inibindo a abscisão dos frutos em até três meses.

  1. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Intended and unintended consequences of China's zero markup drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Linxiu; Li, Shaoping; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Graphite Intended for Green Engineering Developed by Noncontaminant Reverse Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Baca Arroyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite intended for green engineering was synthesized by noncontaminant reverse abrasion, which consists of graphite layers assembled with thickness controlled on SiC sandpaper as insulating substrate. Phase formation of the graphite layers was validated by X-ray diffraction studies and its finished profile by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Transport parameters of only three layers were evaluated from current-voltage curves. Mathematical functions such as derivative and modulation of a signal have been built by graphite circuits using different performance principles, compared to those used with silicon devices. The trends related to electronic engineering should be achieved with design of the graphite-based devices to facilitate their mass production in the near future.

  4. New process of silicon carbide purification intended for silicon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbouche, M.; Zaghouani, R. Benabderrahmane; Benammar, N. E.; Aglieri, V.; Mosca, M.; Macaluso, R.; Khirouni, K.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report on a new, efficient and low cost process of silicon carbide (SiC) powder purification intended to be used in photovoltaic applications. This process consists on the preparation of porous silicon carbide layers followed by a photo-thermal annealing under oxygen atmosphere and chemical treatment. The effect of etching time on impurities removal efficiency was studied. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) results showed that the best result was achieved for an etching time of 10 min followed by gettering at 900 °C during 1 h. SiC purity is improved from 3N (99.9771%) to 4N (99.9946%). Silicon carbide thin films were deposited onto silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD) using purified SiC powder as target. Significant improvement of the minority carrier lifetime was obtained encouraging the use of SiC as a passivation layer for silicon.

  5. Siloxanes in silicone products intended for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    Silicone is used in food contact materials due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. It is thermostable and flexible and is used in bakeware and kitchen utensils. Silicone is also used to coat paper to make it water and fat resistant. There is no specific regulation in EU which covers...... silicone as food contact materials, but in Regulation 1935/2004 on materials intended to come into contact with food it is stated that materials should be manufactured so it do not transfer their constituents to food in quantities which could endanger human health. Silicone may contain residual siloxane...... oligomers which might migrate to the food when the product is being used. DTU has proposed two action limits for low molecular weight siloxanes in food contact materials. For the sum of cyclic siloxanes D3 to D8 the limits are 12 mg/kg food for adults and 2 mg/kg food for children. For the sum of cyclic...

  6. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  7. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Carpenter, Janet S

    2011-10-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions.

  8. Characterization and modeling of uncertainty intended for a secured MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amir Khusru Akhtar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network is a chaos for decades due to its dynamic and heuristic base. It employs several forms of uncertainty such as vagueness and imprecision. Vagueness can be taken in terms of linguistic assumptions such as grading and classification for the acceptance. Imprecision on the other hand can be associated with countable or noncountable assumptions such as the weights of acceptance calculated by the members of the MANET. This paper presents “Certainty Intended Model (CIM” for a secured MANET by introducing one or more expert nodes together with the inclusion of various theories (such as monotone measure, belief, plausibility, evidence. These theories can be used for the characterization and modeling various forms of uncertainty. Further, these characterizations help in quantifying the uncertainty spectrum because, as much information about the problem is available we can transform from one theory to another. In this work we have shown how these theories and expert opinion helps to identify the setback associated with the MANET in respect of trust management and finally, enhances the security, reliability and performance of the MANET.

  9. [Biological evaluation of a protein mixture intended for enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, J Olza; Foulquie, J Porres; Valero, G Urbano; de Victoria, E Martínez; Hernández, A Gil

    2008-01-01

    Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed or supplement the diet when gastrointestinal tract functions of patients are partially or totally preserved. Whenever total enteral nutrition is needed, it represents the only source of nutrients for patients. Thus, it is mandatory to ensure that high biological value proteins are included in enteral formulae. To assess the biological quality of a protein blend constituted by 50% potassium caseinate, 25% whey protein and 25% pea protein intended to be used in enteral nutrition products. Forty Wistar rats (20 male and 20 female), with initial body weight of 51 g, where divided into four groups and feed for 10 days with: casein (Control), experimental protein blend (Experimental), liophylized normo- and hyperproteic enteral nutrition formulae adapted to the animal nutritional requirements (Normoproteic and Hyperproteic). Protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), relationship between retained and absorbed nitrogen (R/A) and relationship between retained and consumed nitrogen (R/I) where calculated. Experimental and control groups had similar values for all analysed indices (PER, ADC, R/A and R/I). These indices where also similar between normo and hyperproteic groups, but lower than experimental and control groups, except in PER, where normoproteic group was either similar to control and hiperproteic group. The quality of the protein blend used in this study is high. It is a good protein source to be used in the development of new enteral nutritional products.

  10. Food safety on the farm: Movement toward the development of sustainable and environmentally compatible pre-harvest interventions for livestock producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic bacteria residing in the gut of food-producing animals can contaminate meat and dairy products during processing. A chlorate-based feeding strategy specifically targeting respiratory nitrate reductases possessed by E. coli and Salmonella has shown promise in depopulating these pathogens. ...

  11. Intended to Fail? Jatropha Development Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristam P. Moeliono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Article offers an analytical description of the legal framework of the Indonesian biofuel energy policy : commercialization of Jatropha. Its purpose is to explain why the legal framework failed. Methodology used to collect data is library research, including shifting through related legal documents. Additional information was collected through interviews with key informants. The purpose is to be able to place the relevant legal framework within a broader economic-political context. The main findings were that government intervention in the economic sector (commercialization of Jatropha, were made more in the spirit of poverty eradication programs and lessening government financial burden in providing cheap fossil fuel. Cautious approach based on economic calculations and other considerations (Jatropha not being sufficiently tested and developed as biofuel crop as advised by researchers (2006 working under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture were simply ignored. 

  12. Qualidade de bulbos de cebola em consequência de tratamentos pré-colheita Onion bulb quality due to pre-harvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    better response to pre-harvest treatments in relation to light skin cultivars. Firmness was not affected by pre-harvest treatments.

  13. Writer's cramp: increased dorsal premotor activity during intended writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Helmich, Rick C; Medendorp, W P; Van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Toni, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Simple writer's cramp (WC) is a task-specific form of dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand during writing. It is extremely task-specific, since dystonic symptoms can occur when a patient uses a pencil for writing, but not when it is used for sharpening. Maladaptive plasticity, loss of inhibition, and abnormal sensory processing are important pathophysiological elements of WC. However, it remains unclear how those elements can account for its task-specificity. We used fMRI to isolate cerebral alterations associated with the task-specificity of simple WC. Subjects (13 simple WC patients, 20 matched controls) imagined grasping a pencil to either write with it or sharpen it. On each trial, we manipulated the pencil's position and the number of imagined movements, while monitoring variations in motor output with electromyography. We show that simple WC is characterized by abnormally increased activity in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) when imagined actions are specifically related to writing. This cerebral effect was independent from the known deficits in dystonia in generating focal motor output and in processing somatosensory feedback. This abnormal activity of the PMd suggests that the task-specific element of simple WC is primarily due to alterations at the planning level, in the computations that transform a desired action outcome into the motor commands leading to that action. These findings open the way for testing the therapeutic value of interventions that take into account the computational substrate of task-specificity in simple WC, e.g. modulations of PMd activity during the planning phase of writing.

  14. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  15. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  16. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  17. Analysis of preharvest sprouting in three Brazilian wheat populations Análise da germinação pré-colheita em três populações brasileiras de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of obtaining recombinant inbred wheat lines more resistant to preharvest sprouting, independently of colour genes, in three red-grained Brazilian wheat populations. The results showed statistical significance among lines within all populations, which presented a normal distribution and transgressive segregation for preharvest sprouting. The normal distribution of the lines from all red-grained populations suggests that sprouting, excluding the genes expressing seed coat pigmentation, is, probably, controlled by many genes. These findings also indicate that it may be possible to improve resistance to preharvest sprouting, independently of the colour genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de obtenção de linhas recombinantes homozigotas de trigo mais resistentes à germinação pré-colheita independentemente dos genes de cor, em três populações brasileiras de grãos vermelhos. Os resultados mostraram significância estatística entre linhas, em todas as populações, distribuição normal e segregação transgressiva. A distribuição normal apresentada por todas as populações com grãos vermelhos sugere que a germinação pré-colheita, excluindo-se os genes responsáveis pela pigmentação dos grãos, é, provavelmente, controlada por muitos genes. Os resultados indicam, também, que é possível aumentar a resistência à germinação pré-colheita, independentemente dos genes de cor.

  18. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  19. Farm management, environment, and weather factors jointly affect the probability of spinach contamination by generic Escherichia coli at the preharvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination.

  20. Effects of pre-harvest foliar application of different rates and sources of calcium on yield and quality of ‘Illona’ cut rose flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mirza Shahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Short vase life and low quality of cut rose flowers are the main problems of most rose greenhouses in Iran. Calcium is one of the most important nutrients that plays a major role in vase life of cut rose flowers. In this study, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized blocks design to elucidate the effects of foliar application of calcium rates and sources on yield and quality of rose flowers cv. Illona. Rose plants were sprayed by three rates of 0, 0.3 and 0.6 g/L calcium in combination with two sources of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO32.4H2O and calcium chelate (Ca-EDTA before the harvest. The experiment was conducted in 3 replications during 2005-2007 in Safi Abad Agricultural Research Center, Dezful. The results revealed that rose yield and flower quality indices at harvest time consisting of flowering stem fresh weight and length and length and diameter of buds were not affected by different rates and sources of calcium. But, vase life of cut rose flowers was increased significantly by 2.7 and 2.9 days in 0.3 and 0.6 g/L treatments, respectively (P<0.01. This was due to increased Ca concentration in the rose leaves and petals. There was no significant difference between the calcium nitrate and calcium chelate in supplying calcium and increasing vase life of cut rose flowers. According to the results of the present study, pre-harvest foliar application of calcium nitrate or calcium chelate at the rate of 0.3 g/L is recommended to improve vase life of cut rose flowers in north Khuzestan under greenhouse conditions.

  1. Independent mis-splicing mutations in TaPHS1 causing loss of preharvest sprouting (PHS) resistance during wheat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shubing; Sehgal, Sunish K; Lin, Meng; Li, Jiarui; Trick, Harold N; Gill, Bikram S; Bai, Guihua

    2015-11-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the major constraints of wheat production in areas where prolonged rainfall occurs during harvest. TaPHS1 is a gene that regulates PHS resistance on chromosome 3A of wheat, and two causal mutations in the positions +646 and +666 of the TaPHS1 coding region result in wheat PHS susceptibility. Three competitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed based on the two mutations in the coding region and one in the promoter region and validated in 82 wheat cultivars with known genotypes. These markers can be used to transfer TaPHS1 in breeding through marker-assisted selection. Screening of 327 accessions of wheat A genome progenitors using the three KASP markers identified different haplotypes in both diploid and tetraploid wheats. Only one Triticum monococcum accession, however, carries both causal mutations in the TaPHS1 coding region and shows PHS susceptibility. Five of 249 common wheat landraces collected from the Fertile Crescent and surrounding areas carried the mutation (C) in the promoter (-222), and one landrace carries both the causal mutations in the TaPHS1 coding region, indicating that the mis-splicing (+646) mutation occurred during common wheat domestication. PHS assay of wheat progenitor accessions demonstrated that the wild-types were highly PHS-resistant, whereas the domesticated type showed increased PHS susceptibility. The mis-splicing TaPHS1 mutation for PHS susceptibility was involved in wheat domestication and might arise independently between T. monococcum and Triticum aestivum. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Multifactorial effects of ambient temperature, precipitation, farm management, and environmental factors determine the level of generic Escherichia coli contamination on preharvested spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-04-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only.

  3. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility's bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers' motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  4. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Project name:Jintan tire production base project (the first-phase project) Construction site:Jintan Economic Development Zone, Jiangsu Province Construction unit:Zhongce Rubber (Jintan) Co., Ltd. Total investment:RMB 2.42 billion yuan Project description:It is planned to cover an area of 3,000 mu. In the first phase, it will cover an area of 520.43 mu with designed staff of 4,500 people. It will mix 150,000 tons of rubber and produce 10 million u- nits of high-performance semi-steel-wire saloon car and light truck radial tires, 500,000 units of OTR tires and 100,000 tons of carbon black per year.

  5. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Project name: 90,000t/a BR device and auxiliary projects Construction unit: Sinopec Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Company Total investment: 2.257 billion yuan Project description: It will cover an area of 14. lha.

  6. 21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use. 1010.5 Section 1010.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... General Provisions § 1010.5 Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use....

  7. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  8. Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Iontophoresis Device Intended for Any Other Purposes. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify iontophoresis devices intended for any other purposes, which are preamendments class III devices (regulated under product code EGJ), into class II (special controls) and to amend the device identification to clarify that devices intended to deliver specific drugs are not considered part of this regulatory classification.

  9. Intended motion estimation using fuzzy Kalman filtering for UAV image stabilization with large drifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tiantian; Zhao, Hongying; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Lu

    2015-03-01

    Videos from a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are always unstable because of the wobble of the vehicle and the impact of surroundings, especially when the motion has a large drifting. Electronic image stabilization aims at removing the unwanted wobble and obtaining the stable video. Then estimation of intended motion, which represents the tendency of global motion, becomes the key to image stabilization. It is usually impossible for general methods of intended motion estimation to obtain stable intended motion remaining as much information of video images and getting a path as much close to the real flying path at the same time. This paper proposed a fuzzy Kalman filtering method to estimate the intended motion to solve these problems. Comparing with traditional methods, the fuzzy Kalman filtering method can achieve better effect to estimate the intended motion.

  10. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  11. Study on the Physiological Biochemistry of Pre-harvest Sprouting and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Glume in Rice%水稻穗上发芽生理生化及颖壳扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建秀; 陈伟

    2008-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of easy or uneasy-germinated glumes,determining the contents of endogenous hormones and the activity of α-amylase were studied from at 1-4 d pre-harvest sprouting rice.The results showed that the activity of α-amylase and the contents of IAA,GA1+3 and ZR were higher in easy-germinated rice than those in the uneasy-germinated rice,while ABA content in easy-germinated rice was lower than that in uneasy-germinated rice.The change of GA1+3/ABA rate accorded with that of GA1+3.Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cell surface of glume was loose arranged with more villus and bigger hole and germinal aperture,which had lesser mechanism resistance and better water absorptivity in easy-germinated rice.This research also indicated that pre-harvest sprouting in rice related to α-amylase activity,endogenous hormone contents and glume structure.

  12. Predicting intended use of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services among Tanzanian teachers using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoko, Deodatus Conatus; Astrøm, A N; Lugoe, Wycliffe L; Lie, Gro T

    2006-08-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides a conceptual model for understanding individual cognitions that influence behavioural intentions and enactment of the actual behaviours. This study examined the applicability of the TPB and the additional predictive role of perceived risk in predicting intended use of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 918 primary school teachers in the Mwanza region, Tanzania between September 2003 and November 2003. Analysis was based on 737 teachers (mean age 38.9) who had never tested for HIV. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicate that perceived behavioural control and attitude toward using VCT services were significant predictors of intention to use VCT services in the TPB model. Perceived behavioural control added 12% of variance to intention over and above attitudes and subjective norms, while perceived risk added 3% of variance. Socio-economic status did not moderate the predictive value of the TPB components. The present study demonstrates that the TPB is a useful conceptual framework for predicting intended use of HIV counselling and testing services among Tanzanian teachers. A theory-based VCT intervention programme among Tanzanian teachers should mainly focus on reducing social and psychological barriers related to the use of VCT services.

  13. Plant growth regulators on the pre-harvest period of 'Pêra' oranges Reguladores vegetais aplicados na fase pré-colheita de laranjeira "Pêra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effects of auxins and gibberellins applied at pre-harvest on the quality of orange juice. Orange trees, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. 'Pêra' were sprayed in three applications, at 45-day intervals, with the following treatments: GA3 + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1 each; GA3 + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1, and a control. The treatments did not change juice quality, and showed no plant growth regulator residues 110 days after the last application in every case below 0.05mg L-1.Neste estudo, avaliou-se os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita na qualidade interna de frutos de laranjeira "Pêra". Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra foram pulverizadas com três aplicações, em intervalos de 45 dias, com os seguintes tratamentos: GA3 + 2,4-D a 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1;GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos não prejudicaram a qualidade interna dos frutos. Além disso, os níveis de resíduo de reguladores vegetais no suco, ficaram abaixo de 0,05mg L-1, 110 dias após a última aplicação.

  14. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION...-producing toys. Existing CPSC regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns refer to... intended for use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps. The final rule is...

  15. National Security: An Overview of Professional Development Activities Intended to Improve Interagency Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    professional development activities could help bridge those gaps. GAO was asked to identify: (1) training and other professional development activities intended to improve the ability of key national security agencies’ personnel to collaborate across organizational lines and (2) how these activities were intended to improve participants’ collaboration abilities. To address these objectives, GAO asked nine key agencies involved in national security issues to submit information on professional development activities that

  16. Use of Intervention Mapping to Enhance Health Care Professional Practice: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durks, Desire; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Hossain, Lutfun N.; Franco-Trigo, Lucia; Benrimoj, Shalom I.; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intervention Mapping is a planning protocol for developing behavior change interventions, the first three steps of which are intended to establish the foundations and rationales of such interventions. Aim: This systematic review aimed to identify programs that used Intervention Mapping to plan changes in health care professional…

  17. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  18. Fungos e fumonisinas no período pré-colheita do milho Fungi and fumonisins at maize's pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Hermanns

    2006-03-01

    and associated with pulmonary edema syndrome in swine and esophageal cancer in humans. The objective of this work was to identify critical points of fungal contamination and fumonisins production during pre-harvest growth stage. Results showed fungal growth since the dough stage, with no significant difference at both following stages: dent and physiological maturity. Non sporulated fungi were predominant at the silking stage (100% and at the dough stage (95%. Saprophytes species were identified at the dent stage (23.25%. Fusarium spp. was evident since the dough stage (5% increasing considerably through the dent stage (62.5% to the physiological maturity (90%. All Fusarium spp. strains tested showed toxigenic potential. Fumonisins were evident at the latest development stages increasing considerably from the dent stage (0.2 ppm to the physiological maturity (2.5 ppm. Authors suggest special attention and adopting preventive measures in relation to the dough stage, from which Fusarium spp. begin to be evident.

  19. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is an economically important Rabi crop for the state, which is grown on around 26 % of total available agriculture area in the state. There is a variation in productivity of wheat crop in hilly and tarai region. The agricultural productivity is less in hilly region in comparison of tarai region due to terrace cultivation, traditional system of agriculture, small land holdings, variation in physiography, top soil erosion, lack of proper irrigation system etc. Pre-harvest acreage/yield/production estimation of major crops is being done with the help of conventional crop cutting method, which is biased, inaccurate and time consuming. Remote Sensing data with multi-temporal and multi-spectral capabilities has shown new dimension in crop discrimination analysis and acreage/yield/production estimation in recent years. In view of this, Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre (USAC), Dehradun with the collaboration of Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad and Uttarakhand State Agriculture Department, have developed different techniques for the discrimination of crops and estimation of pre-harvest wheat acreage/yield/production. In the 1st phase, five districts (Dehradun, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar) with distinct physiography i.e. hilly and plain regions, have been selected for testing and verification of techniques using IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites), LISS-III, LISS-IV satellite data of Rabi season for the year 2008-09 and whole 13 districts of the Uttarakhand state from 2009-14 along with ground data were used for detailed analysis. Five methods have been developed i.e. NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), Supervised classification, Spatial modeling, Masking out method and Programming on visual basics methods using multitemporal satellite data of Rabi season along with the collateral and ground data. These methods were used for wheat discriminations and preharvest acreage estimations and subsequently results

  20. Demonstration lessons in mathematics education: teachers' observation foci and intended changes in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug; Roche, Anne; Wilkie, Karina; Wright, Vince; Brown, Jill; Downton, Ann; Horne, Marj; Knight, Rose; McDonough, Andrea; Sexton, Matthew; Worrall, Chris

    2013-06-01

    As part of a teacher professional learning project in mathematics education, university mathematics educators taught demonstration lessons in project primary schools. These lessons were part of a "pre-brief, teaching, and debrief" process, in which up to eight teachers observed each lesson. Using brief questionnaires completed in advance of the lesson, during the lesson, following the debrief, and several weeks later, data were collected on teachers' intended and actual observation foci and any anticipated changes in their beliefs and practices arising from the experience. There were several common themes in teachers' intended observations, including a focus on questioning, catering for individual differences, and building student engagement. As evident in other research, teachers' intended and actual observations gave greater attention to teacher actions and decision making than to student learning and thinking. In this paper, we situate demonstration lessons within teacher professional learning models, describe the features of our model, summarise teacher data, and discuss issues arising from our work.

  1. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  2. Intervention Procedures to Accelerate Rate of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara B.

    The paper reports on a study of the rate of language learning of 12 children aged 2 to 10 with severe to profound bilateral hearing losses. Intended to help deaf children learn spoken language at the same rate as average hearing Ss, the intervention stressed three qualities of linguistic information: (1) clarity, (2) appropriateness, and (3)…

  3. 孕产妇计划妊娠影响因素分析%Analysis of influencing factors of intended pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成福; 宋新明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevalence of intended pregnancy and its influencing factors among maternal women. Methods: Data used in this paper were from a retrospective survey of maternal women between 2002 and 2004, which was conducted by face - to - face study in Wuxi. The total number of women was 1 628. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of intended pregnancy. Results; The proportion of intended pregnancy was 73. 2% in this study. Regression analysis showed that the maternal women with childbearing age over 30, same education level as husbands, small number of family size, per capital household income for upper stage, accessing other health insurance in addition to basic medical insurance, and having been to health counseling agencies, folic acid supplement, TORCH and/or chromosome examinations before pregnancy had much higher proportion of intended pregnancy. Conclusion: Many factors impact on intended pregnancy. To increase the proportion of intended pregnancies, the comprehensive intervention model, in which government, communities , families, and individuals jointly participate, should be established to peomote intended pregnancy.%目的:探讨影响计划妊娠的相关因素.方法:利用无锡市2002~2004年孕产妇回顾性调查资料,采用入户面对面调查方式,运用logistic回归分析进行影响因素分析.结果:共调查1 628例孕产妇,计划妊娠比例为73.2%.多因素分析结果显示,生育年龄≥30岁、与丈夫文化程度相同、孕前家庭人口数少、人均家庭收入较高,以及除享有基本医疗保险以外还享有其他医疗保险的孕产妇计划妊娠的比例高;孕前去过咨询机构、孕前补充过叶酸和孕前进行TORCH或染色体检查的孕产妇计划妊娠的比例高.结论:计划妊娠受到多种因素影响,为提高计划妊娠比例,应建立政府、社区、家庭、个人共同参与的综合干预模式.

  4. 49 CFR 178.275 - Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for... Portable Tanks § 178.275 Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and... definitions and requirements that apply to UN portable tanks intended for the transportation of liquid...

  5. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps, which were included in the regulations... revoke our existing banning regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns and toy...

  6. 34 CFR 386.34 - What assurances must be provided by a grantee that intends to provide scholarships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intends to provide scholarships? 386.34 Section 386.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... Award? § 386.34 What assurances must be provided by a grantee that intends to provide scholarships? A grantee under this part that intends to grant scholarships for any academic year beginning after June...

  7. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of...

  8. 21 CFR 310.103 - New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... testing. 310.103 Section 310.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 310.103 New drug substances intended for hypersensitivity testing. (a) The Food and Drug... testing is not promoted by the manufacturer or distributor. (2) The new drug substance requested is an...

  9. Medications not intended for treatment of dyslipidemias and with a variable effect on lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Many therapeutically active medications have significant side effects, some of which can compromise the intended therapeutic goal. The development of plasma lipid abnormalities or a dyslipidemia as the result of a medication intended for an unrelated effect has been reported. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause dyslipidemia as can the medications used to treat this infection. Such dyslipidemia can be a significant problem made more relevant by the already increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease faced by these patients. Some hypoglycemic medications used to treat diabetes can also be associated with dyslipidemia, most notably rosiglitazone. Antihypertensive medications are intended to decrease CV risk but are not free of dyslipidemia problems with thiazides able to cause hypertriglyceridemia and older beta-blockers without an alpha-blocking effect associated with moderate plasma lipid abnormalities and altered glucose metabolism. Estrogen administered orally can be associated with a severe hypertriglyceridemia. Currently-used antipsychotic medications have a significant association with hypertriglyceridemia. Clinicians must be aware of the dyslipidemias caused by these medications and know how to manage them, even treating a secondary dyslipidemia with another medication as in the case of HIV infection rather than trying to switch treatment of the infection in many cases. Mention is also made of lipid lowering effects of medications intended for other purposes (e.g. angiotensin receptor blockers and orlistat).

  10. The Designing Mind: Children's Reasoning about Intended Function and Artifact Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah; Seston, Rebecca; Saint Georges, Laure

    2012-01-01

    There is currently debate about the emergence of children's ability to reason about artifacts by reference to their intended design. We present two studies demonstrating that, while 3-year-olds have emerging insights, 4-year-old children display an explicit, well-rounded, adult-like understanding of the way design constrains an artifact's physical…

  11. 21 CFR 201.310 - Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man. 201.310 Section 201.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.310...

  12. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. 201.306 Section 201.306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium...

  13. Examination of Mathematics Intended Curriculum in China from an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yehui; Bian, Yufang; Xin, Tao; Kher, Neelam; Houang, Richard T.; Schmidt, William H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine and track the transformations in the mathematics intended curriculum during the latest reform in China from a neutral and objective perspective. Following the document analysis used in TIMSS (the Third International Mathematics and Science Study), the results indicated that a more modern system of mathematics knowledge…

  14. Prognostic significance of clusterin expression in advanced-stage cervical cancer treated with curative intended radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Hidemichi; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Han, Yimin; Wang, Lei; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Shinya; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2012-03-01

    Overexpression of clusterin (CLU), an antiapoptotic molecule, has been reported to induce resistance to radiotherapy (RT) in a variety of cancer cell types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of CLU expression to predict survival of patients with advanced-stage cervical cancer who received curative intended RT. Biopsy tissue specimens of advanced-stage cervical cancer before curative intended RT were obtained from 34 patients who were treated at Hokkaido University Hospital between 1998 and 2008 and whose complete medical records were available. The expression of CLU protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Findings were evaluated in relation to several clinicopathological factors. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors were determined by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Clusterin protein was mainly present in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cells. The expression of CLU protein in cervical cancer tissues before curative intended RT was not significantly related to any clinicopathological factors analyzed, including age, clinical stage, histologic type, and response to RT. Univariate analysis on prognostic factors showed that histologic type (P = 0.001), and CLU expression (P = 0.02) were related to survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that both histologic type (P = 0.002), and CLU expression (P = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. We conclude that CLU could be a new molecular marker to predict overall survival of patients with advanced-stage cervical cancer treated with curative intended RT.

  15. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  16. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  17. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  18. 21 CFR 177.2600 - Rubber articles intended for repeated use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-acrylonitrile-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers containing not more than 5 weight percent of polymer units derived from ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Butadiene-acrylonitrile-methacrylic acid copolymer... production of rubber articles intended for repeated use shall not exceed the amount reasonably required to...

  19. A Conceptualization of Intended Learning Outcomes Supporting Self-Regulated Learners in Indicating Learning Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangworakitthaworn, P.; Gilbert, L.; Wills, G.B.

