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Sample records for pregrazing herbage mass

  1. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  2. The relative efficiency of three methods of estimating herbage mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods involved were randomly placed circular quadrats; randomly placed narrow strips; and disc meter sampling. Disc meter and quadrat sampling appear to be more efficient than strip sampling. In a subsequent small plot grazing trial the estimates of herbage mass, using the disc meter, had a consistent precision ...

  3. Incorporating a prediction of postgrazing herbage mass into a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Galli, J; Romera, A J; Levy, G; Macdonald, K A; Fernandez, H H; Beukes, P C

    2014-07-01

    The DairyNZ whole-farm model (WFM; DairyNZ, Hamilton, New Zealand) consists of a framework that links component models for animal, pastures, crops, and soils. The model was developed to assist with analysis and design of pasture-based farm systems. New (this work) and revised (e.g., cow, pasture, crops) component models can be added to the WFM, keeping the model flexible and up to date. Nevertheless, the WFM does not account for plant-animal relationships determining herbage-depletion dynamics. The user has to preset the maximum allowable level of herbage depletion [i.e., postgrazing herbage mass (residuals)] throughout the year. Because residuals have a direct effect on herbage regrowth, the WFM in its current form does not dynamically simulate the effect of grazing pressure on herbage depletion and consequent effect on herbage regrowth. The management of grazing pressure is a key component of pasture-based dairy systems. Thus, the main objective of the present work was to develop a new version of the WFM able to predict residuals, and thereby simulate related effects of grazing pressure dynamically at the farm scale. This objective was accomplished by incorporating a new component model into the WFM. This model represents plant-animal relationships, for example sward structure and herbage intake rate, and resulting level of herbage depletion. The sensitivity of the new version of the WFM was evaluated and then the new WFM was tested against an experimental data set previously used to evaluate the WFM and to illustrate the adequacy and improvement of the model development. Key outputs variables of the new version pertinent to this work (milk production, herbage dry matter intake, intake rate, harvesting efficiency, and residuals) responded acceptably to a range of input variables. The relative prediction errors for monthly and mean annual residual predictions were 20 and 5%, respectively. Monthly predictions of residuals had a line bias (1.5%), with a proportion

  4. Herbage intake and animal performance of cattle grazing dwarf elaphant grass with two access times to a forage peanut area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo de Liz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively short grazing periods in a pure legume pasture can be an alternative for increasing animal performance in medium-quality tropical pastures. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the herbage intake and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. BRS Kurumi with two access times [2 h (07:00 - 9:00 and 6 h (07:00 - 13:00] to an area of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo. Twelve steers (219 ± 28.8 kg LW were divided into four groups and assessed during three consecutive grazing cycles, from January to March 2013. The crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents were 158 and 577 g/kg dry matter (DM for dwarf elephant grass and 209 and 435 g/kg DM for forage peanut, respectively. The pre-grazing height and leaf mass of dwarf elephant grass and forage peanut were 94 cm and 2782 kg DM/ha and 15 cm and 1751 kg DM/ha, respectively. The herbage intake (mean = 2.7 ± 0.06% LW and average daily weight gain (mean = 1.16 ± 0.31 kg/day were similar for both treatments. However, animals with 2-h access to the legume paddock grazed for 71% of the time, whereas those with 6-h access grazed for 48% of the time. The performance of the steers that were allowed to graze forage peanut pasture for 2 h is similar to that of those that were allowed to graze the legume pasture for 6 h.

  5. Acúmulo de forragem durante a rebrotação de capim-xaraés submetido a três estratégias de desfolhação Herbage accumulation during regrowth of Xaraés palisadegrass submitted to rotational stocking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Carneiro e Pedreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a dinâmica do acúmulo de forragem em pastos de capim-xaraés [Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Xaraés] submetidos a três estratégias de desfolhação intermitente, uma baseada no calendário (pastejo a cada 28 dias e duas na interceptação luminosa (IL, aos 95 ou 100% de interceptação luminosa. A massa de forragem (MF pré-pastejo foi maior na estratégia de desfolhação aos 100% de interceptação de luz. Os piquetes pastejados aos 95% de interceptação de luz e a cada 28 dias apresentaram menores massas de forragem e não diferiram entre si na primavera. O pastejo aos 95% de interceptação de luz aumentou a proporção de folhas, apesar das menores massas pré-pastejo. O pastejo aos 100% de interceptação de luz resultou na menor porcentagem de folhas na massa de forragem, indicando que a maior produção total de forragem foi ocasionada pelo maior alongamento de colmos, o que está associado à competição por luz entre as plantas no interior do dossel. O prolongamento do período de descanso para além dos 95% de interceptação da luz incidente aumenta a massa de forragem na entrada dos animais no momento do pastejo (100% IL ou a cada 28 dias durante o verão, porém, esse aumento é resultado do acúmulo de colmos e material morto e pode afetar negativamente o valor nutritivo da forragem produzida e o desempenho animal.The objective of this research was to describe comparatively the dynamics of herbage accumulation in Xaraés palisadegrass pastures [Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf cv. Xaraés] submitted to rotational stocking managements, defined either by pre-graze light interception (LI by the canopy (95% or 100% LI or calendar days (28d. Pre-graze forage mass (FM was higher for 100% LI pastures. Pastures grazed at 95% LI and 28-d resulted in similar pre-graze FM in the spring, both lower than that of the 100%-LI treatment. Grazing at 95% LI resulted in higher leaf percentage in pre-graze

  6. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  7. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Relations between soil factors and herbage yields of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cation exchange capacity; Correlation matrix; Nitrogen supplies; Root mass; Root measurements; Soil acidity; Soil variables; Soil water content; Soil water measurements; Yield measurements; nitrogen supply; ph; herbage yield; grassland; soils; productivity; soil depth; dry matter yield; grasses; water content; n; ...

  9. Improvement of herbage by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongmei; Hao Jifang; Wei Zengquan; Xie Zhongkui; Li Fengqin; Wang Yajun

    2004-01-01

    Herbage seeds of legume and grass were irradiated in penetration by 80 MeV/u 20 Ne 10+ ions. The results of field tests and observations of the root-tip cells showed that growth of the seedling was obviously weakened with increasing doses. Frequencies of chromosomal aberration and micronucleus increased significantly with increasing doses. According to the field growth tests, radiation sensitivity of grass herbage to the heavy ion beams was much higher than leguminous herbage, and suitable dose of the heavy ion irradiation for the grass and leguminous herbage is 20-30 Gy and 150 Gy, respectively

  10. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  11. Effect of herbage composition on the digestibility and voluntary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excluding the mineral fractions, only three of the chemical components of the herbage emerged as important, namely, the DM content of the herbage as fed, accounting for 32% of the variance in DMD, the NPN content of the herbage accounting for only 12.2% of the variance and the ash content of the herbage accounting ...

  12. Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rosales, Juan Daniel; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan Andrés; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Topete-Pelayo, Pedro; Huerta-Bravo, Maximino

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.

  13. Estrutura do pasto disponível e do resíduo pós-pastejo em pastagens de capim-cameroon e capim-marandu Pasture structure and post-grazing herbage mass in pastures of elephantgrass cv. Cameroon and palisadegrass cv. Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia de Paula Rezende

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, em dois experimentos, as características estruturais e o teor de proteína bruta das forrageiras Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon e Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em pastagens submetidas a quatro taxas de lotação rotacionadas. No período das águas, as taxas de lotação impostas a ambas as pastagens foram de 3, 4, 5 e 6 novilhos/ha e, no período seco, de 2, 3, 4 e 5 novilhos/ha. Nos dois experimentos, o capim-cameroon apresentou maior massa de forragem total e massa de forragem verde, que decresceram com o aumento da desfolha imposta pelas taxas de lotação, principalmente no período seco. Nessa forrageira, o aumento da taxa de lotação comprometeu em maior intensidade a fração de matéria seca de lâmina foliar verde. No período das águas, as taxas de lotação que propiciaram maior oferta de massa seca de forragem total, forragem verde e fração de lâmina foliar foram as de 5 e 4 novilhos/ha, respectivamente, para os capins cameroon e marandu. No período seco, no entanto, os maiores valores obtidos para essas variáveis foram, respectivamente, de 4 e 3 novilhos/ha. As taxas de lotação não influenciaram o teor de proteína bruta das gramíneas, que foi maior no componente lâmina foliar verde da planta.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate structural characteristics and crude protein concentration of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under four rotational stocking rates. During the rainfall period, the studied stocking rates for both pastures were 3, 4, 5, and 6 steers/ha and in the dry period the stocking rates were 2, 3, 4, and 5 steers/ha. In both experiments, elephantgrass cv. Cameroon produced greater total herbage mass and green herbage mass, which decreased with the increase in defoliation as a result of the used stocking rates, mainly during the dry period. For elephantgrass pastures, the increase in stocking rate had a greater negative effect on the green

  14. Responses of herbage and browse production to six range management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Reed Sanderson; Thomas M. Quigley; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1990-01-01

    From 1977 through 1986, herbage and browse production was sampled on 619 sites representing 10 ecosystems and 51 resource units on the Oregon Range Evaluation study area. We determined the effects of six range management strategies and cultural treatments on combined herbage and browse production. Mean herbage and browse production on the forest ecosystems was 145...

  15. Comparison of techniques for estimating herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.; Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

    2005-01-01

    For estimating herbage intake during grazing, the traditional sward cutting technique was compared in grazing experiments in 2002 and 2003 with the recently developed n-alkanes technique and with the net energy method. The first method estimates herbage intake by the difference between the herbage

  16. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  17. Herbage Dynamics and Soils of two Different Sites of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine herbage dynamics, herbs in each quadrat of the experimental sites were harvested, sorted out according to species, counted and identified in the herbarium. Simpson's index, D = ∑Pi2 was used to obtain relative frequencies and abundance of species. Soil samples were derived from the quadrats and ...

  18. Diferentes massas de forragem sobre as variáveis morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém anual Different herbage masses on morphogenetic and structural traits of Italian ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. foram avaliadas sob pastejo de borregas, em diferentes massas de forragem (MF: "Alta", "Média" e "Baixa", correspondentes a 1800-2000; 1400-1600 e 1000-1200kg ha-1 de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O método de pastejo foi de lotação contínua, com número variável de animais. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de correlação e regressão polinomial. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâminas intactas e desfolhadas e o número de folhas em senescência de azevém aumentaram linearmente com a elevação dos valores das massas de forragem. O número de folhas verdes ajustou-se ao modelo de regressão quadrático; o número de folhas em expansão e a densidade populacional de perfilhos não se ajustaram a nenhum modelo de regressão. Em pastagem de azevém, o manejo com massas de forragem dentro da faixa compreendida entre 1.100 e 1.800kg ha-1de MS não provoca alterações nas características morfogênicas dessa gramínea, mas causa diferenças nas características estruturais do dossel. Quando o azevém é manejado com 1.460kg ha-1de MS, seus perfilhos mantêm maior número de folhas verdes e com 1.800kg ha-1 de MS existe maior número de lâminas foliares em senescência e com maior comprimento.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., utilized by female lambs and managed with different forage masses (FM were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replications and three treatments, consisting of forage masses: "High", "Mean" and "Low", corresponding to 1,800-2,000; 1,400-1,600 and 1,000-1,200kg ha-1 of dry matter (DM, respectively. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. Data were subjected to correlation analysis and polynomial

  19. Comparison of methods for estimating herbage intake in grazing dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of herbage intake is a challenge both under practical and experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate herbage intake with different methods for cows grazing 7 h daily on either spring or autumn pastures. In order to generate variation between cows, the 20 cows per...... season, and the herbage intake was estimated twice during each season. Cows were on pasture from 8:00 until 15:00, and were subsequently housed inside and fed a mixed ration (MR) based on maize silage ad libitum. Herbage intake was estimated with nine different methods: (1) animal performance (2) intake...

  20. The effect of winter burning and mowing on seasonal herbage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Eragrostis curvula cv. Ermelo to three levels of fertilizer (no nitrogen or phosphorus; 53 kg nitrogen + 16 kg phosphorus per ha; and 106 kg nitrogen + 32 kg phosphorus per ha), three times of removing unutilized herbage (July, August and September) and three methods of herbage removal (annual mowing ...

  1. The effects of different nitrogen doses on herbage and seed yields of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different nitrogen doses on herbage and seed yields of annual ... 250, 270 and 290 kg ha-1) of and some agricultural characteristics of annual ryegrass cv. ... doses are observed to be important for all properties of herbage yield and ... It was obtained for the seed production that the highest number of tiller (626 ...

  2. The effects of different nitrogen doses on herbage and seed yields of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... the production of herbage and seed in the research. According to the two-year ...... Ecology, Production, and Management of Lolium for Forage in the. USA, F.M. .... Education and Application Handbook of Pasture. Principle 1.

  3. Herbage availability €rs a stress factor on grazed Coastcross II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) relationships for Coastcross ll Bermuda grass grazed for four consecutive summer periods by young growing beef cattle. Stocking rate affected the daily. LWG/animal through its influence on herbage availability. Rota- tional grazing showed a ...

  4. Nutritive value of some herbages for dromedary camel in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towhidi, A

    2007-01-01

    To prepare standard tables of chemical composition of feedstuffs and to determine digestibility and palatability of different plant species in dromedary camel, this research was carried out by considering the most consuming herbages of Iranian desert rages. The plant species were included Atriplex lentiformis, Alhagi persarum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Saueda fruticosa, Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix kotschyi, Hammada salicornica, Salsola yazdiana, Salsola tomentosa, Tamarix aphylla and Artemisia sieberi. Thirty samples of the browsing parts were collected from the rangelands of Yazd province in autumn. Chemical composition of samples including Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Ether Extract (EE), Total Ash (TA), macro elements (Ca, P, Mg, K), micro elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn)and gross energy (GE) were analyzed. The in vitro digestibility was determined by camel rumen liquor in Tilley and Terry method. Palatability of the plants were measured by three mature camels in cafeteria trials. The camels voluntarily fed 11 plant species during one hour for six days. Data were analyzed by GLM method in SAS software. The highest CP (18.3%) and the lowest NDF (40.4%) and ADF (35.4%) were related to Tamarix aphylla. The lowest CP (5.5%) and the highest NDF (72.8%) and ADF (59.6%) were related to Artemisia sieberi. The highest organic matter digestibility in dry matter was related to Haloxylon ammodendron. The results also indicated that Atriplex lentiformis, Alhagi persarum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Saueda fruticosa, Haloxylon ammodendron, Salsola tomentosa, Hammada salicornica, Tamarix kotschyi, Salsola yazdiana, Tamarix aphylla and Artemisia sieberi were more pleasure feed, respectively. It was not observed any correlation between %DOMD and chemical composition. Moreover, There was not a consistent relationship between the palatability of herbages with %DOMD or chemical composition.

  5. Caracterização da estrutura da vegetação numa pastagem natural do Bioma Pampa submetida a diferentes estratégias de manejo da oferta de forragem Structural characterization of a natural pasture vegetation from Pampa Biome under different herbage allowance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pereira Neves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram descrever e investigar a dinâmica espaço-temporal de sítios alimentares em diferentes faixas de massa de forragem e altura do pasto, assim como o percentual de área efetivamente pastejada, a taxa de acúmulo de forragem e a produção de matéria seca de uma pastagem natural do Bioma Pampa. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições, com três ofertas de forragem fixas (8, 12 e 16% e três ofertas de forragem variáveis ao longo do ano (8-12%, 12-8% e 16-12%, com o primeiro valor correspondendo à primavera. Na oferta fixa de forragem de 8%, observou-se maior percentual de área efetivamente pastejada, porém os valores médios de altura e massa de forragem foram inferiores aos das demais ofertas. As maiores ofertas de forragem, 16 e 16-12%, apresentaram altura média do pasto superior, 9,0 cm e massa de forragem de 2.000 kg/ha de matéria seca, porém, com área efetivamente pastejada inferior às observadas nas ofertas de 8 e 8-12%. Mesmo estratégias de manejo tão distintas, aproximadamente 60 a 70% dos sítios alimentares ocorreram em faixas consideradas limitantes ao potencial de ingestão de forragem por bovinos, com exceção dos tratamentos 16% e 16-12%, nos quais se observou menor frequência de sítios alimentares na faixa inferior a 6,0 cm de altura. Os sítios alimentares, em geral, se concentraram em faixas com altura The objective of this trial was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of feeding sites stratified by strips of herbage mass and sward height, and the percentage of effectively grazed area, herbage growth rate and dry matter yield of a natural pasture from Pampa Biome managed with different herbage allowance management strategies. A randomized block design with two replications was used with three fixed herbage allowance (8, 12 and 16% and three herbage allowance variables throughout the year (8-12%, 12-8%, and 16-12%, with first value

  6. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  7. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  8. Herbage Production and Quality of Shrub Indigofera Treated by Different Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abdullah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment on fodder legume Indigofera sp. was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar fertilizer concentration on forage yield and quality, and to identify optimum concentrations among the fertilizer treatments on herbage yield, chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and in vitro dry matter (IVDMD as wll as organic matter (IVOMD digestibility in goat’s rumen. Randomized block design was used for the six concentration of fertilizer treatments; control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/10 l with 3 replicates. Leaves were sprayed with foliar fertilizer at 30, 34, 38, and 42 days after harvest. Samples were collected at 2 harvest times with 60 days cutting interval. Application of the foliar fertilizer up to 30 g/10 l significantly increased herbage DM yield, twig numbers, tannin, saponin, Ca and P content, as well as herbage digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD. The lower and higher concentration of foliar fertilizer resulted in lower value of those parameters, but NDF and ADF contents had the opposite patterns. The optimum level of foliar fertilizer that resulted the highest herbage yield and quality was 30 g/10 l, and the highest in vitro digestibility and Ca concentration was 20 g/10 l.

  9. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  10. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their

  11. Chemical composition of lamina and sheath of Lolium perenne as affected by herbage management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of grass in terms of form and relative amounts of energy and protein affects both animal production per unit of intake and nitrogen (N) utilization. Quality can be manipulated by herbage management and choice of cultivar. The effects of N application rate (0, 90 or 390 kg N ha¿1 year¿1),

  12. Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether changing phosphatic fertilizer type affects the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) in pasture herbage. North Carolina phosphate rock and partially acidulated fertilizers derived from this rock generally have higher Cd and F concentrations compared to single superphosphate currently manufactured in Australia. Clover herbage from sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) trial was collected and analysed for concentrations of Cd (11 sites) and F (4 sites). A comparison was made between pastures fertilized with 4 rates of single superphosphate, North Carolina phosphate rock, and partially acidulated phosphate rock having Cd concentrations of 283, 481, and 420 mg Cd/kg P respectively, and 170, 271, and 274 g F/kg P respectively. One site used Hemrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock (HRP) having a Cd and F concentration of 78 mg Cd/kg P and 256 g F/kg P respectively. To help identify differences in herbage Cd concentrations between sites, unfertilised soils from each site were analyzed for total and extractable Cd contents. At one site Cd concentrations in bulk herbage (clover, grasses and weeds) were related to infestation of the pasture by capeweed (Arctotheca calendula L. Levyns). There were no significant differences between F in herbage from plots fertilized with single superphosphate, partially acidulated phosphate rock or North Carolina phosphate rock, or between sites. Concentrations of F in herbage were low, generally less than 10 mg F /kg. However, there were large differences in Cd concentrations in herbage between sites, while differences between fertilizer treatments were small in comparison. The site differences were only weakly related to total or extractable (0.01 mol/L CaCl 2 ) Cd concentrations in soil. Significant differences in Cd concentrations in clover due to fertilizer type were found at 5 sites. North Carolina phosphate rock treatments had significantly higher Cd concentrations in clover compared to

  13. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  14. Rumen degradation characteristics of ryegrass herbage and ryegrass silage are affected by interactions between stage of maturity and nitrogen fertilisation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, J.A.H.; Podesta, S.C.; Hatew, B.; Klop, G.; Laar, van H.; Bannink, A.; Warner, D.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate interaction effects between stage of maturity and N fertilization rate on rumen degradation characteristics determined with nylon bag incubations of ryegrass herbages and ryegrass silage. Grass herbage (n = 4) was cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth

  15. Effects of green manure herbage management and its digestate from biogas production on barley yield, N recovery, soil structure and earthworm populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøseth, Randi Berland; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Bleken, Marina Azzaroli

    2014-01-01

    management on the yield and N recovery of a subsequent spring barley crop, and their short term effects on soil structure and earthworm populations. A field trial was run from 2008 to 2011 at four sites with contrasting soils under cold climate conditions. We compared several options for on-site herbage......In repeatedly mown and mulched green manure leys, the mulched herbage contains substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which may only slightly contribute to the following crops’ nutrient demand. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies for green manure...... management and the application of anaerobically digested green manure herbage. Depending on the site, removal of green manure herbage reduced the barley grain yield by 0% to 33% compared to leaving it on-site. Applying digestate, containing 45% of the N in harvested herbage, as fertilizer for barley gave...