    2015-01-01

    Intended learning outcomes (ILOs) indicate what learners will be able to achieve after they are taught. Traditionally, ILOs are expressed as plain text or unstructured documents. What if all ILOs of a specific course of study can be conceptualized through a structured diagrammatic technique? It was hypothesized that learners can benefit from this…

  20. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  1. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  2. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  3. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  4. Managing the Risks of Food Intended for Consumption by Religious Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Van I.; Vintila, Iuliana; Regenstein, Joe M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the production of food intended for consumption by religious consumers has increased, the need for clarity about the religious requirements and the risks involved is increasing. Some of these religious requirements find their origin in hygenic and/or food safety measures related to an adverse

  5. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  6. Biopharmaceuticals for rheumatic diseases in Latin America, Europe, Russia, and India: innovators, biosimilars, and intended copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Szekanecz, Zoltan; Mysler, Eduardo; Azevedo, Valderilio F; Guzman, Renato; Gutierrez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Wilfredo; Karateev, Dmitry

    2014-12-01

    A biosimilar is a biopharmaceutical product intended to be comparable to a previously licensed biopharmaceutical agent. The goal of such products is to increase the accessibility of biopharmaceutical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis by reducing costs. They are not like generic drugs, in that they may differ from the reference products in manufacturing, composition, and formulation. Regulatory authorities strive to ensure the absence of clinically meaningful differences between biosimilars and their reference drugs. However, small molecular differences may potentially affect pharmacodynamics (including affinity), pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Intended copies are non-innovator biopharmaceutical products that, unlike biosimilars, do not have enough clinical evidence to demonstrate biosimilarity. For approval of a biosimilar, most countries require preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating comparability with the reference drug. The margin for determining equivalence or non-inferiority is determined on a case-by-case basis in each country, as there are no general criteria. The European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration have stringent regulatory processes to ensure comparability of biosimilars with their reference drugs. There are also post-marketing surveillance requirements to monitor safety. Only one biosimilar, CT-P13, has been approved for rheumatoid arthritis. However, in countries with less stringent regulation, intended copies are being commercialized and safety problems have been documented. Consequently, in such countries, there is an urgent need for appropriate regulatory processes to be established. Attempts to close the affordability gap of biopharmaceuticals should not open another gap between patients treated with an innovator drug and an intended copy.

  7. The Policy Delphi: A Method for Identifying Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, R. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a rarely utilized but effective technique for identifying intended and unintended consequences of past or current policy or policy change. The author guides the reader through the process of identifying potential participants, contacting participants, developing the policy Delphi instrument, and analyzing the findings by…

  8. Was It Designed to Do That? Children's Focus on Intended Function in Their Conceptualization of Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Yvonne M.; Kemler Nelson, Deborah G.

    2008-01-01

    Do young children who seek the conceptual kind of an artifact weigh the plausibility that a current function constitutes the function intended by the object designer? Three- and four-year-olds were encouraged to question adults about novel artifacts. After inquiring about what an object was, some children were shown a function that plausibly…

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  10. Long-term intended and unintended experiences after Advanced Life Support training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry

    2012-01-01

    Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intend...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....

  11. Virginia Teacher Licensure Examination Policy: Intended and Unintended Effects on Teacher Availability and Minority Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes-Crump, Ruth H.

    2000-01-01

    VIRGINIA TEACHER LICENSURE EXAMINATION POLICY: INTENDED AND UNINTENDED EFFECTS ON TEACHER AVAILABILITY AND MINORITY REPRESENTATION Ruth H.Grimes-Crump (ABSTRACT) A major component of the screening process for prospective teachers is the licensure examination. The examination serves two important functions: (a) sorting and screening candidates and (b) defining the knowledge base for professional ...

  12. Intervention Targets for Youth with Disabilities in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwick, Robin; Tyre, Ashli; Beisse, Kay; Thomas, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article will focus on students with disabilities in foster care to help school psychologists identify effective school-based interventions for these students. We will report our findings from three independent studies and then apply the findings to suggest targeted interventions for these students that are intended to improve educational and…

  13. Interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrich, W. (ed.) (Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Medizinische Radiologie); Gross-Fengels, W. (ed.) (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie)

    1993-01-01

    In interventional radiology adjunctive medical therapy can increase patient's comfort, and should further reduce the risks of the procedures. In order to fulfill the responsibility of the interventionist to the patients and to increase the success rate of the interventions, a profound knowledge of certain drugs is indispensable. This includes, for example, sedatives, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs and agents to prevent infections, thromboembolic complications or restenoses. Moreover, a good monitoring system during complex procedures will increase the safety of radiological interventions. These topics and several more are presented in this book. (orig.). 32 figs.

  14. Interplay Between Intended Brand Identity and Identities in a Nike Related Brand Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    While branding research traditionally views brand identity as an inside-out management controlled phenomenon, recent research emphasizes that a wide variety of stakeholders in the brand ecosystem enact and co-create brand identity. Following this theoretical perspective, management forms......, this research compares individual and collective articulations of a Nike related brand community with articulations of the intended brand identity. While earlier findings solely emphasize inside-out brand management or outside-in brand community perspectives, the findings of this article reveal a nested system...... the intended brand identity in a deliberate process and articulates this identity, surfacing as values and artifacts. Stakeholders develop and articulate values and artifacts in their own manner, but enact the brand identity at the same time. On the basis of data from a participatory ethnographic study...

  15. Volunteer Tourists' Intended Behavior Using the Revised Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2011-01-01

    Volunteer tourism as an alternative to mass tourism has grown significantly since the 1970s, sparking research interest in the subject. However, there is little research that has examined future potential volunteer touristsâ various perceptions, needs and wants. The purpose of this study was to understand how and in what way various potential volunteer touristsâ beliefs, including attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and motivation, influence their future intended participation in a...

  16. Improving brain-machine interface performance by decoding intended future movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Suminski, Aaron J.; Fagg, Andrew H.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. A brain-machine interface (BMI) records neural signals in real time from a subject's brain, interprets them as motor commands, and reroutes them to a device such as a robotic arm, so as to restore lost motor function. Our objective here is to improve BMI performance by minimizing the deleterious effects of delay in the BMI control loop. We mitigate the effects of delay by decoding the subject's intended movements a short time lead in the future. Approach. We use the decoded, intended future movements of the subject as the control signal that drives the movement of our BMI. This should allow the user's intended trajectory to be implemented more quickly by the BMI, reducing the amount of delay in the system. In our experiment, a monkey (Macaca mulatta) uses a future prediction BMI to control a simulated arm to hit targets on a screen. Main Results. Results from experiments with BMIs possessing different system delays (100, 200 and 300 ms) show that the monkey can make significantly straighter, faster and smoother movements when the decoder predicts the user's future intent. We also characterize how BMI performance changes as a function of delay, and explore offline how the accuracy of future prediction decoders varies at different time leads. Significance. This study is the first to characterize the effects of control delays in a BMI and to show that decoding the user's future intent can compensate for the negative effect of control delay on BMI performance.

  17. Depth evaluation of intended vs actual intacs intrastromal ring segments using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, R; Barbara, A; Naftali, M

    2016-01-01

    PurposeEvaluation of actual vs intended intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) implantation depth as measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT)MethodsProspective study evaluating 30 Intacs segments implanted manually in 19 eyes of 15 patients suffering from keratoconus. Segment depth evaluation was performed using anterior segment OCT. Measurements were performed above and below the segment at 3 points in relation to the incision site. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software for ANOVA, matched t-test, and GLIMMIX procedure.ResultsIntacs segment depth was 153-μm shallower than intended (58% vs 80%). Segment layout demonstrated the proximal and distal portions to be 13-μm shallower and 12-μm deeper (on average), respectively. Intacs segment thickness does not influence implantation depth. Intacs segments implanted in the same eye do not share similar implantation depths. Stromal compression is likely to occur.ConclusionIntacs are implanted at a shallower depth than intended. The 'pocketing' stage prior to implantation most likely has a stronger effect on the segment's final implantation depth than does the incisions' depth.

  18. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is th

  19. Costs and efficacy of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin–induced human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Wu, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews available information on the economics and efficacy of aflatoxin risk-reduction interventions, and provides an approach for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin-induced human disease. Many strategies have been developed to reduce aflatoxin or its adverse effects in the body. However, a question that has been under-addressed is how likely these strategies will be adopted in the countries that need them most to improve public health. This study evaluates two aspects crucial to adoption of new technologies and methods: the costs and the efficacy of different strategies. First, we describe and categorize different aflatoxin risk-reduction strategies into preharvest, postharvest, dietary, and clinical settings. Then we compile and discuss relevant data on the costs and efficacy of each strategy, in reducing either aflatoxin in food or its metabolites in the body. In addition, we describe which crops are affected by each intervention, who is likely to pay for the control strategy, and who is likely to benefit. A framework is described for how to evaluate cost-effectiveness of strategies according to World Health Organization standards. Finally, we discuss which strategies are likely to be cost-effective and helpful under different conditions worldwide of regulations, local produce and soil ecology, and potential health emergencies. PMID:20419532

  20. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P hydroponic system.

  1. Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin reduction strategies in Africa: Case studies in biocontrol and postharvest interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Khlangwiset, Pornsri

    2010-01-01

    Advances in health economics have proven useful in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions, where the benefit usually takes the form of improved health outcomes rather than market outcomes. We perform health-based cost-effectiveness analyses of two potential aflatoxin control strategies in Africa: 1) pre-harvest biocontrol, using atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to competitively exclude toxigenic strains from colonizing maize in Nigeria, and 2) postharvest interventions in a package to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in groundnuts in Guinea. We describe how health benefits gained from each intervention, in terms of fewer aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, can be compared with costs of implementing the interventions. We find that both interventions would be extremely cost-effective if applied widely in African agriculture. That is, the monetized value of lives saved and quality of life gained by reducing aflatoxin-induced HCC far exceeds the cost of either biocontrol or the postharvest intervention package to achieve those health benefits. The estimated cost-effectiveness ratio (CER; gross domestic product multiplied by disability-adjusted life years saved per unit cost) for biocontrol in Nigerian maize ranges from 5.10 to 24.8; while the estimated CER for the postharvest intervention package in Guinean groundnuts ranges from 0.21 to 2.08. Any intervention with a CER greater than 1 is considered by the World Health Organization to be “very cost-effective,” while an intervention with a CER greater than 0.33 is considered “cost-effective.” Aside from cost-effectiveness, public health interventions must be readily accepted by the public, and must have financial and infrastructural support to be feasible in the parts of the world where they are most needed. PMID:20234965

  2. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels; Maimburg, Rikke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. Two groups of women were identified: women with intended CD performed before labor (nonlabor CD) and women with intended CD performed after spontaneous labor onset (labor-onset CD); in both groups there was no other maternal or fetal medical indication for an immediate CD or for early-term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early-term (37-38 weeks) and full-term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress and neonatal infectious morbidity. Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were nonlabor CDs and 731 were labor-onset CDs. Compared to nonlabor CD, labor-onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a two- to three-fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early term was associated with a lower risk of maternal blood loss of more than 500 mL, but with a higher risk of postoperative antibiotic treatment and endometritis. Labor onset before planned CD was not associated with a decrease in neonatal respiratory morbidity, but may be associated with increased risks of neonatal infection. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  4. Theoretical determination of the strength characteristics of multilayer materials intended for nuclear and thermonuclear engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkovskii, I. V.; Leshukov, A. Yu.; Romashin, S. N.; Shorkin, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    A method is developed to estimate the integrity of multilayer structures. This method is based on the version of the theory of adhesion and cohesion interactions of structure elements that only takes into account their thermomechanical properties. The structures to be studied are the material of the multilayer wall of the liquid-metal thermonuclear reactor blanket and a heat-resistant magnet wire with a bimetallic conductor, which is the base of the windings of the magnetohydrodynamic machines and electric motors intended for operation at high temperatures under ionizing radiation in, e.g., the machines and facilities in nuclear and thermonuclear reactors.

  5. A morphometric assessment of the intended function of cached Clovis points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Briggs; Kilby, J David; Huckell, Bruce B; O'Brien, Michael J; Collard, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A number of functions have been proposed for cached Clovis points. The least complicated hypothesis is that they were intended to arm hunting weapons. It has also been argued that they were produced for use in rituals or in connection with costly signaling displays. Lastly, it has been suggested that some cached Clovis points may have been used as saws. Here we report a study in which we morphometrically compared Clovis points from caches with Clovis points recovered from kill and camp sites to test two predictions of the hypothesis that cached Clovis points were intended to arm hunting weapons: 1) cached points should be the same shape as, but generally larger than, points from kill/camp sites, and 2) cached points and points from kill/camp sites should follow the same allometric trajectory. The results of the analyses are consistent with both predictions and therefore support the hypothesis. A follow-up review of the fit between the results of the analyses and the predictions of the other hypotheses indicates that the analyses support only the hunting equipment hypothesis. We conclude from this that cached Clovis points were likely produced with the intention of using them to arm hunting weapons.

  6. A morphometric assessment of the intended function of cached Clovis points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Buchanan

    Full Text Available A number of functions have been proposed for cached Clovis points. The least complicated hypothesis is that they were intended to arm hunting weapons. It has also been argued that they were produced for use in rituals or in connection with costly signaling displays. Lastly, it has been suggested that some cached Clovis points may have been used as saws. Here we report a study in which we morphometrically compared Clovis points from caches with Clovis points recovered from kill and camp sites to test two predictions of the hypothesis that cached Clovis points were intended to arm hunting weapons: 1 cached points should be the same shape as, but generally larger than, points from kill/camp sites, and 2 cached points and points from kill/camp sites should follow the same allometric trajectory. The results of the analyses are consistent with both predictions and therefore support the hypothesis. A follow-up review of the fit between the results of the analyses and the predictions of the other hypotheses indicates that the analyses support only the hunting equipment hypothesis. We conclude from this that cached Clovis points were likely produced with the intention of using them to arm hunting weapons.

  7. Criminalizing knowledge: the perverse implications of the intended use regulations of off-label promotion prosecutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Your company has spent months designing a compliance program and training your sales representatives. They know never to mention the off-label uses of your product. If they are asked about the off-label uses by the physician they are detailing, they know to forward those inquiries to the scientific liaisons at headquarters. But, could your company still be in legal jeopardy simply because it knows that the product is being used for an off-label purpose? This article attempts to track the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) shifting interpretation of its "intended use" regulations, from focusing entirely on the statements of the manufacturers to focusing on the knowledge of the industry, indeed, of the consumers of products, in determining the true intended use of a product. It will look at several recent attempts by FDA to use that new interpretation of the regulations to expand its power: to regulate tobacco and to require pediatric indications for any new drug. Finally, it will look at several recent examples of how this new interpretation has manifested in actions by FDA and the Department of Justice (DOJ).

  8. Fluid Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury and Intended Context of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Gill, Jessica; Jeromin, Andreas; Davis, Cora; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU). Specifically, we focus on fluid biomarkers in order to: (1) identify patients who may require acute neuroimaging (cranial computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) select patients at risk for secondary brain injury processes; (3) aid in counseling patients about their symptoms at discharge; (4) identify patients at risk for developing postconcussive syndrome (PCS), posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); (5) predict outcomes with respect to poor or good recovery; (6) inform counseling as to return to work (RTW) or to play. Despite significant advances already made from biomarker-based studies of TBI, there is an immediate need for further large-scale studies focused on identifying and innovating sensitive and reliable TBI biomarkers. These studies should be designed with the intended CoU in mind. PMID:27763536

  9. Fluid Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury and Intended Context of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Bogoslovsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU. Specifically, we focus on fluid biomarkers in order to: (1 identify patients who may require acute neuroimaging (cranial computerized tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; (2 select patients at risk for secondary brain injury processes; (3 aid in counseling patients about their symptoms at discharge; (4 identify patients at risk for developing postconcussive syndrome (PCS, posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE; (5 predict outcomes with respect to poor or good recovery; (6 inform counseling as to return to work (RTW or to play. Despite significant advances already made from biomarker-based studies of TBI, there is an immediate need for further large-scale studies focused on identifying and innovating sensitive and reliable TBI biomarkers. These studies should be designed with the intended CoU in mind.

  10. Decoding of intended saccade direction in an oculomotor brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Brincat, Scott L.; Salazar-Gómez, Andrés F.; Panko, Mikhail; Guenther, Frank H.; Miller, Earl K.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from the hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system. Approach. We developed a chronic intracortical BCI in monkeys to decode intended saccadic eye movement direction using activity from multiple frontal cortical areas. Main results. Intended saccade direction could be decoded in real time with high accuracy, particularly at contralateral locations. Accurate decoding was evident even at the beginning of the BCI session; no extensive BCI experience was necessary. High-frequency (80-500 Hz) local field potential magnitude provided the best performance, even over spiking activity, thus simplifying future BCI applications. Most of the information came from the frontal and supplementary eye fields, with relatively little contribution from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significance. Our results support the feasibility of high-accuracy intracortical oculomotor BCIs that require little or no practice to operate and may be ideally suited for ‘point and click’ computer operation as used in most current AAC systems.

  11. The what, how much, and when of study strategies: comparing intended versus actual study behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiman, Rachael N; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-07-01

    The study behaviours of students can be assessed from several perspectives, such as what study strategies are used, the total number of hours of study, and the distribution of studying over time. Here, we present the results of a survey study that considered each of these perspectives by asking students to report the what, how much, and when of their study behaviours over the course of a semester. As important, to better understand students' use of study strategies, we also had students report at the beginning of the semester how they intended to study and their beliefs about the effectiveness of a variety of common strategies. Our results indicate that during the semester, students rely on relatively ineffective strategies and mass their studying the day or two before an exam. However, students intended to begin studying earlier and to use a mix of effective and ineffective study habits. Despite their use of some ineffective strategies, they did have a relatively accurate assessment of which strategies were less versus more effective. Taken together, our results suggest that students have some excellent intentions but may falter because massing study the evening before an exam limits their use of more effective study strategies.

  12. Determination of origin and intended use of plutonium metal using nuclear forensic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H; Kuhn, Kevin J; Tandon, Lav; Xu, Ning; Porterfield, Donivan R; Worley, Christopher G; Thomas, Mariam R; Spencer, Khalil J; Stanley, Floyd E; Lujan, Elmer J; Garduno, Katherine; Trellue, Holly R

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear forensics techniques, including micro-XRF, gamma spectrometry, trace elemental analysis and isotopic/chronometric characterization were used to interrogate two, potentially related plutonium metal foils. These samples were submitted for analysis with only limited production information, and a comprehensive suite of forensic analyses were performed. Resulting analytical data was paired with available reactor model and historical information to provide insight into the materials' properties, origins, and likely intended uses. Both were super-grade plutonium, containing less than 3% (240)Pu, and age-dating suggested that most recent chemical purification occurred in 1948 and 1955 for the respective metals. Additional consideration of reactor modeling feedback and trace elemental observables indicate plausible U.S. reactor origin associated with the Hanford site production efforts. Based on this investigation, the most likely intended use for these plutonium foils was (239)Pu fission foil targets for physics experiments, such as cross-section measurements, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 701.20 - Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detergent substances, other than soap, intended... Ingredients § 701.20 Detergent substances, other than soap, intended for use in cleansing the body. (a) In its definition of the term cosmetic, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act specifically excludes soap....

  14. 16 CFR 1500.48 - Technical requirements for determining a sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8 years of age. 1500.48... requirements for determining a sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8... used by the Commission in making a preliminary determination that points on toys and other...

  15. Success factors for the implementation of an intended brand personality : Conceptual framework and insights from the Swiss luxury industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wayne D.; Krohmer, Harley; Lobschat, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an intended brand personality has become a prevailing topic, both for practitioners and researchers. Especially in luxury industry, where brands hold a strong symbolic meaning, marketers are faced with the challenge of successfully establishing an intended brand

  16. Who Has the Advantages in My Intended Career? Engaging Students in the Identification of Gender and Racial Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen; Baker, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and assesses two learning modules designed to make students aware of gender and racial inequalities present in their own intended careers. Students identify their intended occupation in respect to the Standard Occupational Classification system and then use that code to determine the composition and earnings in that…

  17. Success factors for the implementation of an intended brand personality : Conceptual framework and insights from the Swiss luxury industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wayne D.; Krohmer, Harley; Lobschat, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an intended brand personality has become a prevailing topic, both for practitioners and researchers. Especially in luxury industry, where brands hold a strong symbolic meaning, marketers are faced with the challenge of successfully establishing an intended brand pe

  18. Success Factors for the Implementation of an Intended Brand Personality : Conceptual Framework and Empirical Study in the Swiss Luxury Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wayne D.; Krohmer, Harley; Lobschat, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an intended brand personality has become a prevailing topic, both for practitioners and researchers. Especially in luxury industry, where brands hold a strong symbolic meaning, marketers are faced with the challenge of successfully establishing an intended brand pe

  19. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  20. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  1. Spinal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary bipolar application specific analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end units

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Kondratenko, S; Maslennikov, V; Meshcheriakov, V; Mishin, Yu; Volkov, Yu

    2002-01-01

    The structure of an analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end electronics ICs on its basis, is considered. The features of this array are: implementation with an inexpensive bipolar process despite containing an equal number of NPN and PNP structures with well matched characteristics, supply voltages from 1.5 V to 15 V, transistor current gains Bst~100 and unity gain frequencies Ft > 3 GHz at collector currents of (100...300) mu A, high- and low-ohmic resistors, MOS capacitors, minimum two variable plating levels available. Specific circuit diagrams and parameters of the front-end electronics ICs, created on the basis of the considered array, are presented. The results of their tests are given. (4 refs).

  3. Liquid chromatographic determination of residual isocyanate monomers in plastics intended for food contact use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damant, A P; Jickells, S M; Castle, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the analysis of 10 isocyanates in polyurethane articles and laminates intended for food use. Residual isocyanates are extracted by dichloromethane with concurrent derivatization by 9-(methylaminomethyl)anthracene. The resultant derivatives are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Separation of the isocyanates was studied and optimized. Quantitation uses 1-naphthyl isocyanate as internal standard and standard addition to the food package. Validation demonstrated the method to have good precision (+/- 2-5%) and recovery (83-95%) for samples spiked with isocyanates at 0.1 mg/kg. The limit of detection was 0.03 mg/kg. Analysis of 19 commercial polyurethane or laminate food packages demonstrated that the method was not prone to interferences. Residues of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate were detected in 5 packages and ranged from 0.14 to 1.08 mg/kg.

  4. Safety of parsley intended for processing depending on the cultivation technology and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobereżny Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1 and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V and (III was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.

  5. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  6. Sound classification schemes in Europe - Quality classes intended for renovated housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    According to social surveys in several European countries, occupants of multifamily housing are considerably annoyed by noise from neighbours’ activities. The noise issue has also received increasing attention from WHO. Neighbour noise has been identified as a health problem and reduction of noise...... exposure in the home included in the proposed main objectives for a housing policy. In most countries in Europe, building regulations specify minimum requirements concerning acoustical conditions for new dwellings. In addition, several countries have introduced sound classification schemes with classes...... intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. Consequently, acoustic requirements for a dwelling can be specified as the legal minimum requirements or as a specific class in a classification scheme. Most schemes have both higher classes than corresponding to the regulatory requirements...

  7. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus...... for an immediate CD or for early term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early term (37-38 weeks) and full term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress, and neonatal infectious morbidity. RESULTS: Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were non......-labor CDs and 731 were labor onset CDs. Compared to non-labor CD, labor onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a 2-3 fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early...

  8. Corpora of Vietnamese texts: lexical effects of intended audience and publication place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn; Carney, Edward

    2008-02-01

    This article has two primary aims. The first is to introduce a new Vietnamese text-based corpus. The Corpora of Vietnamese Texts (CVT; Tang, 2006a) consists of approximately 1 million words drawn from newspapers and children's literature, and is available online at www.vnspeechtherapy.com/vi/CVT. The second aim is to investigate potential differences in lexical frequency and distributional characteristics in the CVT on the basis of place of publication (Vietnam or Western countries) and intended audience: adult-directed texts (newspapers) or child-directed texts (children's literature). We found clear differences between adult- and child-directed texts, particularly in the distributional frequencies of pronouns or kinship terms, which were more frequent in children's literature. Within child- and adult-directed texts, lexical characteristics did not differ on the basis of place of publication. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  9. Was it designed to do that? Children's focus on intended function in their conceptualization of artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Yvonne M; Kemler Nelson, Deborah G

    2008-01-01

    Do young children who seek the conceptual kind of an artifact weigh the plausibility that a current function constitutes the function intended by the object designer? Three- and four-year-olds were encouraged to question adults about novel artifacts. After inquiring about what an object was, some children were shown a function that plausibly accounted for the structural features of the object; others were shown a possible, but implausible function. Children given implausible functions were less satisfied with these responses than those given plausible functions, as shown by their more persistent attempts to ask follow-up questions about function. Accordingly, preschoolers appear to take into account matters of intentional design when assigning artifacts to conceptual kinds.

  10. Injectable iron-modified apatitic bone cement intended for kyphoplasty: cytocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, M D; del Valle, L J; Poeata, I; Barracó, M; López, J; Torres, R; Fernández, E

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the cytocompatibility of human ephitelial (HEp-2) cells cultured on new injectable iron-modified calcium phosphate cements (IM-CPCs) has been investigated in terms of cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and morphology. Quantitative MTT-assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that cell adhesion and viability were not affected with culturing time by iron concentration in a dose-dependent manner. SEM-cell morphology showed that HEp-2 cells, seeded on IM-CPCs, were able to adhere, spread, and attain normal morphology. These results showed that the new injectable IM-CPCs have cytocompatible features of interest to the intended kyphophasty application, for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

  11. Prevalence of radiographic changes in yearling and 2-year-old Quarter Horses intended for cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, E K; Park, R D; McIlwraith, C W

    2012-03-01

    There have been many studies that document radiographic findings in young Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses. No such studies have been performed in Quarter Horses. To describe the prevalence of radiographic changes in the stifles, tarsi, carpi and fetlocks of young Quarter Horses intended for cutting. Radiographs of yearling and 2-year-old Quarter Horses were obtained from a radiograph repository and a private farm. The carpi, tarsi, fetlocks and stifles were evaluated and radiographic changes categorised by type and location. The frequency of changes was calculated and comparisons were made between the 2 age groups. Of 458 included horses, 408 (89.1%) had radiographic changes, most of which were in the tarsi (304, 69.4%) followed by the stifles (202, 44.5%), hind fetlocks (155 of 355, 43.7%), fore fetlocks (131 of 361, 36.3%) and carpi (27 of 342, 7.9%). Of the horses with stifle changes, 188 (93.1%) were in the medial femoral condyle (MFC). There was a significant difference between the age groups for changes on the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia (DIRT), hindlimb middle phalanx (P2) osteophytes and proximal tibial osteophytes. There is a high prevalence of radiographic changes in presale survey radiographs, especially in the stifles and tarsi, of young Quarter Horses intended for cutting. Veterinarians examining presale radiographs at cutting horse sales should expect a high prevalence of radiographic changes in this population of horses. Work to determine the clinical relevance of these radiographic changes is currently ongoing. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of novel multilayer mirrors intended for astronomical and laboratory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozin, Eugene N.; Mednikov, Konstantin N.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Reva, Anton A.; Shestov, Sergei V.; Ul'yanov, Artem S.; Vishnyakov, Eugene A.