  16. Measuring larval nematode contamination on cattle pastures: Comparing two herbage sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschave, S H; Levecke, B; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J

    2015-06-15

    Assessing levels of pasture larval contamination is frequently used to study the population dynamics of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes of livestock. Direct quantification of infective larvae (L3) on herbage is the most applied method to measure pasture larval contamination. However, herbage collection remains labour intensive and there is a lack of studies addressing the variation induced by the sampling method and the required sample size. The aim of this study was (1) to compare two different sampling methods in terms of pasture larval count results and time required to sample, (2) to assess the amount of variation in larval counts at the level of sample plot, pasture and season, respectively and (3) to calculate the required sample size to assess pasture larval contamination with a predefined precision using random plots across pasture. Eight young stock pastures of different commercial dairy herds were sampled in three consecutive seasons during the grazing season (spring, summer and autumn). On each pasture, herbage samples were collected through both a double-crossed W-transect with samples taken every 10 steps (method 1) and four random located plots of 0.16 m(2) with collection of all herbage within the plot (method 2). The average (± standard deviation (SD)) pasture larval contamination using sampling methods 1 and 2 was 325 (± 479) and 305 (± 444)L3/kg dry herbage (DH), respectively. Large discrepancies in pasture larval counts of the same pasture and season were often seen between methods, but no significant difference (P = 0.38) in larval counts between methods was found. Less time was required to collect samples with method 2. This difference in collection time between methods was most pronounced for pastures with a surface area larger than 1 ha. The variation in pasture larval counts from samples generated by random plot sampling was mainly due to the repeated measurements on the same pasture in the same season (residual variance

  17. STANDING HERBAGE BIOMASS UNDER DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES DISPERSED IN PASTURES OF CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Esquivel-Mimenza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted in a tropical dry ecosystem at Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (10o 11´ N and 84o15´W measure the standing herbage biomass (SHB availability and quality under six isolated tree species of different canopy architecture dispersed in active Brachiaria brizantha pastures and compare it to that growing at full sun light. Standing herbage biomass (HB harvesting and Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR readings were taken at three different periods in a paired sample scheme. Of the six tree species studied, Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest mean crown cover while Acrocomia aculeata had the smallest. Significant differences were observed between species (P = 0.0002 and seasons (P<0.008 for the percentage of PAR transmitted under the canopy but PAR levels obtained under all species were consistent throughout seasons since the interaction between species and season was not significantly different (P=0.98. Lower PAR readings (<50% were taken under the canopies E. cyclocarpum and Guazuma ulmifolia (21.7 and 33.7 % respectively. Standing herbage biomass (SHB harvested under the crown of isolated mature individual tree species was significantly lower (P<0.001 than in open pasture areas for all tree species except that of A. aculeate but SHB crude protein content, was higher underneath all tree canopies. It can conclude that light reduction caused by tree canopies reduces SHB availability and increases the quality underneath tree canopies compared to areas of full sun but these varies accordingly to tree species and seasons.

  18. [Jaundice after Herbage Walking Tour of a 44 Year Old Man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzki, Mikael; Haller, Christoph; Henz, Samuel

    2015-06-03

    We report about a 44-year old patient with severe acute hepatitis E after herbage walking-to ur. Transmission occurred with ingestion of contaminated herbs. Symptoms were jaundice, dark urine, rheumatic pains and distinctive fatigue. We could document a benign self-limiting course under regular clinical controls. Hepatitis Eisa worldwide common cause for acute hepatitis with jaundice. In Switzerland contamination of this autochthonic infection is aquired by consumption of pork and venison (seroprevalence up to 22%). Infection can be without symptoms but also can result in acute liver failure. Extrahepatic symptoms are not uncommon.

  19. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF...... in quality parameters differed among species and functional groups, i.e., grasses and legumes. Results are discussed in the context of quantifying the impact of delaying the harvest date of grass–legume mixtures and relationships between productivity and components of feed quality....

  20. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  1. Phyto-oestrogens in herbage and milk from cows grazing whiteclover, red clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Nielsen, T S; Purup, S

    2009-01-01

    A grazing experiment was carried out to study the concentration of phyto-oestrogens in herbage for cattle and in milk during two periods (May and June). Forty-eight Danish Holstein cows were divided into four groups with four treatment diets; white clover, red clover, lucerne and chicory-rich pas...

  2. Soil restoration under pasture after lignite mining - management effects on soil biochemical properties and their relationships with herbage yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.J.; Speir, T.W.; Cowling, J.C.; Feltham, C.W. (DSIR, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of soil biochemical properties under grazed, grass-clover pasture after simulated lignite mining was studied over a 5-year period in a mesic Typic Dystrochrept soil at Waimumu, Southland, New Zealand. Restoration procedures involved four replacement treatments, after A,B and C horizon materials had been separately removed, from all except the control, and stockpiled for 2-3 weeks. Replacement treatment markedly influenced the recovery of herbage production and soil organic C and total N contents, N mineralization, microbial biomass (as indicated by mineral-N flush) and invertase and sulphatase activities. The effectiveness of replacement treatments decreased in the order: 1. control (no stripping or replacement). 2. A,B and C horizon materials replaced in the same order. 3. A,B and C horizon materials each mixed with an equal amount of siltstone overburden and replaced in order, 4. A and B horizon materials mixed before replacing over C horizon materials. Ripping increased herbage production, net N mineralization and microbial biomass. Fertilizer N also stimulated herbage production but depressed clover growth. Increases in soil invertase and, to a lesser extent, sulphatase activity were closely related to changes in herbage production. Microbial biomass increased more rapidly than soil organic C in early stages in the trial. Rates of net N mineralization suggest that N availability would have limited pasture growth.

  3. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  4. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  5. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  6. Gradual Accumulation of Heavy Metals in an Industrial Wheat Crop from Uranium Mine Soil and the Potential Use of the Herbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gramss

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Testing the quality of heavy-metal (HM excluder plants from non-remediable metalliferous soils could help to meet the growing demands for food, forage, and industrial crops. Field cultures of the winter wheat cv. JB Asano were therefore established on re-cultivated uranium mine soil (A and the adjacent non-contaminated soil (C. Twenty elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS from soils and plant sections of post-winter seedlings, anthesis-state, and mature plants to record within-plant levels of essential and toxic minerals during ripening and to estimate the (reuse of the soil-A herbage in husbandry and in HM-sensitive fermentations. Non-permissible HM loads (mg∙kg−1∙DW of soil A in Cd, Cu, and Zn of 40.4, 261, and 2890, respectively, initiated the corresponding phytotoxic concentrations in roots and of Zn in shoots from the seedling state to maturity as well as of Cd in the foliage of seedlings. At anthesis, shoot concentrations in Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn and in As, Cr, Pb, and U had fallen to a mean of 20% to increase to 46% during maturation. The respective shoot concentrations in C-grown plants diminished from anthesis (50% to maturity (27%. They were drastically up/down-regulated at the rachis-grain interface to compose the genetically determined metallome of the grain during mineral relocations from adjacent sink tissues. Soil A caused yield losses of straw and grain down to 47.7% and 39.5%, respectively. Nevertheless, pronounced HM excluder properties made Cd concentrations of 1.6–3.08 in straw and 1.2 in grains the only factors that violated hygiene guidelines of forage (1. It is estimated that grains and the less-contaminated green herbage from soil A may serve as forage supplement. Applying soil A grains up to 3 and 12 in Cd and Cu, respectively, and the mature straw as bioenergy feedstock could impair the efficacy of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  7. Net herbage accumulation rate and crude protein content of Urochloa brizantha cultivars under shade intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of silvopastoral systems is a sustainable alternative for animal production in various regions of the Brazil. However to obtain satisfactory results in these systems, the selection of forage species that grows well in the shade should be done. The tolerance of plants to light restriction and the correctly choice of species, considering good nutritional values for these conditions has great importance. The study of artificial shading for forage production helps the clarification of issues related to the behavior of plants under reduced light prior to use in integrations with forests. The aim of the study was to evaluate the net herbage accumulation rate of forage (HAR and crude protein (CP of Urochloa brizantha cultivars (Marandu and Piatã under natural light and shading of 30 and 60%. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (three shading levels: 0, 30 and 60%, two cultivars: Marandu and Piatã with three replications and repeated measures (3 cuts. Sample collection occurred when the cultivars reached 35 cm in height. The treatments with shading showed lower cutting intervals as compared to those subjected to full sunlight, because they have reached in a shorter time to time as determined cut-off criterion (mean of 37, 45 and 61 days for reduction of 60%, reduction of 30% and full sun. Significant effects (P<0.05 interaction cultivar x shade x cut on the net herbage accumulation rate (HAR. Most HAR (P<0.05 was observed for cv. Marandu 60% reduction in lightness (127 kg/ha/day due to increased production of stem during the first growing cycle. The lower HAR also occurred to Marandu, but under natural light in the third cut (34 kg/ha/day due to adverse weather conditions during the growth interval. The shadow effect and the cutting (P<0.05 affected CP. The percentage of CP on cultivars showed the highest values (average value of 9.27% in 60

  8. Comparison of two techniques used for the recovery of third-stage strongylid nematode larvae from herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Maingi, N

    2004-07-14

    A laboratory trial to determine the efficacy of two methods in recovering known numbers of third-stage (L3) strongylid nematode larvae from herbage was carried out. Herbage samples consisting almost entirely of star grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) that had no L3 nematode parasitic larvae were collected at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Two hundred grams samples were placed in fibreglass fly gauze bags and seeded with third-stage strongylid nematode larvae at 11 different levels of herbage infectivity ranging from 50 to 8000 L3/kg. Eight replicates were prepared for each of the 11 levels of herbage infectivity. Four of these were processed using a modified automatic Speed Queen heavy-duty washing machine at a regular normal cycle, followed by isolation of larvae through centrifugation-flotation in saturated sugar solution. Larvae in the other four samples were recovered after soaking the herbage in water overnight and the larvae isolated with the Baermann technique of the washing. There was a strong correlation between the number of larvae recovered using both methods and the number of larvae in the seeded samples, indicating that the two methods give a good indication of changes in the numbers of larvae on pasture if applied in epidemiological studies. The washing machine method recovered higher numbers of larvae than the soaking and Baermann method at all levels of pasture seeding, probably because the machine washed the samples more thoroughly and a sugar centrifugation-flotation step was used. Larval suspensions obtained using the washing machine method were therefore cleaner and thus easier to examine under the microscope. In contrast, the soaking and Baermann method may be more suitable in field-work, especially in places where resources and equipment are scarce, as it is less costly in equipment and less labour intensive. Neither method recovered all the larvae from the seeded samples. The recovery rates for the washing machine method ranged from 18 to 41% while

  9. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT......, Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  10. Effect of various copper supplements to feed of laying hens on cu content in eggs, liver, excreta, soil, and herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M

    2006-02-01

    Copper is often added to poultry diets as an antimicrobial agent at doses greatly exceeding the nutritional requirement. In this study, the basal diet of laying hens containing 9.2 mg Cu/kg was supplemented with CuSO(4) x 5H(2)O at 0, 25, 65, 115, and 240 mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM). At Cu dietary concentration just below the level permitted by the European Union (35 mg/kg), the Cu content in the egg yolk was significantly (p eggshell, and liver, respectively. When Cu concentration in the diet was doubled, the effect of Cu on Cu content in eggshell and liver was statistically significant as well. In no liver sample was the hygienic limit of Cu content (80 mg/kg) exceeded. Supplementation of diets with Cu increased Cu concentration in excreta linearly from 25.3 to 396.8 mg/kg DM. Dried excreta were used for fertilization of grassland at 21 g N/m(2). Three months later, soil and herbage were sampled and analyzed. The Cu concentration in soil increased from 25.3 to only 46.4 mg/kg DM when dietary Cu concentration rose from 9.2 to 243.7 mg Cu/kg DM. Corresponding Cu concentrations in herbage were 6.8 and 19.2 mg/kg DM. It can be concluded that the deposition of Cu in eggs and liver of hens fed Cu-supplemented diets does not represent a hygienic risk. The accumulation of Cu in soil fertilized with excreta of Cu-fed hens and in herbage was limited.

  11. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  12. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  13. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  14. Effect of four plant species on soil 15N-access and herbage yield in temporary agricultural grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofter-Walzl, Karin; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    access to greater amounts of soil 15N compared with a shallow-rooting binary mixture, and if leguminous plants affect herbage yield and soil 15N-access. Methods 15N-enriched ammonium-sulphate was placed at three different soil depths (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 m) to determine the depth dependent soil 15N....... This positive plant diversity effect could not be explained by complementary soil 15N-access of the different plant species from 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 m soil depths, even though deep-rooting chicory acquired relatively large amounts of deep soil 15N and shallow-rooting perennial ryegrass when grown in a mixture...

  15. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  16. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  17. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafla, A N; Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D; Dell, C J

    2014-12-01

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous-culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG) with an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane (CH4) output. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Experimental diets were (1) 55.5 g of herbage dry matter (DM) + 4.5 g of SB DM, (2) 56.0 g of herbage DM + 4.0 g of BG DM, (3) 55.5 g of haylage DM + 4.5 g of SB DM, and (4) 56.0 g of haylage DM + 4.0 g of BG DM. Forages were fed at 0730, 1030, 1400, and 1900 h, whereas SB and BG were fed at 0730 and 1400 h. Gas samples for CH₄ analysis were collected at 0725, 0900, 1000, 1355, 1530, and 1630 h on d 8, 9, and 10. Fluid samples were taken once daily on d 8, 9, and 10 for pH measurements and for ammonia-N and VFA analysis and analyzed for DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber for determination of nutrient digestibilities and estimation of bacterial protein synthesis. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the effect of forage source (haylage vs. herbage), supplement (BG vs. SB), and the forage × supplement interaction. Apparent and true DM and organic matter digestibilities as well as apparent crude protein digestibility were not affected by forage source. However, true DM digestibility was greatest for diets supplemented with SB. Apparent neutral and acid detergent fiber digestibilities of herbage-based diets were higher than haylage-based diets but fiber digestibility was not affected by supplement. Diets supplemented with SB had higher mean and minimum pH than BG; however, maximum pH was not affected by diet. Supplementation with BG produced a greater concentration of total VFA compared with diets supplemented with SB. Haylage

  18. Prognosis of accumulation value of 137SCs and 90Sr in the herbages of the main types of the Belarus Polesje meadows utilizing agrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Polesje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/square m) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for 137Cs and 90Sr uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages

  19. Forecasting of accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the main types of the Belarus Palessje meadows utilizing agrochemical soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Ivashkova, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Palessje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/m2) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for Cs 137 and Sr 90 uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages. (authors)

  20. In sacco dry matter disappearance of herbage and maize meal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein (fish meal or non-protein nitrogen) via rumen fistulae evinced no consistent trends in diet selection, feed intake or body mass changes of Dorper and Merino wethers grazed on nativc pasture (veld) at Glen. Subsequently, De Waal & Biel (1989a; 1989b; 1989c) studied tlre effects of supplementary energy and/or crude ...

  1. Herbage intake and milk yield in Comisana ewes as effect of 4 vs 7 h of grazing during late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Bernardo; Marletta, Donata; De Angelis, Anna; Di Paola, Fortunato; Bordonaro, Salvatore; Avondo, Marcella

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two Comisana ewes at late lactation were used in two trials carried out during late spring in 2 consecutive years, with the aim to evaluate the effect of the duration of grazing on herbage intake and performance. In each trial, 16 pluriparous Comisana lactating ewes were equally divided into two groups which grazed in two separate areas of natural pasture from 11:00 to 15:00 h (group 4H) or from 10:00 to 17:00 (group 7H). A concentrate mixture (500 g/day) was also offered to each ewe. The mean maximum temperature was, respectively, 23.5 ± 3.8 °C during experiment 1 and 27.0 ± 3.1 °C during experiment 2. Probably as a consequence of the differences in climatic conditions, the results on herbage intake and milk production were different during the two trials. Herbage dry matter intake was not affected by the duration of grazing during trial 1, whereas it was significantly lower in 4H group compared to that in 7H group (0.67 vs 1.02 kg/day; P ewes were able to reach good intake levels despite grazing during the hottest hours; with higher temperatures throughout the trial (trial 2), the 4H ewes reduced ingestion. Milk production was higher in 4H group during trial 1 (778 vs 707 g/day; P = 0.006), whereas it was not affected by the number of hours of grazing during trial 2, despite the higher intake levels reached by the 7H group. In conclusion, 3 extra hours of grazing for ewes at late lactation on a low quality pasture could be nullified in terms of yield response.

  2. Metabolic load in dairy cows kept in herbage-based feeding systems and suitability of potential markers for compromised well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, R S; Falk, M; Münger, A; Dohme-Meier, F; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J

    2017-08-01

    Herbage feeding with only little input of concentrates plays an important role in milk production in grassland dominated countries like Switzerland. The objective was to investigate the effects of a solely herbage-based diet and level of milk production on performance, and variables related to the metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory status to estimate the stress imposed on dairy cows. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows were divided into a control (C+, n = 13) and a treatment group (C-, n = 12), according to their previous lactation yield (4679-10 808 kg) from week 3 ante partum until week 8 post-partum (p.p.). While C+ received fresh herbage plus additional concentrate, no concentrate was fed to C- throughout the experiment. Within C+ and C-, the median of the preceding lactation yields (7752 kg) was used to split cows into a high (HYC+, HYC-)- and low-yielding (LYC+, LYC-) groups. Throughout the study, HYC+ had a higher milk yield (35.9 kg/d) compared to the other subgroups (27.2-31.7 kg/d, p cows (p cows without supplementary concentrate experienced a high metabolic load resulting in a reduced performance compared to cows of similar potential fed accordingly. Low-yielding cows performed well without concentrate supplementation. Interestingly, the selected markers for inflammation and stress such as cortisol, Hp, SAA, BE and AP gave no indication for the metabolic load being translated into compromised well-being. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effect of Repeated Application of Manure on Herbage Yield, Quality and Wintering Ability during Cropping of Dwarf Napiergrass with Italian Ryegrass in Hilly Southern Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Fatmyah Utamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two levels of manure application (184 and 275 kg N ha−1 year−1 on herbage yield, quality, and wintering ability during the cropping of a dwarf genotype of late-heading (DL Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach oversown with Italian ryegrass (IR; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were examined and compared with chemical fertilizer application (234 kg N ha−1 year−1 for 4 years to determine a sustainable and environmentally harmonized herbage production in a hilly area (340 m above sea level. No significant (p > 0.05 differences in growth attributes of plant height, tiller density, percentage of leaf blade, or dry matter yield appeared in either DL Napiergrass or IR among moderate levels (184–275 kg N ha−1 year−1 of manure and chemical fertilizer treatments. IR exhibited no significant detrimental effect on spring regrowth of DL Napiergrass, which showed a high wintering ability in all treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility of DL Napiergrass tended to increase with increasing manure application, especially at the first defoliation in the first three years. Manure application improved soil chemical properties and total nitrogen and carbon content. The results suggested that the lower rate of manure application of 184 kg nitrogen ha−1 year−1 would be suitable, which would be a good substitute for chemical fertilizer application with an equilibrium nitrogen budget for sustainable DL Napiergrass and IR cropping in the hilly region of southern Kyushu.

  4. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmland may have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1 No grazing, (2 grazing with heifers, and (3 grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1 Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2 spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3 spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d compared to common farm practice (228 g/d and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d, and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring

  5. The transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to dairy cattle fed fresh herbage collected 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Gashchak, S.; Lasarev, N; Arkhipov, A.; Chyorny, Y.; Astasheva, N.; Arkhipov, N.; Mayes, R.W.; Howard, B.J.; Baglay, G.; Loginova, L.; Burov, N.

    2000-01-01

    A study conducted during summer 1993 to determine the bioavailability and transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr to dairy cattle from herbage collected from a pasture contaminated by particulate fallout is described. The study pasture was located 3.5 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The true absorption coefficient (A t ) determined for 137 Cs (0.23) was considerably lower than previous estimates for radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake. It is likely that the low dry matter digestibility of the diet and the potential presence of 137 Cs associated with adherent soil-associated fuel particles contributed to this low bioavailability. The A t value determined for 90 Sr (0.27) did not indicate a reduced bioavailability. It is suggested that the current and previous calcium status of the animals was the controlling influence on the transfer of 90 Sr from the diet to milk

  6. Fatty acid profile in the ruminal fluid and in the m. longissimus dorsi of lambs fed herbage or concentrate with or without tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Priolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into two groups at age 45 d. Fourteen lambs were given fresh herbage (vetch; the remaining lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, seven lambs received a supplementation of quebracho tannins. At slaughter (age 105 d the ruminal content and the muscle longissimus dorsi (LD were collected. Ruminal fluid and LD fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Among the concentrates-fed lambs, tannins supplementation reduced (P < 0.05 the concentration of C18:0 (- 49 % and increased vaccenic acid (VA; + 69 % in the ruminal fluid. When tannins were included into the concentrate, the LD contained double levels of rumenic acid (RA as compared to the LD of the lambs fed the tannins-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46 % of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05. The concentration of PUFA was higher (P < 0.05 and SFA (P < 0.01 lower in the LD from lambs fed the tannin diets as compared to the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. In conclusion, tannins reduce the biohydrogenation of the PUFA in the rumen. This implies that tannins supplementation could be a strategy to increase the RA and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA into ruminant meats.

  7. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Monitoring PCDD/Fs in soil and herbage samples collected in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator after five years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Bocio, A.; Schuhmacher, M.; Liobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); Diaz-Ferrero, J. [Inst. Quimic de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants, usually generated during combustion processes. Until recently, waste incineration was widely referenced as one of the most important sources of PCDD/F release to the atmosphere. In 1999, the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain began regular operations. This facility is placed in Tarragona, Catalonia. The presence of this HWI, as well as that of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) at a few kilometers, increased the concern of the public opinion in relation to the potential toxic emissions, especially those of metals and PCDD/Fs, which could affect the health of the population living in the area. Previously to regular operations (1996) the baseline levels of PCDD/Fs in soil and vegetation samples collected near the HWI were determined. A second survey was carried out two years later (1998) in order to establish the temporal variation in PCDD/F concentrations in soil and vegetation samples taken at the same sampling points. Vegetation is considered an adequate short-term environmental monitor for PCDD/Fs. Therefore, in the surveillance program of the facility (1999-2003), herbage samples (40) were annually collected at the same sampling points in which baseline samples had been taken. Moreover, considering soil as a suitable long-term monitor for PCDD/Fs, 40 soil samples in this matrix were again collected in 2001 and 2003 to examine the temporal variations of PCDD/F levels in the area. In the present study, we present the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in soil and vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of the HWI after 5 years of regular operations.

  9. Grazing management and supplementation effects on forage and dairy cow performance on cool-season pastures in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Staples, C R; Portier, K M; Fike, J H; Moore, J E

    2011-08-01

    Cool-season annual forages provide high-quality herbage for up to 5 mo in the US Gulf Coast states, but their management in pasture-based dairy systems has received little attention. Objectives of this study were to evaluate pasture and animal responses when lactating Holstein cows (n=32, mean DIM=184±21) grazed either N-fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.)-annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mixed pastures or rye-annual ryegrass-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures at 2 stocking rates (5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and 2 rates of concentrate supplementation [0.29 or 0.40 kg of supplement (as is)/kg of daily milk production]. Two cows paired by parity (one multiparous and one primiparous) were assigned randomly to each pasture. The 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was replicated twice in a completely randomized design. Forage mixture and supplementation rate did not affect milk production during three 28-d periods. Greater milk production occurred at the low (19.7 kg/d) than the high (14.7 kg/d) stocking rate during periods 2 and 3, but production was similar during period 1. Despite lower production per cow, milk production per hectare was generally greater at the high stocking rate (81.6 vs. 49.5 kg/ha). Generally, greater pregraze herbage mass on pastures at the lower stocking rate (1,400 vs. 1,150 kg/ha) accounted for greater herbage allowance. Both forage (8.0 vs. 5.9 kg/d) and total (14.1 vs. 11.6) organic matter intake were greater at the low stocking rate. Cows fed less supplement had greater forage organic matter intake (8.0 vs. 6.1 kg/d). Greater herbage mass was associated with the greater intake and subsequent greater milk production. Differences in forage nutritive value, blood metabolites and milk composition, although showing some response to treatments, may not be of sufficient magnitude to affect choice of pasture species or other management practices. Animal performance was not improved by

  10. Avaliação de pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. 2. Disponibilidade de forragem e desempenho animal durante a seca Evaluation of a signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf postponed pasture. 2. Availability of herbage and animal performance, during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Destéfani Guimarães Santos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Verificaram-se as disponibilidades de forragem total, forragem verde e morta e dos componentes folha verde, caule verde, folha seca e caule seco em pastagem diferida de Brachiaria decumbens. A pastagem foi vedada à entrada dos animais de dezembro de 1996 a junho de 1997 e avaliada, sob pastejo contínuo, durante a estação seca, nos meses de julho a outubro de 1997. Também foram estudadas correlações entre características do relvado e ganho de peso de tourinhos Limousin-Nelore com 19 meses e 374 kg de peso. O diferimento da pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens proporcionou disponibilidade média de forragem (DMST de 7.568, forragem verde (DMSV de 3.834 e morta (DMSM de 3.734 kg de matéria seca (MS/ha em julho, antes do período de pastejo. A utilização contínua da pastagem diferida durante o período seco, com lotação animal de 0,75 UA/ha, não afetou a DMST, média de 7.902, e DMSM, média de 4.637 kg/ha, mas afetou a DMSV e a disponibilidade de folhas verdes (DMSFV. A DMSV e a DMSFV apresentaram taxas crescentes em julho e outubro e diminuíram a taxas crescentes em agosto e setembro. No final de setembro, as pastagens apresentaram a menor DMSV, 2.540 kg/ha. A DMSFV e a proporção de folhas verdes no relvado foram maiores no início de agosto, respectivamente, 1.517 kg/ha e 18,5%, e menores no final de setembro, 480 kg/ha e 5,7%, respectivamente. O diferimento da pastagem permitiu a manutenção dos animais e apenas pequeno ganho de peso durante a seca, média de 104 g/dia. Em setembro, os animais nas pastagens perderam peso. O ganho de peso vivo médio diário correlacionou-se linear e negativamente com DMSM e linear e positivamente com as relações [DMSV/DMSM] e [DMSFV/(DMSM + DMSCV], em que DMSCV é a disponibilidade de matéria seca de caule verde. Não foram verificadas correlações entre ganho de peso e as variáveis DMSV, DMSFV, pressão de pastejo e oferta diária de forragem.The availability of herbage, green herbage, dead

  11. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  12. Choice of grazed herbage or maize silage by lactating dairy cows: influence of sward height and concentrate level Preferência por pastagem ou silagem de milho por vacas leiteiras em lactação: influência da altura do pasto e do nível de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hernandez-Mendo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The preference of lactating dairy cows for grazed herbage or maize silage (MS, simultaneously offered ad libitum in the field, was examined at two sward heights (SH 4-6 and 8-10cm and two concentrate levels (CL 0 and 6kg day-1 in a 2x2 factorial arrangement within a completely randomised experimental design. The experiment lasted 35 days and was carried out in spring using 24 multiparous Holstein Friesian cows. On average, the cows proportionately spent more time grazing than eating MS (0.85:0.15 and even though the higher rate of intake (RI of dry matter (DM of MS compared with grazed herbage (76 versus 26g DM min-1, the proportion of total DM intake as herbage was higher compared to that of MS (0.56:0.44. The higher crude protein and low fibre content of grazed herbage appeared to have a higher priority of choice than RI, as the cows chose to graze for longer (grazing time 385 min, MS feeding time 67min despite the lower RI of herbage. The low proportion MS intake indicated that RI was a secondary factor of choice. Concentrate supplementation had a greater depressing effect on herbage intake than on MS intake. These results suggest that the animals reduce the intake of feed with lower RI when the labor associated to eat is decreased. The factors influencing the choice for herbage over maize silage remain unclear.A preferência de vacas leiteiras em lactação por pasto ou silagem de milho (SM oferecidas ad libitum simultaneamente no pasto foi avaliada quanto a duas alturas de pastagem (4-6 e 8-10cm e dois níveis de concentrado (0 e 6kg dia-1, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 dentro de um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. O experimento, com duração de 35 dias, foi executado na primavera utilizando 24 vacas multíparas da raça Holandesa. As vacas passaram, em média, proporcionalmente mais tempo pastando do que comendo SM (0,85:0,15 e, mesmo considerando a maior taxa de consumo (TC de matéria seca (MS de SM comparada com a da pastagem (76

  13. The intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-Wales, UK: I. Soil ingestion, soil-metal partitioning and potential availability to pasture herbage and livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.M.; Abrahams, P.W.; Dagleish, M.P.; Steigmajer, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper first evaluates the relative importance of the soil-plant-animal and soil-animal pathways of Zn, Cu and (especially) Pb investigated over a 15-month study period at 12 floodplain sites located within and downstream of the mineralised and historic mining area of mid-Wales, and secondly considers the implications of a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) undertaken on soils of varying particle size sampled from the study locations. Generally, very good agreement was found between the chemical partitioning of the three metals for each of the physical soil fractions subjected to the SEP. The availability of Pb to pasture vegetation, especially at the contaminated sites, is indicated with its associations with the more soluble (i.e. exchangeable and Fe/Mn oxide) soil phases, yet soil and/or plant barriers effectively restrict above-ground herbage concentrations of this metal. Consequently, with sheep ingesting soil at rates varying according to season from 0.1% to 44% or more of dry matter intake, the soil-animal pathway accounts for the majority of Pb consumption through most of the year, and at moderately and highly contaminated sites significant quantities of relatively soluble soil-Pb can be ingested at rates exceeding safety threshold limits.

  14. Consumo e tempo diário de pastejo por novilhos Nelore em pastagem de capim-tanzânia sob diferentes ofertas de forragem Effects of herbage allowance on the intake and grazing time of Nellore steers grazing tanzâniagrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto

    2006-02-01

    allowance (HA (kg of leaf blade /100 kg animal live weight/day, % were: 6.1 ± 0.59; 11.1 ± 0.77; 18.0 ± 1.24 and 23.9 ± 1.15%. Eight Nelore animals averaging 229.0 and 249.5 kg grazed each paddock in the first and second sampling periods, respectively. A completely randomized block design was used. Grazing time, leaf dry matter availability, leaf:stem ratio and canopy height were highly correlated with forage intake and can be used to develop prediction models of forage intake and performance of the grazing animal. Studies on intake and grazing animal performance in relation to forage allowances should consider the pasture structural traits for data interpretation and comparison. Tanzaniagrass forage allowances induced changes in the pasture structural characteristics and had quadratic effect on the daily grazing time and on the forage intake by Nelore steers. Shortest grazing time and highest forage intake were observed on pasture with herbage allowance of about 22.5 kg leaf blade/100 kg BW, which corresponded to a post-grazing mass of 4323.2 kg/ha dry matter, 2887.6 kg/ha dry green matter and average canopy height of 64 cm.

  15. Produção e qualidade de pastagens de Coastcross-1 e milheto utilizadas com vacas leiteiras Production and quality of Coastcross-1 and pearl millet pastures utilized with dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Fernanda Barros Scaravelli

    2007-06-01

    detergent fiber (NDF. No significant difference (P>.05 was observed to DMA, DMR, TDM and CP. Pearl millet presented greater availability of LB (P<.05, smaller NDF (P<.05 in pregraze and postgraze herbage mass and greater contribution of OS (P<.05. The total grazing period was greater in Coastcross-1 pasture.

  16. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  17. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  18. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Componentes da Produção de Forragem em Pastagens dos Capins Tanzânia e Mombaça Adubadas com Quatro Doses de NPK Components of Herbage Production of Tanzania and Mombaça Pastures Fertilized with Four Doses of NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2002-06-01

    height of residue of 30 cm. A complete randomized block design was used with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial with three field replications. The fertilization doses corresponded to the reduction of 30 % and the increase of 30 and 60% in relation to a standard dose of 145; 21.6; and 180 kg/ha of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively (assuming the contents of 1.2, 0.08, and 1.2% of N, P, and K in DM, to reach an estimated DM production of 12000 kg/ha. There was a linear effect of fertilization doses on green DM (GDM before and after grazing. The cv. Mombaça exhibited higher herbage mass before and after grazing (9183 and 5279 kg/ha of GDM, respectively than the cv. Tanzania (6275 and 3808 kg/ha of GDM, respectively. The proportion of leaf blade in the GDM available was lower in the cv. Tanzania (51% than in the cv. Mombaça (54 %. The tiller density was not affected by the fertilization doses. However, the increase in tiller weight due to fertilizer doses was responsible for the higher GDM production. The senesced DM did not vary between cultivars, with a mean value of 3108 kg/ha. In general, higher rates of fertilization resulted in greater GDM accumulation rate and higher losses of GDM by trampling. The cv. Mombaça showed a greater response potential to fertilization than the cv. Tanzania with stocking rates of 6.2 and 4.0 UA/ha, respectively.

  20. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  1. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  2. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  3. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  4. Can herbage nitrogen fractionation in Lolium perenne be improved by herbage management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, N.J.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Amburgh, van M.E.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2008-01-01

    The high degradability of grass protein is an important factor in the low nitrogen (N) utilization of grazing bovines in intensive European grassland systems. We tested the hypothesis that protein degradability as measured by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) protein

  5. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  6. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  7. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  8. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  9. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  10. Características do pasto e acúmulo de forragem em capim-tanzânia submetido a alturas de manejo do pasto Sward characteristics and herbage accumulation of Tanzania grass submitted to sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weber do Canto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar alturas de manejo do pasto (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm em capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq., em regime de lotação contínua, nas características do dossel e acúmulo de matéria seca. Os animais utilizados foram novilhos Nelore (Bos indicus, e a taxa de lotação foi variável. Foram avaliados: a massa de forragem, a massa de lâmina de folha verde, a razão folha:colmo, a composição morfológica e a taxa de acúmulo de matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A massa de forragem aumentou linearmente com o aumento da altura do pasto. As médias de massa de forragem foram 2.767, 3.105, 3.657 e 4.436 kg ha-1, respectivamente, para as alturas de 20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca, a 20, 40, 60 e 80 cm, foram, respectivamente, 104, 108, 90 e 81 kg ha-1 por dia, o que indica que houve redução dessas taxas com a elevação da altura do pasto. A razão folha:colmo decresceu linearmente com o aumento da altura do pasto. Pastagens de capim-tanzânia, sob lotação contínua ao final da primavera e durante o verão, devem ser utilizadas entre 40 e 60 cm de altura.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different sward height (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures managed under continuous stocking. The animals used were Nellore steers, and the control of sward height was done with put-and-take techniques. Evaluations were made for: forage mass, green leaf mass, leaf:stem ratio, morphological composition and dry matter accumulation rate. The experimental design was completely randomized with two replications. Forage mass increased linearly with sward height with overall mean of 2,767, 3,105, 3,657 and 4,436 kg ha-1 at sward heights 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm, respectively. Rates of dry matter accumulation decreased with increasing sward heights and were 104, 108, 90 and 81 kg ha-1 per day for sward

  11. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  12. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  13. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  14. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  15. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  16. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  17. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  18. herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mineral indices were calculated from chemical analysis with a view to generate relevant fertilisation recommenda- tions. Although the dry .... P, and K established in temperate climate (Blanfort ..... like rotational grazing rhythms or stocking rates.

  19. Estimating seasonal herbage production of a semi-arid grassland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between above-ground phytomass production and three independent variables, namely, seasonal rainfall, evapotranspiration (Et) and veld condition, were investigated using fourteen years' data (1977-1991) from the dry Themeda-Cymbopogon grassveld of the central Orange Free State. The data showed that ...

  20. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2011-01-01

    there is limited information about mineral concentrations in forage herbs. To determine whether herbs have greater macro- and micromineral concentrations than forage legumes and grasses, we conducted a 2-year experiment on a loamy-sand site in Denmark sown with a multi-species mixture comprised of three functional...

  1. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  2. GROWTH AND HERBAGE OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... occidentalis. INTRODUCTION ... maintenance of motor and internal combustion engines. ... polluted soil caused stunted growth in plant and the ... productive of soil polluted with spent engine oil and .... in total N and exchangeable K and moderate in ... rise in the level of heavy metal concentrations is in.

  3. Herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on scientific data. Fertilisation is one of the potential options to improve pasture management as indicated by findings of this study. This is useful evidence-based information that could be incorporated in extension packages and resource materials for dissemination and subsequent adoption by livestock farming ...

  4. Simulation of water use and herbage growth in arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.

    1975-01-01

    The and and semi-arid regions of the world, totalling about 30% of the land surface of the earth, are predominantly used for extensive grazing, as low and erratic rainfall presents too high a risk for arable farming. The population that can be sustained by the animal products -meat, milk or

  5. Herbage availability as a stress factor on grazed Coastcross II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Produção de forragem e produção animal em pastagem com duas disponibilidades de forragem associadas ou não à suplementação energética Effects of forage availability and energy supplementation on herbage accumulation rate and animal yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de duas disponibilidades de forragem, 1.200 e 1.500 kg/ha de matéria seca (MS, e do uso de suplementação energética sobre a produção de forragem e a produção animal em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Foram utilizadas 90 novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore, com peso vivo (PV de 164 kg no início do pastejo, submetidas às seguintes combinações: DFB - disponibilidade de forragem baixa; DFA - disponibilidade de forragem alta; DFBS - disponibilidade de forragem baixa + suplementação energética; DFAS - disponibilidade de forragem alta + suplementação energética. O suplemento fornecido foi grão de sorgo moído, na proporção de 0,7% do PV. As variáveis estudadas foram produção de forragem (PF, carga animal (CA e ganho de peso vivo por área (GPA. A PF não foi influenciada pelo manejo da pastagem e pela suplementação aos animais. O acúmulo de forragem diário estimado foi de 45,53 kg/ha de MS. A CA na DFA, média de 862 kg/ha de PV, apresentou pouca variação no decorrer do ciclo de pastejo. Em DFAS, DFB e DFBS, a carga animal foi extremamente variável e, a partir de 26/08, foi maior na DFBS. A utilização de 1.200 kg/ha de MS não afetou o GPA, enquanto a suplementação aos animais proporcionou aumento de 59,4% em relação ao uso exclusivo da pastagem.The trial was conducted to evaluate two forage availabilities (1.200 and 1.500 kg/ha of dry matter [DM] and energy supplementation of winter pasture on herbage and animal yields. The pasture was a mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Ninety Charolais and Charolais crossbred Nellore heifers, with initial live weight of 164 kg, were submitted to the following treatments: LFA - low forage availability; HFA - high forage availability; LFAS - low forage availability + supplementation; HFAS - high forage availability + supplementation

  7. Disponibilidade, composição bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis Herbage availability, chemical composition and dry matter intake in mixed pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with Stylosanthes guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição bromatológica, o consumo de matéria seca e a proporção de gramínea e leguminosa na dieta de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão e leguminosas arbóreas. Para estimativa da produção fecal, foram usados 10 g vaca-1 dia-1 de óxido crômico, durante dez dias. Amostras de extrusa foram usadas para determinação da composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A disponibilidade de matéria seca de forragem de B. decumbens variou com as condições climáticas, enquanto a de S. guianensis decresceu linearmente ao longo do período experimental. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior em maio de 2001 (1,9% do peso do animal vivo e não diferiu entre os demais meses (1,5% do peso do animal vivo. Os baixos índices de consumo de matéria seca refletiram altos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (70,2% a 79,4% e baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (42,1% a 48,0% da forragem. O consumo de leguminosa variou entre 8,7% e 24,1% do total ingerido. O consumo de matéria seca esteve diretamente relacionado à porcentagem de leguminosa na pastagem, o que evidencia o potencial de uso de pastagens consorciadas para vacas leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows, in pasture with Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão and tree legumes. To estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. Extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. B. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while S. guianensis

  8. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  9. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  10. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  11. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  12. Radiative Majorana Neutrino Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Wong, Gwo-Guang

    1994-01-01

    We present new radiative mechanisms for generating Majorana neutrino masses, within an extension of the standard model that successfully generates radiative charged lepton masses, order by order, from heavy sequential leptons. Only the new sequential neutral lepton has a right-handed partner, and its Majorana mass provides the seed for Majorana neutrino mass generation. Saturating the cosmological bound of $50$ eV with $m_{\

  13. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  14. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  15. Scalar quarkonium masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Weingarten, D.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the valence approximation to the mass of scalar quarkonium for a range of different parameters. Our results strongly suggest that the infinite volume continuum limit of the mass of ss scalar quarkonium lies well below the mass of f J (1710). The resonance f 0 (1500) appears to the best candidate for ss scalar quarkonium. (orig.)