    2009-05-01

    We report measurements of the reflection spectra of (i) concave (spherical and parabolic) Mo/Si, Mg/Si, and Al/Zr multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for imaging solar spectroscopy in the framework of the TESIS/CORONAS-FOTON Satellite Project and of (ii) an aperiodic Mo/Si MM optimized for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 125-250 Å range intended for laboratory applications. The reflection spectra were measured in the configuration of a transmission grating spectrometer employing the radiation of a tungsten laser-driven plasma as the source. The function of detectors was fulfilled by backside-illuminated CCDs coated with Al or Zr/Si multilayer absorption filters. High-intensity second-order interference reflection peaks at wavelengths of about 160 Å were revealed in the reflection spectra of the 304-Å Mo/Si MMs. By contrast, the second-order reflection peak in the spectra of the new-generation narrow-band (~12 Å FWHM) 304-Å Mg/Si MMs is substantially depressed. Manifestations of the NEXAFS structure of the L2, 3 absorption edges of Al and Al2O3 were observed in the spectra recorded. The broadband Mo/Si MM was employed as the focusing element of spectrometers in experiments involving (i) the charge exchange of multiply charged ions with the donor atoms of a rare-gas jet; (ii) the spectroscopic characterization of a debris-free soft X-ray radiation source excited by Nd laser pulses in a Xe jet (iii) near-IR-to-soft-X-ray frequency conversion (double Doppler effect) occurring in the retroreflection from the relativistic electron plasma wake wave (flying mirror) driven by a multiterawatt laser in a pulsed helium jet.

  13. Treatment definition in complex rehabilitation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa

    2009-12-01

    Rehabilitation research is challenged to improve its evidence base, which requires more precise and more consistent conceptualisation and measurement of treatment ingredients. This paper presents the steps in defining and specifying treatments towards the construction of a therapy manual for experimental interventions, or a coding system for observational treatment research. Specifying the active ingredients, identifying the behavioural operations that are aligned with each, and developing procedural details and materials are discussed and illustrated using two on-going trials for treatment of traumatic brain injury. The process of assessing treatment fidelity, that is, the extent to which interventions are delivered, received and used as intended, is also discussed.

  14. [Interventional angioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Carlier, C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987, routine angioscopic examination has been performed in 191 patients undergoing angioplasty, with interventions (196) after a 2 year surveillance period (55). Angioscopy allowed follow up "de visu" of the performance of angioplasty, details of its mechanism to be precise and under dilatation to be carried out. For femoral artery occlusions it allowed treatment "à la carte": conventional dilatation of vegetating atheroma, specific treatment of established thrombi (5) and abstention from therapy of atheroma covered by endothelium (3). It also enabled fresh thrombi complicating a stenosis or at the origin of a thrombus to be detected. The extraction technique employed (15) is described. It facilitated catheterization by directing the probe, enabled avoidance of bypassing of stenosis and flaps and of dissection or false introduction into collaterals (10). Directed biopsy could be carried out in inflammatory arteritis (7). Vegetating atheromatous lesions could be opened and extracted, facilitating subsequent dilatation and allowing an approach to removal of iliac artery obstructions without major risks of complications (13). Finally, after an ineffective dilatation or the presence of a dissection, it assisted making the decision to introduce a stent (9), the tolerance and outcome of these stents are described. Or the 196 patients considered suitable for angioplasty, our therapeutic conduct was modified by angioscopy in 58 cases (29%). Not simply a new diagnostic tool, it plays a role in interventional vascular techniques.

  15. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-12-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this intervention. We conducted a qualitative study in a Dutch university medical center and held in-depth interviews with women on the waiting list for oocyte banking. We recorded the interviews, transcribed them verbatim and used thematic analysis. All women were financially independent and lived in single-person urban households. They opted for oocyte banking because they wished to share parenthood with a future partner rather than becoming a single parent. This strong desire was key in their interpretation of all aspects of the intervention. Women set aside information about the limited success rates and potential risks, as they were optimistic about their own prognosis, thought that the chances for success were equally likely as the chances it would fail, and because of "anticipatory regret". They perceived oocyte banking as a "helping hand" to achieve shared parenthood. Although women found the costs of the intervention high, they were willing to invest their money to increase their chances for shared parenthood. Oocyte banking allows women to circumvent age-related fertility decline. The prospect of potential shared parenthood overrules the perceived health risks and burden. Health professionals should take this into account when informing potential users of oocyte banking. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Positive Intervention for Serious Behavior Problems: Best Practices in Implementing the Hughes Bill (A.B. 2586) and the Positive Behavioral Intervention Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Diana Browning; Gurman, Harvey B.

    This manual provides guidelines to educators attempting to comply with California's Hughes Bill, which is intended to ensure the rights of special education students to have positive behavioral intervention plans designed to bring lasting behavioral changes without interventions that cause pain or trauma. An introductory chapter summarizes the…

  17. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  18. Anticipation of 'ubá' mango ripening with preharvest ethephon application Antecipação do amadurecimento de manga 'ubá' com a aplicação pré-colheita de ethephon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preharvest application of ethephon, a compound that releases ethylene when hydrolyzed, can anticipate and standardize mango harvesting. In this study, the effects of different doses of ethephon, applied at preharvest, on harvest anticipation of 'Ubá' mango were evaluated. On the 17th week after anthesis, 25 mango trees, five per treatment, were sprayed with ethephon at 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000mg L-1, plus 0.5% of mineral oil. Five fruits from each plant were harvested daily until full ripening, and evaluated. Except, for dose 0mg L-1, in which six days after ethephon application (DAAE, harvest was carried out weekly up to 41DAAE The treated fruit presented a more intense flesh color than the non-treated, particularly at the doses of 500 and 750mg L-1. Fruit treated with 500, 750 and 1000mg L-1showed abrupt firmness reduction from the 1st DAAE and TSS higher than 18°Brix on the 6th DAAE. Non-treated fruit presented slower firmness reduction and reached 18°Brix on the 35th DAAE. The dose of 1000mg L-1 of ethephon resulted in premature fall and low fruit quality. Application of 500 or 750mg L-1 of ethephon allowed to anticipate and to standardize mango harvesting. These doses also allowed harvesting fruit with the best commercial quality and without the need of climatization after harvest.A aplicação pré-colheita de ethephon, composto que libera etileno quando hidrolisado, pode antecipar e uniformizar a colheita de manga. Neste trabalho foram avaliados os efeitos de diferentes doses de ethephon, aplicadas na pré-colheita, sobre a antecipação da colheita de manga 'Ubá'. Na 17ª semana após a antese, 25 mangueiras, sendo cinco por tratamento, foram pulverizadas com ethephon nas doses 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000L-1, acrescido de 0,5% de óleo mineral. Foram colhidos 10 frutos de cada planta, diariamente, até o completo amadurecimento, com exceção da dose 0L-1, em que, a partir de 6 dias após aplicação do ethephon (DAAE, a colheita foi

  19. Success Factors for the Implementation of an Intended Brand Personality: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Study in the Swiss Luxury Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Wayne D.; Krohmer, Harley; Lobschat, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an intended brand personality has become a prevailing topic, both for practitioners and researchers. Especially in luxury industry, where brands hold a strong symbolic meaning, marketers are faced with the challenge of successfully establishing an intended brand personality and turning it into a realized brand personality among consumers. However, research identifying drivers for successful brand personality implementation is scarce. Therefore, the aim of th...

  20. Obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERENSON, Abbey B.; POHLMEIER, Ali M.; LAZ, Tabassum H.; RAHMAN, Mahbubur; SAADE, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and diet and health-related attitudes among women intending to become pregnant compared to those not intending to become pregnant. Study Design Cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception, and diet and health-related attitudes among women (16-40 years) attending reproductive health clinics in southeast Texas. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires and chart review. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and obesity risk knowledge, weight misperception and health-related attitudes after adjusting for age, race, income and gravidity. Results Overall, 1,726 women completed the survey of which 1,420 responded to a question on pregnancy intention. Of these, 126 stated they were intending to become pregnant. Obesity risk knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.77) and weight misperception (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 0.75-1.83) did not differ between women intending and not intending to become pregnant. Additionally, diet and health-related attitudes did not differ between these two groups (P>0.05 for all). Among women intending to become pregnant, 51% had low obesity risk knowledge and 31% misperceived their body weight. Further, 76% of these women felt confused about what constitutes a healthy diet, although 47% believed that their current diet was healthy and saw no reason to change their current eating patterns. While weight misperception did not differ significantly between the two groups, overweight women intending to become pregnant were more likely to misperceive their weight than obese women intending to become pregnant (71% vs 10%, Ppregnant, regarding the risks associated with being overweight or obese, misperception of body weight, and negative diet and health-related attitudes. PMID:26099687

  1. Readiness to Change and Reasons for Intended Reduction of Alcohol Consumption in Emergency Department versus Trauma Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Harrison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary objective was to identify the most common reasons for intending to cut back on alcohol use, in emergency department (ED and trauma patient populations. The secondary objective was to determine the association between reason to cut back on alcohol and education level. Methods: We conducted the study at a level one trauma center in California between 2008 and 2012. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI. We excluded patients who drank too little, and those whose scores were consistent with dependency (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]>19. The CASI database includes the patient’s age, gender, language, education level, an AUDIT score (1-40 scale, a readiness to change score (1-10, and the option to choose any of 10 “reasons to cut back” on their alcohol consumption. Results: From 10,537 patients, 1,202 met criteria for the study (848 ED, 354 trauma. Overall, the most common reasons cited for cutting back on alcohol were “To avoid health problems” (68.5%, “To avoid getting a DUI” (43.6%, “It could save me money” (42.0%, and “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (41.0%. Trauma patients cited the following reasons significantly more than ED patients: “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (46.3% versus 38.8%, respectively, “So I can be in control of my behavior” (40.7% versus 32.2%, and “My partner or spouse wants me to stop” (20.1% versus 15.0%. Additionally, those patients who cited “To avoid health problems” reported 1.2 points higher than average (p<0.001 on the 10-point readiness to change scale. Those who have completed some college or an associate degree cited “To avoid health problems” less often than high school graduates (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, while they cited “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (OR 2.5 and “To avoid being in a car crash caused by alcohol use

  2. Fungi and Mycotoxins in Feed Intended for Sows at Different Reproductive Stages in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maricel Pereyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fungi and contamination levels of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in raw materials and finished feed intended for sows at different reproductive stages. Total fungi, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species occurrence, were examined. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate spp., and F. verticillioides were the prevalent species. Fungal counts exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (1×104 colony forming units at all reproductive stages. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels in 80% samples of finished sow feeds were over the permitted levels of 0.02 μg g-1 (mean 228.2±95 μg Kg−1. Fumonisin B1 was detected in all tested raw materials at levels that varied from 50.3 to 1137.64 μg Kg−1 and finished feed samples at levels that ranged from 99.8 to 512.4 μg Kg−1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were not detected in raw materials. All finished feeds were negative for zearalenone contamination whereas all nonpregnant gilt samples were contaminated with low OTA levels (mean 0.259±0.123. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize hazards to human health.

  3. Preparation and characterization of an acellular bovine pericardium intended for manufacture of valve bioprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goissis, Gilberto; Giglioti, Aparecida de Fátima; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2011-05-01

    Major problems with biological heart valves post-implantation are associated with progressive structural deterioration and calcification attributed to glutaraldehyde processing, dead cells, and cell fragments present in the native tissue. In spite of these problems, glutaraldehyde still is the reagent of choice. The results with acellular matrix xenograft usually prepared by detergent treatment in association with enzymes are rather conflicting because while preserving mechanical properties, tissue morphology and collagen structure are process dependent. This work describes a chemical approach for the preparation of an acellular bovine pericardium matrix intended for the manufacture of heart valve bioprostheses. Cell removal was performed by an alkaline extraction in the presence of calcium salts for periods ranging from 6 to 48 h. The results showed that cell removal was achieved after 12 h, with swelling and negative charge increasing with processing time. Nevertheless, collagen fibril structure, ability to form fibrils, and stability to collagenase were progressive after 24-h processing. There was no denaturation of the collagen matrix. A process is described for the preparation of acellular bovine pericardium matrices with preserved fibril structure and morphology for the manufacture of cardiac valve bioprostheses and may be used in other applications for tissue reconstruction. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Water sorption properties of HM-pectin and liposomes intended to alleviate dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-06-15

    Pharmaceutical formulations intended for treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth) should be able to keep the oral mucosa hydrated for a prolonged period of time. The products already existing on the market contain water-soluble polymers, however their ability to moisturize the oral mucosa for a longer period of time seems limited. In this paper the sorption properties of water vapor of high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer) and phosphatidylcholine-based (Soya-PC) liposomes have been studied and compared using a gravimetric method. The kinetics of water desorption and sorption have been recorded over the relative humidity range RH=95-0-95%, at 35°C. The obtained isotherms were found to be well described by the n-layer Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption model. The water isotherms on HM-pectin were Type II (IUPAC), while water isotherms on liposomes were Type III. The maximum water sorption capacity of liposomes (1.2mg water per mg of adsorbent at 95% RH) was found to be twice as high as for pectin. Due to the slower water release from the liposomes, as well as their high water sorption capacity, they seem to have great potential in relieving the symptoms of dry mouth syndrome.

  5. Spray drying of siRNA-containing PLGA nanoparticles intended for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ditte Marie Krohn; Cun, Dongmei; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Frokjaer, Sven; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2010-02-25

    Local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs constitutes a promising new area in drug delivery. The present study evaluated parameters of importance for spray drying of siRNA-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) into nanocomposite microparticles intended for inhalation. The spray drying process was optimised using a statistical design of experiment and by evaluating powder characteristics upon systematic variation of the formulation parameters. Concentration, carbohydrate excipient (trehalose, lactose and mannitol) and the ratio of NP to excipient were varied to monitor the effects on moisture content, particle morphology, particle size and powder yield. The identified optimum conditions were applied for spray drying of siRNA-loaded nanocomposite microparticles, resulting in a product with a low water content (0.78% w/w) and an aerodynamic particle diameter considered suitable for inhalation. The use of mannitol in the formulation allowed a significantly lower moisture content than trehalose and lactose. The inclusion of 50% (w/w) or higher amounts of NPs resulted in a marked change in the surface morphology of the spray-dried particles. Importantly, the integrity and biological activity of the siRNA were preserved during the spray drying process. In conclusion, the present results show that spray drying is a suitable technique for producing nanocomposite microparticles comprising siRNA-containing PLGA NPs for potential use in inhalation therapy.

  6. Mechanical properties characterization of composite sandwich materials intended for space antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1986-01-01

    The composite materials proposed for use in the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Program contains a new, high modulus graphite fiber as the reinforcement. A study was conducted to measure certain mechanical properties of the new fiber-reinforced material as well as of a composite-faced aluminum honeycomb sandwich structure. Properties were measured at -157, 22, and 121 C. Complete characterization of this material was not intended. Longitudinal tensile, picture-frame shear, short-beam shear, and flexural tests were performed on specimens of the composite face-sheet materials. Unidirectional, cross-plied, and quasi-isotropic fiber composite ply layup designs were fabricated and tested. These designs had been studied by using NASA's Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) computer program. Flexural tests were conducted on (+/- 60/0 deg) sub s composite-faced sandwich structure material. Resistance strain gages were used to measure strains in the tensile, picture-frame, and sandwich flexural tests. The sandwich flexural strength was limited by the core strength at -157 and 22 C. The adhesive bond strength was the limiting factor at 121 C. Adhesive mechanical properties are reflected in sandwich structure flexural properties when the span-to-depth ratio is great enough to allow a significant shear effect on the load-deflection behavior of the sandwich beam. Most measured properties agreed satisfactorily with the properties predicted by ICAN.

  7. Realizing the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution: The Role of Renewable Energies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tu Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the realization of intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs by analyzing their implications for the energy production system and the economy, and determines the role of renewable energies (RE in reducing the challenge of committing to the INDCs. The Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE model was used to assess seven scenarios having the same socioeconomic development but different shares of RE in power generation. By comparing different relative reductions caused by the emission constraints vis-a-vis the business-as-usual (BaU scenario, the mitigation costs can be estimated. Results show that the economic impact could be reduced by around 55% in terms of welfare loss (from 6.0% to 2.7% and by around 36% in terms of gross domestic product (GDP loss (from 3.4% to 2.1% through the incorporation of high levels of renewable energy. Furthermore, the additional double deployment of wind and SPV to 5.4% and 12.0%, respectively, which currently comprise 43.1% of the renewable energies used in electricity generation, could reduce the GDP loss from 2.1% to 1.9% and reduce the welfare loss from 2.7% to 1.5% in order to achieve a 25.0% GHG emissions reduction. These losses are less than those in the pricing-only scenario (2.1% and 2.3%, respectively.

  8. Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471 and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473 under good laboratory practice conditions. The concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers in the concentrated extract were 540 and 13,431 ppm, respectively. Extraction with acetone provided markedly higher concentrations of styrene oligomers compared with extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution, which is the food simulant currently recommended for use in safety assessments of polystyrene by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. And these high concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers were utilized for the evaluation of genotoxicity in vitro. Ames tests using five bacterial tester strains were negative both in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU was also negative. Together, these results suggest that the risk of the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers that migrate from polystyrene food packaging into food is very low.

  9. 2-D Circulation Control Airfoil Benchmark Experiments Intended for CFD Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Lin, Johb C.

    2009-01-01

    A current NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project being conducted by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) personnel and NASA collaborators includes the development of Circulation Control (CC) blown airfoils to improve subsonic aircraft high-lift and cruise performance. The emphasis of this program is the development of CC active flow control concepts for both high-lift augmentation, drag control, and cruise efficiency. A collaboration in this project includes work by NASA research engineers, whereas CFD validation and flow physics experimental research are part of NASA s systematic approach to developing design and optimization tools for CC applications to fixed-wing aircraft. The design space for CESTOL type aircraft is focusing on geometries that depend on advanced flow control technologies that include Circulation Control aerodynamics. The ability to consistently predict advanced aircraft performance requires improvements in design tools to include these advanced concepts. Validation of these tools will be based on experimental methods applied to complex flows that go beyond conventional aircraft modeling techniques. This paper focuses on recent/ongoing benchmark high-lift experiments and CFD efforts intended to provide 2-D CFD validation data sets related to NASA s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) study. Both the experimental data and related CFD predictions are discussed.

  10. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  11. Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, I; Beiras, R

    2013-10-01

    Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 μg/l for Hg, 1.39 μg/l for Cu, 3.83 μg/l for Cd, 25.3 μg/l for Pb and 8.24 μg/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors.

  12. Intended and unintended consequences of democracy promotion assistance to Georgia after the Rose Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the political consequences of democratization assistance to regimes transitioning from authoritarian rule? By exploiting the downstream effects of a field experiment designed to encourage citizen monitoring of Georgia’s 2008 parliamentary elections, we evaluate the political consequences of one type of democracy promotion aid. The intervention increased citizen activism, but it also had the unanticipated effect of suppressing overall voter turnout by approximately 5%. We hypothesize that the civic education campaign was interpreted as a sign of increased political attention to a selected voting precinct, which suppressed opposition turnout. Two additional experiments provide additional evidence for the hypothesis.

  13. Attitudes of practicing nurses as predictors of intended care behavior with persons who are HIV positive: testing the Ajzen-Fishbein Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, H K; Goldenberg, D

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine practicing nurses' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to care for HIV positive patients, using the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and forty-one subjects completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). Consistent with the theory, nurses' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for persons who are HIV positive (R2 = 0.27). Personal beliefs found to discriminate between intenders and nonintenders were those related to possible consequences for self, family, and friends, but not job-related consequences. Normative beliefs which discriminated between groups were also related to nonprofessional referents' expectations. In addition, qualitative data showed persistent concerns about occupational risk for contracting AIDS. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that nurse educators in both clinical and academic settings, target specific educational/training interventions to include transmission, prevention, as well as exploration of feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions about HIV-related topics. Further theory-based research and testing of interventions to change practicing nurses' attitudes and beliefs about HIV disease are advocated.

  14. Response to Intervention Implementation: A Successful Principal's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Wilcox, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) in elementary schools. RTI is a systematic and comprehensive teaching and learning process intended to identify and prevent student academic failure through differentiated or intensified instruction. Design/methodology/approach: Using an…

  15. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  16. School Psychologists' Perceptions of Stakeholder Engagement in Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    As Response to Intervention (RTI) continues to be implemented in schools, it is important to consider how this initiative is perceived by the educational professionals involved in the implementation and effectiveness of the process. This study utilized a survey intended to investigate the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their…

  17. The Incredible Years. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "The Incredible Years" is an intervention composed of training programs for children, parents, and teachers that is intended to reduce children's aggression and improve their social skills. The three programs (child, parent, and teacher) can be used independently or in combination. The child program focuses on building social and emotional skills…

  18. Response to Intervention Implementation: A Successful Principal's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Wilcox, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) in elementary schools. RTI is a systematic and comprehensive teaching and learning process intended to identify and prevent student academic failure through differentiated or intensified instruction. Design/methodology/approach: Using an…

  19. Fear of childbirth and duration of labour: a study of 2206 women with intended vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S S; Eberhard-Gran, M; Eskild, A

    2012-09-01

    To assess the association between fear of childbirth and duration of labour. A prospective study of women from 32 weeks of gestation through to delivery. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. A total of 2206 pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and intended vaginal delivery during the period 2008-10. Fear of childbirth was assessed by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A at 32 weeks of gestation, and defined as a W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85. Information on labour duration, use of epidural analgesia and mode of delivery was obtained from the maternal ward electronic birth records. Labour duration in hours: from 3-4 cm cervical dilatation and three uterine contractions per 10 minutes lasting ≥ 1 minute, until delivery of the child. Fear of childbirth (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85) was present in 7.5% (165) of women. Labour duration was significantly longer in women with fear of childbirth compared with women with no such fear using a linear regression model (crude unstandardized coefficient 1.54; 95% confidence interval 0.87-2.22, corresponding to a difference of 1 hour and 32 minutes). After adjustment for parity, counselling for pregnancy concern, epidural analgesia, labour induction, labour augmentation, emergency caesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, offspring birthweight and maternal age, the difference attenuated, but remained statistically significant (adjusted unstandardized coefficient 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.35, corresponding to a 47-minute difference). Duration of labour was longer in women with fear of childbirth than in women without fear of childbirth. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  20. A numerical study on intended and unintended failure mechanisms in blanking of sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Soyarslan, C.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    Metal-polymer-metal sandwich plates are widely used in the automotive and aerospace industry. As for different applications the sandwich plates can be divided into two types. They are sound-damping laminates with a polymer core much thinner than the metallic faces and low-density laminates with a core thickness of approximately 40-60% of the total thickness. One frequent process step in production of parts made of these plates is the blanking process whose hereditary effects draw the limits of further forming stages or service performance and life; e.g. the failure of the adhesive in the thermoplastic polymer interface affects the sound-damping efficiency intensively. With this motivation, we present FE simulation of an axi-symmetric blanking process of steel/polyethylene/steel sound-damping laminates. The mechanical behavior of the metallic layers was characterized by finite strain rate independent elasto-plasticity where progressive material deterioration and fracture are given account for using continuum damage mechanics (CDM). This material model is made accessible via implementations as VUMAT subroutines for ABAQUS/Explicit. Possible failure of the thermoplastic polymer which may lead to delamination of the metallic layers is modeled using ABAQUS built-in cohesive zone elements. The results show that existing intended and unintended failure modes, e.g. blanking of the metallic and thermoplastic polymer constituents as well as failure of polymer layer under shear and compression, can be effectively studied with the proposed framework for process enhancement. As a future work, a damage coupled nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive model will be devised for the simulation of the thermoplastic layer in low-density laminates.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  2. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Addition of Phenols Compounds to Meat Dough Intended for Salami Manufacture and its Antioxidant Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Taticchi, Agnese; Balzan, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass) obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill) was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively). The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20) and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C) with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation. PMID:27800353

  4. Addition of phenols compounds to meat dough intended for salami manufacture and its antioxidant effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively. The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20 and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  5. Characterization of different vitamin E carriers intended for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, A; Andrieu, V; Vecellio, L; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2014-08-25

    The targeted release of drugs intended for pulmonary delivery is a research field which has been so far rather unexploited but is currently becoming increasingly attractive. Liquid dispersions encapsulating vitamin E (liposomes, micelles, nano-emulsion, and solid lipid particles) were prepared using various methods based on membrane contactor. The dispersions were nebulized and aerodynamic characteristics of the generated aerosols were assessed using two different methods: laser light scattering and cascade impaction. When the laser diffraction technique was used, results showed that fine particle fractions (<5 μm) were 19, 29, 38 and 71% for solid lipid particles, micelles, nano-emulsion and liposomes, respectively. When the impaction method was applied, using a next generation pharmaceutical impactor operated at 30 l/min, results showed that fine particle fractions were 39, 78, 82 and 87% for solid lipid particles, micelles, nano-emulsion and liposomes, respectively. The differences observed between the results obtained from both methods confirm that the laser diffraction method is not always suitable for aerodynamic characterization of aerosols and should be validated against an impaction method. Nebulization of the drug-carrier systems led to an increase of their size most likely due to aggregation phenomena. The size was increased by a factor of 2-26 depending on the encapsulation system. The most important aggregation was obtained with nano-emulsion; the less one with solid lipid particles. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the generated aerosols ranged from 1.76 to 6.10 μm. The application of a mathematical model, the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD), for the prediction of the pulmonary deposit gave encouraging results. The rate of vitamin E able to reach the lung ranged from 37.6 (for the liposomes) to 51.6% (for the micelles). The obtained results showed that the different systems developed for vitamin E encapsulation were suitable to

  6. Multifunctional coating MAI D5 intended for the protection of refractory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhestkov, B. E.; Terent'eva, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer heterophase MAI D5 coating intended for the protection of carbon-containing composite materials (C-C-, C-SiC-, SiC-SiC-composite material) and refractory metal-based alloys against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion is tested. The coating is formed from a specially developed Si-Ti-Mo-B-Y microcomposition powder material. A new approach to creating self-healing heterophase coatings is used. At operating temperatures, the structure and phase composition of the MAI D5 coating provides rapid self-healing of random defects on the coating surface and in the base material owing to the presence of a silicon-containing eutectic, which favors rapid recovery of a protective amorphous silica layer consumed during operation. Under operating conditions, the coating undergoes self-organization to form a multilayer system with a number of functional oxide micro-, submicro-, and nanolayers. Samples with the MAI D5 coating are subjected to combined tests on bench plants located at MAI and TsAGI under conditions emulating the re-entry of a hypersonic aircraft, when its surface temperature reaches 2400 K. Certification tests are performed in wind tunnels located at TsAGI during a simultaneous action of a hypersonic dissociated-air flow and mechanical loads. The protection of heat-loaded structural elements in space vehicles made of ultrahigh-temperature materials against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion by the MAI D5 coating in hypersonic dissociated-air flows is shown to be efficient.

  7. Identification of multiple serine to asparagine sequence variation sites in an intended copy product of LUCENTIS® by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaud, François; Winter, Andrej; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Straube, Frank; Sackewitz, Mirko; Berg, Matthias

    2017-08-28

    Patent expiration of first-generation biological and the high cost of innovative biological are 2 drivers for the development of biosimilar products. There are, however, technical challenges to the production of exact copies of such large molecules. In this study, we performed a head-to-head comparison between the originator anti-VEGF-A Fab product LUCENTIS® (ranibizumab) and an intended copy product using an integrated analytical approach. While no differences could be observed using size-exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate and potency assays, different acidic peaks were identified with cation ion exchange chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis. Further investigation of the intact Fab, subunits and primary sequence with mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of a modified light chain variant in the intended copy product batches. This variant was characterized with a mass increase of 27.01 Da compared with the originator sequence and its abundance was estimated in the range of 6-9% of the intended copy product light chain. MS/MS spectra interrogation confirmed that this modification relates to a serine to asparagine sequence variant found in the intended copy product light chain. We demonstrated that the integration of high-resolution and sensitive orthogonal technologies was beneficial to assess the similarity of an originator and an intended copy product.

  8. Why economic analysis of health system improvement interventions matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce adverse events and improve the quality of health care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resources allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health care resources.

  9. Why Economic Analysis of Health System Improvement Interventions Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.

  10. Development of an internet intervention to address behaviors associated with skin cancer risk among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2015-09-01

    Major conclusions: Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions.

  11. Protecting prosecution : Exploring the powers of law in an intervention program for domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article critically analyzes how the criminal justice system centrally situates itself in an intervention program intended to protect victims of domestic abuse and stalking. Based on the first empirical, in-depth study in the Netherlands of an intervention program using electronic technology tha

  12. Provider Opinions Regarding the Development of a Stigma-Reduction Intervention Tailored for Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Corrigan, Patrick; Drummond, Karen L.; Porchia, Sylvia; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-01-01

    Interventions involving contact with a person who has recovered from mental illness are most effective at reducing stigma. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of a contact intervention intended to reduce provider stigma toward persons with serious mental illness. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were…

  13. Uterine rupture by intended mode of delivery in the UK: a national case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports of the risk of morbidity due to uterine rupture are thought to have contributed in some countries to a decrease in the number of women attempting a vaginal birth after caesarean section. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of true uterine rupture in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors and outcomes, on the basis of intended mode of delivery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A UK national case-control study was undertaken between April 2009 and April 2010. The participants comprised 159 women with uterine rupture and 448 control women with a previous caesarean delivery. The estimated incidence of uterine rupture was 0.2 per 1,000 maternities overall; 2.1 and 0.3 per 1,000 maternities in women with a previous caesarean delivery planning vaginal or elective caesarean delivery, respectively. Amongst women with a previous caesarean delivery, odds of rupture were also increased in women who had ≥ two previous caesarean deliveries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.16-7.85 and <12 months since their last caesarean delivery (aOR 3.12, 95% CI 1.62-6.02. A higher risk of rupture with labour induction and oxytocin use was apparent (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 1.00-15.33. Two women with uterine rupture died (case fatality 1.3%, 95% CI 0.2-4.5%. There were 18 perinatal deaths associated with uterine rupture among 145 infants (perinatal mortality 124 per 1,000 total births, 95% CI 75-189. CONCLUSIONS: Although uterine rupture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, even amongst women with a previous caesarean section planning a vaginal delivery, it is a rare occurrence. For women with a previous caesarean section, risk of uterine rupture increases with number of previous caesarean deliveries, a short interval since the last caesarean section, and labour induction and/or augmentation. These factors should be considered when counselling and managing the labour of women with a previous

  14. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  15. Predicting successful intended vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section : external validation of two predictive models in a Dutch nationwide registration-based cohort with a high intended vaginal delivery rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E. N. C.; Melman, S.; van Kuijk, S. M. J.; Grobman, W. A.; Kwee, A.; Mol, B. W. J.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Smits, L. J. M.; Aardenburg, R.; de Boer, K.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; van Dooren, I. M.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kaplan, M.; Kuppens, S. M. I.; Lim, F. T. H.; Sikkema, J. M.; Smid-Koopman, E.; Visser, H.; Vrouenraets, F. P. J. M.; Woiski, M.; Hermens, R. P. M. G.; Scheepers, H. C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo externally validate two models from the USA (entry-to-care [ETC] and close-to-delivery [CTD]) that predict successful intended vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) for the Dutch population. DesignA nationwide registration-based cohort study. SettingSeventeen hospitals in the Netherlands.

  16. Aplicação pré-colheita de reguladores vegetais visando retardar a maturação de ameixas 'Laetitia' Preharvest spraying with plant regulators aiming fruit maturity delay of 'Laetitia' plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais e da data de colheita sobre a maturação de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG; 125mg L-1, 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP; 70µg L-1 e ácido giberélico (GA3; 100mg.L-1, em combinação com duas datas de colheita (11/01/2007 e 25/01/2007. O GA3 foi aplicado 14 dias antes da primeira colheita, enquanto AVG e 1-MCP foram aplicados sete dias antes da primeira colheita. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os reguladores de crescimento, em geral, retardaram as alterações da cor da epiderme e mantiveram a textura dos frutos, com os maiores valores de resistências à compressão e à penetração de polpa. A força necessária para a ruptura da epiderme foi maior no tratamento com 1-MCP. O tratamento controle apresentou os maiores teores de sólidos solúveis (SS. O atraso na colheita reduziu a textura dos frutos, a acidez titulável e o teor de SS, mas proporcionou frutos mais vermelhos. No entanto, nos frutos tratados com os reguladores, a evolução da maturação foi retardada.The objective this research was to evaluate the effects of preharvest spraying with plant regulators and harvest date on the fruit maturity of 'Laetitia' plums. The treatments evaluated were: control (untreated, aminoethoxyvinylglycine [AVG; at 125mg (a.i. L-1], giberellic acid [GA3; at 100mg (a.i. L-1] and 1-Methylcyclopropene [1-MCP; at 70µg (a.i. L-1], combined with two harvest dates (01/11/2007 and 01/25/2007. The GA3 was sprayed 14 days before the first harvest, while AVG and 1-MCP were sprayed 7 days before the first harvest. The experiment followed the randomized block design with four replications. In general, the plant regulators delayed changes in skin color and preserved fruit texture, providing the highest resistances values for flesh compression and fresh penetration. The force for skin

  17. Maturação da maçã 'Gala' com a aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina e ethephon Maturation of the 'Gala' apple with preharvest sprays of aminoethoxyvynilglycine and ethephon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação pré-colheita de aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG e ethephon sobre a maturação da maçã 'Gala' colhidas em diferentes datas. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 e AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1 em combinação com quatro épocas de colheita (131, 138, 145 e 152 dias após o pleno florescimento. A aplicação pré-colheita de AVG, seguida ou não de ethephon, proporcionou frutos com maior firmeza de polpa, cor de fundo da epiderme mais verde e menor produção de etileno, respiração e índice iodo-amido. Entretanto, o AVG retardou a evolução da cor vermelha dos frutos, principalmente na maior dose. A aplicação de ethephon, em plantas anteriormente tratadas com AVG, proporcionou frutos com cor vermelha semelhante ao tratamento controle sem prejudicar a ação do AVG no controle da maturação dos frutos. O atraso na colheita causou amarelecimento da epiderme, índice iodo-amido mais elevado, alta produção de etileno e menor acidez titulável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of preharvest applications of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG and ethephon on the maturation of the 'Gala' apple harvested on differents dates. The treatments were: control, ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1, AVG (125g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1, AVG (95g ha-1 and AVG (95g ha-1 + ethephon (140g ha-1. These treatments were combined with 4 harvest date (131, 138, 145 and 152 days after full bloom. The application of AVG, combined or not with ethephon, maintained higher flesh firmness, greener peel color, lower starch index, ethylene and CO2 production. However, AVG retarded the development of the red color of the fruit. The application of ethephon in AVG-treated plants increased the red color of the fruit that was similar to control fruit without influencing effect of AVG on the control of

  18. Collagen hydrogels strengthened by biodegradable meshes are a basis for dermo-epidermal skin grafts intended to reconstitute human skin in a one-step surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Biedermann, Thomas; Braziulis, Erik; Luginbühl, Joachim; Pontiggia, Luca; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Faraj, Kaeuis A; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Extensive full-thickness skin loss, associated with deep burns or other traumata, represents a major clinical problem that is far from being solved. A promising approach to treat large skin defects is the use of tissue-engineered full-thickness skin analogues with nearly normal anatomy and function. In addition to excellent biological properties, such skin substitutes should exhibit optimal structural and mechanical features. This study aimed to test novel dermo-epidermal skin substitutes based on collagen type I hydrogels, physically strengthened by two types of polymeric net-like meshes. One mesh has already been used in clinical trials for treating inguinal hernia; the second one is new but consists of a FDA-approved polymer. Both meshes were integrated into collagen type I hydrogels and dermo-epidermal skin substitutes were generated. Skin substitutes were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and analyzed after distinct time periods. The skin substitutes homogeneously developed into a well-stratified epidermis over the entire surface of the grafts. The epidermis deposited a continuous basement membrane and dermo-epidermal junction, displayed a well-defined basal cell layer, about 10 suprabasal strata and a stratum corneum. Additionally, the dermal component of the grafts was well vascularized. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Why intended business model innovation fails to deliver: Insights from a longitudinal study in the German smart energy market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastian, Knab; Rohrbeck, René

    This paper aims to explore whether intended business model innovation (BMI) activities enhance exploration capabilities of incumbent firms. We report findings from a longitudinal study that spans from 2010 to 2014. We find that even though incumbent firms generated 21 generic business models...

  20. 13 CFR 123.9 - What happens if I don't use loan proceeds for the intended purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if I don't use loan proceeds for the intended purpose? 123.9 Section 123.9 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS.... Any failure to respond in time will be considered an admission that you misapplied the proceeds....

  1. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  2. 75 FR 71133 - Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional... guidance entitled ``The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of... traditional pottery, and labeling considerations for food use and non food use pottery that may contain lead...

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddoor, Rouba; Al-Amoush, Siham; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the nature of intended secondary chemistry curricula, as they are represented by chemistry textbooks, from seven Arabic countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The curricula are evaluated through analysis of the officially approved 10th grade chemistry textbooks used nationwide in all…

  4. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older...

  6. Video Cases in Teacher Education: A review study on intended and achieved learning objectives by video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving

  7. Video Cases in Teacher Education: A review study on intended and achieved learning objectives by video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving the

  8. What Type of Teachers Do We Intend to Train? An Analysis of Teacher Profiles in MERCOSUR Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliaud, Andrea; Feeney, Silvina María

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, teachers have often been identified as 'key' players for the improvement of education systems. The successive waves of reform taking place in Latin America since the 1990s have aimed at initial and continuous teacher training. The main changes intended to improve the quality and lengthen the duration of initial teacher…

  9. Traces of Teaching Methods in a Language Class and the Relationship between Teachers' Intended Learning Outcomes and Students' Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    This study has two main objectives: first, to find traces of teaching methods in a language class and second, to study the relationship between intended learning outcomes and uptake, which is defined as what students claim to have learned. In order to identify the teaching method, after five sessions of observation, class activities and procedures…

  10. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures...

  11. 23 CFR 636.505 - Must a contracting agency establish a competitive range if it intends to have discussions with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must a contracting agency establish a competitive range if it intends to have discussions with offerors? 636.505 Section 636.505 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD...

  12. 49 CFR 178.276 - Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulating layer in the event of... three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being an internal stop-valve, excess... pipe. (4) For filling and discharge openings located below the liquid level of portable tanks intended...

  13. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The last part of the book will focus on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.

  14. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Pariente, Danièle [Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Kremlin-Bicêtre (France); Roebuck, Derek J., E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  15. Issues Relating to Study Design and Risk of Bias When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Shea, Beverley; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-randomized studies may provide valuable evidence on the effects of interventions. They are the main source of evidence on the intended effects of some types of interventions and often provide the only evidence about the effects of interventions on long-term outcomes, rare events or adverse effects. Therefore, systematic reviews on the effects…

  16. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  17. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  18. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  19. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  20. Professional Knowledge and Skills Required for Accounting Majors Who Intend to Become Auditors: Perceptions of External Auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Uyar; Ali Haydar Gungormus

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to ascertain the professional knowledge and the skills/attributes that are considered important by external auditors for a graduate who intends to be an auditor. For this purpose, we conducted a survey on external auditors in Turkey. The research has two dimensions: skills dimension (twenty one items) and professional knowledge dimension (twenty four items). The results indicated that all skills except “knowledge of accounting software” are perceived to be important or very...

  1. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Sociu F.; Georgescu R.; Toma R.; Barariu Gh.; Fako R.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to rema...

  2. Studying the intended uses of the social networks by the students of the department of physical education and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eynur Baybars Recep

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the intended uses of the social networks by the students of the Department of Physical Education and Sport (DPES. A total of 407 DPES students have been participated into the research; 25,6% of them were women and 74.4% were men. The data collection tool used for the study was the Scale for the Intended Uses of the Social Networks. With regard to the research statistics, the independent variable t-test and ANOVA have been used; and in order to evaluate the diversity of the subgroups, Bonferroni and Tamhane (α=0,05 have been used. The analysis has revealed that on the basis of the social networking sites for which the males show a higher usage tendency according to the gender variable (p0,05. It has been seen that the Twitter users show a higher tendency in terms of the research and content subdimensions (p<0,05; and that the Instagram and other social network users show a higher tendency in terms of keeping in touch and content sharing (p<0,05. The research has revealed that the intended social network uses by the students arises mostly from the social network services, besides certain cultural influence.

  3. Correlates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D

    2013-06-28

    Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities. We analyzed 2008-2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13-17 from Appalachia (n=1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year. The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination in Appalachia.

  4. Aplicación de ácido giberélico en precosecha y cera en poscosecha a frutos de limón mexicano Preharvest application of gibberellic acid and wax at postharvest in fruit of mexican lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Álvarez-Armenta

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se efectuó en una huerta comercial ubicada en Tecomán, Colima, México durante 2006, para determinar el efecto precosecha de la aplicación de ácido giberélico (AG3 en frutos de limón mexicano. Se realizaron 3, 2, 1 y 0 aplicaciones de 10 mg L-1 de ácido giberélico a frutos en desarrollo a los 64, 78 y 92 días después de la antesis. Además, un día después de la cosecha, se aplicó una cubierta con cera de carnauba a la mitad de los frutos de cada tratamiento. El efecto del regulador de crecimiento y de la cera de carnauba en los frutos de limón se evaluó al final de un período de almacenamiento en refrigeración a 9 °C, durante 35 días y de la exposición durante siete días a 20 ºC, para simular condiciones de comercialización. Los parámetros considerados para determinar la acción de los reguladores de crecimiento exógenos fueron: índice de color; sólidos solubles totales (ºBx, acidez titulable, ácido ascórbico y pérdida de peso. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que el tratamiento de tres aplicaciones de 10 mg L-1 de AG3 + cera, mantuvo las características de calidad de los frutos de limón al final de ambos períodos de almacenamiento. Así, la combinación del regulador y la cera retrasaron la senescencia, principalmente durante los primeros 35 días de almacenamiento bajo condiciones de refrigeración. Después de ese período, en todos los tratamientos se observó una reducción en el contenido de vitamina C y acentuados cambios en la coloración del fruto.This work was conducted during 2006 in a commercial orchard located in Tecomán, Colima, Mexico, in order to determine the effect of preharvest application of gibberellic acid (GA3 to mexican lime fruits. Sprays with 10 mg L-1 gibberellic acid, were made 3, 2, 1 and 0 times to developing fruits at 64, 78 and 92 days after anthesis. In addition, a day after harvest, a carnauba wax cover was applied to half of the fruits from each treatment. The

  5. Embyo-Specific Expression of Tomato S/AB/3 Results in Inhibition of Preharvest Sprouting in G46B of Rice%种胚特异性表达番茄SlABI3对水稻冈46B穗萌的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英勇; 高永峰; 唐维; 余进德; 刘亮亮; 张霞; 孟蒙; 刘永胜

    2012-01-01

    [目的]利用水稻胚特异表达基因OsVP1的启动子驱动与OsVP1同源的番茄SlABI3在穗萌严重的水稻保持系冈46B中表达,以增强冈46B对穗萌的抗性,进而为改良水稻穗萌抗性的分子设计育种提供理论依据.[方法]构建SlABI3的胚特异表达载体pHB-0sVP1P::SlABI3,利用根癌农杆菌介导的遗传转化法将其导入籼稻冈46B中,通过研究转基因和野生型植株的穗萌差异,验证种胚特异表达的SlABI3在穗萌抑制中的生理功能.[结果]获得了pHB-0sVP1P::SlABI3转冈46B的转基因植株;转基因植株种子的萌发速率较野生型冈46B慢,并且萌发后第8天转基因植株的苗长、根长显著(P<0.05)短于野生型冈46B;此外,在不同浓度ABA处理的试验中,随着ABA浓度的升高,转基因和野生型种子的萌发速率都呈现下降的趋势,但转基因种子的萌发速率均比野生型种子慢.[结论]SlABI3在水稻胚中特异表达能够降低种子的萌发速率并且抑制穗萌发生.%[Objective] In order to increase resistance to preharvest sprouting in maintain line G46B of rice, the promoter of rice OsVP1 was used to drive tomato SIABI3 (homologous to OsVP1) expression in rice embryos. This will probably provide a theoretical basis of molecular design for improving preharvest sprouting resistance in hybrid rice.[Method]The expression vector containing the full-length coding region of SlABI3 whose expression is driven by the OsVPl promoter was constructed and introduced into rice G46B by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. To further elucidate the physiological function of SIABI3 in inhibiting the pre-harvest sprouting, the phenotypic differences in germination between transgenic and wild-type seeds were observed. [Result] A number of transgenic plants containing pHB-OsVPlP::SLABI3 were obtained. Germination experiments showed that the percentage of geminated seeds from transgenic plants was lower than that of wild-type G46B plants

  6. 自拟降脂汤治疗高脂血症30例%30 Cases of Treating Hyperlipidemia with self-Intended Lipid lowering Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧群; 韩冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of self-Intended Lipid lowering Decoction treatment of hyperlipidemia.Methods:60 patients with hyperlipidemia were randomized divided into two groups of 30 patients. The contrast group with diet and lifestyle interventions, the treatment group received the treatment of Chinese traditional medicine—taking the self-Intended Lipid lowering Decoction. After 4 weeks make a statistical about the content of TC, TG ,HDL - C, LDL - C before and after treatment.Results:In 60 cases, there is no significant difference between the content of TC, TG ,HDL - C, LDL - C treatment group and contrast group (P>0.05), and after treatment treatment group was lower than before treatment (P0.05).Conclusion:The direct cause of hyperlipidemia phlegm indigestion, taking into account the root causes of deficiency of the liver and kidney, the choice of eliminating dampness ,resolving turbidity and huaji, drugs of replenishing liver and kidney to reach not only temporary purpose but also permanent cure.%目的:观察“自拟降脂汤”治疗高脂血症的疗效。方法:将60例高脂血症患者随机分为治疗组与对照组各30例,对照组给予饮食及生活习惯干预,治疗组给予“自拟降脂汤”口服。服药4周后统计治疗前后TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C含量。结果:在60例病例中,治疗组TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C与对照组无明显区别(P>0.05),并且治疗组治疗后低于治疗前(P0.05)。结论:针对高脂血症的直接病因痰浊食积,兼顾肝肾亏虚的根本原因,选用利湿降浊化积、补益肝肾之药物达到标本兼治的目的。

  7. Comparing exercise interventions to increase persistence with physical exercise and sporting activity among people with hypertension or high normal blood pressure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; de Lusignan, Simon; Wainwright, Joe; Sprake, Hannah; Laver, Suzannah; Heald, Victoria; Orton, Julian; Prescott, Matt; Carr, Helen; O'Neill, Mark

    2014-01-01

    .... Four-arm randomised controlled trial. The study tests two types of intervention that are intended to increase physical activity among currently inactive 18- to 74-year-old people with hypertension or high-normal blood pressure...

  8. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STANDARDIZED ...

  9. Interventional Radiology: Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY ... REPORT IR QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY NEWSLETTERS Practice Resources PRACTICE RESOURCES QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STANDARDIZED ...

  10. Overview of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant or toddler for early intervention (e.g., Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome). Determining eligibility | The results of the evaluation will be used to determine your child’s eligibility for early intervention services. You and a ...

  11. The Quality Circles Organizational Intervention: An Attitudinal Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    communication between themselves and their employees "(Dickson, 1982). Victor Vroom has developed a "normative model" of par- ticipative decision...SECUMIYY CLASSIOPI CAr? MO h LSSR 19-83 THE QUALITY CIRCLES ORGANIZATIONAL INTERVENTION: AN ATTITUDINAL OUTCOME STUDY A Thesis Presented ýo the...democratic style, and a set of seven rules intended to pro- tect both the quality and acceptance of a leader’s decision. -26 Vroom provides a decision

  12. The Titles of the Circuit Intendants in the Qing Dynasty%清代道员职衔考述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇进

    2012-01-01

    道员,源自明代藩臬佐贰,各道设置之初,其独立性远不及后世,均各带参政、参议、副使、佥事等两司职衔守巡各地。入清后,仍沿其旧制,诸道职衔、品级各不相同。随着道制的完善,道员的地位、作用日趋固定,遂有乾隆十八年停直省守巡各道兼两司职衔之举,同时定其品秩为正四品。自此之后,道员不再是藩臬佐贰的统称,而成一独立职官名称。道员职衔经历了一个从各道坐定职衔,到以一定原则兼衔任缺,再到逐渐弱化兼衔意义,并最终去兼衔定品级的过程。%Circuit intendants (Dao) originated from vice financial commissioners and provincial judges in the Ming dynasty. The circuit was not so independent in its early stage. The circuit intendants worked as inspectors in certain areas with concurrent titles like financial commissioners and the provincial judges. The Qing dynasty inherited the Dao institution from the Ming dynasty, and each Dao had its own titles and ranks. With the development of the Dao institution, its status and function were gradually fixed up. As a result, the Qing court set the rank of circuit intedants as 4 and removed their concurrent titles in 1753. Henceforth, Circuit intendants became an independent position from vice financial commissioners and provincial judges.

  13. Monitoring the Intended and Perceived Training Load of a Professional Futsal Team Over 45 Weeks: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Felipe N; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Gonçalves, Bruno; Matzenbacher, Fernando; Campos, Fábio A D; Sampaio, Jaime; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the training load intended by a coach with the training load perceived by the players, over a 45-week professional futsal team season and to compare the variation of session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) across different periods of the season. Eighteen Brazilian professional futsal players participated in the study. The players' rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and coach's rating of intended exertion (RIE) were collected daily throughout the study. To compare the sRPE variation, the season was divided into 4 periods as follows: preseason (PRE-SEASON), first competitive period (COMP1), intercompetition period (INTER-COMP), and second competitive period (COMP2). Based on the cluster analyses, the training sessions were classified into 3 different intensity zones (low, moderate, and high). In all the season periods and intensity zones, the players' RPEs were lower than the coach's RIE. In the low-intensity zone, the INTER-COMP demonstrated higher sRPE values than did the other periods. In the moderate-intensity zones, the INTER-COMP and COMP2 were similar. Finally, for the high-zone intensity, the PRE-SEASON demonstrated higher values than did the other periods. We concluded that the coach overestimated the training load reported by the players in almost all intensity training zones and season periods. The RPE scale does not seem to be a suitable tool when used by the coach for intended training load. Therefore, technical staff should constantly review the training goals in each season period through daily training load control, always taking into consideration the possibilities and limitations of the RPE method.

  14. Evaluation of susceptibility of polymer and rubber materials intended into contact with drinking water on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotko, Maciej; Stankiewicz, Agnieszka; Jamsheer-Bratkowska, Małgorzata

    Plumbing materials in water distribution networks and indoor installations are constantly evolving. The application of new, more economical solutions with plastic materials eliminates the corrosion problems, however, do not fully protect the consumer against secondary microbial contamination of water intended for human consumption caused by the presence of a biofilm on the inner surface of materials applied. National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene conducts research aimed at a comprehensive assessment of this type of materials, resulting their further marketing authorization in Poland. Evaluation and comparison of polymer and rubber materials intended to contact with water for the susceptibility to biofilm formation. Plastic materials (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride) and rubber compounds (EPDM, NBR), from different manufacturers were evaluated. The study was carried out on 37 samples, which were divided into groups according to the material of which they were made. The testing was conducted according to the method based on conditions of dynamic flow of tap water. The level of bioluminescence in swabs taken from the surface of the tested materials was investigated with a luminometer. Evaluation of plastic materials does not show major objections in terms of hygienic assessment. All materials met the evaluation criteria established for methodology used. In case of rubber compounds, a substantial part clearly exceeded the limit values, which resulted in their negative assessment and elimination of these materials from domestic market. High susceptibility to the formation of biofilm in the group of products made of rubber compounds has been demonstrated. Examined plastic materials, except for several cases, do not revealed susceptibility to biofilm formation, but application of plastics for distribution of water intended for human consumption does not fully protect water from secondary, microbiological contamination. Complete

  15. Sol-forming oil-displacing system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Altunina, L. K.; Stasyeva, L. A.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system intended to enhance oil recovery from deposits with difficult-to-recover reserves. The kinetic and rheological features of solation in the oil-displacing system have been investigated. A physical modeling of the oil displacement process was carried out under the conditions of a heterogeneous reservoir at a low temperature using the sol-forming NINKA®-Z system. The investigations have proved its high efficiency, and the system was recommended for pilot tests.

  16. Planning Office and Community Influence on Land-Use Decisions Intended to Benefit the Low-Income: Welcome to Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dominic Searcy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores urban planning office and community influence on land-use decision making in two poverty-stricken but redeveloping neighborhood areas in Chicago. The Department of Planning and Development in this study had marginal impact on land-use decisions due to administrative limitations. Community influence is moderated by the degree to which low-income housing advocates can act directly as developers and produce housing units. The research findings indicate that land-use decisions intended to benefit the low-income resulted not from community-based political conflict but more so from community organization cooperation with political actors.

  17. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  18. Impact of Sterilisation and Strain Hardening in Drawing Process on Resistance to Electrochemical Corrosion of Wires Intended in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przondziono J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of tests of impact of work hardening in cold drawing process, surface treatment and sterilisation on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires made of stainless steel X2CrNiMo 17-12-2 intended for cardiology. Potentiodynamic tests were performed on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves in artificial plasma solution. Static uniaxial tension test made the ground for determination of strength characteristics of wires and the flow curve. Functions presenting the change of polarisation resistance according to strain applied in drawing process were selected.

  19. Guideline for interventional recanalizat ion of lower extremity artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwn [Dept. of Radiology, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae Ik [Mint Radiologic Clinic, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Won [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Hwan Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Bo [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Young Kwon [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease caused by atheroscleorsis can be presented with intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. The proper diagnosis and management is warranted to reduce symptoms and salvage the limbs. With the introduction of new technique and dedicated materials, endovascular recanalization has been widely performed for treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease because it is lesser invasive than surgery. However, there have been different opinions regarding the appropriate indications and procedure methods for interventional recanalization among operator and institution in Korea. Therefore, we intend to provide evidence based guidelines for interventional recanalization by multidisciplinary consensus. These guidelines are the result of a close collaboration between physicians from many different areas of expertise including interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and vascular surgery. The goal of these guidelines is to ensure better treatment, to serve as a guide to the clinician, and consequently, to contribute for public health care.

  20. Stimulation and Intervention in Infant Development: Theories, Evaluation and Research, Programs in the Community, Fetal Behavior and Intervention for the Child at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, D., Ed.; And Others

    This up-to-date and comprehensive compendium reflects the state of professional understanding, research, and experience in the field of intervention in child development. The book is intended to be of use to pediatricians, psychiatrists, neurologists, child psychologists, social workers, nurses, occupational therapists, early childhood educators,…

  1. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs.