  16. What masses for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    To understand the evolution of giant stars, it is important to pin down the masses for Cepheids. The 7- to 10-day bump Cepheids imply lower than evolutionary mass (60%). Recent theoretical work, though, indicates that for Cepheids with periods of 15 to 16 days, the best understanding of the light curves results from using evolutionary masses

  17. Grazing management strategies for massaigrass-forage peanut pastures: 1. dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition Estratégias de manejo do pastejo para pastos consorciados de capim-massai e amendoim forrageiro: 1. dinâmica da condição do pasto e da composição botânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out from October 2002 to December 2003 to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed massaigrass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Ac 01 pasture, intermittently stocked at three daily herbage allowance levels (9.0, 14.5 and 18.4% live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each grazing cycle in terms of the pre and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, legume and weeds was evaluated before each grazing period. Sward height and forage mass increased linearly with increasing herbage allowance (HA levels, and higher values were observed during the rainy season. Percentage of bare ground increased primarily at the lowest HA level. Percentage of forage peanut increased throughout the experimental period, primarily in the barest and shortest swards, under the lowest HA level. In the last quarter of 2003 the legume constituted 23.5, 10.6 and 6.4% of the pasture forage mass, respectively, from the lowest to the highest HA level. These results suggest that forage peanut can be successfully associated with massaigrass, as long as the pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 65-70 cm, which will prevent excessive shading to the legume.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica e a composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de capim-massai (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Ac 01, manejada sob lotação rotacionada em três níveis de oferta diária de forragem (9,0; 14,5 e 18,4% do peso vivo. A condição da pastagem foi caracterizada em cada ciclo de pastejo, em termos de altura, massa de forragem e porcentagem de solo descoberto (pré e pós-pastejo. A composição botânica da pastagem (gramínea, leguminosa e invasoras foi monitorada antes de cada período de ocupação. Houve aumento linear da altura

  18. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  19. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  20. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  1. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  2. Milk production and composition, nitrogen utilization, and grazing behavior of late-lactation dairy cows as affected by time of allocation of a fresh strip of pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, R E; Tavendale, M; Otter, D; Schwendel, B H; Lowe, K; Gregorini, P; Pacheco, D

    2017-07-01

    Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89.5 vs. 88.9%), and water-soluble carbohydrate (10.9 vs. 7.6%) concentrations and lesser crude protein (20.5 vs. 22.2%) and neutral detergent fiber (48.8 vs. 50.4%) concentrations compared with a.m. herbage. Total fatty acids (FA), α-linolenic acid, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greater in a.m. herbage, whereas monounsaturated FA were greater in p.m. herbage. Estimates of herbage DM intake did not differ among treatments. Daily milk yields and milk fat and milk protein concentrations were similar among treatments, whereas milk fat (684 vs. 627 g/cow), milk protein (545 vs. 505 g/cow), and milk solids (milk fat + milk protein) yields (1,228 vs. 1,132 g/cow) tended to be greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Rumenic acid and total PUFA in milk were greater for cows on a.m. herbage, whereas oleic acid was greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Estimates of urinary N excretion (g/d) did not differ among treatments, but urinary N concentrations were greater for cows on a.m. herbage (5.85 vs. 5.36 g/L). Initial herbage mass (HM) available (kg of DM/ha) and instantaneous HM disappearance rates (kg of DM/ha and kg of DM/h) did not differ, but fractional disappearance rates (0.56 vs. 0.74 per hour for a.m. vs. p.m., respectively) differed. Under the current conditions, timing of pasture strip allocation altered the herbage nutrient supply to cows; allocating a fresh strip of pasture later in the day resulted in moderate increases in milk and milk solids yields

  3. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  4. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  5. MassTRIX: mass translator into pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have brought the field of metabolomics to a point where large numbers of metabolites from numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms can now be easily and precisely detected. The challenge today lies in the correct annotation of these metabolites on the basis of their accurate measured masses. Assignment of bulk chemical formula is generally possible, but without consideration of the biological and genomic context, concrete metabolite annotations remain difficult and uncertain. MassTRIX responds to this challenge by providing a hypothesis-driven approach to high precision MS data annotation. It presents the identified chemical compounds in their genomic context as differentially colored objects on KEGG pathway maps. Information on gene transcription or differences in the gene complement (e.g. samples from different bacterial strains) can be easily added. The user can thus interpret the metabolic state of the organism in the context of its potential and, in the case of submitted transcriptomics data, real enzymatic capacities. The MassTRIX web server is freely accessible at http://masstrix.org.

  6. Glycomics using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in structural glycomics. This review provides an overview on currently used mass spectrometric approaches such as the characterization of glycans, the analysis of glycopeptides obtained by proteolytic cleavage of proteins and the analysis of glycosphingolipids. The given examples are demonstrating the application of mass spectrometry to study glycosylation changes associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation, lysosomal storage di...

  7. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  8. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. The origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, R.; Sutton, C.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of mass in the Universe remains unexplained but recent high-energy experiments, described in this article, are close to testing the most plausible explanation for the masses of fundamental particles, which may, in turn, lead to a clearer understanding of mass on the macro-scale. The Standard Model includes the concept of the Higgs mechanism which endows particles with mass. Actual evidence for the existence of the postulated particle known as the Higgs boson would lead to confirmation of the theory and efforts to detect it at CERN are complex and determined. (UK)

  10. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  11. Masses of Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    About ten years ago it became apparent that the masses of Cepheids predicted from the theory of stellar evolution were larger than those predicted by pulsation theory. This mass anomaly for the classical Cepheids was displayed by Christy (1968) and Stobie (1969a,b,c) using nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations and by Cogan (1970) using linear theory. Rodgers (1970) has also discussed the several mass anomalies in some detail. These mass anomalies, and some others to be discussed, have not yet been completely resolved, but many of the discrepancies have been alleviated mostly by an increase in the Cepheid luminosities and a decrease in their surface temperatures

  12. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  13. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  14. Systematics of quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Jarlskog, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the quark mass matrices in the Standard Electroweak Model satisfy the empirical relation M = M 1 + Ψ(Λ 2 ), where M(M sp (')) refers to the mass matrix of the charge 2/3(-1/3) quarks normalized to the largest eigenvalue, m sub (t)(m sub (b)), and Λ = V sub (us) = 0.22

  15. Measurements of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Direct experimental information of neutrino mass as derived from the study of nuclear and elementary-particle weak decays is reviewed. Topics include tritium beta decay; the 3 He-T mass difference; electron capture decay of 163 Ho and 158 Tb; and limits on massive neutrinos from cosmology. 38 references

  16. The Origin of Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2010-07-01

    The world of physics presently looks to the LHC (CERN), where many expect the Higgs boson to be found. The Higgs is supposed to (partly) explain the cause of mass. There are indications that neither the Higgs nor Supersymmetric Particles will be found. In order to understand mass, the Higgs is not needed. Inertial mass is caused by a fundamental process. Binding fields propagate at the finite speed of light. An inevitable consequence is that every expanded object has an inertial behaviour, even if the constituents of the object are mass-less. To explain the mass of elementary particles, we have to accept that these particles are expanded. This is on the one hand in conflict with the concept of present physics; on the other hand it is in no conflict with any experiment. And it conforms to the analysis of Schroedinger with respect to the Dirac function of the electron. The corresponding particle model explains particle properties, like the magnetic moment (and therefore also the Bohr Magneton) and the constancy of the spin, correctly without any use of QM. Also the dynamic properties of mass, i.e. the relativistic increase of mass at motion and the mass-energy-relation, follow in a straight way from this concept.

  17. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  18. Mass of AC Andromedae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations indicate that AC Andromedae is population I rather than population II. A mass and radius for this star are calculated using a new set of opacities for the Kippenhahn Ia mixture. It is concluded that the mass is too high for an ordinary RR Lyrae star. (BJG)

  19. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  20. Elbow mass flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  1. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  2. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  3. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  4. Top Quark Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...

  5. Origins of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  6. Dynamical Mass Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel Horwitz, Roberto Ruben

    1982-03-01

    In the framework of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salem model without elementary scalar particles, we show that masses for fermions and intermediate vector bosons can be generated dynamically. The mechanism is the formation of fermion-antifermion pseudoscalar bound states of zero total four momentum, which form a condensate in the physical vacuum. The force responsible for the binding is the short distance part of the net Coulomb force due to photon and Z exchange. Fermions and bosons acquire masses through their interaction with this condensate. The neutrinos remain massless because their righthanded components have no interactions. Also the charge -1/3 quarks remain massless because the repulsive force from the Z exchange dominates over the Coulomb force. To correct this, we propose two possible modifications to the theory. One is to cut off the Z exchange at very small distances, so that all fermions except the neutrinos acquire masses, which are then, purely electromagnetic in origin. The other is to introduce an additional gauge boson that couples to all quarks with a pure vector coupling. To make this vector boson unobservable at usual energies, at least two new fermions must couple to it. The vector boson squared masses receive additive contributions from all the fermion squared masses. The photon remains massless and the masses of the Z and W('(+OR -)) bosons are shown to be related through the Weinberg angle in the conventional way. Assuming only three families of fermions, we obtain estimates for the top quark mass.

  7. Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

  8. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  9. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  10. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  11. Photon mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A Coulomb null experiment is described that enables physics students to obtain rigorous upper bounds on photon mass. The experimenter searches for subnanovolt signals that would escape a closed shell were photon mass to be positive. The approach can be adapted for several college levels. At the simplest level, a ''miniature'' low-cost experiment allows a student to verify the exponent ''-2'' in Coulomb's law to eight or more decimal places. An advanced student given a full-size apparatus (at greater cost) can obtain mass bounds very close to the established laboratory limit

  12. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods i...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions.......Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...

  13. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  14. Neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay has not changed significantly in the last two years. We discuss the ''model independent'' lower limit of 17 eV obtained by the ITEP group in light of existing data on the 3 H-- 3 He mass difference. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. High mass planets and low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on theoretical models of brown dwarf stars was presented to the workshop on ''Astrophysics of brown dwarfs'', Virginia, USA, 1985. The ingredients in the models i.e. equation of state, entropy and the infrared opacity are described. An analytical model is developed which is based on a polytrope (n = 3/4) but which neglects thermonuclear reactions. The model forms the basis of scaling laws for luminosity, mass, opacity and age. Complicating factors in brown dwarf evolution are also discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Very low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Probst, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses several theoretical and observational topics involved in discovering and analyzing very low mass stellar objects below about 0.3 M circle, as well as their likely extension into the substellar range. The authors hereafter refer to these two classes of objects as VLM stars and brown dwarfs, respectively; collectively, they are called VLM objects. The authors outline recent theoretical work on low-mass stellar interiors and atmospheres, the determination of the hydrogen-burning mass limit, important dynamical evidence bearing on the expected numbers of such objects, and the expectations for such objects from star-formation theory. They focus on the properties of substellar objects near the stellar mass limit. Observational techniques used to discover and analyze VLM objects are summarized

  17. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  18. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  19. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness show us how stress affects us. Think of how stage fright can cause nausea, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, a racing heart, a stomachache, or diarrhea. ...

  20. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  1. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to estimate the percentage of new feather mass grown for moult regression models? ... As an alternative, it is here tested if feather mass indices may be sufficient replacements for species-specific feather masses. Thirty-five species of birds with known primary ...

  2. Leptogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis explains the baryon asymmetry of the universe by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy right-handed neutrinos. In the minimal seesaw model this leads to interesting implications for light neutrino properties. In particular, quasi-degenerate light neutrino masses are incompatible with leptogenesis. An upper bound on light neutrino masses of 0.1 eV can be derived, which will be tested by forthcoming laboratory experiments and cosmology. (author)

  3. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  4. Mass of the photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    Several experiments are discussed for which results are equivalent to the catching and weighing of a photon. It is noted that none of the experiments has proved the rest mass to be zero and that such a proof may be impossible. It is shown by such experiments that the rest mass is less than the limit of accuracy of the experiment. These limits have approached ever closer to zero, and the most recent values are exceedingly small

  5. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  6. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  7. Strategic grazing management towards sustainable intensification at tropical pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congio, Guilhermo F S; Batalha, Camila D A; Chiavegato, Marília B; Berndt, Alexandre; Oliveira, Patrícia P A; Frighetto, Rosa T S; Maxwell, Thomas M R; Gregorini, Pablo; Da Silva, Sila C

    2018-05-01

    Agricultural systems are responsible for environmental impacts that can be mitigated through the adoption of more sustainable principles. Our objective was to investigate the influence of two pre-grazing targets (95% and maximum canopy light interception during pasture regrowth; LI 95% and LI Max , respectively) on sward structure and herbage nutritive value of elephant grass cv. Cameroon, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, stocking rate, enteric methane (CH 4 ) emissions by Holstein × Jersey dairy cows. We hypothesized that grazing strategies modifying the sward structure of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) improves nutritive value of herbage, increasing DMI and reducing intensity of enteric CH 4 emissions, providing environmental and productivity benefits to tropical pasture-based dairy systems. Results indicated that pre-sward surface height was greater for LI Max (≈135 cm) than LI 95% (≈100 cm) and can be used as a reliable field guide for monitoring sward structure. Grazing management based on LI 95% criteria improved herbage nutritive value and grazing efficiency, allowing greater DMI, milk yield and stocking rate by dairy cows. Daily enteric CH 4 emission was not affected; however, cows grazing elephant grass at LI 95% were more efficient and emitted 21% less CH 4 /kg of milk yield and 18% less CH 4 /kg of DMI. The 51% increase in milk yield per hectare overcame the 29% increase in enteric CH 4 emissions per hectare in LI 95% grazing management. Thereby the same resource allocation resulted in a 16% mitigation of the main greenhouse gas from pasture-based dairy systems. Overall, strategic grazing management is an environmental friendly practice that improves use efficiency of allocated resources through optimization of processes evolving plant, ruminant and their interface, and enhances milk production efficiency of tropical pasture-based systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  9. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  10. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  11. Neutrino mass from Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.

  12. Gaugino mass without singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-01-01

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations

  13. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  14. Keaton and the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    This paper explores conflicts between individual and mass and the process of 'massification' (i.e. the becoming of masses) as comic potential in Buster Keaton’s physical comedies. This comic potential is characterized by a person’s formalized and aestheticized de-individualization when confronted...... with tangible, non-human matter. As already indicated by Henri Bergson, de-individualization plays an important role in modern comedy in general. With his intense focus on massification, Keaton is not only one of the first, but also one of the most dedicated investigators of comic de-individualization by purely...... and thematics of the films and down to the comic details of each individual gag. The paper initiates by considering the complex relations in Keaton between gag and narrative with specific regard to the conflict between the individual and the masses. This leads to an exploration of the basic compositional...

  15. Baryogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The erasure of any preexisting B+L asymmetry in the universe in its late stages suggests that the B asymmetry observed today either originated at the electroweak scale or it arose from an original L asymmetry. For the latter case to be viable either neutrino masses are much below the eV scale or the L asymmetry itself is generated at an intermediate scale. Several features of the generation of a B asymmetry via an L asymmetry are discussed, including the interesting possibility that the present baryon asymmetry in the universe originates as a result of CP violating phases in the neutrino mass matrix

  16. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  17. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  18. Atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  19. Fermion masses and multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    A general survey and analysis of fermion masses is presented in terms of both the known low energy gauge structure and of the simplest GUT structure. The replication of fermion families is discussed in the context of possible family group structures. Sample family gauge groups are presented in the cases of three and four chiral families, using ABJ and Witten anomalies to restrict the maximal gauged family group. The possible relevance of the family group to the fermion mass hierarchy is discussed in the context of various models. (author)

  20. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  1. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  2. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  3. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of

  4. The Disk Mass Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; de Jong, Roelof Sybe

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  5. Mass of 48K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.; Zeller, A.F.; Ophel, T.R.; Hebbard, D.F.

    1978-08-01

    The mass excess of 48 K was measured to be -32.117 +or- .027 MeV using the 48 Ca( 7 Li, 7 Be) 48 K reaction at 52 MeV. The result is consistent with predictions and a previous less accurate measurement. There is evidence for an excited state in 48 K at 0.58 MeV

  6. Processes of Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channey, David

    This sociological treatment of mass communications analysis first discusses the theories of audience behavior, then turns to the organization of media production, and closes with a study of performance. The book covers audience needs and gratifications, the history of British press and broadcasting results of systems of media distribution, the…

  7. Emotions and Mass Atrocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Johannes

    social and political forces, deeply involved in the history of mass violence. Drawing on recent insights from philosophy, psychology, history, and the social sciences, this volume examines the emotions of perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. Editors Thomas Brudholm and Johannes Lang have brought...

  8. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  9. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  10. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian, E-mail: weinheimer@uni-muenster.de [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c{sup 2} . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c{sup 2} by increasing strongly the statistics and-at the same time-reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium {beta}-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of {sup 187}Re {beta}-decay or the electron capture of {sup 163}Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  11. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  12. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  13. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  14. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  15. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  16. Minimalistic Neutrino Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouvêa, A; Gouvea, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    We consider the simplest model which solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, in the sense that it contains the smallest amount of beyond the Standard Model ingredients. The solar neutrino data is accounted for by Planck-mass effects while the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the existence of a single right-handed neutrino at an intermediate mass scale between 10^9 GeV and 10^14 GeV. Even though the neutrino mixing angles are not exactly predicted, they can be naturally large, which agrees well with the current experimental situation. Furthermore, the amount of lepton asymmetry produced in the early universe by the decay of the right-handed neutrino is very predictive and may be enough to explain the current baryon-to-photon ratio if the right-handed neutrinos are produced out of thermal equilibrium. One definitive test for the model is the search for anomalous seasonal effects at Borexino.

  17. Neutrino mass: Recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  19. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  1. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  2. Gravitational field mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author's definition for the mass-momentum/angular momentum surrounded by a spacelike 2-surface with S/sup 2/ topology is presented. This definition is motivated by some ideas from twistor theory in relation to linearized gravitational theory. The status of this definition is examined in relation to many examples which have been worked out. The reason for introducing a slight modification of the original definition is also presented

  3. Neutrino masses and mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices, cosmology, and neutrino oscillation experiments all suggest neutrino mass are far below present direct experimental limits. Four interesting scenarios and their implications are discussed: (1) a 17 keV ν τ , (2) a 30 ev ν τ making up the dark matter, (3) a 10 -3 ev ν μ to solve the solar neutrino problem, and (4) a three-neutrino MSW solution

  4. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  5. Masses of noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, G H; Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M

    The so-called magic numbers, cornerstones of the quantum nuclear ensemble, are now known to lose their supernatural powers far from the protected valley of stability. To complement the well-established (but not yet well-understood) case of N = 20, we propose to examine the erstwhile N = 28 shell closure via a measurement of the important (but unknown) mass of the nuclide $^{48}$Ar. The quenching of a shell closure, a mechanism as mysterious as the reason for magic numbers themselves, also has important consequences in nucleosynthesis. While $^{48}$Ar is not part of the region concerned by the canonical rapid neutro-capture r-process, the question of shell strength is of great importance for heavier nuclides. The location of the r-process path would benefit from extending the succesful ISOTRAP krypton mass measurements beyond the N = 58 sub-shell to $^{96-98}$Kr. Modeling the complementary rapid proton-capture rp- process, putative source of some proton-rich species, requires the mass of $^{70}$Kr, near the e...