  2. Novel Choices, Pun Intended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Roger W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why he considers "Animal Dreams" by Barbara Kingsolver, "Ceremony" by Leslie Marmon Silko, and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan as the most desirable books for students. He cites that several questions guide him in selecting these books. These questions include the following: (1) Why recommend certain texts to…

  3. Ill-Intended Mergers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adjustments expected to rules on foreign investment after accusations of malicious corporate moves Business takeovers by foreign conglomerates in China have attracted significant government attention recently, including concerns that the flurry of business maneuvers is aimed at forming foreign-controlled monopolies in the Chinese market.

  4. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  5. Reaching is Better When You Get What You Want: Realtime Feedback of Intended Reaching Trajectory Despite an Unstable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eHorowitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in human-machine interaction may help overcome the unstable and uncertain environments that cause problems in everyday living. Here we experimentally evaluated intent feedback (IF, which estimates and displays the human operator's underlying intended trajectory in real-time. IF is a filter that combines a model of the arm with position and force data to determine the intended position. Subjects performed targeted reaching motions while seeing either their actual hand position or their estimated intent as a cursor while they experienced white noise forces rendered by a robotic handle. We found significantly better reaching performance during force exposure using the estimated intent. Additionally, in a second set of subjects with a reduced modeled stiffness, IF reduced estimated arm stiffness to about half that without IF, indicating a more relaxed state of operation. While visual distortions typically degrade performance and require an adaptation period to overcome, this particular distortion immediately enhanced performance. In the future, this method could provide novel insights into the nature of control. IF might also be applied in driving and piloting applications to best follow a person's desire in unpredictable or turbulent conditions.

  6. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Cren-Olive, Cecile [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2011-10-15

    As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking. Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect. The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen. Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples. Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed. - Highlights: > Traces of 52 substances investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. > No water was free of pollutants, whatever its origin and the season of collect. > Globally groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals. > Hormones were present with comparable frequencies and levels in two compartments. - 52 pharmaceuticals and hormones investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters intended to human consumption.

  7. Fabrication and anti-microbial evaluation of drug loaded polylactide space filler intended for ridge preservation following tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebu George Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preservation or reduction of alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction is important in patients especially for those intended for implants at a later stage. One way to achieve this is by using membranes, graft materials, and biodegradable space fillers to prevent alveolar bone resorption and promote regeneration. A major attraction for using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as space fillers for ridge preservation is their safety profile in comparison to xenograft materials like lyophilized bone and collagen. Materials and Methods: Biocompatible polylactide space fillers were fabricated by fusing porous polylactide particles. The sponges were loaded with drugs by placing them in the respective solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a chronic periodontitis patient and in vitro anti-microbial evaluation was done with the drug loaded sponges. Results: Chlorhexidine loaded space filler showed significant anti microbial effect against multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a patient with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that biodegradable drug releasing polylactide space fillers has the potential to be used for ridge preservation following tooth extraction. Release of drugs in the socket may prove useful in preventing development of alveolar osteitis post extraction which can interfere with normal healing of the socket. Synthetic biodegradable polymers also exhibit a controlled degradation rate to achieve complete resorption within the intended time.

  8. Evaluating Digital Health Interventions: Key Questions and Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Hekler, Eric B; Andersson, Gerhard; Collins, Linda M; Doherty, Aiden; Hollis, Chris; Rivera, Daniel E; West, Robert; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2016-11-01

    Digital health interventions have enormous potential as scalable tools to improve health and healthcare delivery by improving effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility, safety, and personalization. Achieving these improvements requires a cumulative knowledge base to inform development and deployment of digital health interventions. However, evaluations of digital health interventions present special challenges. This paper aims to examine these challenges and outline an evaluation strategy in terms of the research questions needed to appraise such interventions. As they are at the intersection of biomedical, behavioral, computing, and engineering research, methods drawn from all of these disciplines are required. Relevant research questions include defining the problem and the likely benefit of the digital health intervention, which in turn requires establishing the likely reach and uptake of the intervention, the causal model describing how the intervention will achieve its intended benefit, key components, and how they interact with one another, and estimating overall benefit in terms of effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and harms. Although RCTs are important for evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness, they are best undertaken only when: (1) the intervention and its delivery package are stable; (2) these can be implemented with high fidelity; and (3) there is a reasonable likelihood that the overall benefits will be clinically meaningful (improved outcomes or equivalent outcomes at lower cost). Broadening the portfolio of research questions and evaluation methods will help with developing the necessary knowledge base to inform decisions on policy, practice, and research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Mukamana, Olive; Carabali, Mabel; Osorio, Lyda; Fournet, Florence; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Turchi Marteli, Celina; Contreras, Adolfo; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and ...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 1508.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into a covered... lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1508.330 Section 1508.330 Foreign Relations...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 1404.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into a covered... lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1404.330 Section 1404.330 Food and Drugs OFFICE...

  12. 29 CFR 98.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Doing Business with Other Persons § 98.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into a covered transaction with a participant at the... with whom I intend to do business? 98.330 Section 98.330 Labor Office of the Secretary of...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 1471.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business... tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1471.330 Section 1471.330 Labor Regulations Relating to...

  14. 34 CFR 85.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 85.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into a covered... tiers with whom I intend to do business? 85.330 Section 85.330 Education Office of the...

  15. 22 CFR 1006.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 1006.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into a covered... lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1006.330 Section 1006.330 Foreign Relations...

  16. 5 CFR 919.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business... persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 919.330 Section 919.330 Administrative Personnel... intend to do business? Before entering into a covered transaction with a participant at the next...

  17. 22 CFR 208.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 208.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into... at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 208.330 Section 208.330 Foreign Relations...

  18. 31 CFR 19.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 19.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? Before entering into... persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 19.330 Section 19.330 Money and...

  19. Exploring the Alignment of the Intended and Implemented Curriculum through Teachers' Interpretation: A Case Study of A-Level Biology Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaeton, Mukaro Joe; Stears, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    The research reported on here is part of a larger study exploring the alignment of the intended, implemented and attained curriculum with regard to practical work in the Zimbabwean A-level Biology curriculum. In this paper we focus on the alignment between the intended and implemented A-Level Biology curriculum through the lens of teachers'…

  20. 16 CFR 1500.53 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but not over 96 months of age....

  1. 16 CFR 1500.50 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... articles intended for use by children as well as the reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse to which the... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children. 1500.50 Section 1500.50 Commercial...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.51 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children 18 months of age or less. (a... foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children 18 months of age or... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse...

  3. 16 CFR 1500.52 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but not over 36 months of age....

  4. Exploring the Alignment of the Intended and Implemented Curriculum through Teachers' Interpretation: A Case Study of A-Level Biology Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaeton, Mukaro Joe; Stears, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    The research reported on here is part of a larger study exploring the alignment of the intended, implemented and attained curriculum with regard to practical work in the Zimbabwean A-level Biology curriculum. In this paper we focus on the alignment between the intended and implemented A-Level Biology curriculum through the lens of teachers'…

  5. Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Peter; Brown, Erwin; Charani, Esmita; Fenelon, Lynda; Gould, Ian M; Holmes, Alison; Ramsay, Craig R; Wiffen, Philip J; Wilcox, Mark

    2013-04-30

    or the duration of treatment. Reliable data about impact on antibiotic prescribing data were available for 76 interventions (44 persuasive, 24 restrictive and 8 structural). For the persuasive interventions, the median change in antibiotic prescribing was 42.3% for the ITSs, 31.6% for the controlled ITSs, 17.7% for the CBAs, 3.5% for the cluster-RCTs and 24.7% for the RCTs. The restrictive interventions had a median effect size of 34.7% for the ITSs, 17.1% for the CBAs and 40.5% for the RCTs. The structural interventions had a median effect of 13.3% for the RCTs and 23.6% for the cluster-RCTs. Data about impact on microbial outcomes were available for 21 interventions but only 6 of these also had reliable data about impact on antibiotic prescribing.Meta-analysis of 52 ITS studies was used to compare restrictive versus purely persuasive interventions. Restrictive interventions had significantly greater impact on prescribing outcomes at one month (32%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2% to 61%, P = 0.03) and on microbial outcomes at 6 months (53%, 95% CI 31% to 75%, P = 0.001) but there were no significant differences at 12 or 24 months. Interventions intended to decrease excessive prescribing were associated with reduction in Clostridium difficile infections and colonization or infection with aminoglycoside- or cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes showed that four interventions intended to increase effective prescribing for pneumonia were associated with significant reduction in mortality (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), whereas nine interventions intended to decrease excessive prescribing were not associated with significant increase in mortality (risk ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06). The results show that interventions to reduce excessive antibiotic prescribing to hospital inpatients can reduce antimicrobial resistance or

  6. The person-based approach to intervention development: application to digital health-related behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Morrison, Leanne; Bradbury, Katherine; Muller, Ingrid

    2015-01-30

    This paper describes an approach that we have evolved for developing successful digital interventions to help people manage their health or illness. We refer to this as the "person-based" approach to highlight the focus on understanding and accommodating the perspectives of the people who will use the intervention. While all intervention designers seek to elicit and incorporate the views of target users in a variety of ways, the person-based approach offers a distinctive and systematic means of addressing the user experience of intended behavior change techniques in particular and can enhance the use of theory-based and evidence-based approaches to intervention development. There are two key elements to the person-based approach. The first is a developmental process involving qualitative research with a wide range of people from the target user populations, carried out at every stage of intervention development, from planning to feasibility testing and implementation. This process goes beyond assessing acceptability, usability, and satisfaction, allowing the intervention designers to build a deep understanding of the psychosocial context of users and their views of the behavioral elements of the intervention. Insights from this process can be used to anticipate and interpret intervention usage and outcomes, and most importantly to modify the intervention to make it more persuasive, feasible, and relevant to users. The second element of the person-based approach is to identify "guiding principles" that can inspire and inform the intervention development by highlighting the distinctive ways that the intervention will address key context-specific behavioral issues. This paper describes how to implement the person-based approach, illustrating the process with examples of the insights gained from our experience of carrying out over a thousand interviews with users, while developing public health and illness management interventions that have proven effective in trials

  7. Designing nursing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Sanchia

    2008-01-01

    The development of nursing interventions that demonstrate the link between nursing actions and patient outcomes is a high priority for nursing research. The development of intervention research frequently focuses on the methods used to test the intervention while less attention is placed on rigor in intervention development and design. The purpose of this paper is to provide thinking points for researchers considering the development of nursing interventions. The thinking points were developed from the limited literature on this topic in synthesis with the authors own experiences of designing nursing interventions. Adoption of a systematic approach to intervention testing is advocated along with a step-wise intervention development process. This process calls for attention to problem definition, conceptual underpinnings, desired outcomes and measures and evidence-based content along with careful consideration of delivery methods, dose and attention to protecting the integrity of the intervention during testing. The approach advocated will help to ensure that nursing intervention research makes a useful contribution to the development of nursing practice.

  8. Exploring Molecular Markers of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance Gene Using Wheat Intact Spikes by Association Analysis%以关联分析发掘小麦整穗发芽抗性基因分子标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉磊; 张海萍; 王升星; 赵良侠; 张德新; 胡建帮; 曹雪连; 杨亚杰; 常成; 马传喜

    2014-01-01

    利用分布于小麦全基因组的181对分子标记,分析264份自然群体的基因型,采用TASSLE软件的GLM和MLM模型检测与整穗发芽抗性紧密关联的标记位点,发掘相关位点内的优异等位变异。在2012年和2013年室内整穗发芽率、2013年田间自然降雨整穗发芽率3个环境中,共关联到20个显著位点(P<0.05),分布于小麦染色体1AS、2DS、3AS、3BL、4AL、5AS、5BL、6BS、6DS、7AL和7BL上。分别位于2DS和7BL上的分子标记gwm102和barc340同时在3个环境下关联到,属于稳定的抗性位点;另有6个标记位点同时在2个环境下关联到;其余12个标记位点仅在1个环境下关联到。位于7BL上的barc340标记位点为一新报道位点。从重复关联的8个标记位点内共检测出10种优异等位变异。barc28-229bp和barc28-217bp对提高整穗发芽抗性效应最显著,主要分布在地方品种中(如遂宁坨坨麦等),而gwm102-142bp和barc186-199bp效应虽然相对较小,但多分布在推广品种中(如扬麦158等),有利于穗发芽抗性分子育种的直接应用。%To improve pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in wheat breeding, it is important to explore marker loci and elite alleles associated with PHS resistance using intact spikes. In this study, a total of 181 markers were used to 264 genotype materi-als. General and mixed linear models (GLM and MLM) were used to analyze PHS phenotypic data in three environments (2012-in house, 2013-in house and 2013-in field). The results showed that twenty markers were identified by association analysis, and lo-cated on chromosomes 1AS, 2DS, 3AS, 3BL, 4AL, 5AS, 5BL, 6BS, 6DS, 7AL, and 7BL. The markers gwm102 on 2DS and barc340 on 7BL were detected stably in three environments, among which barc340 was likely to be novel and needs to be further studied through biparental linkage mapping analysis. Six markers were detected in two environments, and the other loci linked with 12 markers

  9. Social exclusion and the role of transport intervention in accessing economic opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Social Exclusion and the Role of Transport Intervention in Accessing Economic Opportunity This dissertation is concerned with social exclusion, transport and access to economic opportunities. Its main focus is on transport 'intervention' and whether this provision is able to enhance social inclusion, particularly in terms of tackling worklessness. The leading principle of this research is to capture the "authentic voices" of those people who are the intended beneficiaries of...

  10. O tratamento pré-colheita com AVG, aliado à absorção do etileno durante o armazenamento refrigerado, preserva a qualidade de maçãs 'Gala' Preharvest treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine, in association with ethylene absorption during cold storage preserves fruit quality of 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-06-01

    management of fruit maturity at harvest and ethylene removal from the storage environment are important strategies for postharvest preservation of apple quality. This research was carried out to assess the combined effects of fruit maturity management at harvest achieved by preharvest spraying with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, and ethylene absorption with sachets containing pellets impregnated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4, on postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples. Fruits from trees treated with different doses of AVG (0.0, 62.5, 125.0, and 250.0 mg L-1 were harvested at different dates (corresponding to 0, 5, 10 and 14 days after the beginning of commercial harvest, packed in standard carton boxes (18kg, lined with high density polyethylene film of 30µm with or without the addition of one sachet of KMnO4, and cold stored for two months (at 0±0.5ºC/90-95% RH. Preharvest spraying with AVG delayed fruit maturity at harvest and its ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, as well as after one week storage at ambient condition (20±4ºC/70-80% RH. The use of one sachet of KMnO4 delayed fruit ripening assessed after removal from cold storage, resulting in higher values of firmness and hº on the green side (shaded side, less exposed to sun in early harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at the doses of 125-250 mg L-1. However, after one week storage at ambient condition, one sachet of KMnO4substantially delayed ripening of late harvested fruit treated at preharvest with AVG at doses >62.5 mg L-1. The results show that preharvest spraying with AVG allow delays in fruit harvesting, but this might be accompanied by the use of one sachet of KMnO4 during cold stored for a better postharvest quality preservation of 'Gala' apples.

  11. Intended And Unintended Effects Of The War On Poverty: What Research Tells Us And Implications For Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P; Karoly, Lynn A

    2015-01-01

    During the mid-1960s, the United States adopted a series of cash and in-kind transfer programs, as well as human capital investment strategies, as part of the War on Poverty. A number of other programs were first proposed as part of this "war" but were not implemented until the mid-1970s. These programs had noble goals: to increase incomes at the bottom of the income distribution, reduce poverty, and improve nutrition, heath, and human capital. However, various features of the programs also had the potential to produce unintended consequences: for example, means-tested programs can discourage work. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate the main War on Poverty programs that were aimed at the low-income nonelderly population along with several follow-on programs. We focus on both intended and unintended consequences, drawing on the most compelling causal evidence. We conclude with a series of lessons learned and questions that are outstanding.

  12. A Taxonomic Analysis of the Intended Learning Outcomes of the Primary School Social Studies Curriculum for 7th Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Gazel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes held as a result of scientific and technological developments affect our lives from all perspectives. Educational activities are also affected by this process. The previous primary school curriculum in Turkey has been gradually given up since 2005. “Constructivist” curricula have been developed. The Social Studies curriculum has been renewed in accordance with this conception as well. Therefore, all elements of the curriculum have been changed. Being defined as “objectives or goals” in the previous curriculum, the intended learning outcomes (ILOs of the Social Studies curriculum for 7th graders have been taxonomically analyzed. Findings indicated the ILOs of the Social Studies curriculum for 7th graders intensively take place in cognitive taxonomy and the number of the ILOs related to other taxonomies is lacking. It was seen that ILOs are compatible with content and activities in general. Through the findings and the literature, some recommendations were made.

  13. The Intellectual Demands of the Intended Primary Science Curriculum in Korea and Singapore: An analysis based on revised Bloom's taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Kim, Mijung; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung

    2015-09-01

    While there has been a remarkable worldwide convergence in the emphases of primary science curricula over the last four decades, the cognitive and knowledge demands that they make on learners have not been well-researched. Without knowing what these intellectual or epistemic requirements are when learning science in school, issues concerning curricular alignment and access to abstract disciplinary knowledge are also likely to occur. To highlight the value of such forms of analyses, we examine the intended primary science curricula from Korea and Singapore using revised Bloom's taxonomy, as well as describe some of their general features for teaching. The results contribute insights into the complexities of the science curriculum among two similar yet different educational systems that have performed well in international science achievement tests at primary levels.

  14. Accounting approach for long manufacturing cycle assets intended for sale according to the Order 3055/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busuioceanu, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of efforts of compatibility of existing accounting systems and regulations worldwide, the importance of accounting information and communication language to various beneficiaries is very important. Provision of compliance of accounting regulations with the European Directives in the field is a continuous process that requires adjustment of financial statements to business demands. In this context long term manufacturing cycle assets intended for sale are included in the class of inventories, but “when there is a change of use of tangible assets, meaning that it is to be improved in the light of sale, upon the date of making the decision to change the destination, the accounting registers the transfer of assets from the class of tangible fixed assets to inventories“.

  15. Fecal pollution source tracking in waters intended for human supply based on archaeal and bacterial genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Kayo; Barreto, Camila; Oliveira, Samara Sant'Anna; Pinto, Leonardo Henriques; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Miranda, Catia Chaia; Clementino, Maysa Mandetta

    2015-12-01

    The determination of fecal pollution sources in aquatic ecosystems is essential to estimate associated health risks. In this study, we evaluate eight microbial source tracking (MST) markers including host-specific Bacteroidales and Methanobrevibacter spp. for discrimination between human, bovine, equine, and swine fecal contamination in waters intended for human supply. Overall, the novel host-specific archaeal and bacterial primers proposed in this study demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Markers for the Archaea domain were more prevalent in the fecal and water samples studied. We conclude that the investigations regarding the sources of fecal pollution in public water supplies can contribute to improve the quality of human health. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using both archaeal and bacterial fecal MST markers on tropical water bodies of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

  16. Professional Knowledge and Skills Required for Accounting Majors Who Intend to Become Auditors: Perceptions of External Auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uyar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the professional knowledge and the skills/attributes that are considered important by external auditors for a graduate who intends to be an auditor. For this purpose, we conducted a survey on external auditors in Turkey. The research has two dimensions: skills dimension (twenty one items and professional knowledge dimension (twenty four items. The results indicated that all skills except “knowledge of accounting software” are perceived to be important or very important for the auditing profession. Among the most important skills that graduates are expected to possess are ethics, teamwork, and honesty. The results also demonstrated that some courses are perceived to be extremely necessary, e.g. Auditing, Microsoft Office Programs, Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Statement Analysis, Financial Accounting, Capital Market Board Regulations, Cost Accounting, and Managerial Accounting. In addition, cross analyses indicated that there are significant differences among subgroups based on gender, education, auditing firm, experience, and job title.

  17. Almanac 2012: Interventional cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Meier; Adam Timmis

    2013-01-01

    The field of interventional cardiology continues to progress quickly. The efficacy of percutaneous interventions with newer generation drug-eluting stents has advanced a lot over the last decade. This improvement in stent performance has broadened the level of indication towards more complex interventions such as left main and multi-vessel PCI. Major improvements continue in the field of medical co-therapy such as antiplatelet therapies (bivalirudin, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) and this will f...

  18. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  19. Distinction between the literal and intended meanings of sentences: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of metaphor and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hitoshi T; Saito, Daisuke N; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Harada, Tokiko; Seki, Ayumi; Ohno, Kousaku; Koeda, Tatsuya; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-05-01

    To comprehend figurative utterances such as metaphor or sarcasm, a listener must both judge the literal meaning of the statement and infer the speaker's intended meaning (mentalizing; Amodio and Frith, 2006). To delineate the neural substrates of pragmatic comprehension, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 20 normal adult volunteers. Participants read short stories followed by a target sentence. Depending on the context provided by the preceding stories, the target sentences were classified as follows: (1) metaphor versus literally coherent; (2) metaphor versus literally incoherent; (3) sarcasm versus literally coherent; and (4) sarcasm versus literally incoherent. For each task pair, we directly compared the activations evoked by the same target sentences in the different contexts. The contrast images were incorporated into a 2 (metaphor and sarcasm)×2 (literal coherency and incoherency) design. Metaphor-specific activation was found in the head of the caudate, which might be involved in associating statements with potential meanings, and restricting sentence meanings within a set of possible candidates for what the speaker intended. Sarcasm-specific activation was found in the left amygdala, which is an important component of the neural substrates of social behavior. Conjunction analysis revealed that both metaphor and sarcasm activated the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC), which is a key node of mentalizing. A distinct literal coherency effect was found in the orbital MFC, which is thought to be involved in monitoring. These mesial frontal areas are jointly involved in monitoring literal coherency and mentalizing within social contexts in order to comprehend the pragmatic meanings of utterances.

  20. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  1. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  2. Protocol for "Academic interventions for children and students with low socioeconomic status: A systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Dietrichson, Jens; Filges, Trine

    This protocol describes the outline for a systematic review of interventions intended to improve the educational achievement of children and students from families that have low socioeconomic status (SES) in terms of for example parental income, parental education, and/or paren-tal occupation...

  3. Protocol for "Academic interventions for children and students with low socioeconomic status: A systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Dietrichson, Jens; Filges, Trine

    This protocol describes the outline for a systematic review of interventions intended to improve the educational achievement of children and students from families that have low socioeconomic status (SES) in terms of for example parental income, parental education, and/or paren-tal occupation...

  4. Intervention Type Matters in Primary Prevention of Abusive Head Injury: Event History Analysis Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Beth S.; Trudeau, Jeremiah; Britner, Preston A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current study sought to compare interventional materials intended to raise public awareness of the caregiving practices connected to Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS). Two hundred and sixty four adults (mean age 32 years) were recruited for participation through convenience sampling at a large Northeastern university. Participants fell into…

  5. Effects of an intervention promoting proactive coping competencies in middle and late adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Kuijer, R.G.; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the posi

  6. Effects of an intervention promoting proactive coping competencies in middle and late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Kuijer, R.G.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the posi

  7. Unintended Effects of an Intervention Supporting Mexican-Heritage Youth: Decreased Parent Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Baldwin, Adrienne; Ayers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a parenting intervention, "Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación" (FPNG), intended to support children, on parents heavy drinking. We hypothesized that parent participants of FPNG would reduce their heavy drinking at 1-year follow-up. Methods: Parents (N = 281) of middle school children from a large,…

  8. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  9. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  10. Interventional neuroradiology techniques in interventional radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kieran; Robertson, Fergus; Watkinson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This book provides accessible technique-specific information on interventional radiology procedures, in a format suitable for reference in the IR treatment room or as a carry-around guide. Offers step-by-step points, key point summaries and illustrations.

  11. 采前乙酰水杨酸与采后1-MCP处理对厚皮甜瓜冷藏品质及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of Preharvest Acetylsalicylic Acid and Postharvest 1-MCP Treatments on Quality and Antioxidant Ability of Muskmelon Fruit during Cool Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚琪; 王婷; 李欣; 刘耀娜; 白晓东; 张溪桐; 王毅; 毕阳

    2016-01-01

    以“玛瑙”厚皮甜瓜为试材,通过采前分别在幼果期(花后2周)、膨大期(花后3周)、网纹形成期(花后4周)和采前2 d 4个时期喷洒乙酰水杨酸和采后1-甲基环丙烯(1-methylcyclopropene,1-MCP)熏蒸,研究单独或复合处理对冷藏期间果实品质及抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明,采前乙酰水杨酸处理可有效抑制贮藏期间果实的质量损失率的增加,延缓果皮转黄,维持可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量,提高总酚和类黄酮含量,提高抗氧化能力。1-MCP熏蒸能减少果实采后质量损失,维持硬度,增加抗坏血酸含量。复合处理在维持果实可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量、提高总酚和类黄酮的含量方面表现出协同效应。由此表明,乙酰水杨酸和1-MCP处理对维持甜瓜果实采后品质的作用效果与抑制乙烯的产生有关,而果实抗氧化能力的提高则与促进苯丙烷代谢产物及抗坏血酸的积累相关。%This study examined effects of multiple preharvest acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sprays combined with postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) fumigation on the quality and antioxidant ability of muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Manao) fruit during cool storage. The plants were sprayed with ASA four times, namely at young fruit period (2 weeks after lfowering), fruit enlarging period (3 weeks after lfowering), netting period (4 weeks after lfowering) and 2 days before harvest, respectively. After harvest, the fruits were fumigated with 1-MCP. The results indicated that preharvest ASA treatment inhibited weight loss, retarded peel yellowing, maintained the levels of total soluble solids and titratable acid, increased the contents of total phenolics and lfavonoids, and enhanced the antioxidant ability of fruits. 1-MCP fumigation decreased weight loss, maintained fruit ifrmness and increased the contents of ascorbic acid. Preharvest ASA combined with postharvest 1-MCP

  12. Anger Management Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E.; Palardy, Nicole R.; McElroy, Heather K.; Phillips, Nancy; Holmes, Khiela J.

    2004-01-01

    Two anger management interventions for aggressive children, Anger Coping and Coping Power, are described in this review article, including conceptual underpinnings, session format and content, and outcome research findings. Important issues and considerations in the implementation of such interventions are also presented. Overall, Anger Coping and…

  13. Psychoanalytic interventive psychodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Grossi Milani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interventive psychodiagnosis introduced changes in the clinical evaluation process mainly with regard to the stance and the interventions of the professional during procedures. Current paper registers the results obtained in research work with patients undergoing interventive psychodiagnosis, from a theoretical psychoanalytic investigation, so that the practical and theoretical specificities for the application of this method could be known. Studies were retrieved from electronic databases such as LILACS, Scielo, BVS-PSI and university libraries. The articles showed that patients attended to were benefitted by interventive psychodiagnosis, making it possible to construct their trajectory as agents of their own history. Psychoanalytic interventive psychodiagnosis is a method that allows the intuitive understanding of the unconscious through which the patients have the possibility of decreasing their mental suffering by a well-established holding within an adequate environment.

  14. Who needs intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Who needs intervention? A phonological screening tool for children with cleft palate Children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip (CP) are at risk of speech and language delay. It is important to identify children with difficulties as early as possible in order to offer appropriate intervention...... to determine which children need early intervention. Naturalistic listening is used for evaluating consonant inventory, and children are assigned to +/- need for intervention based on their use of specific phonological categories known as early predictors of later speech and language difficulties in children...... with CP. To determine the external validity of this procedure, it is compared to experienced speech and language pathologists’(SLPs) clinical judgment of whether or not a child with CP needs early intervention. A group of 20 children with CP between 17 and 24 months of age will be video recorded for 45...

  15. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  16. Design of a health-promoting neighborhood intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Krishnasamy, Prasanna V

    2007-07-01

    Design and implementation of health-promoting community interventions can advance public health and community well-being; however, realization of such programs is often challenging. Even more challenging is the implementation of ecologic interventions to revitalize built urban environments. A structured intervention entitled ;Intersection Repair; was devised in Portland, Oregon, by a non-profit organization, to implement urban gathering places in the public right of way; specific steps included situation analysis, community outreach, asset mapping, design workshops, construction permitting, building workshops, and process evaluation. The community created human-scale urban landscapes with interactive art installations to encourage social interactions. Such aesthetic improvements, which included painted street murals, information kiosks, hanging gardens, water fountains, benches, and so on, were intended to strengthen social networks and social capital by providing places for residents to engage in conversation. Community engagement in neighborhood design benefits the public at multiple levels, by promoting a healthier lifestyle, over and above urban landscape improvements.

  17. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  18. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  19. Clarification of When Products Made or Derived From Tobacco Are Regulated as Drugs, Devices, or Combination Products; Amendments to Regulations Regarding "Intended Uses." Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to describe the circumstances in which a product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption will be subject to regulation as a drug, device, or a combination product under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This action is intended to provide direction to regulated industry and to help avoid consumer confusion.

  20. "Will they just pack up and leave?" – attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Kieren

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a general consensus that another influenza pandemic is inevitable. Although health care workers (HCWs are essential to the health system response, there are few studies exploring HCW attitudes to pandemic influenza. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviour towards pandemic influenza. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of a convenience sample of clinical and non-clinical HCWs from two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia was conducted between June 4 and October 19, 2007. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to hospital personal from 40 different wards and departments. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation. Results Respondents were categorized into four main groups by occupation: Nursing (47.5%, Medical (26.0%, Allied (15.3% and Ancillary (11.2%. Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious (80.9%, n = 873 but less than half were able to correctly define it (43.9%, n = 473. Only 24.8% of respondents believed their department to be prepared for a pandemic, but nonetheless most were willing to work during a pandemic if a patient or colleague had influenza. The main determinants of variation in our study were occupational factors, demographics and health beliefs. Non-clinical staff were significantly most likely to be unsure of their intentions (OR 1.43, p Conclusion We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans – the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective measure; secondly, that non-clinical workers are an overlooked group whose lack of knowledge and awareness could undermine pandemic plans. Other issues included a high level of confidence in dietary measures to protect against influenza, and a belief among ancillary workers that antibiotics would be protective. All

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging.

  2. Intended Use of a Building in Terms of Updating the Cadastral Database and Harmonizing the Data with other Public Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the original wording of the Regulation on the register of land and buildings of 2001, in the real estate cadastre there was one attribute associated with the use of a building structure - its intended use, which was applicable until the amendment to the Regulation was introduced in 2013. Then, additional attributes were added, i.e. the type of the building according to the Classification of Fixed Assets (KST, the class of the building according to the Polish Classification of Types of Constructions (PKOB and, at the same time, the main functional use and other functions of the building remained in the Regulation as well. The record data on buildings are captured for the real estate cadastre from other data sets, for example those maintained by architectural and construction authorities. At the same time, the data contained in the cadastre, after they have been entered or changed in the database, are transferred to other registers, such as tax records, or land and mortgage court registers. This study is the result of the analysis of the laws applicable to the specific units and registers. A list of discrepancies in the attributes occurring in the different registers was prepared. The practical part of the study paid particular attention to the legal bases and procedures for entering the function of a building in the real estate cadastre, which is extremely significant, as it is the attribute determining the property tax basis.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 intended for feed additive: immune-stimulatory properties and ameliorating effects on TNBS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogi, C; García, G; De Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C; Cavaglieri, L

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 is a potential probiotic bacterium that can exert beneficial effects as supplement for animal feed, by improving the immune status in healthy host, and by providing therapeutic benefits to infected/inflamed animals. The aim of the present work was to evaluate in vivo the beneficial properties of L. rhamnosus RC007, intended for animal feed, when administered to healthy and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) colitis induced BALB/c mice. The administration of L. rhamnosus RC007 to healthy mice during 10 days increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages and the number of immunoglobulin A+ cells in the lamina proper of the small intestine. Significant increases of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations, and in the ratio between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10/TNF-α) were observed in intestinal fluids after administration of bacteria. In the inflammation model, less body weight loss, macroscopic and histological damages in the large intestine were accompanied by increased IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the intestinal fluids of mice from the L. rhamnosus-TNBS group when compared to the TNBS group. In a healthy host, the oral administration of L. rhamnosus RC007 kept the gut immune system stimulated allowing a faster response to noxious stimulus. Mice that received L. rhamnosus RC007 also decreased the severity of the intestinal inflammation.

  4. Effects of Wet/Dry-Cycling and Plasma Treatments on the Properties of Flax Nonwovens Intended for Composite Reinforcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heura Ventura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the effects of different treatments on flax nonwoven (NW fabrics which are intended for composite reinforcement. The treatments applied were of two different kinds: a wet/dry cycling which helps to stabilize the cellulosic fibers against humidity changes and plasma treatments with air, argon and ethylene gases considering different conditions and combinations, which produce variation on the chemical surface composition of the NWs. The resulting changes in the chemical surface composition, wetting properties, thermal stability and mechanical properties were determined. Variations in surface morphology could be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed significant changes to the surface chemistry for the samples treated with argon or air (with more content on polar groups on the surface and ethylene plasma (with less content of polar groups. Although only slight differences were found in moisture regain and water retention values (WRV, significant changes were found on the contact angle values, thus revealing hydrophilicity for the air-treated and argon-treated samples and hydrophobicity for the ethylene-treated ones. Moreover, for some of the treatments the mechanical testing revealed an increase of the NW breaking force.

  5. Manic tendencies are not related to being an entrepreneur, intending to become an entrepreneur, or succeeding as an entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Freeman, Michael A; Staudenmaier, Paige J

    2015-03-01

    Popular literature suggests a relationship between entrepreneurship and manic tendencies, yet little scientific research has evaluated whether manic tendencies foster entrance into entrepreneurial roles, intent to become an entrepreneur, or success as an entrepreneur. In study 1, 225 undergraduates and business school students/affiliates took an online survey to assess engagement and intent as entrepreneurs, as well as manic tendencies, including family diagnoses as reported on the Family Index of Risk for Mania, subsyndromal manic tendencies as assessed with the Hypomanic Personality Scale, and self-reported diagnoses. In study 2, the sample of entrepreneurs identified in study 1 was enriched by recruiting a larger group of established entrepreneurs from the community. Entrepreneurs (n=210) completed items concerning their success in entrepreneurship, and we examined whether the three measures of manic tendencies were related to success. There was no evidence that those vulnerable to mania, regardless of definition, were more likely to be entrepreneurs, to intend to become entrepreneurs, or to succeed as entrepreneurs. The studies were limited by self-report measures and relatively small samples. More nuanced models may explain the frequent clinical observations of manic traits among entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Intended Audience in Determining Modality Type: A Study in Relation to the Iranian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Naghizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Language, as a means of communication, offers its speakers some tools by which they can convey the meanings they intend to. One of these tools is the use of modals. Modals help the speakers to express their attitudes and opinions, regarding what is going on in a sentence. Epistemic modality deals with possibility and prediction and deontic modality concerns permission and obligation. This study aims to figure out whether Iranian constitution, as a sample of the laws set by the governments, seems likely more to convey the sense of obligation and permission to the audience(applying deontic modality,or the writers of these laws are just narrating a piece of information. For this purpose, the frequency of each modal type within Iranian constitution is evaluated and considered as an indicator of the writers' attitudes. Modal verbs, auxiliary modals and adverbs in the text of Iranian constitution are analyzed and different types and subtypes of modals are distinguished. The results have shown that in 83% of the applied modals, the spirit of permission and obligation for implementing these laws is very crucially and fully presented by the tool of deontic modality which is used for such purposes. Most of these obligations target the government and the permissions are mostly dedicated to people.

  7. Vitamin D concentrations in fortified foods and dietary supplements intended for infants: Implications for vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Seves, S Marije; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-04-15

    Due to potential overages to cover losses during shelf life, the actual vitamin D concentration of fortified foods and dietary supplements may deviate from the label. In this pilot study the vitamin D concentrations of fortified foods (n=29; follow-on formula, baby porridge, curd cheese dessert) and dietary supplements (n=15), both specifically intended for infants, were analytically determined. Compared to the declared values, the vitamin D content ranged from 50% to 153% for fortified foods and from 8% to 177% for supplements. In general, both instant follow-on formula and oil-based supplements had a measured vitamin D content similar to or higher than the labelled value. Ready-to-eat baby porridge was the only category in which all measured vitamin D concentrations were below the declared value (74-81%). The use of label information for fortified foods and dietary supplements may result in invalid estimations of vitamin D intake distributions of infants; both under- and overestimation may occur.

  8. Precipitation effects on the selection of suitable non-variant targets intended for atmospheric correction of satellite remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Retalis, Adrianos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Michaelides, Silas

    2013-09-01

    One of the most well-established atmospheric correction methods of satellite imagery is the use of the empirical line method using non-variant targets. Non-variant targets serve as pseudo-invariant targets since their reflectance values are stable across time. A recent adaptation of the empirical line method incorporates the use of ground reflectance measurements of selected non-variant targets. Most of the users are not aware of the existing conditions of the pseudo-invariant targets; i.e., whether they are dry or wet. Any omission of such effects may cause erroneous results; therefore, remote sensing users must be aware of such effects. This study assessed the effects of precipitation on five types of commonly located surfaces, including asphalt, concrete and sand, intended as pseudo-invariant targets for atmospheric correction. Spectroradiometric measurements were taken in wet and dry conditions to obtain the spectral signatures of the targets, from January 2010 to May 2011 (46 campaigns). An atmospheric correction of eleven Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images using the empirical line method was conducted. To identify the effects of precipitation, a comparison was conducted of the atmospheric path radiance component for wet and dry conditions. It was found that precipitation conditions such as rainfall affected the reflectance values of the surfaces, especially sand. Therefore, precipitation conditions need to be considered when using non-variant targets in atmospheric correction methods.

  9. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sociu F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa, to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  10. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fako, R.; Barariu, Gh.; Toma, R.; Georgescu, R.; Sociu, F.

    2013-07-01

    Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa), to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module) where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  11. On the intended and unintended consequences of enhanced U.S. Border and interior immigration enforcement: evidence from Mexican deportees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Since about 2000, a number of federal and state policies have been implemented in the United States with the intention of stemming the flow of illegal immigration. In this article, we focus on two initiatives: (1) Operation Streamline, as an example of increased border enforcement by the federal government; and (2) state-level omnibus immigration laws, as an illustration of enhanced interior enforcement by state governments. We investigate whether these policies have reduced the intentions of deported Mexican immigrants to attempt a new unauthorized crossing. Although state-level omnibus immigration laws reduce the proportion of deportees intending to attempt a new crossing, increased border enforcement has proven to be far less effective. In addition, we ascertain the human costs associated with these policies. Our findings are mixed in this regard. Noteworthy is how the adoption of more stringent interior enforcement seems to result in a "herding" or "ganging-up" effect, whereby the incidence of verbal and physical abuse rises with the number of states enacting such measures. Additionally, our estimates suggest that deportees are more likely to respond that they have risked their lives to cross into the United States as a result of enhanced border enforcement.

  12. Tabula diptycha: differential HIV knowledge, stigma and intended behavioural outcomes amongst visitors at Vietnam's Pain and Hope exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki; Nguyen, Mai Huong; Giang, Le Minh; Hirsch, Jennifer; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam have been encumbered by contradictory and dynamic views of people living with HIV and the epidemic over the past two decades. World AIDS Day 2010 saw the launch of Pain and Hope, a museum exhibition showcasing the lives and experiences of Vietnamese people living with AIDS at the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology (VME). Between December 2010 and May 2011, a random sample of visitors completed exit surveys regarding their attitudes towards the exhibition and Vietnamese living with HIV/AIDS. The survey sought to determine what kind of visitors the museum and exhibition attracted, and the stigma-related impacts of this kind of exposure and parasocial contact. Of 2500 Vietnamese visitors randomly selected, 852 completed the computer surveys (response rate of 34.1%), 92.3% of whom had seen Pain and Hope. We found two sub-strata or types of visitors attending the exhibition, with varying demographic characteristics, HIV-related knowledge, some differences in stigma ideation, and clear differences in intended behaviours specifically attributable to the exhibition. Social desirability biases notwithstanding, there has emerged a diptych typology of visitors to the VME, for whom the experience of the exhibition is likely interacting with divergent prior knowledge, experiences, interests and motivations.

  13. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Nicola; Aggar, Christina; Kurrle, Susan E; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen; Lockwood, Keri; Monaghan, Noeline; Cameron, Ian D

    2008-10-13

    Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity). Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty.We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a new approach to the treatment of older people at risk of further

  14. Introduction to Interventional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarmo Ruohonen; William G.Bradley; Jr.MD

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of interventional procedures are done under imaging guidance. These include biopsies, drainages and injections. Likewise, imaging guidance and monitoring have enabled the use of sophisticated techniques for minimally invasive therapy of tumors. Since MRI provides the best tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity,the use of MR-guided procedures (MRGP) is quickly gaining momentum. Special hardware and software solutions have been developed that allow more efficient interventional use of the MR scanner.This introduction summarizes the basic concepts of interventional MRI and outlines some of the applications of today and tomorrow.

  15. A Case-Series Evaluation of a Brief, Psycho-Social Approach Intended for the Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrina Brett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of research into relapse prevention in psychosis; however, specific research into the effectiveness of short-term, self-management strategies aimed to prevent relapse is lacking. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of Sorensen’s ‘Relapse Prevention in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses’ manual-based therapy (Sorensen, 2006b with 11 participants in one UK National Health Service Trust. The intervention was delivered over four sessions and interviews were conducted pre and post intervention. The effect of the intervention on measures of hopelessness, perceived control over internal states, and satisfaction were recorded using validated questionnaires at one week, one month and two months follow-up, supported by measures taken from visual analogue scales. Data analysis revealed significant improvements on hopelessness, perceived control over internal states, and satisfaction at one week follow-up, although these results were not maintained at one and two months follow-up. Additionally, the attrition rate meant that results lacked statistical power at one and two months follow-up. The study also considered the clinical significance of the research findings with the Jacobson-Truax (Jacobson & Truax, 1991 method for measuring reliable change. A substantial number of clients attained clinically significant changes with regards to hopelessness and perceived control over internal states. Future research is required in order to evaluate the use of self-management strategies to prevent relapse. It would be valuable to repeat the current study with the additional use of booster sessions in order to assess whether the positive impacts on hopelessness and perceived control over illness can be maintained at the longer term follow up.

  16. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.

  17. [Bone marrow transplantation in children. Constructive evaluation of an intervention for parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiseux, Sylvie; Duhamel, Fabie

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to determine, through a co-construction process with the study participants, the needs of parents preparing for their child's bone marrow transplantation and to evaluate nursing interventions intended to facilitate their adaptation. The study was conducted with the Guba and Lincoln research method, in which the intervention is evaluated using a construction of knowledge based on different perspectives. Consequently, a content analysis was done to determine the aspects to be considered and establish specific categories. The study found that being informed rapidly, meeting other parents and receiving support from the extended family are all needs experienced by parents that help identify appropriate nursing interventions.

  18. Exploring the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in several poor colonias in Ciudad Juárez (Mexico). Parents of children with respiratory problems were given environment-friendly products intended to replace hazardous products used in the home, as well as information about environmental health. Parents were surveyed before and after to measure the effectiveness of the intervention and to gauge perceptions. There was a significant reduction in hazardous chemical use (eg, cleaning products and pesticides) and breathing problems. While the intervention focused on changing in-home behaviors, open-ended responses revealed that parents were most concerned about outdoor environmental conditions over which they had less control.

  19. Gender based violence and psychosocial intervention at Quito. Weaving narratives to construct new meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Guarderas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been done in Ecuador on psychosocial interventions involving gender violence. This article, based on research carried out in Quito with people who have experienced this type of violence, is intended to contribute to the debate on the subject. Through narrative production methodology, we hope to construct new meanings of psychosocial intervention and gender violence. The participants offer conceptions of gender violence that go beyond aspects usually taken into account in the creation of laws and services. They point out that current psychosocial intervention in response to gender violence tends to homogenize women, providing services that reduce these situations to woman/victim-man/perpetrator scenarios.

  20. 采前套袋对黄肉桃货架期果皮超微结构的影响%Effect of preharvest bagging on ultrastructural changes of yellow-peach pericarp during shelf-life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧娟; 叶正文; 王戈; 苏明申; 杜纪红; 李雄伟

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] This study was designed to research ultrastructural changes such as the cell walls,mitochondrion,osmiophilic globules and chromoplast of yellow-peach pericarp which were stored at room-temperature,and to explore the aging characteristics of the cellular level and the relationship with the storage characteristics of yellow-peach pericarp after postharvest.All of the above was performed in order to research the effects of preharvest bagging on ultrastructural changes of yellow-peach and to provide a certain scientific basis and practical guidance for fresh peach variety improvement and technology research.With the progress of transmission electron microscopy (SEM) technology and the study of cell ultrastructure in-depth,electron microscopy (SEM) technology has been widely applied in fruit trees.The cell walls,mitochondrion,osmiophilic globules and chromoplast of two varieties of yellow-peach pericarp were observed by transmission electron microscopy in this study.[Methods] The pericarp of the ‘Hu454' and ‘Jinxiu' yellow-peach was selected as material for this study.A total of 600 ‘Hu454' and ‘Jinxiu' yellow peaches were harvested respectively from the experimental orchard of the Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences inShanghai.The fruit was immediately moved to the analysis lab within 30 min and placed at 20 ℃ for 2 h.Maturity was assessed on a sample of the fruit that were similar in size,skin color and absence of mechanical damage,and then randomly divided into four groups,and then packed with bubble nets into plastic crates,and stored at (25±2) ℃ and 75%-80% humidity.The yellow-peach pericarp was taken at intervals of 2,4,6 and 8 d and stored at room-temperature.The ultrastructural changes were determined by JEM2120OEX SEM.Six fruits were randomly taken from each group,then peeled from the cross area of the equator and ordinate with a surgical blade,the thickness of each peel was 0.1 cm,and the area was 0.05 cm×0.05 cm.There were

  1. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann

    2016-11-01

    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  2. Is Early Intervention Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1974-01-01

    Synthesizes the results of current follow-up studies on the efficacy of preschool programs, and lays down the basis for a major reorientation in the design of intervention programs and in the training of personnel. (CS)

  3. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology General News Multiple procedure payment reduction (MPPR) rate ... contact Eleanore Moye . Learn more . American Board of Radiology Announces Maintenance of Certification Part 3: ABR diplomates ...

  4. Intending the Unintended: The Act of Building Agent-based Models as a Regular Source of Knowledge Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Ayyangar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a complex issue that is rarely conducive to analysis in laboratory or field experiments. Effective interventions that aim to decrease or eliminate poverty require an understanding of the intricate web of associated social issues. The need for this increased comprehension necessitates the use of alternative robust means of analysis: one such being agent-based modelling. The strengths of agent-based modelling to disaggregate complex social behaviours and understand them are well known. However, while people have explored how the modelling process can prove to be fruitful, the usually unintended insight gained and the knowledge engendered during the model design process goes largely unnoticed. In this paper, we aspire to show precisely how the model building process is critical in leading to unintended knowledge generation for modellers by drawing from three US based examples where agent-based modelling was used to aid research into the effects of interventions that address poverty and human development through programs and issues facing low-income families. With these examples, we illustrate some of the means to harness new knowledge generated. In our discussion, we also highlight the advantageous nature of agent-based model design as an independent source of knowledge generation.

  5. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  6. Model-Based Dose Selection for Intravaginal Ring Formulations Releasing Anastrozole and Levonorgestrel Intended for the Treatment of Endometriosis Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Isabel; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Nave, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Heinz; Ploeger, Bart A

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) of anastrozole (ATZ) and levonorgestrel (LNG) released from an intravaginal ring (IVR) intended to treat endometriosis symptoms were characterized, and the exposure-response relationship focusing on the development of large ovarian follicle-like structures was investigated by modeling and simulation to support dose selection for further studies. A population PK analysis and simulations were performed for ATZ and LNG based on clinical phase 1 study data from 66 healthy women. A PK/PD model was developed to predict the probability of a maximum follicle size ≥30 mm and the potential contribution of ATZ beside the known LNG effects. Population PK models for ATZ and LNG were established where the interaction of LNG with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) as well as a stimulating effect of estradiol on SHBG were considered. Furthermore, simulations showed that doses of 40 μg/d LNG combined with 300, 600, or 1050 μg/d ATZ reached anticipated exposure levels for both drugs, facilitating selection of ATZ and LNG doses in the phase 2 dose-finding study. The main driver for the effect on maximum follicle size appears to be unbound LNG exposure. A 50% probability of maximum follicle size ≥30 mm was estimated for 40 μg/d LNG based on the exposure-response analysis. ATZ in the dose range investigated does not increase the risk for ovarian cysts as occurs with LNG at a dose that does not inhibit ovulation. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Soil quality is key for planning and managing urban allotments intended for the sustainable production of home-consumption vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzel, F; Calderisi, M; Scatena, M; Pini, R

    2016-09-01

    The growing importance of urban allotments in planning and managing urban areas is due to the combined positive effects on ecosystem services, the economy and human well-being, especially of groups of the urban population that can be vulnerable (e.g. the elderly, immigrants, low-income families). Some studies have highlighted the potential risk of contamination by metals of vegetables grown in urban areas and the lack of appropriate site-specific risk assessments. However, surveys are still lacking on the possibilities of using urban soil as a good substrate to produce vegetables for home consumption. We assessed the soil quality in two areas in Pisa (Italy), one intended for urban horticulture and the other already cultivated for that purpose. We analysed the soils for the main chemical and physical characteristics (texture, bulk density, water stability index, pH, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorous) and elements (Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, K, Al and Mn). Our results showed that both areas had physical and chemical heterogeneity due to the effects of urbanization and to the different cultivation techniques employed. The metal content was lower than the guidelines limits, and the soil conditions (pH = 8) greatly reduced the metal mobility. Copper concentration in some of the cultivated area samples was higher than the limits, representing a possible stress factor for the microbial biodiversity and fauna. Our findings demonstrate that site-specific surveys are necessary before planning urban cultivation areas, and educating urban gardeners regarding sustainable cultivation techniques is a priority for a safe environment.

  8. Low-Power, Low-Voltage Electroosmotic Actuator for an Implantable Micropumping System Intended for Drug Delivery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getpreecharsawas, Jirachai

    An electroosmotic (EO) actuator offers a low-power, low-voltage alternative in a diaphragm-based periodic displacement micropump intended for an implantable drug delivery system. The actuator utilizes an electroosmosis mechanism to transport liquid across a membrane to deflect the pumping diaphragms in a reciprocating manner. In the study, the membrane made of porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) tens of nanometers in thickness was used as the promising EO generator with low power consumption and small package size. This ultrathin membrane provides the opportunity for electrode integration such that the very high electric field can be generated across the membrane with the applied potential under 1 volt for low flow rate applications like drug delivery. Due to such a low applied voltage, the challenge, however, imposes on the capability of generating the pumping pressure high enough to deflect the pumping diaphragms and overcome the back pressure normally encountered in the biological tissue and organ. This research identified the cause of weak pumping pressure that the electric field inside the orifice-like nanopores of the ultrathin membrane is weaker than conventional theory would predict. It no longer scales uniformly with the thickness of membrane, but with the pore length-to-diameter aspect ratio for each nanopore. To enhance the pumping performance, the pnc-Si membrane was coated with an ultrathin Nafion film. As a result, the induced concentration difference across the Nafion film generates the osmotic pressure against the back pressure allowing the EO actuator to maintain the target pumping flow rate under 1 volt.

  9. The influence of crystallization conditions on the morphology of lactose intended for use as a carrier for dry powder aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C; Pritchard, J

    2000-06-01

    Lactose has been widely used as a carrier for inhalation aerosols. The carrier morphology is believed to affect the delivery of the drug. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of crystallization conditions on the morphology of alpha-lactose monohydrate intended for use as the carrier for dry powder aerosols. The crystallization of lactose was carried out from aqueous solutions at different supersaturations, temperatures, different stages of crystallization and in the presence of different water-miscible organic solvents. The majority of lactose crystals were found to be either tomahawk-shaped or pyramidal after crystallization at an initial lactose concentration between 33-43% w/w, but these became prismatic if the lactose concentration was increased to 50% w/w. A further increase in the lactose concentration to 60% w/w led to the preparation of elongated cuboidal crystals. Higher initial lactose concentrations tended to result in the crystallization of more elongated particles. Crystallization at 40 degrees C was shown to prepare lactose crystals with a more regular shape and a smoother surface than those crystallized at 0 degrees C. Lactose particles generated during the later stage of crystallization were found to be more regular in shape with a smoother surface than those prepared in the earlier stage. The addition of 10% (v/v) methanol or ethanol or acetone to the mother liquor increased the growth rate of lactose particles whereas addition of propanol or glycerine inhibited the rate of crystal growth. Lactose crystals prepared in the presence of glycerine were more regularly shaped with a smoother surface than those prepared in the presence of ethanol or acetone. All the resultant crystals were shown to comprise alpha-lactose monohydrate. Lactose crystals could be prepared with a precisely defined morphology by means of carefully controlling the crystallization conditions.