  6. Slope of the mass function of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the modern method of obtaining the initial mass function contains a number of a uncertainties that can have a significant effect on the slope of the function in the low-mass section (m < m**). The influence of changes of the mass-luminosity relation, the scale of bolometric corrections, and the luminosity function on the form of the mass function is considered. The effect of photometrically unresolved binaries is also discussed. Some quantitative estimates are made, and it is shown that the slope of the initial mass function in the low-mass section can vary in wide ranges

  7. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Charm mass corrections to the bottomonium mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2002-01-01

    The one-loop corrections to the bottomonium mass spectrum due to the finite charm mass are evaluated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The obtained corrections are compared with the results of perturbative QCD

  9. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  10. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  11. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  13. Fermion masses from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is assumed that the E 8 gauge group of the E 8 x E 8 heterotic superstring can be broken into SO(10) x SU(4). The mass relations among fermions m/sub u//m/sub d/ = m/sub c//m/sub s/ = m/sub t//m/sub b/ and m/sub ν e//m/sub e/ = m/sub ν mu//m/sub μ/ = m/sub ν tau//m/sub tau/ are discussed. 18 refs

  14. Triple mode Cepheid masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    Cepheid wind enrichment from the surface and the instability mixing below the convection zones compete to give much deeper large Y homogeneous and transition layers than previously thought. The theoretical model data and derived masses are presented. It is shown that if the helium enrichment goes to 250,000 K (l-q = 2 x 10 -4 ) with a transition zone to 300,000 K (1-q = 5 x 10 -4 ) for AC And, its periods can be explained. For TU Cas a very unlikely model is required to give the three periods reported previously. 28 references

  15. Photon mass and electrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, Alexander; Pelliccia, Diego N.

    2007-01-01

    We show that if the photon possesses a tiny but non-vanishing mass, the universe cannot be electrically neutral. A cosmological electric asymmetry could be generated either at an early stage by the different evaporation rates of the primordial black holes with respect to positively and negatively charged particles or by a predominant capture of protons in comparison to electrons by the heavy galactic black holes in the contemporary universe. An impact of this phenomenon on the generation of large scale magnetic fields and on the acceleration of the universe is considered

  16. Higgs for the masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    The unified theory of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force, crowned with the discovery at CERN in 1983 of the W and Z bosons which carry the weak nuclear force, is one of the great triumphs of modern physics. But the picture is not yet complete. An essential but still elusive ingredient is the so-called 'Higgs boson' (after Edinburgh theorist Peter Higgs), responsible for the vital symmetry breaking in the theory. This gives the carriers of the weak force mass, while the photon, the carrier of electromagnetism, is massless.

  17. Mass extinctions of Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.; Fernandez, P.; Pereira, B.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of our planet, there have been global phenomena which have led to the disappearance of a large number of species: It is what is known as mass or massive extinctions. This article will make a tour of these large events, from the most remote antiquity to the present day. Today we find ourselves immersed in a process unprecedented since we are eyewitnesses and, more important still, an active part in the decision-making process to try to mitigate their effects. (Author)

  18. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  19. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio; Narayan, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M ☉ and a dispersion of 0.24 M ☉ . These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M ☉ , but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M ☉ . Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M ☉ and a dispersion of 0.2 M ☉ , consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed ∼2 M ☉ suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

  20. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  1. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A·Mass 1/2 + B·(Mass) p where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs

  2. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A{center_dot}Mass{sup 1/2} + B{center_dot}(Mass){sup p} where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Twisted mass lattice QCD with non-degenerate quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics on a lattice with Wilson fermions and a chirally twisted mass term is considered in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. For two and three numbers of quark flavours, respectively, with non-degenerate quark masses the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants are calculated in next-to-leading order including lattice effects quadratic in the lattice spacing a

  4. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  5. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  6. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  7. Gas chromatography: mass selective detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of mass spectrometry technique directed for detecting molecular structures is described, with some considerations about its operational features. This mass spectrometer is used as a gas chromatography detector. (author)

  8. Mass of the spirals galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupome, L; Pismis, P; Aguilar, L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have found that the total mass of galaxies-especially of the spirals-based on values published until 1975, decreased as the Hubble type varied from Sa through Sc and Irregulars. It was also pointed out that masses determined from the hydrogen 21-cm line were higher than the optically determined masses. To investigate the cause of these tendencies we have estimated the masses using an analytic rotation curve of Brandt adjusted to the optical observations in order to include all the mass of a galaxy up to the last observed point. Although the masses computed in this manner were found to be larger, as expected, the decrease of mass with Hubble type found earlier is confirmed. However, there is a discrepancy in the earlier types (Sa, Sab) in that their radio-masses are smaller than the optically determined ones. At present, the cause of this is not clear.

  9. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  10. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  11. Localizability and the planck mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior

  12. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  13. Video Games as Mass Art

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Tavinor

    2011-01-01

    Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and...

  14. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  15. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  16. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  17. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  18. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  19. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  20. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  1. Mass transport by groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; De Marsily, G.; Des Orres, P.E.; Lewi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The first analyses of the safety of radioactive waste disposal published in 1970s were mostly of a generic type using the models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These simply constructed models gave way to more sophisticated techniques in order to represent better the complexity and diversity of geological media. In this article, it is attempted to review the various concepts used to quantify radionuclide migration and the evolution of their incorporation into the models. First, it was examined how the type of discontinuity occurring in geological media affects the choice of a representative model. The principle of transport in the subsurface was reviewed, and the effect that coupled processes exert to groundwater flow and mass migration was discussed. The processes that act directly to cause groundwater flow were distinguished. The method of validating such models by comparing the results with the geochemical systems in nature was explained. (K.I.)

  2. Neutrino masses and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, G.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported

  3. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more......(s). The EU institutions also need to communicate frames of interpretation around political issues. In this chapter we analyse the EU institutions’ external communication and specifically their media relations efforts, and suggest improvements in view of remedying some of the legitimacy problems that the EU......This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...

  4. The masses of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Masses are derived for the individual components of six cataclysmic variables. There is a considerable spread in the masses of the white dwarf components, which range from 0.73 M/sub sun/ in EM Cyg to 1.26 M/sub sun/ in Z Cam. All of the white dwarfs have masses greater than 0.70 M/sub sun/, but there is no evidence that there is any preferred mass. It is found that the morphology of the eruptions (i.e., nova versus dwarf nova) is independent of the mass of both the white dwarf and the late-type star

  5. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...... customized products are essential to consider during product development....

  7. Unification and fermion mass structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Serna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Grand Unified Theories predict relationships between the GUT-scale quark and lepton masses. Using new data in the context of the MSSM, we update the values and uncertainties of the masses and mixing angles for the three generations at the GUT scale. We also update fits to hierarchical patterns in the GUT-scale Yukawa matrices. The new data shows not all the classic GUT-scale mass relationships remain in quantitative agreement at small to moderate tanβ. However, at large tanβ, these discrepancies can be eliminated by finite, tanβ-enhanced, radiative, threshold corrections if the gluino mass has the opposite sign to the wino mass

  8. Positron effective mass in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, B.K.; Shan, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The positron effective mass in Si is obtained from the first-principles calculations along various crystallographic directions. The effect of electron-positron correlation on the band mass is examined in this work. A positron pseudopotential scheme is worked out to calculate the isotropic band mass without explicitly solving the band energy. The effective mass 1.46m obtained as a sum of band mass and the positron-plasmon interaction compares very well with 1.5m obtained from the positron mobility data

  9. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  10. Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lössl, Philip; Snijder, Joost; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-06-01

    Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even virus assembly. In native MS, ions attain high m/z values, requiring special mass analyzers for their detection. Depending on the particular mass analyzer used, instrumental mass resolution does often decrease at higher m/z but can still be above a couple of thousand at m/z 5000. However, the mass resolving power obtained on charge states of protein complexes in this m/z region is experimentally found to remain well below the inherent instrument resolution of the mass analyzers employed. Here, we inquire into reasons for this discrepancy and ask how native MS would benefit from higher instrumental mass resolution. To answer this question, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of mass analyzers used to study intact biomolecules and biomolecular complexes in their native state, and we review which other factors determine mass resolving power in native MS analyses. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the current status and limitations.

  11. Mass: Fortran program for calculating mass-absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Aa.; Svane Petersen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Determinations of mass-absorption coefficients in the x-ray analysis of trace elements are an important and time consuming part of the arithmetic calculation. In the course of time different metods have been used. The program MASS calculates the mass-absorption coefficients from a given major element analysis at the x-ray wavelengths normally used in trace element determinations and lists the chemical analysis and the mass-absorption coefficients. The program is coded in FORTRAN IV, and is operational on the IBM 370/165 computer, on the UNIVAC 1110 and on PDP 11/05. (author)

  12. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Holograms for the Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newswanger, Craig; Klug, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional holography subject matter has been generally limited to small dead things (SMD). Pulse lasers and the advent of holographic stereography have made it easier to make holograms of scaled objects and those that live (un-SMD), at a cost of single dimensional parallax or monochromaticity. While stunning results have been produced, all of these required access to a lab, expensive lasers and optics, and infinite patience, care and skill to collect and record content. This complexity has generally kept holography out of reach for the masses. The recent introduction of new 3D data sources, free or inexpensive composition and editing software, and fast, consistent print services may make it possible to finally 'democratize' holography, and enable image makers to focus on message rather than medium. This paper will outline several photogrammetry-based methods for producing 3D content for holograms (with a camera and mouse finger), software applications for editing, positioning and lighting, and production means that are usable by anyone, from novice to professional. We will present step-by-step examples and display results depicting various subject matter, from color holographic portraits made from smart phone input to holographic maps made from movies collected with remote control airplanes. The aim is to inspire image making, spontaneity, and maybe even social media-based collaboration to make EVERYONE a holographer.

  15. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  17. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. Heavy quark hadron mass scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Without the spin interactions the hardron masses within a multiplet are degenerate. The light quark hadron degenerate mulitplet mass spectrum is extended from the 3 quark ground state multiplets at J P =0 - , 1/2 + , 1 - to include the excited states which follow the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). The mass scales for the 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadrons are obtained from the degenerate multiplet mass m 0 /M=n 2 /α with n=4, 5, 6, .. The 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadron degenerate multiplet masses follow by splitting of the heavy quark mass scales according to the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). (orig.)

  19. Video Games as Mass Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and how they are instanced and evaluated is a departure from the familiar mass arts of film and popular music. This paper explores these differences in an attempt to fit videogames into a theory of mass art, but also to provide guidance on the issues of criticism and evaluation that surely follow from their ontological distinctiveness.

  20. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  1. The neutron star mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ☉} and 1.55 M {sub ☉}, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M {sub ☉}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ∼2.1 M {sub ☉} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ☉} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  2. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (approx. 10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (approx. 10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to Dirac's large number hypothesis. (orig.)

  3. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1981-02-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (--10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (--10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to the Dirac's large number hypothesis. (author)

  4. Adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Chu, Yang Ku

    1993-01-01

    Off the evaluation of clinical significance and pathologic correlation of echogenic adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy, which is separated from ipsilateral ovary, we performed a retrospective analysis of 15 proved tubal pregnancies. All showed hematosalpinx containing blood coagulum and chorionic villi with intact fallopian tube.The echogenicity of the adnexal mass was considered to represent the nonclotted or clotted blood within the fallopian tube. We conclude that the discrete, echogenic adnexal mass is the suggestive finding of unrupturedtubal pregnancy

  5. Limits on the photon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, G.

    1996-03-01

    Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig

  6. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  7. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  8. Luxury for the masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Fiske, Neil

    2003-04-01

    Increasingly wide income disparities, higher levels of education, and greater awareness of other cultures' ideas of the good life have given rise to a new class of American consumer. And a new category of products and services, including automobiles, apparel, food, wine, and spirits, has sprung into being to cater to it. That category is called new luxury. America's middle-market consumers are trading up to higher levels of quality and taste than ever before. Members of the middle market (those earning $50,000 and above annually) collectively have around $1 trillion of disposable income. And they will pay premiums of 20% to 200% for well-designed, well-engineered, and well-crafted goods that can't be found in the mass middle market and that have the artisanal touches of traditional luxury items. Most important, even when they address basic necessities, such goods evoke and engage consumers' emotions while feeding their aspirations for a better life. Supply-side forces are essential to the rise of new luxury. Like the consumers of their goods, entrepreneurs are better educated and more sophisticated about their customers than ever before. In addition, global sourcing, falling trade barriers and transportation costs, and rising offshore manufacturing standards are making possible the economical production of alluring products of high quality. Unlike old-luxury goods, new-luxury products can generate high sales volumes despite their relatively high prices. As a result, new-luxury companies are achieving levels of profitability and growth beyond the reach of their conventional competitors. Whether the item in question is a $6 Panera sandwich or a $30,000 Mercedes, new luxury is a formula that middle-market companies, facing erosion of their market share by high-end and low-end producers, can ill afford to ignore.

  9. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  10. Mass loss from Eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.; Viotti, R.

    1979-01-01

    This high luminosity (5x10 6 solar luminosity) star since 1840 is losing mass at the rate of 7.5x10 -2 solar masses per year. The large mass loss could be the result of vibrational instabilities produced in the CNO hydrogen burning phase of a very massive (160 solar masses) star. The presence of high excitation lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of Eta Car suggests the idea of a hot zone excited by dissipation of the supersonic turbulent flow. (Auth.)

  11. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  12. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  13. Simulating at realistic quark masses. Light quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Streuer, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present new results for light quark masses. The calculations are performed using two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We have reached lattice spacings as small as a ∝0.07 fm and pion masses down to m π ∝340 MeV in our simulations. This gives us significantly better control on the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)

  14. Mass-shell properties of the dynamical quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Stam, K.

    1986-07-01

    We discuss the running dynamical quark mass in the framework of the operator product expansion. It is shown that for vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke>m 2 the quark-condensate part of the quark self energy has no contributions of order m 2 or higher, and is frozen to its mass-shell value for smaller vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke. (orig.)

  15. Atomic masses 1995. The 1995 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment or systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  16. Atomic masses 1993. The 1993 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment of systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  17. Maximally twisted mass lattice QCD at the physical pion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    In computer simulations of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, the usage of unphysically large quark masses and the subsequent extrapolation of results to the physical value of the quark masses are major sources of systematic uncertainty. In this thesis, the feasibility and practicality of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics with physically light up and down quarks using the Wilson twisted mass quark discretisation are explored. Working in this regime is complicated firstly by the numerical expense of these simulations and secondly by the presence of potentially large lattice artefacts. The twisted mass discretisation is affected by an unphysical mass difference between the charged and neutral pions, rendering simulations at the physical charged pion mass infeasible if this mass splitting is too large. With the aim of reducing it, the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term is added to the twisted mass fermion action and simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks are then performed as a proof of concept. It is demonstrated that these simulations are stable and that the parameters of the lattice theory can be successfully tuned to correspond to the physical charged pion mass. Subsequently, the parameter tuning for simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks as well as strange and charm quarks is explored and it is shown that it can be carried out in steps. As benchmark observables, the masses and decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons with light, strange and charm valence quarks are calculated and seen to largely reproduce their phenomenological values, even though continuum and infinite volume extrapolations are not performed. Light, strange and charm quark mass estimates are determined based on this data and also seen to coincide with phenomenological and other lattice determinations. In this analysis, a particular emphasis is placed on the systematic error due to the choice of fit range for pseudoscalar correlation functions and a weighting method is

  18. Neutrino mass, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental approaches to neutrino mass include kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at rectors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indications that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing

  19. Mass Mentality, Culture Industry, Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saladdin Said Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Some fashionable leftist movements and populist intellectuals habitually blame the sources of information for public ignorance about the miserable state of the world. It could be argued, however, that the masses are ignorant because they prefer ignorance. A mass individual is politically apathetic and intellectually lazy. As a result, even when huge amounts of information are available, which is the case in this epoch, the masses insist on choosing ignorance. It is true that there is not enough information about what has happened in a place such as Darfur, but the masses choose not to access even the amount of information that is available. The great majority of people in China, Iran, and America, despite the fact that they have varying amounts of access to various types of "knowledge," still tend to be misinformed. It seems that a mass individual is curious only about what directly affects his/her own personal life. I will explore the connection between mass mentality and the culture industry in order to capture the essential role of the former in the latter. I will also argue that a mass individual is the source of fascism although fascism as a phenomenon needs a mass culture in which to flourish.

  20. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  1. Imaging mass spectrometry statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emrys A; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Deelder, André M; McDonnell, Liam A

    2012-08-30

    Imaging mass spectrometry is increasingly used to identify new candidate biomarkers. This clinical application of imaging mass spectrometry is highly multidisciplinary: expertise in mass spectrometry is necessary to acquire high quality data, histology is required to accurately label the origin of each pixel's mass spectrum, disease biology is necessary to understand the potential meaning of the imaging mass spectrometry results, and statistics to assess the confidence of any findings. Imaging mass spectrometry data analysis is further complicated because of the unique nature of the data (within the mass spectrometry field); several of the assumptions implicit in the analysis of LC-MS/profiling datasets are not applicable to imaging. The very large size of imaging datasets and the reporting of many data analysis routines, combined with inadequate training and accessible reviews, have exacerbated this problem. In this paper we provide an accessible review of the nature of imaging data and the different strategies by which the data may be analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the assumptions of the data analysis routines to ensure that the reader is apprised of their correct usage in imaging mass spectrometry research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  3. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  4. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  5. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  6. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  7. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  8. Digital Integration: Towards Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Finn

    Mass production in lots of one” is a phrase coined by Oliver Morton in a seminal piece for The Economist (1994). In few words this sentence contains the essence (and schism) of true customization aiming at manufacturing the artifact for the mass. Emerging Nanotechnologies are said to enable...

  9. Laboratory of acceleration mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybler, P.; Chrapan, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper authors describe the principle of the method of acceleration mass spectrometry and the construction plans of this instrument at the Faculty of ecology and environmental sciences in Banska Stiavnica. Using of this instrument for radiocarbon dating is discussed. A review of laboratories with acceleration mass spectrometry is presented

  10. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various possible oscillation solutions to the solar neutrino puzzle. It seems .... A first hint of this new ingredient came from the observation of Weinberg that if ..... Using the discussion of the above paragraph, the Dirac mass of the neutrino as .... that contributes to charged fermion masses, one can write the quark and lepton.

  11. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Status of neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 two experiments ignited a fertile field of research - the determination of the neutrino masses. Subsequently, over 35 experiments using a variety of techniques have probed or are probing this question. Primarily the author discuss electron antineutrino (hereafter referred to as neutrino) mass experiments. Section I begins with a discussion of astronomical and terrestrial observations which motivated these experiments. In Section II, the author quote limits from muon and tau mass determinations. These limits are more thoroughly discussed in other paper. The author continues by describing the four approaches used to measure the electron neutrino mass. In Section III, tritium beta decay mass determinations are reviewed. This section includes a general summary of previous experimental results, and discussion of the major ongoing experiments. Section IV offers concluding remarks

  13. Computational force, mass, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numrich, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a correspondence between computational quantities commonly used to report computer performance measurements and mechanical quantities from classical Newtonian mechanics. It defines a set of three fundamental computational quantities that are sufficient to establish a system of computational measurement. From these quantities, it defines derived computational quantities that have analogous physical counterparts. These computational quantities obey three laws of motion in computational space. The solutions to the equations of motion, with appropriate boundary conditions, determine the computational mass of the computer. Computational forces, with magnitudes specific to each instruction and to each computer, overcome the inertia represented by this mass. The paper suggests normalizing the computational mass scale by picking the mass of a register on the CRAY-1 as the standard unit of mass

  14. Status of neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.

    1985-12-01

    In 1980 two experiments ignited a fertile field of research the determination of the neutrino masses. Subsequently, over 35 experiments using a variety of techniques have probed or are probing this question. Primarily I will discuss electron antineutrino (hereafter referred to as neutrino) mass experiments. However, let me begin in Section I to discuss astronomical and terrestrial observations which motivated these experiments. In Section II, I will quote limits from muon and tau mass determinations. These limits are more thoroughly discussed in other papers. I will continue by describing the four approaches used to measure the electron neutrino mass. In Section III, tritium beta decay mass determinations will be reviewed. This section includes a general summary of previous experimental results, and discussion of the major ongoing experiments. Section IV offers concluding remarks. 24 refs., 24 figs

  15. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  16. Conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat mass exchanger ducts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Li-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer in Heat Mass Exchanger Ducts bridges the gap between fundamentals and recent discoveries, making it a valuable tool for anyone looking to expand their knowledge of heat exchangers. The first book on the market to cover conjugate heat and mass transfer in heat exchangers, author Li-Zhi Zhang goes beyond the basics to cover recent advancements in equipment for energy use and environmental control (such as heat and moisture recovery ventilators, hollow fiber membrane modules for humidification/dehumidification, membrane modules for air purification, desi

  17. Correcting mass shifts: A lock mass-free recalibration procedure for mass spectrometry imaging data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, P.; Kaftan, F.; Kynast, P.; Svatoš, Aleš; Böcker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 25 (2015), s. 7603-7613 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mass spectrometry imaging * recalibration * mass shift correction * data processing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  18. Precise atomic mass measurements by deflection mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, R C

    2003-01-01

    Since its inception nearly 90 years ago by J.J. Thomson, the precise determination of atomic masses by the classical technique of deflecting charged particles in electric and magnetic fields has provided a large body of data on naturally occurring nuclides. Currently, such measurements on stable nuclides have frequently achieved a precision of better than two parts in 10 sup 9 of the mass. A review of the technique, together with a brief summary of the important historical developments in the field of precise atomic mass measurements, will be given. The more recent contributions to this field by the deflection mass spectrometer at the University of Manitoba will be provided as illustrations of the culmination of the techniques used and the applications that have been studied. A brief comparison between this and newer techniques using Penning traps will be presented.