  10. Chemical analysis and potential endocrine activities of aluminium coatings intended to be in contact with cosmetic water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Maroun, Elias; Dahbi, Laurence; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Pierre, Philippine; Rakotomalala, Sandrine; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2017-10-25

    The objective of the work was to check the presence of Non-Intended Added Substances (NIAS) with hormonal activities in aluminium coatings extracts coded: AA, BBF, MC and RR, furnished by four different suppliers. Water samples were prepared at room temperature or at 40°C for three months to verify the storage effect on the coatings. Solid phase extraction was used to concentrate and to extract coating substances. Hormonal activities were checked in vitro using reporter gene bioassays. Except BBF, all extracts induced a weak but significant estrogenic agonist activity in the human cell line. Using an estrogenic antagonist (ICI-182, 780), the answer was demonstrated specific in the bioassay. RR was the only extract to induce a concentration dependent anti-androgenic response in the MDA-KB2 cell line. Analysis performed using GC-MS and HPLC-MS detected 12 substances in most of the extracts. 8 NIAS were present. Among them, 4 were identified with certainty: HMBT, BGA, DCU and BPA. Estrogenic potency was BPA>DCU>BGA>HMBT. HMBT was also anti-androgenic at high concentration. Combining chemical analysis and bioassays data, we demonstrated that in the RR and the RR40 extracts, the observed estrogenic response was mainly due to BPA, the anti-androgenic activity of RR could be due to a synergism between HMBT and BPA. For MC and AA, estrogenic responses appear to be due to the presence of DCU. Except BBF, storage conditions tended to increase estrogenic activities in all extracts. However, in term of risk assessment, activities observed were negligible. This work demonstrated that sensitive bioassays are pertinent tools in complement to chemical analysis to monitor and check the presence of NIAS with hormonal activity in coating extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Back-of-pack information in substitutive food choices: A process-tracking study in participants intending to eat healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Bolman, Catherine A W; Brouns, Fred J P H; Lechner, Lilian

    2017-09-01

    People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions - choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested - are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpret on-pack nutrition information, resulting in suboptimal food choices in terms of health. This study aims to unravel the determinants of such inadvertent food choices from these consumers. In an online process-tracking study, we measured the actual usage of available back-of-pack nutrition information during substitutive food choices made by 240 participants who had the intention to eat healthy. Using mouse-tracking software in a computerized task in which participants had to make dichotomous food choices (e.g., coconut oil or olive oil for baking), we measured the frequency and time of nutritional information considered. Combined with demographic and psychosocial data, including information on the level of intention, action planning, self-efficacy, and nutrition literacy, we were able to model the determinants of inadvertent unhealthy substitutive food choices in a sequential multiple regression (R(2) = 0.40). In these consumers who intended to eat healthy, the quantity of obtained nutrition information significantly contributed as an associative factor of the percentage of healthy food choices made. Moreover, the level of correct answers in a nutrition literacy test, as well as taste preferences, significantly predicted the percentage of healthier choices. We discuss that common psychosocial determinants of healthy behavior, such as intention, action planning, and self-efficacy, need to be augmented with a person's actual reading and understanding of nutrition information to better explain the variance in healthy food choice behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition intervention in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anzolin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the effectiveness of nutrition intervention in changing dietary intake among school children aged 6 to 10 years old in private school, in the city of Itajaí - SC, Brazil. Methods: A non-randomized and uncontrolled intervention study, carried through four educational activities in the period from August to November, 2008 and food intake reassessed at the end. We evaluated the nutritional status by means of body mass index for age and sex, and waist circumference. The frequency of consumption before and after intervention was compared using the paired Student t test. Results: Joined in the survey 93 students (69.92% of whom 48 children (54.5% were normal weight, while 36 (40.9% were overweight or presented obesity. The most consumed food groups, before and after intervention were: crackers and pasta; rice and fruit juice. The average frequency of sweets intake decreased after the intervention (0.54 to 0.24 times per day, p <0.001, however increased the intake of fried potatoes (0.25 to 0.65, p <0.001, pizza and hamburger (0.30 to 0.46, p = 0.028. Among girls, the intake of sweets decreased after the educational activities (0.58 to 0.12, p <0.001. Conclusions: Nutritional interventions, despite the short period of time, were effective in changing the consumption of certain foods / food groups. The results reinforce the need to carry out interventions more often and for longer periods, to promote effective changes in food consumption.

  13. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a

  14. Safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes used to produce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) intended for food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélémy, E; Spyropoulos, D; Milana, M-R; Pfaff, K; Gontard, N; Lampi, E; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The development of a scheme for the safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is described. The starting point is the adoption of a threshold of toxicological concern such that migration from the recycled PET should not give rise to a dietary exposure exceeding 0.0025 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), the exposure threshold value for chemicals with structural alerts raising concern for potential genotoxicity, below which the risk to human health would be negligible. It is practically impossible to test every batch of incoming recovered PET and every production batch of recycled PET for all the different chemical contaminants that could theoretically arise. Consequently, the principle of the safety evaluation is to measure the cleaning efficiency of a recycling process by using a challenge test with surrogate contaminants. This cleaning efficiency is then applied to reduce a reference contamination level for post-consumer PET, conservatively set at 3 mg kg(-1) PET for a contaminant resulting from possible misuse by consumers. The resulting residual concentration of each contaminant in recycled PET is used in conservative migration models to calculate migration levels, which are then used along with food consumption data to give estimates of potential dietary exposure. The default scenario, when the recycled PET is intended for general use, is that of an infant weighing 5 kg and consuming every day powdered infant formula reconstituted with 0.75 L of water coming from water bottles manufactured with 100% recycled PET. According to this scenario, it can be derived that the highest concentration of a substance in water that would ensure that the dietary exposure of 0.0025 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) is not exceeded, is 0.017 μg kg(-1) food. The maximum residual content that would comply with this migration limit depends on molecular weight and is in the range 0.09-0.32 mg kg(-1) PET for the typical surrogate contaminants.

  15. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  17. Persuasive system design does matter: a systematic review of adherence to web-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelders, Saskia M; Kok, Robin N; Ossebaard, Hans C; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2012-11-14

    Although web-based interventions for promoting health and health-related behavior can be effective, poor adherence is a common issue that needs to be addressed. Technology as a means to communicate the content in web-based interventions has been neglected in research. Indeed, technology is often seen as a black-box, a mere tool that has no effect or value and serves only as a vehicle to deliver intervention content. In this paper we examine technology from a holistic perspective. We see it as a vital and inseparable aspect of web-based interventions to help explain and understand adherence. This study aims to review the literature on web-based health interventions to investigate whether intervention characteristics and persuasive design affect adherence to a web-based intervention. We conducted a systematic review of studies into web-based health interventions. Per intervention, intervention characteristics, persuasive technology elements and adherence were coded. We performed a multiple regression analysis to investigate whether these variables could predict adherence. We included 101 articles on 83 interventions. The typical web-based intervention is meant to be used once a week, is modular in set-up, is updated once a week, lasts for 10 weeks, includes interaction with the system and a counselor and peers on the web, includes some persuasive technology elements, and about 50% of the participants adhere to the intervention. Regarding persuasive technology, we see that primary task support elements are most commonly employed (mean 2.9 out of a possible 7.0). Dialogue support and social support are less commonly employed (mean 1.5 and 1.2 out of a possible 7.0, respectively). When comparing the interventions of the different health care areas, we find significant differences in intended usage (p=.004), setup (pdesign a web-based intervention to which patients are more likely to adhere.

  18. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    clients change their everyday lives to overcome their troubles. They also highlight what it involves for clients to accomplish this. It is concluded that we need more research on how to understand intervention; on the interaction between interventions and clients’ conduct of their everyday life......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...

  19. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  20. Towards Sutatinable Energy Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Material and energy overuse of the past centuries has created a need for energy sufficiency and a sustainable building culture both in new constructions and in existing buildings. But conventional interventions like energy renovation neglect the embedded energy and the tectonics of the existing......, Denmark, this paper investigates if the historic seaweed material and building technique has informed new constructions. Furthermore, it discusses how new interventions can be integrated into the tectonics of an existing building and if the historic knowledge can contribute to the modern concept of energy...

  1. An educational intervention to improve pain assessment in preverbal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vael, Aimee; Whitted, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric nurses often use an inappropriate tool to assess pain in children younger than 36 months of age. This intervention intended to improve the nursing practice of assessing pain in preverbal (less than 36 months of age) children. Pain assessment frequency and use of a pain assessment pediatric tool use was evaluated pre- and post-intervention via a retrospective chart review and a survey of pediatric nurses. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to determine significant differences between pre- and post-intervention data for both approaches. The chart review data showed a significant increase in the number of times pain was assessed and documented post-educational intervention. Similarly, the survey data analysis showed a significant post-intervention increase in the use of a pain assessment tool and that most nurses used the FLACC pain assessment tool when assessing pain in preverbal children. Educating staff nurses about the use of an appropriate pain assessment scale altered practice and improved the frequency of pain assessment of preverbal children.

  2. Low-Carbon Energy Development in Indonesia in Alignment with Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC by 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucok W.R. Siagian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the role of low-carbon energy technologies in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of Indonesia’s energy sector by 2030. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the Indonesian government’s approach to developing a strategy and plan for mitigating emissions and achieving Indonesia’s emission reduction targets by 2030, as pledged in the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. The Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE model was used to quantify three scenarios that had the same socioeconomic assumptions: baseline, countermeasure (CM1, and CM2, which had a higher emission reduction target than that of CM1. Results of the study showed that an Indonesian low-carbon energy system could be achieved with two pillars, namely, energy efficiency measures and deployment of less carbon-intensive energy systems (i.e., the use of renewable energy in the power and transport sectors, and the use of natural gas in the power sector and in transport. Emission reductions would also be satisfied through the electrification of end-user consumption where the electricity supply becomes decarbonized by deploying renewables for power generation. Under CM1, Indonesia could achieve a 15.5% emission reduction target (compared to the baseline scenario. This reduction could be achieved using efficiency measures that reduce final energy demand by 4%; This would require the deployment of geothermal power plants at a rate six times greater than the baseline scenario and four times the use of hydropower than that used in the baseline scenario. Greater carbon reductions (CM2; i.e., a 27% reduction could be achieved with similar measures to CM1 but with more intensive penetration. Final energy demand would need to be cut by 13%, deployment of geothermal power plants would need to be seven times greater than at baseline, and hydropower use would need to be five times greater than the baseline case

  3. Filmed v. live social contact interventions to reduce stigma: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne; Kassam, Aliya; Flach, Clare; Lazarus, Anisha; de Castro, Melanie; McCrone, Paul; Norman, Ian; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-07-01

    Direct social contact interventions are known to reduce mental health stigma. Filmed social contact may be equally effective and have practical and cost advantages. To compare the effectiveness of a DVD, a live intervention and a lecture control, in reducing stigma, testing the hypotheses that: (a) DVD and live interventions will be equally effective; and (b) the interventions with social contact (DVD/live) will be more effective than the lecture. Cost-effectiveness, process and acceptability are also assessed. Student nurses were randomised to: (a) watch a DVD of service users/informal carers talking about their experiences, (b) watch a similar live presentation, or (c) attend a lecture. Primary outcomes were changes in attitudes (using the Mental Illness: Clinicians Attitudes Scale, MICA), emotional reactions (using the Emotional Reactions to Mental Illness Scale, ERMIS), intended proximity (using the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale, RIBS), and knowledge (using the Social Contact Intended Learning Outcomes, SCILO), immediately after the intervention and at 4-month follow-up. For the 216 participants, there were no differences between the DVD and live groups on MICA, ERMIS or RIBS scores. The DVD group had higher SCILO (knowledge) scores. The combined social contact group (DVD/live) had better MICA and RIBS scores than the lecture group, the latter difference maintained at 4 months. The DVD was the most cost-effective of the interventions, and the live session the most popular. Our hypotheses were confirmed. This study supports the wider use of filmed social contact interventions to reduce stigma about mental illness.

  4. Selecting Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  5. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  6. Work–Life Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lu Calvin Ong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite disparities in the conceptualization of work–life balance (WLB and work–life harmony (WLH in the literature, there remains no evidence till date to validate these differences. Furthermore, there are currently no insights that shed light on the relationship between work–life initiatives and key business strategies of contemporary organizations. Hence, the current study investigated the differences between the constructs of WLB and WLH using a cognitive dissonance approach and assessed the impact of work–life interventions, based on these approaches, on individual creativity at work. Hundred participants, age ranging from 18 to 32 years (M = 23.94, SD = 3.87, with at least 6 months of working experience were recruited. Using an online questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned into WLB (n = 55 or WLH (n = 45 conditions. Participants were tasked to complete pre- and post-intervention measures of individual creativity, as well as a manipulation check using a cognitive dissonance scale. Results showed that participants in the WLB condition elicit higher levels of cognitive dissonance compared with participants in the WLH condition. This indicates an implicit difference in the constructs of WLB and harmony. Second, findings also suggest that work–life interventions adopting a WLH approach will have a more positive impact on individuals’ creativity at work compared with interventions targeted at achieving balance. Research, practical, and cultural implications of the findings are discussed in the article.

  7. Anesthesia for fetoscopic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil S Anwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report on anesthesia for fetoscopy performed in Saudi Arabia. Epidural anesthesia was given to the mother in her late second trimester for the fetoscopic intervention. The anesthesia related issues such as physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy, tocolytic medications and their interactions with anesthesia, anesthetizing/sedating the primary patient are discussed.

  8. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  9. Assessing Fidelity of Core Components in a Mindfulness and Yoga Intervention for Urban Youth: Applying the CORE Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Mendelson, Tamar; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Ancona, Matthew; Smith, Ali S. R.; Gonzalez, Andres A.; Smith, Atman A.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years, the number of mindfulness-based intervention and prevention programs has increased steadily. In order to achieve the intended program outcomes, program implementers need to understand the essential and indispensable components that define a program's success. This chapter describes the complex process of identifying the core…

  10. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  11. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  12. Development of a Communication Intervention for Older Adults With Limited Health Literacy : Photo Stories to Support Doctor-Patient Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hoeks, John C J; Jansen, Carel J M

    2016-01-01

    Successful doctor-patient communication relies on appropriate levels of communicative health literacy, the ability to deal with and communicate about health information. This article aims to describe the development of a narrative- and picture-based health literacy intervention intended to support o

  13. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 105-68.330 Section 105-68.330... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 105-68.330 What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers...

  15. 21 CFR 510.106 - Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.106 Labeling of antibiotic and antibiotic-containing drugs intended for use in milk-producing animals. Whenever the labeling of an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antibiotic and...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 20 - Requirements for Transfers of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Intended for Disposal at Licensed Land Disposal Facilities and Manifests G Appendix G to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. G Appendix G to Part... 1985 (e.g., waste generated as a result of decontamination or recycle activities). High...

  17. Dysphagia in the patient after stroke: consequences and nurse intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to check the consequences of poststroke dysphagia and to reflect on the nurse’s intervention in dysphagia rehabilitation. Methodology: it was performed a systematic literature review of the topic in question; research based on international databases EBSCOhost, LILACS, SciELO.We were able to identify some studies publications between 2006 and 2014. We intend to answer the guiding question: What are the consequences of dysphagia in the patient after stroke? » Results vs. Discussion: after a thorough analysis, we have selected 11 articles and found that the most frequent consequences of dysphagia are the pulmonary complications by saliva and/or food suction. The nurse specialist still has a barely visible role, but his/her interventions are critical in these patients rehabilitation. Conclusions: rehabilitation is essential to avoid the consequences of poststroke dysphagia. The rehabilitation process must go through a multidisciplinary team of which nurses are an integral and essential part.

  18. Process evaluation of a web-based intervention aimed at empowerment of disability benefit claimants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this process evaluation study was to gain insight into the reach, compliance, appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness of a web-based intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl. This intervention was aimed at empowerment of disability claimants, prior to the assessment of disability by an insurance physician. Methods Reach was determined by registering claimants exposed to the study's invitation brochures, and by comparing trial participant characteristics with non-participants and nationwide claimant data. Compliance was registered by analyzing weblogs, which were automatically collected during the period of the trial. This made it possible to analyze individual use of the intervention. Appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness were assessed using an online questionnaire that was sent to participants from the intervention group, 6 weeks after enrolment. Results Only 9% of the target population enrolled in the internet program. Because of selective enrolment, more females, higher educated claimants, and less ethnical minorities were reached. Compliance was ambiguous: out of the 123 participants randomized into the intervention group, a significant proportion (33% did not use the intervention at all, while, at the same time, many participants (32% used the intervention for more than two hours (i.e. in approximately two weeks. Overall satisfaction with the intervention was good. Claimants perceived the intervention most effective in increasing knowledge, while also a fair amount of users perceived the intervention effective in gaining right expectations or being able to communicate better with their physician. Conclusions The uptake of the intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl was disappointing. Specifically, the poor reach and compliance of the intervention resulted in a small proportion of the target population using the intervention as intended. Improvements in the

  19. Efeito da queima da palhada da cana-de-açúcar e de aplicações de vinhaça e adubo nitrogenado em características tecnológicas da cultura Effect of pre-harvest burning and applications of nitrogen fertilizer and vinasse on sugarcane industrial characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Silva de Resende

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As práticas da queima, aplicação de vinhaça e fertilizante nitrogenado são comuns na cultura de cana-de-açúcar. No entanto, estudos de longa duração são pouco encontrados na literatura. Neste trabalho, realizado na Usina Cruangi, Timbaúba, PE, transição entre a Zona da Mata e o Agreste daquele Estado, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N (80 kg ha-1 na forma de uréia, da vinhaça (80 m³ ha-1 e da queima (com ou sem queima da palhada antes do corte, entre 1983 e 1999, em características tecnológicas da cultura de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial completo 2 x 2 x 2, e quatro repetições. O experimento teve duas fases: a primeira, de 1983-1992, e a segunda, de 1992-1999. A aplicação de N afetou as características tecnológicas da cana-de-açúcar; no entanto, o ganho de produtividade de colmos proporcionado por esta prática favoreceu a produção de açúcar e compensou tais efeitos. A aplicação de vinhaça e a manutenção da palhada no sistema não afetaram, de forma consistente, as características tecnológicas da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, embora tenham influenciado, de forma positiva, a produção de açúcar, de acordo com o ganho de produtividade.Practices of pre-harvest burning and the application of vinasse and N fertilizer are common in sugarcane cultivation. However, results of few long-term studies have been published. This study carried in sugarcane plantations of Cruangi sugar mill, Timbaúba, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, located in the semi-arid-wet transition region of the State aimed at studying the effects of vinasse (80 m³ ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer (N - 80 kg ha-1 and two harvesting systems (with or without pre-harvest burning on sugarcane yield and industrial parameters in a long-term study (1983 to 1999. The experiment was set up in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design in complete randomized blocks with four replicates and had two

  20. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  1. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  2. Use of Intervention Mapping to Enhance Health Care Professional Practice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durks, Desire; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Hossain, Lutfun N; Franco-Trigo, Lucia; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Intervention Mapping is a planning protocol for developing behavior change interventions, the first three steps of which are intended to establish the foundations and rationales of such interventions. This systematic review aimed to identify programs that used Intervention Mapping to plan changes in health care professional practice. Specifically, it provides an analysis of the information provided by the programs in the first three steps of the protocol to determine their foundations and rationales of change. A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, and DOAJ using "Intervention Mapping" as keyword. Key information was gathered, including theories used, determinants of practice, research methodologies, theory-based methods, and practical applications. Seventeen programs aimed at changing a range of health care practices were included. The social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior were the most frequently used frameworks in driving change within health care practices. Programs used a large variety of research methodologies to identify determinants of practice. Specific theory-based methods (e.g., modelling and active learning) and practical applications (e.g., health care professional training and facilitation) were reported to inform the development of practice change interventions and programs. In practice, Intervention Mapping delineates a three-step systematic, theory- and evidence-driven process for establishing the theoretical foundations and rationales underpinning change in health care professional practice. The use of Intervention Mapping can provide health care planners with useful guidelines for the theoretical development of practice change interventions and programs.

  3. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  4. Developing Interventions for Frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty is a well-recognised, complex syndrome, predominantly affecting older people. Currently, there are two main conceptualizations of frailty: the phenotypic and the accumulated deficit models, with the phenotypic model being more widely applied in clinical research. Based on these models, we contend that a number of the phenotypic frailty components (weakness, slowness, and low energy expenditure are potentially reversible. This paper outlines the results of a frailty research program. It summarizes the initial frailty treatment model and reports its effectiveness. Briefly, the effect of a twelve-month individually tailored multifactorial, interdisciplinary intervention targeting frailty was compared with usual care. The intervention reduced phenotypically defined frailty and improved mobility. Further, it is contended that there is evidence of substantial unmet need due to treatment fragmentation and the absence of a comprehensive approach for this population. Our paper then outlines the current stage of our research in which the model is now being extended to prefrailty. Interventions aimed at reversing the frailty syndrome or its consequences are only in their early stages. There is significant scope for future research to identify optimal management programs for frail older people.

  5. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  6. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  7. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  8. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    2012). We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of a nutritional intervention with a control group which did not receive the intervention in this review. Participants were childhood cancer survivors of any age, diagnosed with any type of cancer when less than 18 years of age. Participating childhood cancer survivors had completed their treatment with curative intent prior to the intervention. Two review authors independently selected and extracted data from each identified study, using a standardised form. We assessed the validity of each identified study using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We used the GRADE criteria to assess the quality of each trial. Three RCTs were eligible for review. A total of 616 participants were included in the analysis. One study included participants who had been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (275 participants). Two studies included participants who had all forms of paediatric malignancies (266 and 75 participants). All participants were less than 21 years of age at study entry. The follow-up ranged from one month to 36 months from the initial assessment. All intended outcomes were not evaluated by each included study. All studies looked at different interventions, and so we were unable to pool results. We could not rule out the presence of bias in any of the studies.There was no clear evidence of a difference in calcium intake at one month between those who received the single, half-day, group-based education that focused on bone health, and those who received standard care (mean difference (MD) 111.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) -258.97 to 482.17; P = 0.56, low quality evidence). A regression analysis, adjusting for baseline calcium intake and changes in knowledge and self-efficacy, showed a significantly greater calcium intake for the intervention as compared with the control group at the one-month follow-up (beta

  9. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  10. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  11. Nutrition Education Research Brief: Message Framing, Use of Interactive Technology to Tailor Messages, and Intervention Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Kay Fox; Charlotte Hanson; Ronette Briefel

    2007-01-01

    This research brief is intended to assist nutrition educators in assessing whether specific characteristics of nutrition messages promote desired dietary behavior changes. Based on a computerized literature search targeting peer-reviewed journal articles, it highlights three topics pertinent to the design of nutrition education programs—message framing, use of interactive technology to tailor messages, and intervention intensity. While some promising results were found to be associated with...

  12. Abuse of aging caregivers: test of a nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda R

    2008-01-01

    Although most women find it difficult to provide care to an older family member, some women face additional challenges and health risks because the care recipient is abusive or aggressive toward them. This study tested a 12-week psychoeducative nursing intervention intended to decrease the frequency and intensity of physical and verbal/psychological aggression toward older caregiving wives and daughters by care recipients and improve selected abuse-related outcomes. The intervention, which focused on pattern identification, advocacy counseling, reframing of the caregiving situation, and nonconfrontational caregiving strategies, was individualized and highly interactive with emphasis placed on mutual problem solving and mutual planning. Subjects included women older than 50 who provided care to elders older than 55. Subjects were randomly assigned to group (intervention, N = 38; control, N = 45) and data collectors were "blinded" to group assignment. Findings indicated the intervention significantly reduced frequency of verbal/psychological aggression, and feelings of anger for caregivers providing care to fathers or husbands. It was not effective for caregivers providing care to mothers, and it did not reduce burden. Implications for nursing include raising awareness about the special vulnerabilities of older caregivers, providing provocative new information about the gender-based power dynamics in caregiving situations and underscoring the need for nurses to assume a stronger leadership role in building science with regard to family caregiving.

  13. Changing job-related burnout after intervention--a quasi-experimental study in six human service organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal study design to analyze the development of burnout at worksites and to study the effect of interventions intended to reduce the level of burnout at individual level. METHODS: At baseline the study, sample consisted of 1024 individuals divided at six organizations and 18...... worksites in the human service sector. Four different types of interventions were identified: external and internal reorganizations, educational days, and consultancy. Burnout defined as work related, client related, and personal burnout was measured by means of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory at baseline...... of interventions did not reduce the level of burnout in our study....

  14. Management of early- and late-stage rheumatoid arthritis: are physiotherapy students' intended behaviours consistent with canadian best practice guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Norma J; Lineker, Sydney C; Hallett, Christina; Tumber, Jake; Fernando, Nalin; Hul, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    recours à des anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens. La plupart des étudiants (94 %) n'ont pas recommandé une consultation par un chirurgien pour la PA précoce ou avancée. Conclusion : Les comportements recherchés chez les étudiants en physiothérapie étaient plus fidèles aux lignes directrices canadiennes sur les pratiques exemplaires pour la gestion de clients avec PR en stade précoce ou avancé une fois qu'ils avaient reçu la formation axée sur les problèmes. Des études supplémentaires seront nécessaires pour déterminer si les étudiants étaient moins bien informés des pratiques exemplaires touchant les interventions pharmacologiques et le renvoi en consultation chez les spécialistes appropriés, ou s'ils considèrent ces tâches comme étant hors de la portée de leur pratique.

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Coccinella septempunctata to Assess Un-intended Effects of RNAi Transgenic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Chunxiao Yang; Evan L Preisser; Hongjun Zhang; Yong Liu; Liangying Dai; Huipeng Pan; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The development of genetically engineered plants that employ RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress invertebrate pests opens up new avenues for insect control. While this biotechnology shows tremendous promise, the potential for both non-target and off-target impacts, which likely manifest via altered mRNA expression in the exposed organisms, remains a major concern. One powerful tool for the analysis of these un-intended effects is reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, a...

  16. [Having the best intentions is necessary but not sufficient--quality dimensions for early childhood interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Tanja; Brand, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood interventions are a promising strategy to improve the development of children in socially disadvantaged families and to reduce their risk for abuse and neglect. However, proven effects are small with substantial variations between existing programs depending on differences in program planning and implementation. On the basis of international findings on the effectiveness of early childhood intervention, health promotion, and implementation research, we provide an overview of different quality aspects in the development, implementation, and evaluation of early childhood interventions, and a framework for future quality assessment of early childhood intervention programs in Germany. Scaling up of these programs should be accompanied by intensive quality assessment and development in order to achieve the intended outcomes.

  17. What is the effectiveness of obesity related interventions at retail grocery stores and supermarkets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    interventions have been carried out in retail grocery/supermarket settings as part of an effort to understand and influence consumption of healthful foods. The review’s key outcome variable is sale/purchase of healthy foods as a result of the interventions. This systematic review sheds light...... on the effectiveness of food store interventions intended to promote the consumption of healthy foods and the methodological quality of studies reporting them. Methods Systematic literature search spanning from 2003 to 2015 (inclusive both years), and confined to papers in the English language was conducted. Studies...... fulfilling search criteria were identified and critically appraised. Studies included in this review report health interventions at physical food stores including supermarkets and corner stores, and with outcome variable of adopting healthier food purchasing/consumption behavior. The methodological quality...