  19. Dynamics of Variable Mass Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Fidelis O.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of mass loss on the attitude behavior of spinning bodies in flight. The principal goal is to determine whether there are circumstances under which the motion of variable mass systems can become unstable in the sense that their transverse angular velocities become unbounded. Obviously, results from a study of this kind would find immediate application in the aerospace field. The first part of this study features a complete and mathematically rigorous derivation of a set of equations that govern both the translational and rotational motions of general variable mass systems. The remainder of the study is then devoted to the application of the equations obtained to a systematic investigation of the effect of various mass loss scenarios on the dynamics of increasingly complex models of variable mass systems. It is found that mass loss can have a major impact on the dynamics of mechanical systems, including a possible change in the systems stability picture. Factors such as nozzle geometry, combustion chamber geometry, propellant's initial shape, size and relative mass, and propellant location can all have important influences on the system's dynamic behavior. The relative importance of these parameters on-system motion are quantified in a way that is useful for design purposes.

  20. Overview of the mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    a three-day mass measurement workshop conference sponsored by the INMM was held April 22-24, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. DOE Order 5633.3 requires mass measurement control programs for the measurements of nuclear materials but provides little guidance on details for these programs. Measurement principles used for mass are often applicable to other physical property measurements. Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) personnel organized the workshop conference to facilitate the transfer of mass measurement technology and establish better communications between the calibration laboratories, manufactures, regulators, and scale and balance users in the mass measurement community. Three different formats were used to present the information: a seminar, individual papers, and workshops. The seminar topic was the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP), developed by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, for determining and controlling measurement errors in manufacturing processes. Paper and workshop topics included: Mass Measurement Techniques and Programs, Selection of equipment and Standards, Standards and Traceability, and Automation in Mass Measurement. The paper gives an overview of the workshop conference, including purpose, participants, and summaries of the seminar, paper, and workshops

  1. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  2. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  3. Simulating at realistic quark masses. Light quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Streuer, T. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    We present new results for light quark masses. The calculations are performed using two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We have reached lattice spacings as small as a {proportional_to}0.07 fm and pion masses down to m{sub {pi}} {proportional_to}340 MeV in our simulations. This gives us significantly better control on the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)

  4. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  5. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double β decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as μ → eγ and μ → ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures

  6. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  7. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  8. The mass-lifetime relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  9. Mass loss and cepheid pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two purposes are served: to discuss the latest improvements in nonlinear pulsation theory indicating the ability to resolve features such as the ''Christy bump'' on the light curves and to show from the results of a bump model and recent observations that mass loss is one of the possible explanations for the mass discrepancy problem between evolutionary and pulsation theories. Recent observations by Sanford and Gow of Los Alamos and Bernat (McDonald Observatory) show that extensive mass loss has occurred in the evolution of the M supergiant α Orionis

  10. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics

  11. The Politics of Mass Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating...... this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale....... Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial...

  12. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  13. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Mass Spectrometry of Halopyrazolium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Pande, U. C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven halogen substituted 1-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolium bromides or chlorides were investigated by field desorption, field ionization, and electron impact mass spectrometry. Dealkylation was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition. An exchange between covalent and ionic halogen prior...

  15. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B V; Clarke, M; Hu, H; Betz, [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force.

  17. Mass of the 158Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Guo Jiyu; Lu Xiuqin; Cheng Yehao; Huang Xiaolin; Ma Yong; Li Shuyuan; Ruan Ming; Li Zhichang; Jiang Chenglie

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary result was reported for the experiment to determine the mass of the heavier neutron-rich nucleus 158 Sm using the 160 Gd( 18 O, 20 Ne) two proton transfer reaction in last progress report. The average Q-value of (4.046 +- 0.102) MeV for the 160 Gd( 18 O, 20 Ne) 158 Sm reaction is given. A mass excess for 158 Sm of (-65.738 +- 0.102) MeV was derived. This is the first experimentally measured value of the mass of 158 Sm which is about 450 keV higher than the evaluation value from systematic trends listed in the 1993 atomic mass table. The new prediction shows better agreement with the measured values and a significant improvement over the earlier FRDM (finite-range droplet model) value

  18. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [Universite Paris-Saclay, Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2018-02-15

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-19

    Feb 19, 1983 ... Summary. A clinically accurate method for estimating fetal. mass from fetal body parameters is reviewed. The abdominal circumference is first calculated from ... reliable clinical parameter is the impression of uterine volume,.

  1. Food Mass Reduction Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stoklosa, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and

  2. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  3. Physics of the neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R N

    2004-01-01

    Recent neutrino oscillation experiments have yielded valuable information on the nature of neutrino masses and mixings and qualify as the first evidence for physics beyond the standard model. Even though we are far from a complete understanding of the new physics implied by them, there are many useful hints. As the next precision era in neutrino physics is about to be launched, we review the physics of neutrino mass: what we have learned and what we are going to learn

  4. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  5. Glueball masses in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiangqian; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou, GD; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou; Chen Qizhou; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou, GD; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou; Guo Shuohong; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou, GD; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou; Fang Xiyan; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou, GD; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou; Liu Jinming; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou, GD; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou

    1996-01-01

    We review the recent glueball mass calculations using an efficient method for solving the Schroedinger equation order by order with a scheme preserving the continuum limit. The reliability of the method is further supported by new accurate results for (1+1)-dimensional σ models and (2+1)-dimensional non-abelian models. We present first and encouraging data for the glueball masses in 3+1 dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  6. Mass storage for microprocessor farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in high energy physics require high density and high speed mass storage. Mass storage is needed for data logging during the online data acquisition, data retrieval and storage during the event reconstruction and data manipulation during the physics analysis. This paper examines the storage and speed requirements at the first two stages of the experiments and suggests a possible starting point to deal with the problem. 3 refs., 3 figs

  7. Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  8. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  9. Masses of Nix and Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W.

    2007-05-01

    Two new, small satellites of Pluto were discovered in 2005 using deep images from the Hubble Space Telescope. The IAU has approved the name Hydra for the outermost satellite and the name Nix for the one orbiting at an intermediate distance between Charon and Hydra. We used the two discovery observations of Nix and Hydra from 2005, the two confirmation observations from 2006, and the twelve prediscovery observations from 2001 and 2002, as well as available observations of Charon, to perform a four-body orbit solution for the Pluto system. Mutual perturbations have placed constraints on the masses of each member of the system. Previous work placed useful limits on the masses of Pluto and Charon, as well as their densities, given the known sizes of the bodies based on stellar occultation and mutual event observations, therefore our new work is aimed at placing constraints on the masses of Nix and Hydra. The best-fit GM values for Nix and Hydra are 0.040 and 0.021 km3 sec-2. The uncertainty in the GM of Hydra is large enough to allow for a negligible mass. At the one-sigma level, we can rule out masses near the upper limit of what is physically reasonable (correpsonding to a combination of low albedos and high densities) for both satellites, and in the case of Nix, we can also rule out a mass near the lower limit (corresponding to a high albedo and low density). We have determined empirically that the rate of precession of the line of apsides of Charon's slightly eccentric orbit is proportional to the mass of Nix and Hydra. New HST observations of the satellites are scheduled, which should improve the orbit solution and reduce the uncertainties in the masses. Ultimately, these results will place constraints on models for the formation of the system.

  10. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  11. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  12. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stevenson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M ⊕ , multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  13. ACTOMP - AUTOCAD TO MASS PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    AutoCAD to Mass Properties was developed to facilitate quick mass properties calculations of structures having many simple elements in a complex configuration such as trusses or metal sheet containers. Calculating the mass properties of structures of this type can be a tedious and repetitive process, but ACTOMP helps automate the calculations. The structure can be modelled in AutoCAD or a compatible CAD system in a matter of minutes using the 3-Dimensional elements. This model provides all the geometric data necessary to make a mass properties calculation of the structure. ACTOMP reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Drawing Interchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD. The geometric entities recognized by ACTOMP include POINTs, 3DLINEs, and 3DFACEs. ACTOMP requests mass, linear density, or area density of the elements for each layer, sums all the elements and calculates the total mass, center of mass (CM) and the mass moments of inertia (MOI). AutoCAD utilizes layers to define separate drawing planes. ACTOMP uses layers to differentiate between multiple types of similar elements. For example if a structure is made of various types of beams, modeled as 3DLINEs, each with a different linear density, the beams can be grouped by linear density and each group placed on a separate layer. The program will request the linear density of 3DLINEs for each new layer it finds as it processes the drawing information. The same is true with POINTs and 3DFACEs. By using layers this way a very complex model can be created. POINTs are used for point masses such as bolts, small machine parts, or small electronic boxes. 3DLINEs are used for beams, bars, rods, cables, and other similarly slender elements. 3DFACEs are used for planar elements. 3DFACEs may be created as 3 or 4 Point faces. Some examples of elements that might be modelled using 3DFACEs are plates, sheet metal, fabric, boxes, large diameter hollow cylinders and evenly distributed masses. ACTOMP was written in Microsoft

  14. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  15. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  16. Top-quark mass from the diphoton mass spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Sayaka [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yokoya, Hiroshi [Quantum Universe Center, KIAS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We calculate the gg → γγ amplitude by including the t anti t bound-state effects near their mass threshold. In terms of the non-relativistic expansion of the amplitude, the LO contribution is an energy-independent term in the one-loop amplitude. We include the NLO contribution described by the non-relativistic Green function and part of the NNLO contribution. Despite a missing NLO piece which can be accomplished with the two-loop-level amplitude via massive quarks, the shape of the diphoton mass spectrum is predicted with a good accuracy. Thanks to the simple and clean nature of the observable, its experimental measurement can be a direct method to determine the short-distance mass of the top quark at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  17. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  18. Mass Determination of Entire Amyloid Fibrils by Using Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussineau, Tristan; Mathevon, Carole; Altamura, Lucie; Vendrely, Charlotte; Dugourd, Philippe; Forge, Vincent; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-12

    Amyloid fibrils are self-assembled protein structures with important roles in biology (either pathogenic or physiological), and are attracting increasing interest in nanotechnology. However, because of their high aspect ratio and the presence of some polymorphism, that is, the possibility to adopt various structures, their characterization is challenging and basic information such as their mass is unknown. Here we show that charge-detection mass spectrometry, recently developed for large self-assembled systems such as viruses, provides such information in a straightforward manner. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Baron, R. [CEA-Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blossier, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the {delta} using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm. We check for cut-off effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at {beta}=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 964{+-}28(stat.){+-}8(syst.) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p{sup 3}) and O(p{sup 4}) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p{sup 3}) we find a{sub {beta}}{sub =3.9}=0.0890{+-}0.0039(stat.){+-}0.0014(syst.) fm, and a{sub {beta}}{sub =4.05}=0.0691{+-}0.0034(stat.){+-}0.0010(syst.) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r0m we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the {delta}-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at {beta}=3.9 and {beta}=4.05 we find for the masses of the {delta}{sup ++,-} and {delta}{sup +,0} 1316{+-}60(stat.) MeV and 1330{+-}74(stat.) MeV respectively. We confirm

  20. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Blossier, B.

    2008-03-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the Δ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm. We check for cut-off effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at β=3.9 and β=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at β=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 964±28(stat.)±8(syst.) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p 3 ) and O(p 4 ) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p 3 ) we find a β=3.9 =0.0890±0.0039(stat.)±0.0014(syst.) fm, and a β=4.05 =0.0691±0.0034(stat.)±0.0010(syst.) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r0m we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the Δ-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find for the masses of the Δ ++,- and Δ +,0 1316±60(stat.) MeV and 1330±74(stat.) MeV respectively. We confirm that in the continuum limit they are also degenerate. (orig.)

  1. Light baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Koutsou, G.; Baron, R.; Guichon, P.; Blossier, B.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Drach, V.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; Farchioni, F.; Liu, Z.; Pene, O.; Michael, C.; Shindler, A.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.

    2008-01-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the Δ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of about 300-600 MeV on lattices of 2.1-2.7 fm at three lattice spacings less than 0.1 fm. We check for cutoff effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm at β=3.9 and β=4.05 and on a lattice of 2.4 fm at β=3.8. The values we find are compatible within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find a nucleon mass of 963±12(stat)±8(syst) MeV where we used the lattice spacings determined from the pion decay constant to convert to physical units. The systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation is estimated by comparing results obtained at O(p 3 ) and O(p 4 ) heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides an independent determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at O(p 3 ) we find a β=3.9 =0.0889±0.0012(stat)±0.0014(syst) fm, and a β=4.05 =0.0691±0.0010(stat)±0.0010(syst) fm, in good agreement with the values determined from the pion decay constant. Using results from our two smaller lattices spacings at constant r 0 m π we estimate the continuum limit and check consistency with results from the coarser lattice. Results at the continuum limit are chirally extrapolated to the physical point. Isospin violating lattice artifacts in the Δ-system are found to be compatible with zero for the values of the lattice spacings used in this work. Performing a combined fit to our lattice data at β=3.9 and β=4.05 we find for the masses of the Δ ++,- and Δ +,0 1315±24(stat) MeV and 1329±30(stat) MeV, respectively. We confirm that in the continuum limit

  2. Simultaneous mass detection for direct inlet mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of analytical techniques for application in trace analysis has led to interest in practical methods for real-time monitoring. Direct inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS) has been the subject of considerable activity in recent years. A DIMS instrument is described which consists of an inlet system designed to permit particles entrained in the inlet air stream to strike a hot, oxidized rhenium filament which serves as a surface ionization source. A mass analyzer and detection system then permits identification of the elemental composition of particulates which strike the filament

  3. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  4. Photon and graviton mass limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  5. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

  6. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. “Cold dark matter” (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. “Modified Newtonian dynamics” provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. “Dark energy” might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  7. On the relativistic mass conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kard, P.

    1979-01-01

    Mass of light is generally substantiated with the use of the Einstein known mental experiment with a cylinder displacing under the pressure of light flare emitted at one of its ends and absorbed at the other. This experiment is not rigorous however and involves a logical circle. Another method is presented to substantiate mass of light. The initial conditions are as follows: the law of momentum conservation, evailability of light pulse, momentum parallelism to a velocity, and the general ralativistic formula of velocity transformation. A consideration is given to directed emission of light flux by a body in two internal systems, viz. in the system of initial rest of the body and in the system moving relatively to it with an arbitrary velocity. The law of momentum conservation being used in both systems, as well as formulae for velocity transformation, the formulae are obtained which show that light has mass. The general law of mass conservation is derived as a consequence of the formulae for mass and momentum transformations

  8. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  9. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  10. Software for mass spectrometer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Anghel, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Trancota, Dan; Kaucsar, Martin; Oprea, Cristiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a software application for the MAT 250 mass spectrometer control, which was refurbished. The spectrometer was bring-up-to-date using a hardware structure on its support where the software application for mass spectrometer control was developed . The software application is composed of dedicated modules that perform given operations. The instructions that these modules have to perform are generated by a principal module. This module makes possible the change of information between the modules that compose the software application. The use of a modal structure is useful for adding new functions in the future. The developed application in our institute made possible the transformation of the mass spectrometer MAT 250 into a device endowed with other new generation tools. (authors)

  11. Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; de Gouvea, Andre; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This ''Leptocratic'' Model predicts the existence of light quasi-sterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses

  12. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base

  13. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  14. Neutrino masses and family replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.Q.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of whether or not there is any link between the smallness of the neutrino mass (if present) and the odd or even nature of the number of families is investigated. It is found that, by assuming the existence of right-handed neutrinos (which would imply that neutrinos will have a mass) and a new chiral SU(2) gauge theory, a constraint on the nature of the number of families can be obtained. In addition, a model, based on that extra SU(2), is constructed where it is plausible to have one 'very heavy' fourth neutrino and three almost degenerate light neutrinos whose masses are all of the Dirac type. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  16. First mass measurements at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Bressieux, J

    2011-01-01

    The LHC opens new frontiers in heavy flavour physics through an unprecedented statistical reach for a variety of interesting states produced in pp collisions. The LHCb spectrometer provides a good mass resolution and is suitable for spectroscopy studies. We present first preliminary mass measurements of several $b$ hadrons and of the exotic $X(3872)$ meson, reconstructed in final states containing a $J/\\psi$ using the data collected in 2010 by the LHCb experiment. An important aspect of the analysis is the calibration of the momentum scale using $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays, as well as the control of systematic uncertainties. While the already very competitive mass measurements for the $B^+$, $B^0$ and $B^0_s$ mesons receive similar contributions from systematic and statistical uncertainties, those of the $\\Lambda_b$, $B^+_c$ and $X(3872)$ particles are dominated by statistical uncertainties, and will therefore substantially improve with more data in the future.

  17. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) which is primarily a method for investigating the chemical composition of the uppermost atomic layer of solid surfaces is explained. In this method, the specimen is bombarded with a primary positive ion beam of small current density monolayer. Positive and negative ions sputtered from the specimen are mass analysed to give the surface chemical composition. The analytical system which consists of a primary ion source, a target manipulator and a mass spectrometer housed in an ultrahigh vacuum system is described. This method can also be used for profile measurements in thin films by using higher current densities of the primary ions. Fields of application such as surface reactions, semiconductors, thin films emission processes, chemistry, metallurgy are touched upon. Various aspects of this method such as the sputtering process, instrumentation, and applications are discussed. (K.B.)

  18. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... most often used mass reduction method, performs appallingly?its use must be discontinued (with the singular exception for completely homogenized fine powders). Only proper mass reduction (i.e. carried out in complete compliance with all appropriate design principles, maintenance and cleaning rules) can...

  19. Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindic, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft ionization techniques, electrospray (ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI make the analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry (MS possible. MS is used for determination of the molecular weight of peptides and protein, sequence analysis, characterization of protein-ligand interactions etc. The detection limit, resolution and mass accuracy depend on instrument used (Table 1. Impurities (buffers, salts, detergents can reduce the ion intensities or even totally suppress them, so a separation method (chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis must be used for purification of the sample.Molecular mass of intact protein can be determined by ESI or MALDI MS. Multiply charged ions are produced by ESI MS, while singly charged ions are predominant in MALDI spectra (Fig. 2.Sequence analysis of proteins by MS can be performed using peptide mass fingerprint. In this method, proteins are separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and digested with specific protease (Table 2 or digested and then separated by two-dimensional chromatography (Fig. 1. The obtained peptide mixtures are analyzed by MS or MALDI-TOF technique. The masses determined by MS are compared with calculated masses from database entries. Different algorithms have been developed for protein identification. Example of posttranslational modifications (N- and O-glycosylation and protein sequence complex analysis after dual digestion (endoproteinase digestion followed by endoglycosidase digestion is shown in Fig. 3.It is known that detection of peptides by MS is influenced by intrinsic properties like amino acid composition, the basicity of the C-terminal amino acid, hydrophobicity, etc. Arginine-containing peptides dominate in MS spectra of tryptic digest, so the chemical derivatization of lysine terminal residue by O-methilisourea or 2-methoxy-4,5-1H-imidazole was suggested (Fig. 4.The peptide mass fingerprint method can be improved further by peptide fragmentation using tandem

  20. Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lössl, Philip|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371559693; Snijder, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018328; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332

    Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even

  1. Eleventh ISMAS workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.

    2004-10-01

    This volume deals with the latest developments in this field, exposing the innumerable applications of mass spectrometry. The topics covered include basic fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of a mass spectrometer, its applications in various branches of science as well as recent advances in mass spectrometry. Emphasis is also laid on the practical aspects of mass spectrometry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Accelerator-based ultrasensitive mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter describes a new mass spectrometry technique involving charged particle accelerators normally used for basic research in nuclear science. Topics considered include the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, the limitations of the direct measurement of radioactive decay, mass spectrometry using a tandem electrostatic accelerator, mass spectrometry using a cyclotron, how accelerator mass spectrometry circumvents the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, measurements of stable isotopes, nuclear physics and astrophysics applications, modifications to existing accelerators, descriptions of dedicated systems, and future applications

  3. Neutrino mass matrix and hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaus, Peter; Meshkov, Sydney

    2003-01-01

    We build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δsol and Δatm, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, Mν and a mixing matrix, U, where both Mν and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ2 = m2/m3 = √(Δsol/Δatm) ≅ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m1, (m1 ρΛ4m3), while κ scales s13 to the experimental upper limit, s13 = κΛ2 ≅ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β-decay experiments is 4 x 10-3eV if s13 = 0 and 6 x 10-3eV if s13 is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation

  4. Mass generation in composite models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    I discuss aspects of composite models of quarks and leptons connected with the dynamics of how these fermions acquire mass. Several issues related to the protection mechanisms necessary to keep quarks and leptons light are illustrated by means of concrete examples and a critical overview of suggestions for family replications is given. Some old and new ideas of how one may actually be able to generate small quark and lepton masses are examined, along with some of the difficulties they encounter in practice. (orig.)