  18. Preferences for Intervention Among Peruvian Women in Intimate Partner Violence Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B.; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with thirty women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a two-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, while providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman’s autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted towards women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931

  19. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  20. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail: gw2128@columbia.edu

    2013-07-15

    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  1. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  2. Impact of (18)F-Fluoride PET on Intended Management of Patients with Cancers Other Than Prostate Cancer: Results from the National Oncologic PET Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillner, Bruce E; Siegel, Barry A; Hanna, Lucy; Duan, Fenghai; Shields, Anthony F; Quinn, Bruce; Coleman, R Edward

    2014-07-01

    The National Oncologic PET Registry prospectively assessed the impact of PET with (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF PET) on intended management of Medicare patients with suspected or known osseous metastasis. We report our findings for cancers other than prostate and make selected comparisons to our previously reported prostate cancer cohort. Data were collected from both referring and interpreting physicians before and after NaF PET in patients (age ≥ 65 y) stratified for initial staging (IS; n = 570), for suspected first osseous metastasis (FOM; n = 1,814; breast, 781 [43%]; lung, 380 [21%]; and all other cancers, 653 [36%]), and for suspected progression of osseous metastasis (POM; n = 435). The dominant indication was bone pain. If NaF PET were unavailable, conventional bone scintigraphy would have been ordered in 85% of patients. In IS, 28% of patients had suspected or confirmed nonosseous metastasis. If neither conventional bone scintigraphy nor NaF PET were available, referring physicians would have ordered other advanced imaging more than 70% of the time rather than initiate treatment for suspected FOM (11%-16%) or POM (18%-22%). When intended management was classified as either treatment or nontreatment, the intended management change for each cancer type was highest in POM, lower in IS, and lowest in FOM. For suspected FOM, intended management change was lower in breast (24%), lung (36%), or other cancers (31%), compared with prostate cancer (44%) (P types. After normal/benign/equivocal PET results, 15% of breast, 30% lung, and 38% prostate cancer patients had treatment, likely reflecting differences in management of nonosseous disease. For patients with definite metastasis on NaF PET, nonprostate, compared with prostate, cancer patients had post-PET plans for more frequent biopsy, alternative imaging, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In the smaller IS and POM cohorts, differences among cancer types were not significant. Overall, NaF PET led to change in

  3. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    nature of the interventions provided, participant blinding was not possible, and reports of researcher blinding often were unclear or were not provided. Half of the reviewed studies included collateral verification or urinalysis to confirm self report data, leading to concern about performance and detection bias. Finally, concerns of other bias were based on relatively consistent lack of assessment of non-cannabis substance use or use of additional treatments before or during the trial period. A subset of studies provided sufficient detail for comparison of effects of any intervention versus inactive control on primary outcomes of interest at early follow-up (median, four months). Results showed moderate-quality evidence that approximately seven out of 10 intervention participants completed treatment as intended (effect size (ES) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.78, 11 studies, 1424 participants), and that those receiving psychosocial intervention used cannabis on fewer days compared with those given inactive control (mean difference (MD) 5.67, 95% CI 3.08 to 8.26, six studies, 1144 participants). In addition, low-quality evidence revealed that those receiving intervention were more likely to report point-prevalence abstinence (risk ratio (RR) 2.55, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.83, six studies, 1166 participants) and reported fewer symptoms of dependence (standardised mean difference (SMD) 4.15, 95% CI 1.67 to 6.63, four studies, 889 participants) and cannabis-related problems compared with those given inactive control (SMD 3.34, 95% CI 1.26 to 5.42, six studies, 2202 participants). Finally, very low-quality evidence indicated that those receiving intervention reported using fewer joints per day compared with those given inactive control (SMD 3.55, 95% CI 2.51 to 4.59, eight studies, 1600 participants). Notably, subgroup analyses found that interventions of more than four sessions delivered over longer than one month (high intensity) produced consistently improved

  5. Effectiveness of mHealth behavior change communication interventions in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Rubin, Sara E; Roess, Amira A

    2012-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies and telecommunication have rapidly been integrated into the health care delivery system, particularly in developing countries. Resources have been allocated to developing mHealth interventions, including those that use mobile technology for behavior change communication (BCC). Although the majority of mobile phone users worldwide live in the developing world, most research evaluating BCC mHealth interventions has taken place in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine how much evidence currently exists for mHealth BCC interventions. In addition to analyzing available research for methodological rigor and strength of evidence, the authors assessed interventions for quality, applying a set of 9 standards recommended by mHealth experts. The authors reviewed 44 articles; 16 (36%) reported evaluation data from BCC mHealth interventions in a developing country. The majority of BCC mHealth interventions were implemented in Africa (n = 10) and Asia (n = 4). HIV/AIDS (n = 10) and family planning/pregnancy (n = 4) were the health topics most frequently addressed by interventions. Studies did not consistently demonstrate significant effects of exposure to BCC mHealth interventions on the intended audience. The majority of publications (n = 12) described interventions that used two-way communication in their message delivery design. Although most publications described interventions that conducted formative research about the intended audience (n = 10), less than half (n = 6) described targeting or tailoring the content. Although mHealth is viewed as a promising tool with the ability to foster behavior change, more evaluations of current interventions need to be conducted to establish stronger evidence.

  6. Design of aging intervention studies: the NIA interventions testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, N L; Strong, R; Miller, R A; Nelson, J; Javors, M; Sharp, Z D; Peralba, J M; Harrison, D E

    2008-12-01

    The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program.

  7. Caracterização físico-química da manga 'Tommy Atkins' submetida a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio pré-colheita e armazenamento refrigerado Physico - chemical characterization of the 'Tommy Atkins' mango submitted to preharvest application of calcium chloride and refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade pós-colheita de manga 'Tommy Atkins' submetida a aplicação pré-colheita de CaCl2 e armazenamento refrigerado. Os fatores estudados foram concentrações de CaCl2 (1% e 2% e números de aplicações (2,3 e 4 vezes. Houve ainda um tratamento adicional, que funcionou como controle. As pulverizações foliares foram iniciadas cerca de 35 dias após antese, num intervalo de 15 dias. Do total de 280 frutos colhidos, 175 foram levados para análise imediata, enquanto que 105 permaneceram em câmara fria (10ºC por 30 dias, sendo posteriormente analisados. As concentrações de CaCl2 testadas não resultaram em incremento do teor de cálcio no fruto e também não influenciaram as características de qualidade avaliadas. Houve efeito do número de aplicações de CaCl2 sobre a textura, sólidos solúveis (após 30 dias e açúcares solúveis totais (após a colheita. A incidência de colapso interno não foi associada a aplicação de cálcio.The postharvest quality of 'Tommy Atkins' mango was evaluated after the preharvest application of CaCl2 and refrigerated storage. The studied factors were concentrations of CaCl2 (1% e 2% and numbers of applications (2, 3 and 4 times. The spraying began 35 days after antese in intervals of 15 days. Of the 280 harvested fruits, 175 were taken for immediate analysis, while 105, were left in a cold chamber (10ºC during 30 days for later analysis. Significant difference was observed between the tested concentrations of CaCl2 and the witness, for most of the appraised quality characteristics, except for total sugars (fruits analyzed after 30 days, while the number of applications presented influence on the texture, soluble solids (after 30 days and total soluble sugars (after the harvest.

  8. Who needs intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl

    2015-01-01

    ’s clinical impression of a child’s consonant inventory during interaction with a caregiver correlated well with phonetic transcription. As part of a larger intervention study of young children with CP, this study aims at developing and evaluating a screening procedure for young children with CP in order...... phonetic transcription of a large number of utterances occurring during spontaneous interaction between child and caregiver. This is, however, a time-consuming and thus expensive procedure. Furthermore, it has been shown to overestimate the size of the child’s consonant repertoire (4). Ramsdell and her...... colleagues (4) found that naturalistic listening in which caregiver judgment is simulated in the laboratory is a valid way of estimating a child’s consonant repertoire when compared to both caregiver report and phonetic transcription. Lieberman and Lohmander (5) also found that a speech language pathologist...

  9. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudi, E; Christodoulou, C; Kontaxakis, V; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypies belong to the psychomotor disorders and they are found in many different disorders. This article refers to the international literature about the psychotherapeutic interventions in stereotypies and reviews the psychotherapeutic techniques that are already being used for these disorders. This study refers to four kinds of psychotherapeutic treatment: (a) Behavioral therapy, (b) Milieu therapy which can be combined successfully with an occupational therapy, (c) Family therapy and (d) Supportive or cognitive or dynamic psychotherapy. The method used for finding the articles for this review was the web research. The articles found were 44 in total, but only 25 were studied extensively since they were absolutely relative to the subject of this review. 12 of these articles were case studies, 7 theoretical papers and 5 of them were reviews. The last one was a research epidemiological study. According to most of the articles, behavioral therapy is considered to be the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for attenuating stereotypies and relies on techniques like systematic desensitization, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement of alternative behaviors and negative reinforcement of the "problematic" behaviors. The milieu therapy, combined with occupational therapy, endeavours to shape an appropriate environment where the patient can recover. Family therapy focuses on fully informing the relatives about the nature of stereotypies. Supportive psychotherapy focuses on the current problems in the patient's life. The cognitive psychotherapy tries to fix the dysfunctional thoughts of the patients. Finally, the dynamic psychotherapy is focused on the restoration or reinforcement of the patient's defensive mechanisms. It should be noted that there is a lack of systematic research in the field of stereotypies in general and, especially, regarding psychotherapeutic interventions.

  10. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  11. A multidimensional approach to assessing intervention fidelity in a process evaluation of audit and feedback interventions to reduce unnecessary blood transfusions: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; Gould, Natalie J; McIntyre, Stephen A; During, Camilla; Bird, Jon; Walwyn, Rebecca; Cicero, Robert; Glidewell, Liz; Hartley, Suzanne; Stanworth, Simon J; Foy, Robbie; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Michie, Susan; Francis, Jill J

    2016-12-12

    In England, NHS Blood and Transplant conducts national audits of transfusion and provides feedback to hospitals to promote evidence-based practice. Audits demonstrate 20% of transfusions fall outside guidelines. The AFFINITIE programme (Development & Evaluation of Audit and Feedback INterventions to Increase evidence-based Transfusion practIcE) involves two linked, 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trials, each evaluating two theoretically-enhanced audit and feedback interventions to reduce unnecessary blood transfusions in UK hospitals. The first intervention concerns the content/format of feedback reports. The second aims to support hospital transfusion staff to plan their response to feedback and includes a web-based toolkit and telephone support. Interpretation of trials is enhanced by comprehensively assessing intervention fidelity. However, reviews demonstrate fidelity evaluations are often limited, typically only assessing whether interventions were delivered as intended. This protocol presents methods for assessing fidelity across five dimensions proposed by the Behaviour Change Consortium fidelity framework, including intervention designer-, provider- and recipient-levels. (1) Design: Intervention content will be specified in intervention manuals in terms of component behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Treatment differentiation will be examined by comparing BCTs across intervention/standard practice, noting the proportion of unique/convergent BCTs. (2) Training: draft feedback reports and audio-recorded role-play telephone support scenarios will be content analysed to assess intervention providers' competence to deliver manual-specified BCTs. (3) Delivery: intervention materials (feedback reports, toolkit) and audio-recorded telephone support session transcripts will be content analysed to assess actual delivery of manual-specified BCTs during the intervention period. (4) Receipt and (5) enactment: questionnaires, semi-structured interviews based on the

  12. Dose to patients and professionals in cardiology interventional: Progress of multicenter group Doccaci; Dosis a pacientes y a profesionales en cardiologia intervencionista: Avances del grupo multicentrico DOCCACI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R. M.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Pifarre, X.; Escaned, J.; Rovira, J. J.; Garcia del Blanco, B.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, J. F.; Ordiales, J. M.; Nogales, J. M.; Hernandez, J.; Bosa, F.; Rosales, F.; Saez, J. R.; Soler, M. M.; Romero, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The multidisciplinary group and multicenter DOCCACI (dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional cardiology), sponsored by the section of haemodynamics of the Spanish society of Cardiology, is intended to propose reference levels to doses received by patients in interventional cardiology procedures such as recommended by the International Commission on radiological protection It also investigates the doses received by professionals, in particular dose in Crystallyne whose recommended limit dose has been reduced recently from 150 to 20 mSv/year. (Author)

  13. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. Methods: A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Results: Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ2=6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c2=14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). Conclusion: The level of students’ father’s education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To

  14. The Affordable Care Act: how can we know whether the intended consequences are occurring and the unintended ones are being avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    When the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010, policymakers intended that it would improve access to care by lowering the uninsured rate, improve health care quality, and lower costs. Now, 4 years later, researchers and policymakers need to ask whether those intentions have been realized or whether the ACA has produced unintended consequences that affect patient care. This article raises the importance of assessing what changes in patient access and clinical care have occurred, points out how challenging those assessments may be to conduct, and concludes with a call to action about how those challenges might be addressed.

  15. Psychological interventions following terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansdorf, Irwin J

    2008-01-01

    Psychological reactions to terror attacks have been documented as ranging from no symptoms to transient behavioural symptoms to more serious posttraumatic stress. A review of representative studies is presented, with a critical analysis of the salient points of the various psychological intervention strategies for terrorist attacks. Common aspects of both most intervention approaches include multifaceted models that foster social support and include a preparatory phase, a phase of 'psychological first aid' and a follow-up phase of referral for more severe cases. The notion of intervention for all who may show some symptoms is not universally accepted. Where treatment or intervention is used, the debriefing aspect of CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) remains highly disputed, with the focus on intrusively revisiting the trauma appearing to have questionable value at best. Some data questions whether formal treatment or intervention is necessary or even desirable. For many who choose not to seek out any help following a trauma, clinical data shows no negative results. Moreover, the preponderance of data shows that conventional 'debriefing' is not recommended. If the debriefing mechanism is refined so that intrusive emotional rehashing of the traumatic event is eliminated, the resultant interventions resemble resilience based approaches. Further defining when intervention is called for and refining the mechanisms of intervention in multi-stage intervention.

  16. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  17. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2012-02-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  18. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2011-03-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  19. Effects of music interventions on emotional States and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the

  20. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, F

    1992-10-01

    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashshur, Rashid L; Shannon, Gary W; Bashshur, Noura; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    This research derives from the confluence of several factors, namely, the prevalence of a complex array of mental health issues across age, social, ethnic, and economic groups, an increasingly critical shortage of mental health professionals and the associated disability and productivity loss in the population, and the potential of telemental health (TMH) to ameliorate these problems. Definitive information regarding the true merit of telemedicine applications and intervention is now of paramount importance among policymakers, providers of care, researchers, payers, program developers, and the public at large. This is necessary for rational policymaking, prudent resource allocation decisions, and informed strategic planning. This article is aimed at assessing the state of scientific knowledge regarding the merit of telemedicine interventions in the treatment of mental disorders (TMH) in terms of feasibility/acceptance, effects on medication compliance, health outcomes, and cost. We started by casting a wide net to identify the relevant studies and to examine in detail the content of studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. Only studies that met rigorous methodological criteria were included. Necessary details include the specific nature and content of the intervention, the research methodology, clinical focus, technological configuration, and the modality of the intervention. The published scientific literature on TMH reveals strong and consistent evidence of the feasibility of this modality of care and its acceptance by its intended users, as well as uniform indication of improvement in symptomology and quality of life among patients across a broad range of demographic and diagnostic groups. Similarly, positive trends are shown in terms of cost savings. There is substantial empirical evidence for supporting the use of telemedicine interventions in patients with mental disorders.

  2. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  3. Impact of accessible sexual and reproductive health care on poor and underserved adolescents in Managua, Nicaragua: a quasi-experimental intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Knottnerus, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a competitive voucher program intended to make sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC) accessible to adolescents from disadvantaged areas of Managua. METHODS: A quasi-experimental intervention study was performed in which 28,711 vouchers tha

  4. Impact of accessible sexual and reproductive health care on poor and underserved adolescents in Managua, Nicaragua: a quasi-experimental intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Knottnerus, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate a competitive voucher program intended to make sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC) accessible to adolescents from disadvantaged areas of Managua. METHODS: A quasi-experimental intervention study was performed in which 28,711 vouchers tha

  5. Guia para Padres Intervencion Temprana en Pennsylvania para Bebes desde el Nacimiento a los Tres Anos (A Parent Guide to Early Intervention in Pennsylvania for Infants and Toddlers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focus on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. The main…

  6. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Ann; López-Bao, José Vicente; Tourani, Mahdieh; Chapron, Guillaume; Frank, Jens

    2017-05-18

    Successful coexistence between large carnivores and humans is conditional upon effective mitigation of the impact of these species on humans, such as through livestock depredation. It is therefore essential for conservation practitioners, carnivore managing authorities, or livestock owners to know the effectiveness of interventions intended to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. We reviewed the scientific literature (1990-2016), searching for evidence of the effectiveness of interventions. We found experimental and quasi-experimental studies were rare within the field, and only 21 studies applied a case-control study design (3.7% of reviewed publications). We used a relative risk ratio to evaluate the studied interventions: changing livestock type, keeping livestock in enclosures, guarding or livestock guarding dogs, predator removal, using shock collars on carnivores, sterilizing carnivores, and using visual or auditory deterrents to frighten carnivores. Although there was a general lack of scientific evidence of the effectiveness of any of these interventions, some interventions reduced the risk of depredation whereas other interventions did not result in reduced depredation. We urge managers and stakeholders to move towards an evidence-based large carnivore management practice and researchers to conduct studies of intervention effectiveness with a randomized case-control design combined with systematic reviewing to evaluate the evidence.

  7. Physical activity interventions using mass media, print media, and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, B H; Owen, N; Forsyth, L H; Cavill, N A; Fridinger, F

    1998-11-01

    Media-based physical activity interventions include a variety of print, graphic, audiovisual, and broadcast media programs intended to influence behavior change. New information technology allows print to be delivered in personalized, interactive formats that may enhance efficacy. Media-based interventions have been shaped by conceptual models from health education, Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, and Social Marketing frameworks. We reviewed 28 studies of media-based interventions of which seven were mass media campaigns at the state or national level and the remaining 21 were delivered through health care, the workplace, or in the community. Recall of mass-media messages generally was high, but mass-media campaigns had very little impact on physical activity behavior. Interventions using print and/or telephone were effective in changing behavior in the short term. Studies in which there were more contacts and interventions tailored to the target audience were most effective. A key issue for research on media-based physical activity interventions is reaching socially disadvantaged groups for whom access, particularly to new forms of communication technology, may be limited. There is a clear need for controlled trials comparing different forms and intensities of media-based physical activity interventions. Controlled studies of personalized print, interactive computer-mediated programs, and web-based formats for program delivery also are needed. The integration of media-based methods into public and private sector service delivery has much potential for innovation.

  8. Micro-Randomized Trials: An Experimental Design for Developing Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja, Predrag; Hekler, Eric B.; Shiffman, Saul; Boruvka, Audrey; Almirall, Daniel; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper presents an experimental design, the micro-randomized trial, developed to support optimization of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). JITAIs are mHealth technologies that aim to deliver the right intervention components at the right times and locations to optimally support individuals’ health behaviors. Micro-randomized trials offer a way to optimize such interventions by enabling modeling of causal effects and time-varying effect moderation for individual intervention components within a JITAI. Methods The paper describes the micro-randomized trial design, enumerates research questions that this experimental design can help answer, and provides an overview of the data analyses that can be used to assess the causal effects of studied intervention components and investigate time-varying moderation of those effects. Results Micro-randomized trials enable causal modeling of proximal effects of the randomized intervention components and assessment of time-varying moderation of those effects. Conclusions Micro-randomized trials can help researchers understand whether their interventions are having intended effects, when and for whom they are effective, and what factors moderate the interventions’ effects, enabling creation of more effective JITAIs. PMID:26651463

  9. Educational intervention of undergraduate nursing students' confidence skills with alcohol and drug misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    2008-04-01

    There is a paucity literature on the educational interventions and evaluation programmes in alcohol and drug with undergraduate nursing students in the United Kingdom and this study intends to add a body of knowledge to this area. The aim of the study was to assess the intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students before and after an educational intervention on alcohol and drug misuse. The research study is a quasi-experimental, pre- and post-test design. The sample was made of four cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n=110) enrolled at a course leading to a diploma or BSc in nursing from three educational institutions. A visual analogue scale was used to measure intervention confidence skills before and after the educational programme in alcohol and drug. The findings showed an improvement in the level of intervention confidence skills of undergraduate nursing students. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of educational interventions in working with substance misusers and whether substance misuse education is the key predictor of changing in changing intervention confidence skills.

  10. Qualidade de manga 'tommy atkins' pós-colheita com uso de cloreto de cálcio na pré-colheita Quality of 'tommy atkins' mangoes in post-harvest with calcium choride spray use in the pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangas da cultivar Tommy Atkins produzidas em Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, foram analisadas com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio na vida útil pós-colheita e em relação ao distúrbio fisiológico. As pulverizações de CaC1(2 foram realizadas em três épocas: 35; 65 e 95 dias após o florescimento. Os tratamentos foram concentrações de cloreto de cálcio: 0,0%; 2,0%; 3,5%; 5,0% e 6,5%. Frutos foram colhidos, transportados para o Laboratório de Biotecnologia da UESB, armazenados em câmara fria a 10ºC e 90% UR e avaliados por período de 35 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 6 (concentração x tempo de armazenamento, com 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. Os parâmetros analisados foram: perda de massa, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH, sólidos solúveis, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez, incidência e severidade de colapso interno. Durante o período de armazenamento, observou-se que, a partir do 28º dia de armazenamento, a perda de massa dos frutos foi menor em doses maiores de cloreto de cálcio. A firmeza e o teor de sólidos solúveis foram influenciados em maiores concentrações de CaC1(2, enquanto as demais características não foram influenciadas significativamente. A incidência e a severidade do colapso interno dos frutos não foram afetadas com uso de cloreto de cálcio. Verificou-se que a aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio, em doses maiores (> 3,5%, aumenta a vida útil pós-colheita da manga, contudo não reduz a incidência do colapso interno.The fruits produced in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, had been analyzed with the objective to verify the influence of spraying application of calcium chloride in pre-harvest period on shelf life of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes. The sprayings of CaC1(2 were made three times: 35, 65 and 95 days after mango flowering. The used treatments were composed

  11. The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Title: The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study Background: Careful measurement of implementation fidelity is crucial in the examination of whether an intervention worked as intended or not. A large number of school-based sm......Title: The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study Background: Careful measurement of implementation fidelity is crucial in the examination of whether an intervention worked as intended or not. A large number of school......-based smoking prevention programs have been launched over the past three decades, and generally multi component initiatives are recommended. The effects have been inconclusive, though, which may partly be due to lack of implementation, but little evidence exists on the implementation of school-based smoking...... of the implementation. Several factors have been found to ease implementation of interventions in schools; detailed instructional manuals, lesson plans and providing materials. But implementation may also be affected by other factors than the intervention itself, i.e. characteristics of the school. Objectives...

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals intended for Human Use; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use'' (ICH S2(R1)). This guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH S2(R1) combines and replaces two ICH guidances, "S2A Specific Aspects for Regulatory Genotoxicity Tests for Pharmaceuticals'' and "S2B Genotoxicity: A Standard Battery for Genotoxicity Testing of Pharmaceuticals.'' ICH S2(R1) provides guidance to drug sponsors on which tests should be performed to assess potential genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals. It also provides guidance on testing conditions, data interpretation, and followup strategies if a positive response is seen in in vitro assays. This guidance is intended to provide drug sponsors with recommendations to ensure that drugs are appropriately tested for potential to cause genetic damage and to ensure efficient development of new drugs.

  13. Implications for Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Hof

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an upper motor neurone syndrome (CP suffer from many disabling primary symptoms: spasms, weakness, and loss of dexterity. These primary ‘neurogenic’ symptoms often lead to secondary disabilities, muscle contractures, and tertiary effects, bone deformations. A common symptom of CP is hypertonia, with. the consequence that the involved muscles remain in an excessively shortened length for most of the time. As a normal reaction of the muscle tissue, the number of sarcomeres is reduced and the muscle fibers shorten permanently: a contracture develops. A possible second type of contracture is that normal muscle lengthening along with bone growth is affected. Current treatments for the secondary effects include (1 reduction of muscle force, (2lengthening of the muscle fibers by serial plaster casts, and (3surgical lengthening of tendons or aponeurosis. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of the functional deficit. Bone tissue also adapts itself to abnormal forces, especially in the growth period. The hypertonias or contractures of CP so may give rise to bone malformations that interfere with function (e.g. femur endorotation or may reduce the action of muscles by changing the lever arm (e.g. ankle varus. Although prevention should always be preferred, a timely surgical intervention cannot always be avoided. The differences in treatment for the various groups require and justify an extensive laboratory investigation, including EMG recordings in gait, measurement of passive elastic properties, and long-term observation of the hypertonia.

  14. Interventional video tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppe, Michael J.; Pongracz, Ferenc; Ploder, Oliver; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is a new imaging modality for Image Directed Surgery to visualize in real-time intraoperatively the spatial position of surgical instruments relative to the patient's anatomy. The video imaging detector is based on a special camera equipped with an optical viewing and lighting system and electronic 3D sensors. When combined with an endoscope it is used for examining the inside of cavities or hollow organs of the body from many different angles. The surface topography of objects is reconstructed from a sequence of monocular video or endoscopic images. To increase accuracy and speed of the reconstruction the relative movement between objects and endoscope is continuously tracked by electronic sensors. The IVT image sequence represents a 4D data set in stereotactic space and contains image, surface topography and motion data. In ENT surgery an IVT image sequence of the planned and so far accessible surgical path is acquired prior to surgery. To simulate the surgical procedure the cross sectional imaging data is superimposed with the digitally stored IVT image sequence. During surgery the video sequence component of the IVT simulation is substituted by the live video source. The IVT technology makes obsolete the use of 3D digitizing probes for the patient image coordinate transformation. The image fusion of medical imaging data with live video sources is the first practical use of augmented reality in medicine. During surgery a head-up display is used to overlay real-time reformatted cross sectional imaging data with the live video image.

  15. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  16. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  17. Data Systems in Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This study compiled descriptive information about what states are doing or planning to do with early intervention data systems, a component of early intervention systems as specified in Part H of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The study examined the uses of data systems in eight states: Colorado, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,…

  18. Persuasive System Design Does Matter: A Systematic Review of Adherence to Web-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Robin N; Ossebaard, Hans C; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC

    2012-01-01

    Background Although web-based interventions for promoting health and health-related behavior can be effective, poor adherence is a common issue that needs to be addressed. Technology as a means to communicate the content in web-based interventions has been neglected in research. Indeed, technology is often seen as a black-box, a mere tool that has no effect or value and serves only as a vehicle to deliver intervention content. In this paper we examine technology from a holistic perspective. We see it as a vital and inseparable aspect of web-based interventions to help explain and understand adherence. Objective This study aims to review the literature on web-based health interventions to investigate whether intervention characteristics and persuasive design affect adherence to a web-based intervention. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies into web-based health interventions. Per intervention, intervention characteristics, persuasive technology elements and adherence were coded. We performed a multiple regression analysis to investigate whether these variables could predict adherence. Results We included 101 articles on 83 interventions. The typical web-based intervention is meant to be used once a week, is modular in set-up, is updated once a week, lasts for 10 weeks, includes interaction with the system and a counselor and peers on the web, includes some persuasive technology elements, and about 50% of the participants adhere to the intervention. Regarding persuasive technology, we see that primary task support elements are most commonly employed (mean 2.9 out of a possible 7.0). Dialogue support and social support are less commonly employed (mean 1.5 and 1.2 out of a possible 7.0, respectively). When comparing the interventions of the different health care areas, we find significant differences in intended usage (p = .004), setup (p persuasive technology elements, a substantial amount of variance in adherence can be explained. Although there are

  19. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers.

  20. Using the COMMVAC taxonomy to map vaccination communication interventions in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Cliff, Julie; Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Ames, Heather; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Improved communication about childhood vaccination is fundamental to increasing vaccine uptake in low-income countries. Mozambique, with 64% of children fully vaccinated, uses a range of communication interventions to promote uptake of childhood immunisation. Objectives: Using a taxonomy developed by the ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ (COMMVAC) project, the study aims to identify and classify the existing communication interventions for vaccination in Mozambique and to find the gaps. Methods: We used a qualitative research approach to identify the range of communication interventions used in Mozambique. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with key purposively selected personnel at national level and relevant documents were collected and analysed. These data were complemented with observations of communication during routine vaccination and campaigns in Nampula province. We used the COMMVAC taxonomy, which organises vaccination communication intervention according to its intended purpose and the population targeted, to map both routine and campaign interventions. Results: We identified interventions used in campaign and routine vaccination, or in both, fitting five of the seven taxonomy purposes, with informing or educating community members predominating. We did not identify any interventions that aimed to provide support or facilitate decision-making. There were interventions for all main target groups, although fewer for health providers. Overlap occurred: for example, interventions often targeted both parents and community members. Conclusions: We consider that the predominant focus on informing and educating community members is appropriate in the Mozambican context, where there is a high level of illiteracy and poor knowledge of the reasons for vaccination. We recommend increasing interventions for health providers, in particular training them in better communication for vaccination. The taxonomy was useful for identifying