  5. Leptogenesis. Theory and neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.

    2012-12-15

    After a brief discussion of baryon and lepton number nonconservation, we review the status of thermal leptogenesis with GUT scale neutrino masses, as well as low scale alternatives with keV neutrinos as dark matter and heavy neutrino masses within the reach of the LHC. Recent progress towards a full quantum mechanical description of leptogenesis is described with resonant leptogenesis as an application. Finally, cosmological B-L breaking after inflation is considered as origin of the hot early universe, generating entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter.

  6. Mass Estimation and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    parameters); e.g., the rect- angular kernel function has fixed width or fixed per unit size. But the rectangular function used in mass has no parameter...MassTER is implemented in JAVA , and we use DBSCAN in WEKA [13] and a version of DENCLUE implemented in R (www.r-project.org) in our empirical evaluation...Proceedings of SIGKDD, 2010, 989-998. [13] I.H. Witten and E. Frank, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java Implementations

  7. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  8. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  9. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  10. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene f...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  11. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  12. Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The system generates superior quality mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from both atmospheric pressure ionization (API) and...

  13. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS EFFICIENT MASS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis for determining the effectiveness of mass valuation of land in present-day conditions are described. The concept defenitsy effect and effectiveness as economic categories and their classification values for mass valuation of land are presented. The effectiveness of mass valuation of land in the settlements defines the structure of local budget and economic activities undertaken by local authorities on the basis of the results of the mass appraisal of real estate. Mass valuation is regular and it is characterized by high degree of standardization of procedures and a significant increase in the role of statistical methods for processing data related to the use of the most significant factors influencing the parameters of the object to its cost, as well as the need to determine the value of the objective laws change equivalent, which is only possible when using economic and mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Quality control results of mass valuation carried out principally in other ways, as obtained by applying statistical machine results can be checked as soon statistical methods. This shows the relevance of research topic and lack of elaboration for Ukraine problems of efficiency of mass land valuation. Scientific research conducted through the use of the dialectical method and techniques of abstraction, comparative analysis and synthesis, the article various models and methods of valuation of land for taxation purposes are analyzed. In addition, the group explored methods used, comparisons, and more. In economic theory and practice problems and determine the effect of efficiency aimed at profit is quite relevant. Economists consider cost-effectiveness, such as economic efficiency. In this case, the production can be attributed to the activities to conduct and organization of mass valuation of land. This pushes many different positions on criteria and indicators of economic efficiency, the

  14. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  15. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  16. Neutrino masses and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, L

    2000-01-01

    These lectures review direct measurements of neutrino masses and the status of neutrino oscillation searches using both natural neutrino sources (the Sun and cosmic rays interacting in the Earth atmosphere) and artificial neutrinos (produced by nuclear reactors and accelerators). Finally, future experiments and plans are presented. (68 refs).

  17. Higgs mass determination in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Javier Pardo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); SISSA International School for Advanced Studies and INFN Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Villadoro, Giovanni [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-07-29

    We present the state-of-the-art of the effective field theory computation of the MSSM Higgs mass, improving the existing ones by including extra threshold corrections. We show that, with this approach, the theoretical uncertainty is within 1 GeV in most of the relevant parameter space. We confirm the smaller value of the Higgs mass found in the EFT computations, which implies a slightly heavier SUSY scale. We study the large tan β region, finding that sbottom thresholds might relax the upper bound on the scale of SUSY. We present SUSYHD, a fast computer code that computes the Higgs mass and its uncertainty for any SUSY scale, from the TeV to the Planck scale, even in Split SUSY, both in the (DR)-bar and in the on-shell schemes. Finally, we apply our results to derive bounds on some well motivated SUSY models, in particular we show how the value of the Higgs mass allows to determine the complete spectrum in minimal gauge mediation.

  18. Correlations among static quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, K.; Motz, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Nonrelativistic heavy quarkonia potentials with Coulomb and linearly rising limiting behaviour are correlated additively by Taylor expansion extracting the limiting structure and a constant term. Relations between fit parameters of different potentials including the quark masses m b and m c , are obtained. The known stability of the difference m b -m c , appears as direct consequence of flavour invariance of the potentials

  19. Mass spectrometry in epigenetic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, and many of these inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Despite intense research, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of action of these molecules remain, to a wide extent, unclear. The recent application of mass spectrometry...

  20. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  1. Possible nonvanishing mass of photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.

    1985-05-01

    From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)

  2. Health Education and Mass Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)

  3. Determination of the neutron mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The binding energy of the deuteron was measured and it was determined the neutron mass starting from the nuclear reaction, 1 0 n + 1 1 H → 2 1 D + γ. The produced photon is soon a gamma ray that is emitted when the hydrogen captures a thermal neutron. The photon energy was measured using two spectrometric systems for gamma rays. A system with a detector of NaI(TI) of 3'' x 3'' and the other one with a High-purity Germanium detector. The first detector has a bigger efficiency and a smaller resolution in comparison with the second detector. The energy of the measured photon is the binding energy of the deuteron. With the measurement of the photon energy and the masses of the proton and of the deuterium it was determined the neutron mass. The value of the mass obtained with both systems it was compared with the value reported in the literature. The nuclear reaction was induced in a volume of paraffin that it was bombing with a source 239 PuBe whose activity is of 3.7 x 10 10 Bq. (Author)

  4. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  5. Theme Issue on Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, Malthon M., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Focusing on issues in mass communication, the six articles in this journal issue cover many facets and approaches to the topics. The first article offers a review of recent developments in the field and some comments about its future. The second article reviews feminism in comedies from the 1930s and in a current film, and the third analyzes the…

  6. Secrets of a Mass Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Caitlin Marie; Graham, Theodore J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a unit of study in which students examine skeletons and draw conclusions from the evidence they find in a simulated mass grave. The activity involves the foundation of forensic anthropology--interpreting the structure of skeletal remains to determine sex, age, height, and possible cause of death. Working through a series of…

  7. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  8. Top mass measurement at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolli, S.

    1996-06-01

    We present the measurement of the top quark mass using L = 110 pb -1 data sample of pp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We show the results for the different channels and discuss with some emphasis the determination of the systematic uncertainties. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Missing mass of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The first evidence for missing mass or dark matter comes from the 30's. On one hand, Oort noted that in the solar neighbourhood the mass of the stars (inferred from count numbers) cannot account for their observed velocities. On the other hand, observation on the sky of various galaxy condensations like the Coma cluster let suppose that they are actual bound systems and not only statistical fluctuations. However, with such an assumption, Zwicky concluded that the velocity dispersion of galaxies in Coma required 100 times more mass than contained in galaxies. Since this period, refined observations, analyses and a reevaluation of the cosmic distance scale reduced this factor but the problem is still present. It is particularly striking for spiral galaxies where systematic observations of rotation curves lead to infer the presence of spherical massive halos. These dynamical evidences form the first missing mass problem. The second one appears with the development of Great Unified Theories for which the natural laboratory is the very early Universe. A consequence of these theories is that our Universe could be closed by exotic particles which interact only gravitationally [fr

  10. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  11. Mass spectrometry of large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchetti, S.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures in this volume were given at a course on mass spectrometry of large molecules, organized within the framework of the Training and Education programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. Although first presented in 1983, most of the lectures have since been updated by their authors. (orig.)

  12. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  13. Mass Customization and Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Mass customization (MC) has been introduced as the future of manufacturing, and great results have been proven. Recent research, however, documents a high failure rate for companies trying to adapt to MC as a business strategy. Making this transition is, as highlighted by several scholars...

  14. Competitive Effects of Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Earlier theoretical literature on mass customization maintains that customization reduces product differentiation and intensifies price competition. In contrast, operations management studies argue that customization serves primarily to differentiate a company from its competitors. Interactive involvement of the customer in product design creates an affective relationship with the firm, relaxing price competition. This paper provides a model that incorporates consumer involvement to explain t...

  15. Mass spectrometry with particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator use is renewing the ultrasensitive mass spectrometry in extending the detection limits. These new devices allow the measurement of rare isotope ratio, as 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl or 41 Ca, from the earth natural reservoirs [fr

  16. On renormalization-invariant masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.; Furuya, K.

    1978-02-01

    It is shown that spontaneous generation of renormalization invariant mass is possible in infra-red stable theories with more than one coupling constant. If relations among the coupling constants are permitted the effect can be made compatible with pertubation theory

  17. New Results on Cepheid Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. R.; Bohm-Vitense, E.; Carpenter, K.; Robinson, R.; Beck-Winchatz, B.

    1996-12-01

    Masses for Cepheid variable stars can be measured by combining the orbital velocity amplitude for the Cepheid (from a ground-based orbit) with the orbital velocity amplitude of a hot main sequence companion (observed in the ultraviolet from satellites such as IUE and HST) and the mass of the companion (inferred from from the ultraviolet energy distribution). Observations of 5 binary systems are now completed or in progress with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently completed observations of U Aql lead to a mass of 5.1 +/- 1.1 Msun . We will discuss the results for S Mus, V350 Sgr, U Aql, and Y Car, and the constraints they place on stellar evolution calculations. As would be expected, some of the B companions have high rotational velocities, decreasing the accuracy with which their orbital velocities can be measured. The preliminary conclusion from the 4 HST targets and SU Cyg (mass from IUE observations) is that a weighted mean indicates no convective overshoot but the mode (which reflects the HST results better) agrees with the modest overshoot used in the Geneva evolutionary calculations. Financial Support was provided by a NASA grant GO-4541-01 to EB--V and GO-4541.02 to KGC, a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Canada to NRE, from the AXAF Science Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073.

  18. Systems of neutrinos with mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, S.R. de

    1984-01-01

    From the formalism of relativistic kinetic theory and the weak interaction Lagrangian the volume viscosity of a massive neutrino system is derived. Its value is calculated as a function of the neutrino mass and the temperature. Its role in the way of expanding or contraction of neutrino clouds in the universe is discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  20. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  1. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  2. Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of citrus limonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J

    2003-10-15

    Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring

  3. Computed tomography of mediastinal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Seong Tae; Lee, Jae Mun; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Choon Yul [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    The ability of CT scanning of the mediastinum to distinguish specific tissue densities and to display in a transverse plane often provides unique diagnostic information unobtainable with conventional radiographic methods. We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 20 cases of proven mediastinal masses at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary Hospital , Catholic Medical College from February 1982 to June 1984. CT scans were performed with a Siemens Somatom 2 scanner. The technical factors involved were tube voltage 125 kVp, exposure time 5 seconds, 230 mAs, 256 X 256 matrices, and pixel size 1.3 mm. 8 mm slices were obtained at 1 cm interval from the apex of the lung to the diaphragm. If necessary, additional scans at 5 mm interval or magnify scans were obtained. After pre-contrast scan, contrast scans were routinely taken with rapid drip-infusion of contrast media (60% Convey, 150 cc). The results obtained were as follows; 1. Among 20 cases, 11 were tumors, 4 infectious masses and 5 aneurysms of great vessels, tortuous brachiocephalic artery and pericardial fat pad. In each case CT showed accurate location, extent, and nature of the masses. 2. Solid tumors were thymic hyperplasias, thymoma, thymus carcinoid, neurilemmoma and germ cell tumors (seminoma, embryonal cell carcinoma). Internal architecture was homogeneous in thymoma, thymus carcinoid, neurilemmoma, seminoma but inhomogeneous in thymic hyperplasias and embryonal cell carcinoma. CT numbers ranged from 16 to 49 HU and were variably enhanced. 3. Cystic tumors consisted of teratomas, cystic hygroma, and neurilemmoma. Teratomas contained calcium and fat, inhomogeneous mass with strongly enhancing wall. Cystic hygroma was nonenhancing mass with HU of 20. 4. All of germ cell tumors (2 teratomas and one each of seminoma and embryonal cell carcinoma) and one of 2 thymic hyperplasias had calcium deposit. 5. Tuberculous lymphadenopathies presented as a mass in the retrocaval pretracheal space and hilar region

  4. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of neck mass except thyroid mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Cheong Soo; Lee, Gwang Gil

    1988-01-01

    Results of ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of extrathyroidal neck masses of 73 patients were reviewed. Included cases were 23 malignant lesions; 16 metastatic tumors, 4 lymphomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 50 benign lesions: 24 tuberculous lymphadenites, 15 abscess, 3 benign lymph node hyperplasias, etc. There were one case of false negative and none of false positive result for malignancy. In two cases of malignancy, insufficient cellular material was obtained. In one case of lymphoma, and a benign lymph node hyperplasia, it was difficult to distinguish between benignancy and malignancy on cytologic smear. For the malignant lesions, sensitivity was 83%, specificity was 98%, and overall accuracy was 93%. There were none who had suffered adverse effect from the procedure. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology seems to be simple, accurate and safe diagnostic modality for neck masses especially in condition that malignancy can not be excluded

  5. Finding Mass Constraints Through Third Neutrino Mass Eigenstate Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolli, Nakul; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we aim to constrain the decay parameter for the third neutrino mass utilizing already accepted constraints on the other mixing parameters from the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS). The main purpose of this project is to determine the parameters that will allow the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) to observe a decay parameter with some statistical significance. Another goal is to determine the parameters that JUNO could detect in the case that the third neutrino mass is lighter than the first two neutrino species. We also replicate the results that were found in the JUNO Conceptual Design Report (CDR). By utilizing Χ2-squared analysis constraints have been put on the mixing angles, mass squared differences, and the third neutrino decay parameter. These statistical tests take into account background noise and normalization corrections and thus the finalized bounds are a good approximation for the true bounds that JUNO can detect. If the decay parameter is not included in our models, the 99% confidence interval lies within The bounds 0s to 2.80x10-12s. However, if we account for a decay parameter of 3x10-5 ev2, then 99% confidence interval lies within 8.73x10-12s to 8.73x10-11s.

  6. Neutrino mass models and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical ideas on the origin of (a) neutrino masses (b) neutrino mass hierarchies and (c) leptonic mixing angles are reviewed. Topics discussed include (1) symmetries of neutrino mass matrix and their origin (2) ways to understand the observed patterns of leptonic mixing angles and (3)unified description of neutrino masses and mixing angles in grand unified theories.

  7. Neutrino mass and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical ideas about neutrino mass based on grand-unified theories are reviewed. These give the see-saw formula in which neutrino mass is inversely proportional to a large mass scale M. For M between 10/sup 11/ and 10/sup 15/ Gev the study of solar neutrinos appears to be the best probe of neutrino masses and mixings

  8. The low-luminosity stellar mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, Pavel; Tout, C.A.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The stellar mass function for low-mass stars is constrained using the stellar luminosity function and the slope of the mass-luminosity relation. We investigate the range of mass functions for stars with absolute visual magnitude fainter than M V ≅ +5 which are consistent with both the local luminosity function and the rather poorly determined mass-absolute visual magnitude relation. Points of inflexion in the mass-luminosity relation exist because of the effects of H - , H 2 and of other molecules on the opacity and equation of state. The first two of these correspond to absolute magnitudes M V ≅ +7 and M V ≅ +12, respectively, at which structure is evident in the stellar luminosity function (a flattening and a maximum, respectively). Combining the mass-luminosity relation which shows these inflexion points with a peaked luminosity function, we test smooth mass functions in the mass range 0.9-0.1 the solar mass. (author)

  9. Timber, Browse, and Herbage on Selected Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Alton Martin; Warren P. Clary

    1977-01-01

    A thorough vegetation inventory was made on loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood stands scheduled by forest industry for clearcutting, site preparation, and planting to pine in north central Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Overstory timber, on the average, contained about equal proportions of softwood and hardwood basal area. Browse plants ranged from 5,500 to over 70,...

  10. External dose rates from gamma rays and activity concentrations in foodstuffs and herbage in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dodd, N.J.; Bradley, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial scarcity of reliable information in eastern European countries, coupled with the proximity of the Chernobyl installation, resulted in understandable concern among British nationals living in these areas or visiting them on a short-term basis. Accordingly, arrangements were made by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for the appropriate Embassies to send samples of milk, drinking water, grass and available fruit and vegetables to the Board's laboratories at Chilton for analysis. In addition, simple monitoring equipment was supplied to the Embassies for measurements of external dose rates from gamma rays out of doors. The first set of samples was collected in Moscow on May 3rd 1986. Most consignments arrived at Chilton within 24 hours of collection. Speed was important, not only because of the need for information but because vegetation needed to be sufficiently fresh to permit meaningful measurement. By the end of June 1986, the results of systematic monitoring programmes in eastern Europe were being disseminated more freely, so that frequent sampling by the Embassies was no longer considered necessary. Since that time samples have been received only occasionally from those Embassies where concern still persists. This report summarises the results of measurements and samples taken by June 30th 1986. Data for γ-ray emitting radionuclides in foodstuffs were issued to the FCO in a series of Measurement Reports. Here they are presented together with data for actinide element concentrations in a limited number of samples. Measurements of outdoor external dose rates made by the Embassies are also included

  11. Effects of Intra-Row Spacing on Herbage Yields of Two Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    [Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water. Resources (FMAWR) ... of the meat for human consumption, as well as the various ... Exchange Capacity (CEC) was calculated using ammonium .... Digestibility and nutrient retention of perennial.

  12. The Impact of Harvest Frequency on Herbage Yield and Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminants in Ghana experience feed deficit in the dry season leading to loss of weight and condition. To curb this problem of weight loss, there is the need to raise their plain of nutrition in the critical months of the year when feed is low in quantity and quality. This can be achieved by maximising forage production through ...

  13. Soil Moisture Variability and its Effects on Herbage Production in Semi-arid Rangelands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Too, D.K.; Trlica, M.J.; Swift, D.M.; Musembi, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained from recent studies focused on rangelands potential as influenced by human activity and climatic factors in the semi-arid and arid pastoral ecosystems of Northern Kenya indicated great temporal and spatial forage production variability. The objective of the studies was to document primary production in relation to water stress (drought), herbivory and direct human activities. Efforts also focused on finding possibilities of increasing productivity while conserving the finite resources for sustainable use. Laboratory, field and numerical methods were employed over several seasons and years. Forb and grass production was more variable than that of the browse (dwarf shrub) layer. Compared to forbs and dwarf shrubs, the grass layer contributed less to the total production in all seasons, indicating that the region had less potential for grazers compared to browsers. Spatial-temporal variation in rangeland carrying capacity reflected the great spatial heterogeneity in vegetation types and production. Similarly, seasonal differences were very evident, with highest estimates in the long rainy and the lowest during the dry and short rainy seasons, respectively. Factors limiting rangeland production potential were identified to be moisture deficiency, resource-use conflicts, an increasing and partially sedentarised nomadic population, overgrazing, tree felling, and land degradation (desert encroachment). Measures that can improve rangeland production potential and provide a better way of life for the inhabitants of the region include: (a) identification of land degradation (e.g. by means of bio-indicators and Geographical Information Systems, GIS); (b) technical interventions (i.e. soil and water conservation, restoration of degraded areas, fodder production); (c) social-economic interventions (i.e. resolution of resource-use conflicts, alleviation of poverty, infrastructure development improvement of livestock marketing channels etc.) and (d) continued research in ecosystem function

  14. The Impact of Harvest Frequency on Herbage Yield and Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This can be achieved by maximising forage production through appropriate harvest management .... seasons and T1 was to estimate DM yield if sward remains undisturbed until the ... was the above ground biomass yield (ton ha-1). Harvested ...

  15. Net herbage accumulation rate and crude protein content of Urochloa brizantha cultivars under shade intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Guilherme Mendes Machado Franco de Arruda; Ciniro Costa; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The use of silvopastoral systems is a sustainable alternative for animal production in various regions of the Brazil. However to obtain satisfactory results in these systems, the selection of forage species that grows well in the shade should be done. The tolerance of plants to light restriction and the correctly choice of species, considering good nutritional values for these conditions has great importance. The study of artificial shading for forage production helps the clarification of iss...

  16. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  17. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  18. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  19. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  20. Ion detection in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolbach, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    This course aims at providing some elements for a better understanding of ion detectors used in mass spectrometers, of their operations, and of their limitations. A first part addresses the functions and properties of an ideal detector, how to detect ions in gas phase, and particle detectors and ion detectors used in mass spectrometry. The second part proposes an overview of currently used detectors with respect to their operation principle: detection from the ion charge (Faraday cylinder), detection by inductive effects (FTICR, Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance), and detection by secondary electron emission. The third part discusses the specificities of secondary electron emission. The fourth one addresses operating modes and parameters related to detectors. The sixth part proposes a prospective view on future detectors by addressing the following issues: cryo-detector, inductive effect and charge detectors, ion detection and nano materials

  1. Electromagnetic corrections to baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic contributions to the octet and decuplet baryon masses using the heavy-baryon approximation in chiral effective field theory and methods we developed in earlier analyses of the baryon masses and magnetic moments. Our methods connect simply to Morpurgo's general parametrization of the electromagnetic contributions and to semirelativistic quark models. Our calculations are carried out including the one-loop mesonic corrections to the basic electromagnetic interactions, so to two loops overall. We find that to this order in the chiral loop expansion there are no three-body contributions. The Coleman-Glashow relation and other sum rules derived in quark models with only two-body terms therefore continue to hold, and violations involve at least three-loop processes and can be expected to be quite small. We present the complete formal results and some estimates of the matrix elements here. Numerical calculations will be presented separately

  2. A Revolt of the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine Helene

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the consolidation of mass culture in early 20th century Spain and analyses the discrepancy between the intellectual debate about Spanish culture and public behaviour. Bullfighting has throughout history been a much debated theme amongst intellectuals, and it has been banned...... by kings and the Church on several occasions. Nevertheless, there has always been an audience. In early 20th century, football entered the scene of popular culture in Spain and gained very quickly in popularity. The article discusses the presence of the two and analyses the contribution of bullfighting...... and football to the process of modernisation and globalisation in Spain. José Ortega y Gasset’s view on culture as a production of value and his idea of the revolt of the masses serves as a prime theoretical backdrop for the study....

  3. Direct measurements of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 9.3 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. Hime and Jelley report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the Β decay of 35 S and 63 Ni. Many other experiments are being reported and the situation is still unresolved. 56 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Midline Craniofacial Masses in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyhe, Renae D.; Chamata, Edward S.; Hollier, Larry H.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal dermoids, encephaloceles, and gliomas are rare congenital lesions that result from improper embryologic development. The differentiation between them and a firm understanding of their pathology is necessary to avoid unnecessary complications. In view of their potential intracranial connection, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. The authors review the embryology, diagnoses, radiologic work-up, surgical management, and complications of these midline craniofacial masses in child...

  5. Sarcoidosis presenting as penile mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Semiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by noncaseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, eye, and musculoskeletal system involvement. Rare involvement of the genital organs (prostate, testis, epididymis has also been reported. However, penile involvement is observed quite rare. In this paper, we report a patient with penile mass who was diagnosed with sarcoidosis on the basis of the laboratory, radiological, and pathological investigations.

  6. Optics of mass separator I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown

  7. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  8. Neutrino masses and family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)

  9. Laser-induced mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanyi, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the spectroscopic analysis of gas. The gas molecules are internally excited by irradiation with laser light having a wavelength which is absorbed by the sample. The gas is then ionized and passed through a mass spectrometer and the amount of the ionized species in the irradiated and ionized sample is compared with that in a similar ionized but not irradiated sample

  10. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  11. The Inflaton and its Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Brout, Robert

    2002-01-01

    In the context of the two fluid model of space-time fluctuations proposed to tame the transplanckian problem encountered in black hole physics, it is postulated that the inflaton is the fluctuation of mode density, ``the vapor component'' of the model. The mass of the inflaton is occasioned by the exchange of degrees of freedom between the ``vapor'' and the ``liquid'', the planckian ``soup'' in which usual ``cisplanckian'' fields propagate. This exchange between vacuum fluctuations is modeled...

  12. Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.

  13. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  14. The Mainz Neutrino Mass Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, C.; Bornschein, L.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Flatt, B.; Kovalík, Alojz; Müller, B.; Otten, EW; Schall, JP.; Thummler, T.; Weinheimer, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 143, - (2005), s. 143 ISSN 0920-5632. [International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics /21./. Paříž, 14.06.2004-19.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutrino mass * tritium beta decay Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2005

  15. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  16. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  17. Evaluation of dominant thyroid masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Buckwalter, J.A.; Staab, E.V.; Kerr, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Controversy exists concerning the management of solitary thyroid nodules because of conflicting information concerning the high clinical incidence of thyroid nodules, the varying incidence of cancer reported in those surgically excised and the infrequency of death from thyroid cancer. During the past several years, a plan for evaluating patients with dominant thyroid masses has evolved. The objective is to avoid unnecessary operations by identifying patients with a high risk of cancer. The criteria which are used are the age and sex of the patient, the duration of the mass, 125 I or /sup 99m/Tc scans, 75 Selenomethionine scans, B-mode ultrasonography and the response of the mass to suppressive therapy. This is a report of the findings in 222 patients who have been studied employing this approach. Thirty percent of the patients were operated upon. Forty percent had neoplasms (well differentiated cancer--28.8 percent, adenoma--12.1 percent), 47.0 percent--nodular goiter, 6.1 percent cysts, and 6.1 percent chronic thyroiditis. The incidence of cancer in the 222 patients was 8.6 percent and adenoma 3.6 percent. Patients at greatest risk of having cancer are those with solid nonfunctioning nodules which fail to regress with suppressive therapy. This study indicates that the approach described above is effective in selecting for surgical excision those individuals at greatest risk of having thyroid cancer

  18. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  19. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  20. Pulmonary mass with renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyzes the case of a 73 year-old patient, masculine sex, obese, with syndrome of obstructive apnoea of the dream, reason why he uses nasal CPAP for 2 at 3 hours in the night for 2 years. It was intervened by renal carcinoma of clear cells at the end of the year 2002. The Rx of thorax preoperative had been informed as normal, but in an abdominal preoperative tomography, the presence of a mass was suggested in the base right lung thorax, reason why Tac is practiced, which demonstrates an irregular nodular image clearly, stuck to the pleura that that suggests unique metastasis of the renal carcinoma. Masses neither mediastinal adenopaties were not evidenced. In the post-operative of their nefrectomy the patient presented dehiscence of the sutures and evisceration, reason why he was re-intervened with primary closing and managed with antibiotics, achieving appropriate scaring. It was programmed for resection of the pulmonary mass. Their evolution and discusses of the case are studied

  1. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.

  2. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703

  3. Neutrino mass sum rules and symmetries of the mass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrlein, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Spinrath, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-05-15

    Neutrino mass sum rules have recently gained again more attention as a powerful tool to discriminate and test various flavour models in the near future. A related question which has not yet been discussed fully satisfactorily was the origin of these sum rules and if they are related to any residual or accidental symmetry. We will address this open issue here systematically and find previous statements confirmed. Namely, the sum rules are not related to any enhanced symmetry of the Lagrangian after family symmetry breaking but they are simply the result of a reduction of free parameters due to skillful model building. (orig.)

  4. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohn, Soeren; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual microcantilevers. Excellent agreement is observed between calculated and measured positions and calculated and theoretical masses.

  5. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  6. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  7. A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri Neetu; Gupta Ankit; Taneja Ruchi; Bilandi Ajay; Beniwal Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z) of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z) is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses ...

  8. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  9. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabloes, F.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  10. Framework for reactive mass transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    Reactive transport modeling is applicable for a range of porous materials. Here the modeling framework is focused on cement-based materials, where ion diffusion and migration are described by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation system. A two phase vapor/liquid flow model, with a sorption hysteresis...... description is coupled to the system. The mass transport is solved by using the finite element method where the chemical equilibrium is solved explicitly by an operator splitting method. The IPHREEQC library is used as chemical equilibrium solver. The equation system, solved by IPHREEQC, is explained...

  11. Mass chest screening in Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, P.

    1987-01-01

    At the present time, all the groups of people examined are not belonging to high risk groups or groups capable of spreading the disease either among colleagues of the profession or users of products or services they are providing. Consequently it will be important to better select in the future the high risk groups. It will be probably necessary to abrogate the examination of future couples. There is presently a project to be adopted in the near future stipulating that mass radiological examinations for prevention of diseases have to be approved by the Ministry of Health, only if they are medically and epidemiologically justified

  12. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  13. Principle of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The principle of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is described mainly on technical aspects: hardware construction of AMS, measurement of isotope ratio, sensitivity of measurement (measuring limit), measuring accuracy, and application of data. The content may be summarized as follows: rare isotope (often long-lived radioactive isotope) can be detected by various use of the ion energy obtained by the acceleration of ions, a measurable isotope ratio is one of rare isotope to abundant isotopes, and a measured value of isotope ratio is uncertainty to true one. Such a fact must be kept in mind on the use of AMS data to application research. (M.H.)

  14. Direct measurements of neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzschuh, E [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    The direct measurements have so far given no indication for a nonzero (positive) mass of any of the three known neutrinos. The experiments measuring the tau and the muon neutrino are good shape. The tritium experiments are in an unfortunate situation. It is unclear to me whether the problems are experimental or theoretical or a combination of both. The electronic final states distribution have been calculated, but the results have never been tested experimentally. The most important question to be answered is about the validity of the sudden approximation. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  15. Hawaiian hydrogen mass transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.W.; Russell, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint effort between the scientific and business communities; to create, make and have hydrogen fuel become the primary fuel of the future. Hawaii has abundant, unharnessed renewable resources yet imports almost all of its fuel. Initiating hydrogen production and industrial application in conjunction with a prototype pilot project such as this mass transit system would not only accomplish the joining of science and business but give an environmentally safe energy alternative to the state and people of Hawaii and hopefully the world

  16. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  18. Building brands without mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  19. Mass Extinctions and Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschinek, Gunther

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation or the direct exposure of lethal X-rays. Another indirect effect is cloud formation, induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere which result in a drop in the Earth's temperature, causing major glaciations of the Earth. The discovery of highly intensive gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which could be connected to SNe, initiated further discussions on possible life-threatening events in the Earth's history. The probability that GRBs hit the Earth is very low. Nevertheless, a past interaction of Earth with GRBs and/or SNe cannot be excluded and might even have been responsible for past extinction events.

  20. Mass storage technology in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Takeda, Toru; Itao, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Reizo

    1990-08-01

    Trends and features of mass storage subsystems in network are surveyed and their key technologies spotlighted. Storage subsystems are becoming increasingly important in new network systems in which communications and data processing are systematically combined. These systems require a new class of high-performance mass-information storage in order to effectively utilize their processing power. The requirements of high transfer rates, high transactional rates and large storage capacities, coupled with high functionality, fault tolerance and flexibility in configuration, are major challenges in storage subsystems. Recent progress in optical disk technology has resulted in improved performance of on-line external memories to optical disk drives, which are competing with mid-range magnetic disks. Optical disks are more effective than magnetic disks in using low-traffic random-access file storing multimedia data that requires large capacity, such as in archive use and in information distribution use by ROM disks. Finally, it demonstrates image coded document file servers for local area network use that employ 130mm rewritable magneto-optical disk subsystems.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  2. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology. PMID:28149262

  3. Mass-23 nuclei in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P R; Amos, K; Van der Kniff, D; Canton, L; Karataglidis, S; Svenne, J P

    2015-01-01

    The formation of mass-23 nuclei by radiative capture is of great interest in astrophysics. A topical problem associated with these isobars is the so-called 22 Na puzzle of ONe white dwarf novae, where the abundance of 22 Na observed is not as is predicted by current stellar models, indicating there is more to learn about how the distribution of elements in the universe occurred. Another concerns unexplained variations in elements abundance on the surface of aging red giant stars. One method for theoretically studying nuclear scattering is the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) formalism. Studies to date have used a simple collective-rotor prescription to model the target states which couple to projectile nucleons. While, in general, the target states considered all belong to the ground state rotor band, for some systems it is necessary to include coupling to states outside of this band. Herein we discuss an extension of MCAS to allow coupling of different strengths between such states and the ground state band. This consideration is essential when studying the scattering of neutrons from 22 Ne, a necessary step in studying the mass-23 nuclei mentioned above. (paper)

  4. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Thorben; Petreczky, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results. (paper)

  5. Numerology of the light particles masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoshin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The empirical formulae for the masses of light mesons, barions and u-, d-, s-'current' quarks was obtained. The using of calculated 'precise' current quark masses in QCD is given as an example. (author)

  6. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle

  7. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  8. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  9. Mass shifts of charmoniums and electromagnetic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Miyamura, O.; Hirose, K.; Kanki, T.

    1988-04-01

    Mass of psi' below deconfining transition is discussed. It is sensitive to change of string tension. Observations of masses of charmoniums in hot fire ball by electromagnetic probes are considered.

  10. The art of predicting nuclear masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.G.; Morales, I.; Mendoza-Temis, J.; Frank, A.; Lopez-Vieyra, J.C.; Barea, J.; Pittel, S.; Van Isacker, P.; Velazquez, V.

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent advances in the theoretical analysis of nuclear mass models and their predictive power is presented. After introducing two tests which probe the ability of nuclear mass models to extrapolate, three models are analyzed in detail: the liquid drop model (LDM), the liquid drop model plus empirical shell corrections (LDMM) and the Duflo–Zuker mass formula (DZ). The DZ model is exhibited as the most predictive model. The Garvey–Kelson mass relations are also discussed. It is shown that their fulfillment probes the consistency of the most commonly used mass formulae, and that they can be used in an iterative process to predict nuclear masses in the neighborhood of nuclei with measured masses, offering a simple and reproducible procedure for short range mass predictions. (author)

  11. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on ...

  12. Atom counting with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, Walter

    1995-01-01

    A brief review of the current status and some recent applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are presented. Some connections to resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIS) as the alternate atom counting method are discussed

  13. [Mass media consumption in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N

    2005-12-01

    To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health

  14. MPAI (mass probes aided ionization) method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Aki; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Hifumi, Hiroki; Honma, Yuya; Tanji, Noriyuki; Iwasawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Suzuki, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized various mass probes, which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry. We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI (mass probes aided ionization)" method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

  15. Critical assessment of nuclear mass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the physical assumptions underlying various nuclear mass models are discussed. The ability of different mass models to predict new masses that were not taken into account when the models were formulated and their parameters determined is analyzed. The models are also compared with respect to their ability to describe nuclear-structure properties in general. The analysis suggests future directions for mass-model development

  16. On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary parti cles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of th e field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermi...

  17. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  18. Evaluation of Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Refrigerant mass flow rate is an important measurement for monitoring equipment performance and enabling fault detection and diagnostics. However, a traditional mass flow meter is expensive to purchase and install. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements and can potentially be implemented at low cost. This study evaluates three VRMFs for estimating refrigerant mass flow rate. The first model uses a compressor ma...

  19. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  20. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  1. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  2. The mass of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Bender, T; Renzini, A

    2003-01-01

    The Mass distribution of the Galaxy is reasonably well understood. Out to a radius of at least 200kpc, the enclosed mass increases roughly linearly with radius at about 10(10)M(circle dot) per kpc. The inner mass distribution is inconsistent with what we know to be present in stars and gas. Recent

  3. Nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle mass is the main predictor for muscle strength and physical function. The amount of muscle mass can decline rapidly during periods of reduced physical activity or during periods of energy intake restriction. For athletes, it is important to maintain muscle mass, since the loss of muscle is

  4. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  5. Data recording and processing in mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKown, H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1978-12-15

    When a mass spectrometer is going to be obtained, it must be specified to do a particular task. It follows that the data recording system must be designed to work satisfactorily with hardware that produces the ion current or currents. The author describes two systems: the AVCO mass spectrometer and the tandem mass spectrometer.

  6. Diversity in Mass Communication Theory Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how prominent mass communication theories can be employed to further knowledge of diversity-related issues. Provides examples of how diversity-related issues can be addressed in mass communication theory courses. Concludes that, by definition, mass communication must take into account diversity. (PM)

  7. Additivity of quark masses in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that, in spite of the confinement of quarks in (color-singlet) hadrons, effective quark masses of all types (dynamically generated, constituent and current masses), naturally form hadron masses in an additivity fashion. For the purposes of brevity, the discussion is limited primarily to the nonstrange flavor sector

  8. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  9. Acquisition of HPLC-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    31-Jan-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer The views, opinions and/or findings...published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer Report Title The acquisition of the mass spectrometer has been a

  10. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  11. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  12. Technology on precision measurement of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    This book mentions mass and scales about technology for precision measurement, which deal with how to measure mass with scale. So it describes the basic things of mass and scales. It includes translated book of international standard OIML with demand of measurement and technology and form for test report and international original standard OIML with metrological and technical requirements and test report format.

  13. Exactly solvable position dependent mass schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, R.; Tuetuencueler, H.; Koercuek, E.

    2002-01-01

    Exact solution of the Schrodinger equation with a variable mass is presented. We have derived general expressions for the eigenstates and eigenvalues of the position dependent mass systems. We provide supersymmetric and Lie algebraic methods to discuss the position dependent mass systems

  14. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  15. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tafani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal experience. It is a brief description of some practical examples and some tips for novice teachers. Further more, this article tends to deal with some of the key issues of using media in the classroom. Here are included some of the findings of my research work on a post-doctorate Fulbright Program in 2001. The following issues are open for discussion: the importance of Media in general and in education in particular; Media are persuasive and pervasive, newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet in the classroom, etc.

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry in NIPNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivascu, M; Marinescu, L.; Dima, R.; Cata-Danil, D.; Petrascu, M.; Popescu, I.; Stan-Sion, C.; Radulescu, M.; Plostinaru, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is today the method capable to measure the lowest concentration of a particular nuclide in sample materials. The method has applications in environmental physics, medicine, measurements of cosmic-ray or nuclear power plant produced radionuclides in the earth's atmosphere. All over the world, more than 40 charged particles and heavy ion accelerators are performing such analyses concerning the research interest of a huge number of laboratories. The Romanian Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest has initiated a construction project for the AMS facility at the FN - Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator. This program benefits of technical and financial assistance provided by IAEA in the frame of the IAEA-TC Project ROM 8014-265C. A general lay-out of the AMS project is presented. The construction work has begun and first tests of the AMS injector will take place between July - September this year. (authors)

  17. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  18. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  19. Pennsylvania's experience in mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    A policy statement issued in 1972 by the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recommended that community chest x-ray surveys should not be used as a screening procedure for the detection of cardiopulmonary disorders and that when chest x-ray screening programs are justified for selected population groups, the full size photograph, rather than the miniature film, is preferred. A survey conducted in 1974--75 revealed that chest x rays were required for prisoners, prison employees, school employees, food handlers, and students who wished to participate in sports. Meetings were held with medical associations in the hope of stopping the local mass-screening operations. Of 27 groups in Pennsylvania involved in tuberculosis screening, 12 groups refused or were unwilling to phase out their photofluorographic procedures. The problem will be resolved by regulation

  20. MASS TRANSFER IN FERMENTATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shevchenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of anaerobic fermentation processes with the accumulation of dissolved ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the culture media are considered in the article.The solubility of CO2 is limited by the state of saturation in accordance with Henry’s law. This, with all else being equal, limits the mass transfer on the interface surface of yeast cells and the liquid phase of the medium. A phenomenological model of the media restoration technologies based on the unsaturation index on СО2 is developed. It is shown that this restoration in the existing technologies of fermentation of sugar-rich media occurs, to a limited extent, in self-organized flow circuits, with variable values of temperatures and hydrostatic pressures, due to the creation of unsaturated local zones.It is shown that increasing the height of the media in isovolumetric apparatuses leads to an increase in the levels of flow circuits organization and to the improvement of the desaturation and saturation modes of the liquid phase and intensification of mass transfer processes. Among the deterministic principles of restoring the saturation possibilities of the media, there are forced variables of pressures with time pauses on their lower and upper levels. In such cases, the possibilities of short-term intensive desaturations in full media volumes, the restoration of their saturation perception of CO2, and the activation of fermentation processes are achieved. This direction is technically feasible for active industrial equipment.The cumulative effect of the action of variable pressures and temperatures corresponds to the superposition principle, but at the final stages of fermentation, the pressure and temperature values are leveled, so the restoration of the unsaturation state slows down to the level of the bacteriostatic effect. The possibility of eliminating the disadvantages of the final stage of fermentation by means of programmable variable pressures is shown